пособие ПП-1 2016


ENGLISH
Англійська мова для студентів 1 курсу спеціальність «Практична психологія»
Збірник методрозробок
Лазор Н.В.
Лазор Н.В.
Англійська мова: збірник методичних розробок для студентів І курсу спеціальності «Практична психологія»
Збірник методичних розробок з англійської мови призначений для студентів І курсу спеціальності «Практична психологія» денної форми навчання. Курс вивчення англійської мови розрахований на 90 годин аудиторної та самостійної роботи студентів.
Збірник складено за тематичним принципом у відповідності з Робочою програмою курсу. Збірник повністю забезпечує навчальний процес.
Структура розробки передбачає вивчення основних тем курсу на матеріалі текстів за фахом, з необхідним об’ємом дотекстових і післятекстових завдань для опрацювання лексичного мінімуму, а також повторення основного граматичного матеріалу та основних моделей англійського словотвору. В розробках усіх тем передбачено творчі комунікативні завдання.
Кожна тема доповнена завданнями для самостійної роботи студента, орієнтованими на підготовку до підсумкового іспиту (диференційованого заліку).
№ Зміст Сторінка
1. Вища освіта в Україні. 4
2. Вища освіта у Великобританії . 8
3. Одеський національний медичний університет. 12
4. Психологія як наука. 17
5 Історія психології. 22
6. Зигмунд Фрейд і відкриття психоаналізу 26
7. Загальна будова людини. 29
8. Скелет 34
9. Серцево-судинна система: анатомія і фізіологія 39
10. Респіраторна система: анатомія і фізіологія 44
11. Травна система: анатомія і фізіологія 48
12. Ендокринні залози. Гормони 53
13. Нервова система. Головний мозок. 57
14. Умовні та безумовні рефлекси. 62
15. Чуттєве сприйняття 66
16. Види чуттєвого сприйняття 70
17. Когнітивні процеси. 74
18. Феномен пам’яті 78
19. Поняття особистості. Теорії особистості 82
20. Проблеми паління 87
21. Алкоголізм 91
22. Проблеми анорексії і булімії 96
23. Вітаміни і мінерали. 100
24. Стрес. 104
1. HIGHER EDUCATION IN UKRAINE
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
graduate- випускник
curriculum- навчальний план, курс навчання
applicant- абітурієнт
at state expense- за рахунок держави (бюджету)
Bachelor's Degree- ступінь бакалавра
Master's Degree- ступінь магістра
scholarship- стипендія
average score- середній бал, середня оцінка
confer- надавати, присвоювати
acquire- набувати, отримувати
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly. Translate without dictionary
Prestigious [pre’stɪdʒəs], percent [pəˈsent], conservatory [kənˈsɜːvətrɪ], academic [ˌækəˈdɛmɪk], economist [ɪˈkɒnəmɪst], official [əˈfɪʃ(ə)l], private [ˈpraɪvɪt]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
Higher education, a higher educational institution, professionally-oriented programs, the respective level of accreditation, the academic year, the full-time courses, the part-time courses, admission to higher educational establishment, the applicants’ abilities, the External independent testing, to receive a scholarship, the Bachelor's Degree, the Master's Degree, secondary education
Exercise 4. a) Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the meaning of the words in bold
type. What parts of speech do they belong to?
b) Give your own examples of conversion in English.
My friend studies at Odessa National University.
The course of studies for psychology students is four years.
When did your father graduate from the university?
Graduates of Ukrainian universities have good knowledge and skills.
The results of external independent testing are counted as the results of entrance examinations to higher educational institutions.
Bad habits result in health problems.
Exercise 5. Read the text. Try to complement it with more detailed information on your
own. Pay attention to the translation of conjunctions in the bold.
HIGHER EDUCATION IN UKRAINE
Higher education in Ukraine has a long and rich history.  Its students, graduates, and academics have long been known and appreciated worldwide. 
Higher education in Ukraine is provided at universities, academies, and institutes, technical schools, colleges, conservatories (i.e. musical academies). All of these institutions offer both professionally-oriented and academic programs and have the respective level of accreditation.
The length, beginning, end and organization of the academic year are determined by the higher educational institution (HAI) and depend on the type of the curriculum. For example, the Master’s degree for economists usually requires five years of studies, whereas medical students study for 6 years.
The official beginning of the academic year in Ukraine is the 1st of September. There is no common end of the academic year. The academic year usually consists of two terms (semesters). The length of a term and academic breaks may vary among HEIs. The length of the examination period depends on the program and the mode of its delivery.
The students can take either the full-time courses (day) or part-time courses (evening classes). Sometimes they can do an external course.
Admission to the higher educational establishment is selective and depends on the applicants’ abilities. HEIs admit their students on the basis of the results of the External independent evaluation or External independent testing. Furthermore, an applicant needs to have the Certificate of Complete General Secondary Education.
Higher education is either state funded or private. Students who study at state expense receive a scholarship if their average score at the end-of-term exams and differentiated tests is at least 4.
There are two degrees conferred by Ukrainian universities: the Bachelor's Degree (4 years) and the Master's Degree (5–6th year).
Studying and acquiring education in Ukraine is considered very prestigious.  More than 90 percent of Ukrainians have either a secondary or higher education. 
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What institutions provide high education in Ukraine?
What is the length of higher education in Ukraine?
Can Ukrainian students take the part-time educational courses or the full-time ones only?
How can you enter a higher educational institution in Ukraine?
How long does it take to get the Bachelor's Degree?
What students can receive a scholarship?
Exercise 7. Match the words with the similar meanings
academic semester
scholarship method
term scientist
institution stipend
mode duration
length establishment
Exercise 8. Match the words to their definitions
scholarship the subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college
applicant a person who has received a degree or diploma on completing a course of study
curriculum an amount of money that is given by a school, an organization, etc., to a student to help pay for the student's education
term a person who formally request something, especially to study at a college or university
graduate the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university
education one of two usually 18-week periods that make up an academic year at a school or college
Exercise 9. Translate into English
Середня освіта, вища освіта, вищий навчальний заклад, відповідний рівень акредитації, навчальний рік, ділитися на два семестри, ступінь бакалавра, ступінь магістра, абітурієнти і випускники ВНЗ, стаціонарне і вечірнє навчання, отримувати стипендію, середня оцінка, Атестат про повну загальну середню освіту, Зовнішнє незалежне тестування, державні та приватні навчальні заклади, тривалість навчання
Exercise 10. Translate. Put questions to the underlined words. Tell about studies at
medical universities using information of the exercise.
School-leavers have to pass tests in Ukrainian Language and Literature, Biology and Chemistry or Physics successfully to enter a medical university.
The course of studies at the medical university lasts 6 years.
For two years medical students learn so-called pre-clinical subjects, such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Human Anatomy, Histology.
From the third to the fifth year medical students have clinical subjects.
After their third year of studies, medical students have a practical training.
During practical training, students work at the hospitals.
Exercise 11. Translate into English. Pay attention to the correct use of either … or.
Вищі навчальні заклади України є або державними, або приватними.
Українські студенти можуть вибрати або професійно-орієнтовані, або академічні освітні програми.
Студенти можуть вибрати або денну, або вечірню форму навчання.
Щоб отримати ступінь магістра, студенти навчаються або 5, або 6 років.
Exercise 12. Answer the question about your education
What school did you finish? When?
How did you pass the external independent testing? In what subjects?
What profession did you choose? Why?
How many years will you study at university?
Will you receive a scholarship?
What degree will you get after the fourth year?
Are you planning to study for the Master’s degree?
Exercise 13. Tell about high education in Ukraine
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Вищий навчальний заклад
Навчальний рік
Ступінь магістра і бакалавра
Зовнішнє незалежне тестування
Отримувати стипендію
Тривалість навчання
Дайте відповідь на питання
What institutions provide high education in Ukraine?
How to enter a higher educational institution in Ukraine?
What is an average length of studies at the Ukrainian universities?
Розкажіть про систему вищої освіти в Україні, використовуючи факти з власного досвіду
2. EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
compulsory[kəmˈpʌls(ə)rɪ]- обов’язковий
comprehensive (school) [ˌkɒmprɪˈhensɪv]- загальна (школа)
selective (school)- спеціальна (школа)
subsidiary [səbˈsɪdɪəri]- додатковий
grammar school- середня школа для обдарованих дітей
fee-paying- платний
undergraduate- студент до отримання ступеня бакалавра
be eligible[ˈelɪdʒəbəl]- мати право
postgraduate - той, хто навчається в магістратурі чи докторантурі
Doctorate - докторантура, ступінь доктора
enroll- зараховувати
tuition-fee[tjuːˈɪʃənfiː]- плата за навчання
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly
United Kingdom [ju:ʹnaıtıdʹkıŋdəm], primary [ˈpraɪm(ə)rɪ], neighbourhood [ˈneɪbəhʊd], public [ˈpʌblɪk], bachelor [ˈbætʃələ], Ireland [ˈaɪələnd], subject [sʌbˈdʒekt], scholar [ˈskɒlə]
Exercise 3. Do you know Great Britain? Check yourself! In case of difficulties use the
information from the box below
What is the official name of Great Britain?
How many countries does GB consist of? Name them.
What political system does GB have?
How old is London, the capital of GB?
What is the currency (money) of the United Kingdom?
England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland
 a constitutional or parliamentary monarchy
the British Pound 
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
settled by Romans in 43 AD
Exercise 4. Translate into Ukrainian
secondary school, without taking any exams, according to somebody’s abilities, expensive private schools, single-sex schools, to be supported by public funds, for an academic degree, a competitive entrance examination, government financed universities, the Master's degree, main and subsidiary subjects
Exercise 5. Read the text. Write out the keywords and try to explain them. Make a plan of
the text.
EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN
In Great Britain schooling for children is compulsory from 5 to 16.
British education includes three main systems: comprehensive, selective and private or independent. 90% of secondary schools in Britain are comprehensive. It means that all children may go from one school to another without taking any exams, and without being selected according to their abilities.
By the selective system children at the age of 11 (after primary school) are selected for certain schools according to their abilities. The most successful go to a grammar school, where they receive a more academic education. Grammar schools give pupils from the age of 11 to 18 a high level of education which can lead to the university.
About 7% of children go to private schools. The most expensive private schools are called public schools. Most of them are single-sex (for boys or girls only). Historically, they were called 'public schools' because scholars could come there from any part of England and not, as was generally the case, just from the immediate neighbourhood. Schools in Scotland supported by public funds are also called 'public schools' but they are not fee-paying independent schools.
Higher education in Great Britain
There are 91 universities in Britain and 47 colleges of higher education. Only 25% of the student population go on higher education.
Students normally enter university from age 18 onwards* and study for an academic degree.
The typical first degree offered at English universities is a bachelor's degree and usually lasts for three years. During a first degree, students are known as undergraduates. Students who have completed the first degree are eligible to study for a postgraduate degree, which might be:
a Master's degree (typically taken in one or two years)
a Doctorate (typically taken in three years)
A number of Universities enroll students on the basis of the grades that are awarded by secondary schools, and one-half of universities require applicants to pass a competitive entrance examination.
The vast majority of the United Kingdom universities are government financed, with only four private universities. British students have to pay university tuition fees. For undergraduate students from the UK and the EU these are the maximum tuition fees (but many institutions charge less):
In England and Wales, up to £9,000 per year
In Northern Ireland, up to £3,575 per year
In Scotland, tuition is free.
British universities have three terms. British students usually take main and subsidiary subjects.
*from age 18 onwards – у віці від 18-ти років
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What systems are there in British education?
Which of the British educational systems is the most common one?
What is the selective education based on?
What is the difference between “public schools” in England and those in Scotland?
What is an average age of those who enter the British universities?
What academic degrees are offered at English universities?
How many years does it take to earn the undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in Britain?
What can you tell about admission to British universities?
Is higher British education free?
How many terms is the academic year divided into in GB?
Exercise 7. Match the words to their definitions. Which degrees are you planning to get?
Doctor one who is enrolled or attends classes at a school, college, or university
Master a person who is taking advanced work after graduation
Bachelor a person who holds a second or further degree
Undergraduate a person who has earned one of the highest academic degrees conferred by a university
Postgraduate a person who has received a first degree from a college, university, or professional school 
Student who is studying at the university and has not received a first, especially a bachelor’s, degree
Exercise 8. Translate into English
Обов’язкова освіта, початкова і середня освіта, загальні і спеціальні школи, бути відібраним відповідно до здібностей, ходити до приватної школи, платні і безплатні школи, ступені бакалавра і магістра; студенти, які здобувають ступені бакалавра і магістра; оцінки, отримані в середній школі; плата за навчання, безплатне навчання, основні і додаткові предмети
Exercise 9. Insert the prepositions where it is necessary
British students enter … university at the age of 18.
Undergraduates study … the Bachelor’s degree … three years.
Applicants are admitted … some universities … the basis of entrance exams.
British children can go … any comprehensive school … any exams or testing.
Quality secondary education leads … the university.
Almost all universities in GB are funded … the government.
If you enter a British university you will take a Bachelor’s degree … three years.
Exercise 10. Translate. Put questions to the underlined words
Children in Britain must attend school from the age of 5.
The University of Oxford was the first university to be established in Britain. 
Secondary education in GB takes from 5 to 7 years.
The majority of British school children wear a school uniform.
There are about 40,000 schools in Britain.
After leaving secondary school young people can apply to a university.
Some professional degrees like medicine, veterinary, law etc. require five years of studies.
Exercise 11. Compare the educational systems in Ukraine and GB
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Обов’язкова освіта
Початкова і вища освіта
Відповідно до здібностей
Платні і безплатні школи
Плата за навчання
Основні і додаткові предмети
Дайте відповідь на питання
1) What systems are there in British education?
2) What academic degrees are offered at English universities?
3) What is the selective education based on?
4) How many terms is the academic year divided into in GB?
а) розкажіть про загальну освіту у Великій Британії;
б)розкажіть про вищу освіту у Великій Британії
3. ODESSA NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary.
associate professor доцент
dean [di:n] декан
decree [di 'kri:] наказ
department [di 'pa:tmənt] кафедра; відділення
equip [i 'kwip] оборудувати
found ['faund] заснувати
internship ['intənʃip] інтернатура
magistracy [‘məʤi:strəsi] магістратура
dormitory гуртожиток
balneology курортологія
PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) Доктор філософії (кандидат наук у будь-якій галузі)
trainee [treɪˈniː] практикант
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly and translate without dictionary.
national [ˈnæʃənl], academician [əˌkadəˈmɪʃ(ə)n], European [jʊərəˈpiːən ], association [əsəʊʃɪˈeɪʃ(ə)n], specialty [ˈspɛʃ(ə)lti], specialization [ˌspeʃəlaɪˈzeɪʃən], status [ˈsteɪtəs], rehabilitation [ˈriːəbɪlɪˈteɪʃn], therapy [ˈθerəpɪ]
22479057150
1900 (1800, 1700 …) - nineteen hundred
1901 (1902,…) - nineteen oh one
1990, (1956, … ) - nineteen ninety
2000 - two thousand
2001 (2002, …) - two thousand and one
2010 (2011, …) - twenty ten
Exercise 3. a) Read these years correctly.
1736, 1600, 2015, 1807, 1997, 2005, 1300, 2009, 2012, 1999, 1503, 2011, 2004, 1943
b) Read the dates correctly. In which ways can we read the dates?
22/09/2000; 01/12/1998; 03/10/2010; 17/08/2006; 30/04/1990; 30/09/2015; 17/01/1998
Exercise 4. Translate into Ukrainian.
the dean of the medical faculty, the prominent scientist, an independent higher educational institution, a status of University, postgraduate education, Department of Social Work and Practical Psychology, Surgical Department, Neurological Department, bases of practical training, well equipped hospitals, post-diploma specialization, Health Family Center, post-diploma specialization, modern recreation centers, the development of the University, the teaching staff
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text. Compose the plan of the text. Be ready to retell the
text by your plan.
ODESSA NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
Odessa National Medical University is one of the leading medical universities with the IV level of accreditation in Ukraine.
Odessa National Medical University was founded on 1900, September 1st as the Medical Faculty of Novorossiysky (now Odessa) University thanks to the efforts of the great surgeon N.I.Pirogov. The first dean of the medical faculty became the prominent scientist V.V.Podvysotsky who was the real creator of the medical faculty. At that time, only 125 students studied at the medical faculty in Odessa.
In 1920, the Medical Academy was organized in Odessa on the basis of the Medical Faculty of Novorossiysky University and became an independent higher educational institution. D.K. Zabolotniy, the great epidemiologist, became the first rector of it. In 1921, the Medical Academy was reformed into the Medical Institute. A status of University was given to the Medical Institute on August 29, 1994. In 2010, the university was given a status of National University.
The university enrolls over 6000 students and trainees, including 1300 foreign students from 57 countries of the world. The training of students is given in Ukrainian, Russian, and English. Foreign students have been studying at ONMU since 1946 and in 1996 ONMU was the first university in Ukraine to start medical education in English.
The studies are carried out by 800 teachers, 18 academicians, 105 professors and doctors of Medical Sciences, 407 associate professors and PhD.
There are six faculties (general medicine, pediatrics, dentistry, medical prophylaxis, pharmaceutical, postgraduate education), 58 departments (e.g.* Department of Social Work and Practical Psychology, Department of General Practice and Medical Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy Department, Surgical Department, Neurological Department), 38 specializations and advance training in 20 specialties at the university. In 2013, ONMU started to train practical psychologists and social workers.
Post-diploma specialization is carried out in internship and magistracy.
Central Scientific-Research Laboratory, Health Family Center, and Scientific-Research Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy, Institute of Balneology and Medical Rehabilitation, Institute of Stomatology, Institute of Virology, and others are the clinical bases and bases of practical training.
The university has 18 blocks with a general area of 20,000 sqm., 20 well-equipped hospitals and clinics, 5 dormitories, a library with the total stock of 1 million books, publishing-printing complex, scientific medical computer center, sports complex, modern recreation centers on the coast of the Black Sea.
Odessa National Medical University has three museums.
Historical Museum comprises the exhibits devoted to the development of the University. Anatomical Museum helps students to study basic human anatomy. It includes 3 thousand exhibits prepared by the students and teaching staff of the University. The Museum of the Pathological Anatomy is one of the best professional museums in Ukraine. The museum has 2.5 thousand unique special materials showing the changes in the human organism that occur in different diseases.
Odessa National Medical University is a member of European and International Association of Universities.
*e.g. - for example
Exercise 6. Answer the questions.
When was the Medical Faculty of Novorossiysky University founded?
Who was the first dean of the Medical faculty?
When was the status of University given to the Institute?
What status was given to Odessa Medical University in 2010?
What medical professionals and teachers work at ONMU?
How many faculties are there at the Medical University now?
Where is post-diploma specialization carried out?
What languages is the training of students given in?
What museums are there in ONMU?
Exercise 7. Translate into English.
Творець медичного факультету, видатний вчений, перший декан, незалежний вищий навчальний заклад, доктор медичних наук, кафедра соціальної допомоги і практичної психології, інтернатура і магістратура, сучасні центри відпочинку, науково-дослідна лабораторія, захворювання ока, тканинна терапія, анатомічний музей, викладацький штат, член Міжнародної асоціації університетів
Exercise 8. Fill in the gaps with the words and word-combinations from the box. Translate
the text.
After the independence of Ukraine, Odessa National Medical University has become one of the leading medical universities with _______________. _______________ is a member of the International and European Universities Association. In the University, the level of students’ learning and training is close to ___________.
Today, it has six faculties and 8 departments, 6000 students and trainees, 1300 of them are the citizens of ______________. The classes for _______________ are performen in Russian, Ukrainian, and English. The _________________ includes 20 graduate students, interns, masters, and clinical residents.
international standards; the course of postgraduate education; foreign students; Odessa National Medical University; IV level of accreditation; 52 different (foreign) countries
Exercise 9. a) Complete the table by the model and remember the names of medical
specialties and specialists.
neurology neurologist
epidemiologist
psychology physiotherapy gynecology oncologist
virology psychiatrist [sai’kaətrist]
pediatrics pediatrician
obstetrics (акушерство) surgery surgeon
dentistry dentist
b) Explain any 4 words from the table above by the model. You may use your
own patterns as well.
1) Neurology is the branch of medicine (science) that deals with nervous problems (diseases)
2) Neurologist is a specialist in nervous problems (diseases).
Exercise 10. Translate into English
У 1999 році, 6-го вересня, у понеділок, у 1900 році, в листопаді, у вересні, у 2010 році, 19- го жовтня, в середу, у четвер, 25-го березня, 12-го травня, в суботу, у 1878 році, в липні, в п’ятницю, 31-го травня, у 1605 році, у січні, у неділю
Exercise 11. Put questions to the underlined words.
It is the tenth of September today.
All the departments of the university have their own Internet sites.
Many famous medical scientists worked at Odessa Medical University.
University hostels provide students with sports grounds and gyms.
There are all conditions necessary for active students’ life in ONMU.
During the course of studies, students master all modern medical technologies.
The university has 18 blocks.
Scientific-Research Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy is one of the clinical bases for training ONMU students.
Exercise 12. What can you say about the following (briefly)?
History of ONMU.
The famous scientists who contribute to creation and development of ONMU.
Students who study at ONMU.
Scientific and teaching staff of ONMU.
ONMU structure: faculties, departments.
Clinical bases and bases of practical training of ONMU.
ONMU’s museums.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
незалежний вищий навчальний заклад
декан медичного факультету
викладацький штат
інтернатура і магістратура
кафедра соціальної допомоги і практичної психології
іноземні студенти і практиканти
науково-дослідний інститут
2) Дайте відповідь на питання
When was the Medical Faculty of Novorossiysky University founded?
How many faculties are there at ONMU now?
What languages is the training of students given in at ONMU?
Where is post-diploma specialization carried out?
3) Складіть коротку розповідь про історію і сьогодення ОНМедУ.
4. PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Spirit- дух, душевний стан
Mind- тут: психіка
Applied  [ə'plaɪd] - прикладний
Behavior [bɪ’heɪvjə]- поведінка
To rely[rɪ'laɪ]- покладатися
Conclusion- висновок
Data- данні
Observation [ ɒbzə(r)’veɪʃ(ə)n ] - спостереження
Life span- тривалість життя
Emotionally distressed- емоційно пригнічений
To border- межувати
Goal- мета, задача
Description- опис
Hence- отже
Explanation  [‚eksplə'neɪʃən] – пояснення
Expertise [‚ekspər'ti:z] - спеціальні знання, компетентність
Solely[’səʋlɪ]- виключно
Prediction- прогнозування
Inference ['ɪnfərəns] - висновок
Cope with- справитися з (проблемою)
Approach [ə'prəʋtʃ]- підхід
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly
Hypothesis [haɪˈpɑːθəˌsis], throughout [Ɵru:'aʋt], architect [ˈɑːkɪtekt], expertise [‚ekspər'ti:z], behavior [bɪ’heɪvjə], scientific [‚saɪən'tɪfɪk], originate [əˈrɪdʒəneɪt], physicist ['fɪzɪsɪst]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
the study of the mind, an academic and applied discipline, to study the human mind and behavior, the scientific method, to reach the conclusion, to formulate a hypothesis, to collect data through observation, to investigate human development, from birth to death, biological and social sciences, to be described in detail, the root cause, to spend more time on research, the deeper depths of mind, to pay attention to solving everyday life problems
Grammar. Passive Voice. Present Simple
Psychologists analyze the negative behavior.
Психологи аналізують негативну поведінку
The negative behavior is analyzed by psychologists.
Негативна поведінка аналізується психологами.
Часи пасивного стану утворюються з допоміжного дієслова to be у відповідному часі і дієприкметника минулого часу (Past Participle) відмінюваного дієслова (3-я форма дієслова)
Exercise 4. Read the sentences in Passive. Translate. Pay attention to the positive, negative
and interrogative forms
The description of the psychological problem is based on observation.
The patient is asked by the therapist.
The problem is taken under control so the negative behavior is not repeated again.
Different approaches are applied to help a person cope with his/her problem.
All data are collected and analyzed.
Is human development investigated from birth to death by psychologists?
Exercise 5. Read the text. Compose the definition of psychology using the information of
the text
PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE
The word ‘psychology’ originated from the Greek term “psyche”, which means spirit or soul and “logos”, which means study.  So, the answer to the question, what is psychology is basically the study of the mind.
Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that studies the human mind and behavior. Research related to psychology seeks to explain and understand how human beings think, act and feel.
The scientific basis of psychology is its scientific method on which psychologists rely in their research. The scientific method means that psychologists reach their conclusions by identifying a specific problem or question, formulating a hypothesis, collecting data through observation and experiment, and analyzing the data.
General principles of psychology are to enable specialists to investigate human development throughout the lifespan from birth to death, examine mental and physical health, care and treat people who are emotionally distressed.
Psychology borders on the biological sciences at one end and touches on the social sciences at the other. This broad range makes psychology a science of many faces. Among psychology’s architects were philosophers, physicists, physiologists, physicians, as well as specialists in many other disciplines, including anthropology, linguistics, and even computer science.
Five Basic Goals in Psychology
Description. It is important to understand the problem first. Hence, an observation is made and the problem is described in detail.
 Explanation. The description is solely based on observation. But, psychologists need to use their skills and expertise and explain why one person did what he did.
Prediction. After the root cause has been understood, the next is an inference or prediction, where the psychologists explain what the person might do in future.
Control. Next is control. After the problem has been understood, now it is time to deal with it. In order to cope with the problem, it must be taken under control so that the negative behavior is not repeated again.
Improvement. After the actions have been controlled, it is noted if there is some improvement in the case. If not, then a different approach is applied so as to help the person heal properly.
Psychology is both real and theoretical. While some psychologists spend more time on research and thinking about the deeper depths of the mind, other psychologists pay attention to solving everyday life problems.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What does the word “psychology” literally mean?
What does psychology study?
What does the scientific method of psychology include?
What are the main directions of the psychology specialist’s professional activity?
What sciences does psychology border on?
What are the five basic goals in psychology?
What kind of science is psychology, applied or a theoretical one?
Exercise 7. Translate into English
наука про психіку, теоретична і прикладна наука, вивчати людську психіку та поведінку, виявити конкретну проблему, сформулювати гіпотезу, збирати та аналізувати дані, досліджувати розвиток людини, тривалість життя від народження до смерті, вивчати психічне і фізичне здоров’я, емоційно пригнічені люди, біологічні і соціальні науки, основні завдання психології, спостереження і опис, пояснити поведінку людини, прогнозування і контроль негативної поведінки, приділяти увагу вирішенню щоденних проблем
Exercise 8. Fill in the gaps with the proper preposition where it’s necessary
Psychology students must pay attention … biological and social sciences.
Psychological research is related … explaining and understanding how human beings think, act and feel.
Psychology deals … solving everyday life problems.
The Latin word ‘psychologia’ was first used … Croatian humanist Marko Marulich.
Psychologists attempt to understand the role … mental functions in individual and social behavior.
Psychologists help the emotionally distressed take the problem … control.
Psychologists reach … their conclusions using the scientific method of research.
Exercise 9. Put questions to the underlined words
The word “psychology” is derived from Greek words.
Some psychologists believe that psychology should study only behaviour that can be seen or observed directly.
Psychology was not considered something different from philosophy until the end of the 19th century.
Psychology investigates learning, memory, thinking, language, and perception
Different scientific approaches are applied to help distressed people.
The psychological problem is described in detail.
Exercise 10. Make the sentences Passive
Psychology studies the human mind and behavior.
Psychologists observe, analyze and explain the negative behavior.
Specialists investigate human development from birth to death.
To investigate human mind psychologists apply new methods and approaches.
The practitioner changes the wrong patterns of thinking and behavior.
If a specialist understands a problem, he can take it under control.
*Exercise 11. Read about 15 mind blowing psychology facts. Which of them seem to be
interesting to you? Discuss them.
Blind people do dream like you, they do not dream as a blind.
You become more selfish if you eat in your room.
Men change their mind 2 – 3 times more than women.
Do you know why you are happy when you eat a chocolate? That’s because it contains phenylephylamine.
The time frame to feel romantic love is for about 1 year only, after that, it’s an attachment.
Children, well breastfed, tend to have an IQ level of approximately 10 points more by 3 years of age.
Women have slightly higher IQ than Men.
Chocolate and Shopping are both more addictive than drugs or steroids.
Most of the decisions we make are taken unconsciously.
A right-handed individual generally looks towards his left while thinking something (events, images, sound) that happened actually and downwards or towards the right while making something.
 You are more attracted to individuals having similar features.
Even if you are in a bad mood, you should smile. It will automatically bring improvement in your mood.
People, who lie, tend to discretely cover their mouth or nose.
Our body is virtually paralyzed, when we are asleep.
If a person permanently loses the sense of smell, he will develop depression.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Наука про психіку
Теоретичні і прикладні науки
Біологічні і соціальні науки
Збирати та аналізувати дані
Пояснити поведінку людини
Психічне і фізичне здоров’я
Спостереження і опис
Дайте відповідь на питання
What does the word “psychology” literally mean?
What does psychology study?
What sciences does psychology border on?
Поясніть термін
Психологія
5. THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
evidence [ˈɛvɪd(ə)ns]- доказ, свідчення
to speculate- розмірковувати
ability- здібність
conscious [ˈkɒnʃəs]- свідомий
awareness [əˈwɛːnəs]- розуміння, усвідомлення
pulse rate- частота пульсу
insomnia- безсоння
nightmare- страшний сон, кошмар
to be subject to- підлягати, залежати
empiricism [ɛmˈpɪrɪsɪz(ə)m]- емпіризм
nativism [ˈneɪtɪvɪz(ə)m]- нативізм
sensory- чуттєвий
skills- навички
innate[ɪˈneɪt]- вроджений
a field of study- галузь науки
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly
Egypt [’i:dʒɪpt], Socrates [ˈsɒkrətiːz], Plato [ˈpleɪtoʊ], Aristotle [ˈærɪˌstɒtəl], Asia [ˈeɪʒə  or ˈeɪʃə], Lin Xie [lin sai], Avicenna [ˌævɪˈsɛnə], Marco Marulić [ˈmɑrko maˈru:litʃ], Descartes [‘deɪˌkɑrt], Renaissance [rəˈneɪsəns (UK) ˌrenəˈsɑːns(US)], medieval [ˌmɛdɪˈiːv(ə)l], Wilhelm Wundt [ˈvɪl hɛlm ˈvu̇nt], Leipzig [ˈlaɪpsɪɡ],
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
a study of the mind and behaviour, an independent scientific discipline, to speculate on the nature of the mind, ancient thinkers, to investigate the limits of human knowledge, memory and conscious awareness, to draw a square with one hand, to carry out the first psychology experiment, to treat patients suffering from a variety of diseases, inner feelings, late in the 19th century, a science apart from biology and philosophy, "father of experimental psychology”, psychological research, an independent field of study
Exercise 4. Translate the sentences. Explain the use of the underlined verbs in the Active
and Passive Voice.
Educational psychologists apply theories of human development to understand individual learning styles.
Psychologists working in the field of education are focused on better understanding how people absorb and retain new information.
Social psychology studies how humans think about each other and how they relate to each other. 
Educational psychology is often included in teacher education programs in places such as North America, Australia, and New Zealand.
Today mental testing is used for people of all ages in Western societies.
Grammar. Past Simple
Many scientists of the 20th century investigated mental conditions.
Avicenna wrote * ‘The Canon of Medicine’ where he described melancholia.
Did many scientists of the 20th century investigate mental conditions?
Did Avicenna write ‘The Canon of Medicine’?
Who investigated mental conditions?
Who wrote ‘The Canon of Medicine’?
What did many scientists of the 20th century investigate?
What did Avicenna write?
Avicenna did not (didn’t) write ‘Passions of the Soul’.
*Неправильні дієслова у стверджувальних реченнях стоять у другій формі (форма минулого часу): take → took, give → gave, go → went
Exercise 5. Translate the text. What information seems the most interesting to you?
Underline the verbs in the Past Simple.
THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
The history of psychology as a study of the mind and behaviour dates back to the Ancient Greeks. There is also evidence of psychological thought in ancient Egypt. Psychology was a branch of philosophy until the 1870s when it developed as an independent scientific discipline in Germany and the United States.
Many cultures throughout history have speculated on the nature of the mind, heart, soul, spirit, brain, etc. Though theories of ancient thinkers did not include a theory of psychology per se*, they provided modern scientists with a number of different ways to view human nature and to approach the problems of psychology.
The three major philosophers of the 5th century B.C. — Socrates, his pupil Plato, and Aristotle — investigated the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. They were also interested in psychological issues, including learning, memory, and conscious awareness.
In Asia, China had a long history of administering tests of ability as part of its education system. In the 6th century AD, Lin Xie carried out an early experiment, in which he asked people to draw a square with one hand and at the same time draw a circle with the other. Some have claimed that this is the first psychology experiment, and, therefore, the beginnings of psychology as an experimental science.
Medieval Muslim physicians also developed practices to treat patients suffering from a variety of “diseases of the mind.”
Avicenna developed a system for associating changes in the pulse rate with inner feelings. Avicenna also described hallucinations, insomnia, mania, nightmare, melancholia, etc.**
The first use of the term "psychology" is attributed to the Croatian humanist Marco Marulić (1450–1524).
During the Renaissance, the French philosopher René Descartes (17th century) stated that the mind was separate from the body and subject to its own rules and principles. The modern philosophical form of psychology was heavily influenced by the works of Descartes.
In the 17th—18th centuries psychology was given two major philosophical orientations: empiricism and nativism. Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. Nativism is the view that certain skills or abilities are innate. 
Psychology as the independent science was first established by Wilhelm Wundt late in the 19th century.  Wundt, who noted psychology as a science apart from biology and philosophy, was the first person to refer to himself as a psychologist. He is widely regarded as the "father of experimental psychology”.  In 1879, Wundt founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research at the University of Leipzig.  This marked psychology as an independent field of study.
*per se – як такий/а; по суті
**etc. [et’setrə] - тощоExercise 6. Answer the questions
When did psychology become an independent field of science?
Who of ancient thinkers was interested in psychological issues in Greece?
Where was the first psychology experiment carried out?
What mental conditions were described by Avicenna?
Who was the first person to use the term ‘psychology’?
What views of René Descartes influenced the development of psychology?
How do empiricism and nativism see the nature of knowledge and skills?
Who is considered the founder of modern psychology?
Exercise 7. Match the names of the thinkers to their contribution to the development of
psychologySocrates, his pupil Plato, and Aristotle was the first person who carried out a psychology experiment.
Avicenna separated mental phenomena from the mechanistic explanation
René Descartes was the first person to refer to himself as a psychologist.
Lin Xie  described a number of conditions including melancholia.
Marco Marulic were Greek philosophers interested in some psychological issues.
Wilhelm Wundt was first to use the term ‘psychology’.
Exercise 8. Find out the wrong use of words and change them to the proper ones.
We can see interest to the human mind in Ancient Egyptian.
In his works, René Descartes divided the mind from the body.
Psychology became a free field of science in the 19th century.
In ancient China, they included the tests of possibilities into the system of education.
Nativism is the science about innate mental abilities. 
Wundt found the first formal laboratory for psychological research in 1879.
Ancient physicians suffered the patients with different mental diseases.
Exercise 9. Translate into English
галузь філософії, незалежна наукова дисципліна, античні мислителі, розмірковувати про природу розуму і душі, досліджувати межі людських знань, навчання і пам’ять, тести на здібності, перший психологічний експеримент, експериментальна наука, лікувати хворих, внутрішні почуття, безсоння і страшний сон, керуватися власними правилами і принципами, емпіризм і нативізм, чуттєвий досвід, навички і здібності, батько експериментальної психології, психологічні дослідження, незалежна галузь науки
Exercise 10. Translate. Put questions to the underlined words
The ancient philosophers had a curious idea about the seat of the mind. Many ancient philosophers used the words ‘soul’ and ‘mind’ interchangeably. Aristotle located mind in the heart. Some other ancient philosophers located soul in the lungs. Hippocrates thought that the brain was the seat of the mind.
Exercise 11. Write the sentences in the Past. Change the adverbs by the appropriate ones
where it is necessary.
In his work, he writes about the models of behaviour.
They have a lecture on Avicenna’s psychology views today.
Educational psychologists often use the ideas of Johann Pestalozzi.
This year they take three exams.
Biopsychology focuses on the physical and biological bases of behavior.
Health psychologists examine how psychological factors contribute to illnesses.
Empiricism states that knowledge comes primarily from sensory experience. 
Nowadays psychologists utilize the results of other sciences in their work.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Галузь філософії
Незалежна галузь науки
Перший психологічний експеримент
Емпіризм і нативізм
Навички і здібності
Психологічні дослідження
Дайте відповіді на питання
When did psychology become an independent field of science?
Where was the first psychology experiment carried out?
Who is considered the founder of modern psychology?
How does empiricism see the nature of knowledge and skills?
How does nativism see the nature of knowledge and skills?
Стисло розкажіть про розвиток психологічних знань у давні часи
6. SIGMUND FREUD
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Influential[‚ɪnflu:'enʃəl] - впливовий
Merchant['mɜ:rtʃənt]- торговець
Controversial [‚kɒntrə'vɜ:rʃəl]- суперечливий
To settle- селитися
Recall- пригадування
Disorder - розлад
Unconscious[ʌn’kɒnʃəs]- несвідоме
Perpetual [pər'petʃu:əl] - вічний, постійний
Desire[dɪ’zaɪər]- бажання
Experiences - переживання
Follower- послідовник
Publicity- громадськість
Application[‚æplə’keɪʃən]- застосування
‘The Ego and the Id’- «Я і Воно» (праця Фрейда)
To undergo[‚ʌndər'gəʋ]- зазнати, перенести
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly
Sigmund Freud [‘zigmund ‘froid], Austrian ['ɔ:strɪən], psychoanalysis [‚saɪkəʋə’nælɪsɪs], Czech [tʃek], Leipzig [ˈlaɪptsɪɡ], neurologist [nʋ’rɒlədʒɪst], although [ɔ:l'ðəu], structural [’strʌktʃərəl], Nazis [ˈnɑːtsi], hysteria [hɪˈstɪərɪə], hypnosis [hɪpˈnəusɪs]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
the founder of psychoanalysis, the understanding of the human personality, the recall of painful experiences, to specialize in nervous and brain disorders, sexual and aggressive impulses, to be in perpetual conflict, unconscious desires and experiences, to be appointed Professor of Neuropathology, a group of pupils and followers, clinical observation, a new structural model of the mind
Grammar. Passive Voice. Past Simple
Sigmund Freud created psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis was created by Sigmund Freud.
Exercise 4. Translate the sentences in Past Simple Passive and Active
Freud entered the University of Vienna at the age of 17.
The patient’s dreams were analyzed by Freud.
Hysteria was described by Freud in 1885.
In 1900, Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams.
In January 1933, the Nazis took control of Germany, and Freud’s books were burnt and destroyed.
Freud used hypnosis in his practice.
Exercise 5. Read the text. Be ready to tell briefly about Sigmund Freud’s life
SIGMUND FREUD (1856 – 1939)
152403810Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, who created an entirely new approach to the understanding of the human personality. He is regarded as one of the most influential and controversial minds of the 20th century.
Sigismund (later changed to Sigmund) was born on 6 May 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia (now Pribor in the Czech Republic). His father was a merchant. The family moved to Leipzig and then settled in Vienna, where Freud was educated.
In 1873, Freud began to study medicine at the University of Vienna. After graduating, he worked at the Vienna General Hospital. He treated hysteria by the recall of painful experiences under hypnosis. In 1885, Freud went to Paris as a student of the neurologist Jean Charcot. On his return to Vienna the following year, Freud set up in private practice, specializing in nervous and brain disorders. The same year he married Martha Bernays, with whom he had six children.
Freud developed the theory that humans have an unconscious in which sexual and aggressive impulses are in perpetual conflict. In 1897, he began an intensive analysis of himself. In 1900, his major work ‘The Interpretation of Dreams’ was published in which Freud analyzed dreams in terms of unconscious desires and experiences.
In 1902, Freud was appointed Professor of Neuropathology at the University of Vienna. Although the medical establishment disagreed with many of his theories, a group of pupils and followers began to gather around Freud.
After World War One, Freud spent less time in clinical observation and concentrated on the application of his theories to history, art, literature, and anthropology. In 1923, he published ‘The Ego and the Id’, which suggested a new structural model of the mind.
In 1933, the Nazis publicity burnt a number of Freud’s books. In 1938, shortly after the Nazis annexed Austria, Freud left Vienna for London with his wife and daughter Anna.
Freud had been diagnosed with cancer of the jaw in 1923 and underwent more than 30 operations. He died of cancer on 23 September 1939.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What is Sigmund Freud famous for?
What did Freud study at the University of Vienna?
How did Freud treat hysteria?
What theory did Freud develop?
What is Freud’s most important work?
What did Freud suggest in his work ‘The Ego and the Id’?
What disease did Freud suffer from?
Exercise 7. Translate into English
Засновник психоаналізу, суперечливий розум, вивчати медицину, пригадування болючих переживань, під гіпнозом, нервові розлади, розлади мозку, теорія несвідомого, «Тлумачення снів», несвідомі бажання і переживання, «Я і Воно», група учнів та послідовників, клінічні спостереження, нова структурна модель психіки, померти від раку
Exercise 8. Put questions to the underlined words
In 1859 the Freud family left Freiberg.
Freud believed that smoking enhanced his capacity to work.
Psychoanalysis remains influential in psychotherapy and psychiatry.
Freud read William Shakespeare in English throughout his life.
Sexual and aggressive impulses are in perpetual conflict.
Neuroses can be cured by psychoanalysis.
The question of the therapeutic effectiveness of psychoanalysis remains an open and controversial one.
Exercise 9. Write the following sentences in the Past
The new hypothesis is developed by German scientists.
Psychology students study anatomy in the first year.
Brain disorders are diagnosed in some newborn babies.
The concept of unconscious is considered central to Freud’s theory of mind.
The psychotherapist treats patients with hysteria and other disorders.
Students spend a lot of time in clinical observations.
Exercise 10. Open the brackets. Translate
Freud (to develop) a clinical method for treating psychopathology.
Psychoanalysis (to use) by psychologists and psychiatrists nowadays.
In 1859 the Freud family (to go) to Leipzig.
Freud’s mother Amalia (to be) 20 years her husband junior.
The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (to publish) in 1901.
Freud (to believe) that cocaine was a cure for many mental and physical problems.
Neurology (to deal with) disorders of the nervous system.
*Exercise 11. Read about Freud’s aptitude for languages
A polyglot is someone who can speak many languages, basically a super-linguist. And Sigmund Freud was a serious polyglot, with strong knowledge of German, Italian, Greek, English, Spanish, Hebrew and Latin. Freud was also quite the little genius, already reading Shakespeare at the tender age of eight. He was also accepted into a prestigious high school and graduated with honors, eventually proving himself as the most eccentric psychologist ever to walk the Earth.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Засновник психоаналізу
Теорія несвідомого
Тлумачення снів
Нервові розлади
Несвідомі бажання і переживання
2) Дайте відповідь на питання
What is Sigmund Freud famous for?
What theory did Freud develop?
What is Freud’s most important work?
7. HUMAN BODY
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
abdomen [’æbdəmən] черевна порожнина, живіт
ankle ['æŋkl] щиколотка
bladder ['blædǝ] сечовий міхур
bone ['bǝʋn] кістка
buttocks [`bʌtəks] сідниці
calf [kɑːf] литка (голень)
esophagus [iːˈsɒfəɡəs] стравохід
forearm ['fɔ:r‚ɑ:rm] передпліччя
forehead [`forid] чоло
framework ['freimwɜ:k] каркас
gall-bladder [ ʹgɔ:l͵blædə ]  жовчний міхур
injury [`indʒəri] ушкодження
intestines [in'testinz] кишечник
heart [`ha:t] серце
hip ['hip] стегно (суглоб)
kidney [’kɪdnɪ] нирка
limb (extremity) [lim] кінцівка
muscle [’mʌsəl] м’яз
palate [`pælit] піднебіння
to smell [`smel] відчувати запах
skull [skʌl]  череп
spleen ['spli:n] селезінка
stomach [`stɒmək] шлунок
thigh [Ɵaɪ]  стегно (кістка)
tongue [tʌŋ]  язик
trunk [trʌŋk] тулуб
thumb [`θʌm] великий палець
tongue [`tʌŋ] язик
waist ['weist] талія
wrist [rist] зап’ясток
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly
Forehead ['fɔ:rɪd], sight [sait], breathe [bri:ð], tongue [tʌŋ], stomach ['stʌmək], thigh [Ɵaɪ], thumb [Ɵʌm], through [Ɵru:], mouth [maʋƟ], upper ['ʌpər], framework ['freɪmwɜ:(r)k], facial
[ feɪʃ(ə)l]
Exercise 3. Translate the words. Write them in Plural (pay attention to the words of Latin
and Greek origin)
Foot, body, esophagus, kidney, psychoanalysis, shoulder, extremity, tooth, mouth, basis, cheek, calf, knee, hip, bacillus, life, tongue, forehead, bacterium, injury, stomach
Exercise 4. Translate into Ukrainian
the organ of sight, the organ of smell, to breathe through the nose, the upper and lower extremities, the organ of taste, to be connected with the trunk by the neck, to be connected with the chest by the shoulder, the upper part of the trunk, the narrow middle part of the body, toes and fingers, the framework of bones, to protect the organs from injury, to be covered with muscles
Exercise 5. Read the text and translate it
HUMAN BODY
291465635The principal parts of the human body are the head, the trunk, and limbs (extremities).
The head consists of 2 parts: the skull and the face (facial skull). The skull contains the brain and the face includes the forehead, the eyes, the nose, the mouth, the cheeks, the ears and the chin.
The eyes serve as the organ of sight.
The nose is the organ of smell through which we breathe.
The ear is the organ of hearing.
The mouth has two lips: the upper and the lower lip. The tongue is the organ of taste. Adults have 32 teeth.
The head is connected with the trunk by the neck.
The upper part of the trunk is the chest. The principal organs in the chest are the lungs, the heart, and the esophagus.
The lower part of the trunk is called abdomen. It contains the stomach, the liver, the spleen, the pancreas, the intestines, the kidneys, the gallbladder and the bladder.
The waist is the narrow middle part of the body above the hips.
When we speak of the upper extremity we mean the arm. The upper extremity is connected with the chest by the shoulder. It consists of the upper arm, the forearm, the elbow, the wrist and the hand. We have five fingers on each hand. A short finger set apart from the other is called the thumb. The lower extremity called the leg consists of the thigh, the knee, the calf, the ankle and the foot. There are five toes on each foot. The nail is a hard part at the end of a toe and finger.
The framework of bones is called the skeleton. It supports the soft parts and protects the organs from injury. The bones are covered with muscles.
The body is covered with the skin.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What are the principal parts of the human body?
Where is the brain located?
What is the organ of sight?
What do ears serve as?
What is the organ of taste?
What is the function of the nose?
What parts does the trunk consist of?
What organs are there in the abdomen?
Where is the heart located?
What parts does the arm consist of?
What are the parts of the leg?
Exercise 7. Find the pairs of words with the opposite meaning.
upper wide
narrow long
weak soft
short lower
apart strong
hard sick
healthy together
Exercise 8. Add one letter to the beginning and the end of each word below to make a part
of the body
…ris…
…hee…
…tomac…
…high…
…inge…
…ne…
…lbo…
…out…
…houlde…
…nkl…
…hum…
Exercise 9. Read the definitions below. What parts of the body do they describe?
… - any of the digits of the hand.
… - the joint between the thigh and the lower leg.
… - the part of the head between the natural hairline and the eyes.
… - the movable muscular organ in the mouth that is used for tasting and eating food and for speaking
… - an upper limb of the human body.
… - the part of an organism connecting the head with the rest of the body.
… - a pair of breathing organs in the chest.
… - the part of the body between the neck and the abdomen.
Exercise 10. Translate into English
Тулуб та кінцівки, орган зору, орган смаку, орган слуху, пальці рук та ніг, вміщувати мозок, язик і губи, грудна клітка, сечовий та жовчний міхур, печінка і селезінка, верхні та нижні кінцівки, стегно і коліно, підошва і п’ята, плече і лікоть, вкритий шкірою, щоки і підборіддя, серце і легені, з’єднаний за допомогою шиї, печінка і селезінка, захищати від пошкодження, зап’ястя і кисть руки
Exercise 11. Find out the wrong use of words, correct mistakes
The human body consists of the head, the trunk, the limbs, and the extremities.
Each foot has five fingers.
The hand consists of the upper arm, the elbow, the forearm, the wrist and the upper limb.
The liver and the gallbladder are located in the right part of the stomach.
The high part of the trunk is called the chest.
Humans have twenty fingers.
The mouth consists of 32 teeth.
Exercise 12. Put questions to the underlined words
The skeleton protects the organs from injury.
There are two kidneys in the human body.
Many ancient scientists studied the structure of the human body.
The lower part of the trunk is called abdomen.
The bones are covered with muscles.
The most sensitive finger on the human hand is the index finger.
The eyebrows are over our eyes.
Sigmund Freud studied the human brain disorders.
Exercise 13. Open the brackets. Translate.
She (to cut) her finger yesterday.
The elbow (to connect) the upper arm and the forearm.
When he (to be) 10 years old he (to jump) from the roof and (to break) his leg.
The heart (to include) in the chest.
In 1543, the book “On the Structure of the Human Body” (to write) by Andreas Vesalius, the famous anatomist.
The skull (to protect) the brain from injury.
The skin (to cover) the surface of the human body.
The eyelashes (to grow) along the edges of the eyelids.
*Exercise 14. Prepare a brief report on ‘Cat/dog anatomy’
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Тулуб та кінцівки
Пальці рук і ніг
Грудна клітка і живіт
Рот і язик
Лоб і підборіддя
Вкритий шкірою
Плече і лікоть
Стегно і коліно
Захищати від пошкодження
2) Дайте відповідь на питання
What are the principal parts of the human body?
What is the organ of sight?
What organs are there in the abdomen?
What is the organ of taste?
What is the organ of hearing?
3) Опишіть терміни
Тіло людини
Тулуб
Кінцівки
8. SKELETON
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
bone marrow [bəʊn ˈmærəʊ] кістковий мозок
breastbone [ˈbrɛstˌbəʊn] грудина
cartilage [ˈkɑːtɪlɪdʒ] хрящ
cervical [ˈsɜːvɪkəl] шийний
cranium [ˈkreɪnɪəm] черепна коробка
cranial [ˈkreɪnɪəl] черепний
coccyx [ˈkɒksɪks] куприк
facial [ˈfeɪʃəl] лицевий
fibers [faɪbəz] волокна
fused ['fju:zd] зрощений
girdle [ˈɡɜːdl] пояс
joint [dʒɔɪnt] суглоб
ligament [ˈlɪgəmənt] зв'язка
lumbar [ˈlʌmbə] поперековий
mandible [’mændɪbəl] нижня щелепа
marrow cavity [ˈmærəʊ ˈkævɪtɪ] кістково-мозкова порожнина
pelvis [ˈpɛlvɪs] таз
puberty ['pju:bə(r)tɪ]  статева зрілість, статеве дозрівання
rib [rɪb] ребро
sacrum [ˈseɪkrəm] крижі (крестец)
spinal cord ['spainǝl 'kɔ:d] спинний мозок
spine
(spinal column )[spaɪn]
[ˈspaɪnəl ˈkɒləm] спинний хребет,
хребетний стовп
sternum ['stɜ:nǝm] грудина
tendon [ˈtɛndən] сухожилля
thoracic [θɔːˈræsɪk] грудний
vertebra
(pl. vertebrae) [ˈvɜːtɪbrə]
[ˈvɜːtɪbrɪ] Хребець
хребці
warehouse   ['weər‚haʋs]  склад, сховище
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly
Protein  ['prəʋti:n], region ['ri:dʒən], cervical [ˈsɝːvɪkəl], thoracic [θɒˈræsɪk], facial [’feɪʃəl], column [ˈkɒləm], coccyx [ ˈkɔksɪks ], curved [kɜ:rvd] , portion ['pɔ:(r)ʃən], primary [ˈpraɪm(ə)rɪ]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
To be made up of many cells, to enclose and protect the spinal cord, a long curved bone, costal cartilages, the superior portion of the skull, to protect the brain from damage, facial bones, to be connected with the sternum, the hollow space inside of bones, red bone marrow, constant growth and development, to attach the skeletal muscles, twelve pairs of ribs, at the end of puberty, to provide support and flexibility, to move the limbs, the body’s warehouse for calcium
Exercise 4. Read and translate the sentences in Passive. Transform them into Active
The spinal cord is protected by the spine.
The trunk and the head are connected by the neck.
The human body is covered by the skin.
Ribs are connected with the sternum by costal cartilages.
The human skeleton was studied by many scientists.
The functions of the skeleton were investigated by ancient physicians.
Exercise 5. Read the text. Make the plan of the text
SKELETON
The skeletal system includes all the bones and joints in the body. Each bone is made up of many cells, protein fibers, and minerals.
The skeleton in an adult body is made up of 206 individual bones. These bones are classified into the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the head and trunk. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the shoulder girdle, upper extremity, pelvis and lower extremity.
243840130175
The human vertebral column (spine or backbone) usually consists of 33 vertebrae. They are named by region:
Cervical (neck) – 7 vertebrae
Thoracic (chest) – 12 vertebrae
Lumbar (lower back) – 5 vertebrae
Sacrum – 5 fused vertebrae
Coccyx (tailbone) – 3 (3-5) fused vertebrae
The spine encloses and protects the spinal cord.
Humans have 24 ribs (12 pairs). They are long curved bones surrounding the chest. The first seven pairs of ribs are connected with the sternum (breastbone) by costal cartilages.
The skull is composed of 22 bones that are fused together except for the mandible.
The bones of the superior portion of the skull are known as the cranium and protect the brain from damage. The bones of the inferior and anterior portion of the skull are known as facial bones (face) and support the eyes, nose, and mouth.
Red bone marrow produces red and white blood cells. Red bone marrow is found in the hollow space inside of bones. Children tend to have more the red bone marrow compared to their body size than adults do. The amount of red bone marrow drops off at the end of puberty, replaced by yellow bone marrow.
The skeletal system’s primary function is to support and protect the body's organs and attaches the skeletal muscles. The bones of the axial skeleton protect the internal organs—such as the brain and the heart—from damage caused by external forces. The bones of the appendicular skeleton provide support and flexibility at the joints and attach the muscles that move the limbs. Finally, bones act as the body’s warehouse for calcium, iron, and energy in the form of fat.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What does the skeletal system consist of?
What parts is the human skeleton divided into?
How many bones does an adult body consist of?
How many vertebrae does the spine include?
What regions are there in the vertebral column?
What is enclosed in the spine?
How many ribs do humans have?
What parts is the skull divided into?
Where is bone marrow located?
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
Exercise 7. Find out the pairs of synonyms
thorax spine
sternum chest
vertebral column limb
inferior upper
superior breastbone
extremity lower
external outer
Exercise 8. Match the terms to their definitions
Skeleton
Vertebra
Trunk
Skull
Rib
Spine
Bone marrow
a) any of the 24 curved elastic bones that together form the chest wall in man
b) the vertebral column
c) one of the bony segments of the spinal column
d) the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones
f) the bony skeleton of the head
g) a hard framework consisting of bones that supports and protects the soft parts of a human body
h) the body excluding the head, neck, and limbs
Exercise 9. Translate into English
Кістки і суглоби, осьовий і апендикулярний скелет, кістки голови і тулуба, кістки кінцівок, плечовий пояс і таз, хребет і хребетний стовп, шийні та грудні хребці, поперекові хребці, крижі та куприк, ребра і грудина, черепна коробка, лицьові кістки, кістковий мозок, прикріплювати скелетні м’язи, захищати внутрішні органи, рухати кінцівки, сховище кальцію та заліза
Exercise 10. Put questions to the underlined words
New blood cells are produced by the red bone marrow.
The central nervous system lies largely within the axial skeleton.
The appendicular skeleton is made up of 126 bones.
Ancient physicians discussed the form and function of the skeleton.
The skeletal system includes all the bones and joints in the body.
The first seven ribs are known as “true ribs” because they connect the thoracic vertebrae directly to the sternum.
The skull encloses the brain.
Avicenna offered a humoral explanation of bone as primarily made of earth.
Exercise 11. Open the brackets. Translate
The upper jaw (to call) maxilla.
Yellow bone marrow (to store) calcium and fat.
Yesterday, the students (to listen to) the lecture on the structure of the human skeleton.
The lungs (to protect) by the chest.
The cranium (to contain) the brain.
Bone marrow (to locate) in the hollow space inside of bones.
The sternum (to consist of) three portions.
The experiments (to carry out) by the scientists three weeks ago.
*Exercise 12. a) Read and translate the story about the most famous rib in the human
history.
The Lord God formed the man from the dust of the ground… The Lord God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep; and while he was sleeping, he took one of the man’s ribs and closed the place with flesh. Then the Lord God made a woman from the rib he had taken out of the man, and brought her to the man.
b) Choose the words from the text with the similar meaning to the given ones
bodily tissue
to make somebody do something
femalemalesoilto cover
c) True or false?
1) The man’s body was closed up with the rib.
2) The first man was formed by the ground.
3) The first woman was made from the rib.
4) While the man was sleeping the Lord God made the woman.

Завдання для самостійної роботи студента
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
кістки і суглоби
осьовий скелет
хребет і хребці
ребра і грудина
черепна коробка
кістковий мозок
скелетні м’язи
Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
What does the skeletal system consist of?
What parts is the human skeleton divided into?
Where is bone marrow located?
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
Поясніть терміни
Скелет
Хребет
9. HEART ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Atrium (pl. atria) [ˈeɪtriəm] передсердя
Backflow ['bækflǝʋ] зворотний тік
Blood vessel [blʌd ˈvɛs(ə)l] кровоносна судина
Blood flow [blʌd 'flǝʋ] кровотік
Сirculatory system [ˌsɜːkjəˈleɪtəri …] система кровообігу
Chamber [’tʃeɪmbər] камера
To contract [kǝn'trækt] скорочуватись
Diaphragm [ˈdaɪəfræm] діафрагма
Fist [fɪst] кулак
Layer [ˈleɪər] шар (слой)
Membrane [ˈmɛmbreɪn] оболонка
Oxygen-rich ['ɔksiʤǝn 'riʧ] насичений киснем
Pulmonary circulation [ˈpʌlmənəri] мале коло кровообігу
Septum [ˈseptəm] перегородка
Slightly [ˈslaɪtlɪ] злегка, трохи
Systemic circulation [sis'temik] велике коло кровообігу
Surface [ˈsɜːfɪs] поверхня
Valve [vælv] клапан
Ventricle [ˈventrəkəl] шлуночок
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly
muscular [ˈmʌskjʊlə], attach [ə’tætʃ], pericardium [ˌperɪˈkɑːdjəm], surround [sə’raʋnd], impulse [ˈɪmpʌls], compare [kəmˈpɛə], myocardium [maɪəˈkɑːdɪəm], through [θru], cardiovascular [‚kɑ:rdɪə’væskjələr]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
a muscular organ, the size of a close fist, the weight of the heart, to be located between the lungs, behind the breastbone, to be located between the lungs, the upper layer, to be attached to the spinal column, the heart muscle, to cause the heart to contract, atria and ventricles, to separate the atria and the ventricles, to regulate blood flow, to prevent backflow, the surface of the heart, oxygen-rich blood, the system of blood vessels
Grammar. Adjectives and adverbs. Degrees of comparison
high higher (the) highest
big bigger (the) biggest
busy busier (the) busiest
interesting more (less) interesting (the) most (least) interesting
easily more (less) easily (the) most (least) easily
* Adverbs that end in -ly always use "more" or "most", such as "more quickly" or "most quickly"
!! good/well better (the) best
bad/badly worse (the) worst
much/many more (the) most
little less (the) least
far farther/further (the) farthest/the furthest
Exercise 4. Read the sentences. Translate. Pay attention to the adjectives
The right atrium of the heart is larger than the left one.
The walls of the left atrium are thicker than the walls of the right one.
The left ventricle is longer than the right ventricle.
The left ventricle is more conical in form than the right one.
The atria have thinner, less muscular walls than the ventricles.
The left ventricle is the largest and strongest chamber in the heart.
Exercise 5. Read the text. Translate it. Compose the list of the keywords and word-
combinationsHEART
The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a closed fist that functions as the body’s circulatory pump. The weight of the heart in men averages between 280 and 340 g and in women, between 230 and 280 g.
The heart is located between the lungs in the middle of your chest, behind and slightly to the left of the breastbone. A membrane called the pericardium surrounds the heart like a sac. The upper layer of the pericardium is attached to the spinal column, diaphragm, and other parts of the body. The inner layer of the pericardium is attached to the heart muscle.
The heart muscle is called myocardium. Electrical impulses from the myocardium cause the heart to contract.
The heart contains four chambers: the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle. The atria are smaller than the ventricles and have thinner, less muscular walls than the ventricles. The left ventricle is the largest and strongest chamber in the heart.
The chambers on the right side of the heart are smaller and have less myocardium in their heart wall when compared to the left side of the heart.
The septum separates the atria and the ventricles.
Four valves regulate blood flow through the heart. Blood normally flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow.
The coronary arteries run along the surface of the heart and provide oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
The heart and circulatory system (the system of blood vessels) make up the cardiovascular system. Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Pulmonary circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart to the lungs, and return oxygenated blood back to the heart.
Cardiac cycle is the term used to describe the relaxation and contraction of the heart. The cardiac cycle refers to a complete heartbeat and includes the systole, the diastole, and the intervening pause.
Cardiac systole is the contraction of the cardiac muscle. The period of rest of the cardiac muscle is called the diastole.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
Where is the heart located?
What is the pericardium?
What is the myocardium?
What parts does the heart consist of?
Which chambers of the heart are larger?
What is the function of the heart valves?
What is the function of the coronary arteries?
How is the system of blood vessels called?
What is systemic circulation?
What is pulmonary circulation?
What is systole?
What is diastole?
Exercise 7. Match the terms to their definitions
atrium a structure that closes temporarily a passage and permits movement of blood in one direction only
ventricle chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins 
artery one of the two lower chambers of the heart
heart the middle and the thickest layer of the heart wall, composed of cardiac muscle
valve a vessel that carries blood from the heart through the body
myocardium a hollow muscular organ that by its rhythmic contraction maintains the circulation of the blood
Exercise 8. Translate into English
М’язовий орган, вага серця, серцевий м’яз, перикард і міокард, прикріплюватися до хребта і діафрагми, передсердя і шлуночки, камера серця, серцева перегородка, серцевий клапан, регулювати кровотік, поверхня серця, збагачена киснем кров, коронарні артерії, кровоносні судини, система кровообігу, серцево-судинна система, велике коло кровообігу, мале коло кровообігу
Exercise 9. a) Write the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives and adverbs
Heavy, small, comfortable, thin, quickly, well, funny, far, few, difficult, serious, slowly, cheap, fat, little, large, many, happy, quick, strong, expensive
b) Translate into English
1) Стінки передсердь тонші, ніж стінки шлуночків.
2) Артерії більші, ніж вени (veins).
3) Капіляри (capillaries) – найменші судини системи кровообігу.
4) Серце чоловіка важче, ніж серце жінки.
5) Здоров’я важливіше за гроші.
6) Будь більш уважним.
Exercise 10. Put questions to the underlined words. What additional information about the
heart and the cardiovascular system did you learn from this exercise?
The heart muscle is supplied with oxygen and nutrients by 2 coronary arteries.
The left atrium of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.
The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the entire body.
Pulmonary circulation was first described by Ibn-Nafis in 1242.
In 1628, William Harvey published his description of blood circulation.
The main artery in the human body is called aorta.
Veins transport blood to the heart.
Oxygenated blood is transported by the arteries away from the heart.
Exercise 11. Open the brackets. Translate
The vascular system (to consist of) three groups of vessels – arteries, veins and capillaries.
The heart (to compose of) four chambers.
Aristotle (to describe) the heart as a three-chambered organ.
The Aristotelian notion of the heart (to support) by Harvey in the 17th century.
Pulmonary vessels (to carry) blood to and from the lungs.
Avicenna (to believe) that the heart produced breath.
The atria and the ventricles (to separate) by the septum.
*Exercise 12. a) Read the idioms with ‘heart’ and try to explain their meaning. Find out
Russian equivalents to them
Have a heart of gold
Have a heart of stone
Have a heart-to-heart talk with (someone)
Heart is dead set against (something)
Sick at heart
b) Choose the idiom above to replace the expression in the brackets
1) The man was (very sad) about his friend’s death.
2) I had (a sincere) talk with my friend.
3) The man has (a hard and cold personality).
4) My grandmother (is kind and generous) and she is always willing to help a stranger.
5) My mother (is totally against) my plan to leave the University.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студента
1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
передсердя і шлуночки
камера серця
серцевий клапан
регулювати кровотік
кровоносні судини
система кровообігу
серцево-судинна система
велике коло кровообігу
мале коло кровообігу
скорочення серця
2) Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
Where is the heart located?
What is the myocardium?
What parts does the heart consist of?
How is the system of blood vessels called?
3) Поясніть терміни
Серце
Серцево-судинна система
Систола
Діастола
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Airway [’eərweɪ] дихальні шляхи
Alveolus (pl. alveoli) [ˌælviˈəʊləs ælˈvɪəlaɪ ] альвеола
Apex [ ʹeıpeks ]  верхівка
Base ['beiz] основа
Border [ˈbɔːdə] границя
Carbon dioxide [ˈkɑːbən daɪˈɒksaɪd] вуглекислий газ
Exhale [eks’heɪl] видихати
Gas exchange ['gæs iks'ʧeinʤ] газообмін
Hazardous [’hæzərdəs] небезпечний
Inhalation [inhǝ'leiʃn] вдих
Infant ['infǝnt] немовля
Lateral [ˈlæt(ə)r(ə)l] боковий
Lobe ['lǝʋb] доля
Mediastinum [ ͵mi:dıəʹstaınəm ] середостіння
Pleura [ ʹplʋ(ə)rə ]  плевра
Respiration [ˏrespi'reiʃn] дихання
Spongy [ʹspʌndʒı]  губчастий
Vital capacity [ˈvaɪtəl kəˈpæsətɪ] життєвий об’єм
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly
Lung [lʌŋ], respiratory [rɪˈspaɪrətr̩i], vary [’veərɪ], surface [ˈsɜːfɪs], weight [weɪt], alveoli [ælˈvɪəlaɪ ], functional [ˈfʌŋkʃənəl], oxygen [ˈɒksɪdʒən], vital [‘vaitəl]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
the respiratory system, spongy air-filled organs, muscles of respiration, the lateral cavities of the chest, to be covered with the pleura, conical in shape, the weight of the lungs, the vital capacity of the lungs, to consist of three lobes, to be of a pale rose colour, to become darker, the capillaries of the lungs, gas exchange in the lungs, the total surface, to provide with oxygen, to remove carbon dioxide
Grammar. One/ones, that/those
The right lung is larger than the left lung.
The right lung is larger than the left one.
The walls of the left ventricle are thicker than the walls of the right ventricle.
The walls of the left ventricle are thicker than those of the right one.
Exercise 4. Translate into Ukrainian. Pay attention to the use and translation of one/ones,
that/thoseThe right atrium is larger than the left one.
The number of the vertebrae in the coccyx is less than the number of those in the neck.
The lower lobe of the left lung is larger than the upper one.
The bones of the lower extremities are longer than those of the upper ones.
The weight of the lung is less than that of the heart.
Which dictionary do you want? This one or that one?
Exercise 5. Read the text. Write out the keywords and word-combinations
The Lungs
There are 3 major parts of the respiratory system: the airway, the lungs, and the muscles of respiration.
The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. There are two lungs in the human body. They are spongy air-filled organs located in the lateral cavities of the chest. The lungs are separated from each other by the mediastinum. The lungs are covered with the pleura. They are conical in shape. Each lung has the base, apex, two borders and three surfaces.
The weight of the lungs varies according to many conditions. In the adult male, the weight of the lungs is about 1,350 gr. The right lung is about 15% heavier than the left one.
Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that a person can exhale after maximum inhalation. The vital capacity of the lungs is 3.5-4 liters in the male and it is 3-3.5 liters in the female.
The right lung consisting of three lobes is heavier than the left one because the latter consists only of two lobes. The lower lobe of the left lung is larger than the upper one.
In infants, the lungs are of a pale rose colour, but later they become darker.
Alveoli are the functional units of the lungs that permit gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood in the capillaries of the lungs. The lungs have many capillaries with the total surface of about 80 sq.m.
The respiratory system provides gas exchange in the organism. Gas exchange is performed by the lungs by eliminating carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular respiration. De-oxygenated blood, "blue blood", comes from the pulmonary arteries. Oxygenated blood leaves the lungs via the pulmonary veins.
The exchange of air between the external environment and the alveoli is called ventilation. There are two phases of ventilation: inspiration (breathing in) and expiration (breathing out). Normal adults have a respiratory rate of 12-20 breaths per minute.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What are the major parts of the respiratory system?
What kind of internal organs are the lungs?
Where are the lungs located?
What do the lungs consist of?
What is the weight of the lungs?
What is the vital capacity of the lungs in the male and in the female?
How many lobes do the lungs consist of?
What is the functional unit of the lungs?
What is the function of the lungs?
What is ventilation?
What two phases does ventilation consist of?
Exercise 7. Match the terms to their definitions
lung any of the three parts of the right lung or the two parts of the left lung
pleura any of the small thin-walled air-containing compartments of the lung
lobe a delicate membrane that encloses the lungs
respiration one of the breathing organs located within the chest 
alveolus the act or process of inhaling and exhaling
Exercise 8. Translate into English
Дихальна система, дихальні шляхи, дихальні м’язи, губчастий наповнений повітрям орган, бокові порожнини грудної клітки, вкритий плеврою, основа і верхівка легені, границі і поверхні легені, долі легені, життєвий об’єм легень, загальна поверхня капілярів, газообмін у легенях, забезпечувати киснем, видаляти вуглекислий газ, вдих і видих
Exercise 9. Translate into English using one/ones, that/those where it is necessary.
Верхні кінцівки коротші, ніж нижні.
Життєвий об’єм легень у чоловіків більший, ніж життєвий об’єм легень у жінок.
- Я можу взяти твою ручку? - Звичайно, чорну чи синю?
Права легеня більша і важча, ніж ліва.
Праве передсердя отримує бідну на кисень кров, а ліве – збагачену киснем кров.
Які предмети тобі більше подобаються, теоретичні чи практичні?
Exercise 10. Put questions to the underlined words
The lungs are separated from each other by the mediastinum.
The lungs provide the gas exchange in the human body.
The base of the lung is located on the convex surface of the diaphragm.
There are over 700,000,000 alveoli in the lungs.
The weight of the lungs varies according to many conditions.
That woman had a lung disease.
Leonardo da Vinci did not understand the relationship between form and function of the lungs.
Exercise 11. Open the brackets. Translate
The physician Alessandro Benedetti (to write) in 1497 that the lungs controlled emotions such as anger.
The air-filled sacs in the lungs (to call) alveoli.
The lungs (to be) internal organs that (to absorb) oxygen into the body and (to remove) carbon dioxide.
The lobes of the lungs (to divide) into segments.
Medical terms related to the lungs often (to begin) with pulmo-, or with pneumo-.
The respiratory system (to involve) in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
The clinical experiments on the lungs (to carry out) last month.
The lecture on lung anatomy (to deliver) last Monday.
Exercise 12. Tell about the lungs using the text and the following plan:
the organ of which body system;
location;
weight and vital capacity;
structure;
function
*Exercise 13. Read about yoga breathing technique to fall asleep fast. Then act out the
situation how you would instruct your client suffering from insomnia
Do you have trouble falling asleep at night? Do you wake up in the middle of the night and can’t get back to sleep? It’s actually possible to breathe yourself to sleep—in just 5 minutes or less.
The technique is drawn from pranayama, an ancient Indian practice that basically means “regulation of breath.”
So, sit comfortably, close our eyes, and do the following exercise:
Inhale through the nose for a count of 6
Hold for a count of 3
Exhale through the nose for a count of 6
Hold for a count of 3
Repeat this series 4 more times
Завдання для самостійної роботи студента
1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Дихальна система
Дихальні шляхи
Дихальні м’язи
Вкритий плеврою
Доля легені
Життєвий об’єм легень
Газообмін у легенях
Вдих і видих
Кисень і вуглекислий газ
2) Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
What are the major parts of the respiratory system?
Where are the lungs located?
How many lobes do the lungs consist of?
3) Поясніть термін
Легені
Дихання
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
absorption [əbˈzɔːpʃ(ə)n] всмоктування
accessory [æk’sesərɪ] додатковий, допоміжний
to aid ['eid] допомагати
alimentary [ˌælɪˈmentərɪ] травний
anus [ˈeɪnəs] анус
bile ['bail] жовч
breakdown [ˈbreɪkdaʊn] розпад
to convert [kən’vɜ:rt] перетворювати
digestion [di'ʤesʧǝn] травлення
digestive [dɪ’dʒestɪv] травний
enzyme [ˈenzaɪm] ензим, фермент
hydrochloric acid [ˌhaɪdrəˈklɒrɪk ’æsɪd] соляна кислота
large intestine ['la:ʤ in'testin] товстий кишечник
nutrient [ˈnjuːtrɪənt] поживна речовина
pharynx [ˈfærɪŋks] глотка
salivary gland [ˈsælɪvəri 'glænd] слина залоза
small intestine ['smɔ:l in'testin] тонкий кишечник
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly
Gastrointestinal [ˌɡæstrəʊɪnˈtestɪnəl], gastroenterology [͵gæstrəʋ͵entəʹrɒlədʒı], esophagus [iːˈsɒfəɡəs], tongue [tʌŋ], through [θruː], weight [weɪt], functioning [ˈfʌŋkʃ(ə)nɪŋ], digestion [dɪ’dʒestʃən]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
to convert food into energy, basic nutrients, the oral cavity, accessory organs of the digestive system, a muscular tube, located on the left side of the abdominal cavity, an average person, to contain hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes, the largest gland in the human body, the weight of the liver, to produce bile, the lower surface of the liver, a long thin gland, to turn food into the energy, breakdown of the food, extraction of nutrient from the food, removal of waste products
Grammar. Who/What/That
A psychologist is a highly qualified professional who studies behavior and mental processes.
Психолог – це висококваліфікований спеціаліст, який вивчає поведінку і психічні процеси.
Mechanical digestion is the process which refers to the physical breakdown of food.
Механічне травлення – це процес, який відноситься до фізичного розщеплення їжі.
* Who and sometimes that refer to people. That and which refer to groups or things.
Exercise 4. Translate into Ukrainian. Pay attention to the use of who/which/that
Psychology is a discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behavior.
I have a friend who can help you cope with depression.
Saliva contains the enzyme which starts digestion.
Nutrients are the components in foods that an organism utilizes to survive and grow.
He is the man who will be teaching the first-year students.
That is a book which I need for the class.
Exercise 5. Read the text. Be ready to describe the digestive system by the picture
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
15240-3810
The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients.
Food passes through a long tube inside the body known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract. The alimentary canal is made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
Accessory organs of the digestive system include the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
The mouth is the first part of the alimentary canal. It includes salivary glands, teeth, and the tongue.
The pharynx (throat) is a part both of the digestive system and the respiratory system.
The esophagus (oesophagus) is the organ which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach.
The stomach is a muscular sac located on the left side of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm. In an average person, the stomach is about the size of their two fists, so, it has a capacity of from 2.14 to 4.28 l (liters). The stomach contains hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes that continue the digestion of food that began in the mouth.
The small intestine is a long, thin tube about 6.5 meters long. The large intestine is a long, thick tube about 1.5 meters long.
The liver is the largest gland in the human body. It is located in the right upper part of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm. The weight of the liver is 1,500 g. The liver produces bile which aids digestion.
The gall bladder is a hollow sac lying on the lower surface of the liver.
The pancreas is a major organ functioning as an accessory digestive gland in the digestive system. It is a long thin gland lying behind the stomach.
The digestive system is constructed to perform its specialized function of turning food into the energy we need to survive.
The functions of the digestive system are:
Ingestion – eating food
Digestion – breakdown of the food
Absorption – extraction of nutrient from the food
Defecation – removal of waste products
During digestion two main processes occur at the same time:
mechanical digestion which refers to the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces.
chemical digestion when enzymes break down food into the small molecules which the body can use.
Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine focused on studying and treating digestive system disorders.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What is the function of the digestive system?
What does the alimentary canal consist of?
What are accessory organs of the digestive system?
What division does the alimentary canal begin with?
Which parts of the alimentary canal are located between the mouth and the stomach?
What substances does the stomach produce?
Where is the liver located?
What is the pancreas?
What is the specialized function of the digestive system?
How is the process of extraction of nutrient from the food called?
What is defecation?
What two kinds of digestion are there?
Exercise 7. Match the terms to their definitions
stomach the portion of the intestine that extends from the ileum to the anus
gall bladder the part of the digestive and respiratory tracts situated between the cavity of the mouth and the esophagus
small intestine a muscular sac attached to the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver in which bile is stored
large intestine a large, reddish-brown, glandular organ, located in the upper abdominal cavity and functioning in the secretion of bile
pharynx the most dilated part of the alimentary canal situated between the end of the esophagus and the beginning of the small intestine
liver a muscular tube that conveys food from the pharynx to the stomach 
esophagus the longest part of the alimentary canal in which digestion is completed
Exercise 8. What organs are the adjectives given below related to? Use any three adjectives
in sentences
Gastric -
Hepatic -
Muscular -
Pulmonary-
Dental-
Oral -
Glandular-
Cardiac-
Exercise 9. Translate into English
Травна система, травний тракт, основні поживні речовини, ротова порожнина і глотка, стравохід і шлунок, товстий і тонкий кишечник, допоміжні органи травної системи, слинні залози, печінка і підшлункова залоза, м’язова трубка, знаходитися під діафрагмою, виробляти соляну кислоту і ферменти, об’єм шлунка, виробляти жовч, сприяти травленню, розлади травної системи
Exercise 10. Complete the sentences with who or which
I met a woman … can speak six languages.
The liver produces bile … is important in fat digestion.
We listened to the lecture on psychoanalysis … is the method created by Sigmund Freud.
Do you know anybody … took the course of clinical psychology?
Hippocrates is a famous ancient physician … is considered the father of western medicine.
I love books … have happy endings.
Exercise 11. Put questions to the underlined words
The stomach is located on the left side of the abdominal cavity.
Claudius Galen (130-200) thought that that stomach acted independently from other systems in the body.
Physicians treating digestive systems disorders are called gastroenterologists.
The gastrointestinal tract includes all structures between the mouth and the anus.
Bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract help with digestion.
To investigate gastrointestinal disorders a physician may use endoscopy.
The pancreas makes insulin.
The weight of the liver is 1,500 g.
Exercise 12. Open the brackets. Translate
The salivary glands (to produce) a watery secretion known as saliva.
In 1780, Italian physician Lazzaro Spallanzani (to conduct) experiments with gastric juice.
Most of the oral cavity (to line) with oral mucosa.
When you (to begin) to eat, the production of saliva will increase.
The tongue (to serve) as the organ of taste.
Tomorrow, the investigations of gastric bacteria (to carry out).
Teeth (to make up) of a bone-like material.
Vitamin K (to produce) by bacteria in the intestines.
Exercise 13. Fill in the table. Describe the organs of the digestive system by the table
organ location common information(weight, length, volume etc) structure
stomach small intestine large intestine liver pancreas Завдання для самостійної роботи студента
1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Травна система
Травний тракт
Ротова порожнина
Глотка і стравохід
Тонкий і товстий кишечник
Механічне і хімічне травлення
2) Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
1) What does the alimentary canal consist of?
2) What substances does the stomach produce?
3) What are accessory organs of the digestive system?
3) Поясніть термінТравний тракт
Травлення
12. ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Exocrine [ʹeksəkraın]- екзокринний (зовнішньо-секреторний)
Sweat[swet]- піт
Duct[dʌkt]- проток
Homeostasis[͵hɒmıəʋʹsteısıs] - гомеостаз
Hypothalamus[ˌhaɪpəˈθæləməs]- гіпоталамус
Pineal gland [ˈpɪnɪəl …]- шишкоподібна залоза
Pituitary gland [ pɪˈtju:ɪtərɪ …]- гіпофіз
Thyroid [ʹθaırɔıd]- щитовидна залоза
Parathyroid- прищитовидна залоза
Thymus [ʹθaıməs] - тимус
Adrenal [əʹdri:n(ə)l]- надниркова залоза
Ovaries [ ˈəuvərɪz] - яєчники
Testes[ʹtesti:z] - яєчка
The overall well-being - загальне самопочуття
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly
Endocrine [‘endəkraɪn], hormone [‘hɔ:məʋn], growth [grəʋθ], metabolism [meˈtæbəlɪzm], reproduction [ˌri:prəˈdʌkʃən], stimuli [ˈstɪmjulaɪ], hypophysis [haıʹpɒfısıs], bloodstream [ˈblʌdstriːm], through [θruː]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
directly into the blood, to regulate certain internal processes, sweat and salivary glands, to control growth and development, the internal balance of body systems, body energy levels, response to stimuli, the network of glands, to secrete hormones, to transmit information, to deliver hormones to cells, the chemicals of the endocrine systemto influence other organs in the body, the overall well-being of a person
Grammar. Adjectives and Adverbs
Professor N. delivered a lecture on the internal organs.
what (organs)?
Професор Н. прочитав лекцію про внутрішні органи.
які (органи)?
Endocrine glands secrete hormones internally, using the bloodstream.
how?
Ендокринні залози виділяють гормони внутрішньо, через кровоток.
як?
* In most cases, an adverb is formed by adding -ly to an adjective
**Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective: early, fast, hard, late, near, straight, & wrong
***Remember: adverbs hard-hardly (наполегливо, важко – ледве, навряд) and late-lately (пізно – недавно) have different meanings
Exercise 4. Translate. Pay attention to the use of adjectives and adverbs
Endocrine glands secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood. 
Direct sunlight may cause eye discomfort.
Sweat and salivary glands secrete externally and internally via ducts.
This medication is for external use only.
Hormones help your body function properly.
Proper diet prevents many gastrointestinal problems.
Exercise 5. Read the text. Translate. Tell about location of the endocrine glands using the
pictureENDOCRINE GLANDS
152403810
Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood to help your body function properly.  
The endocrine system works to regulate certain internal processes. Note: endocrine shouldn’t be confused with exocrine. Exocrine glands, such as sweat and salivary glands, secrete externally and internally via ducts. Endocrine glands secrete hormones internally, using the bloodstream.
The endocrine system helps control the following processes and systems:
growth and development
homeostasis (the internal balance of body systems)
metabolism (body energy levels)
reproduction
response to stimuli (stress and/or injury)  
The endocrine system completes these tasks through its network of glands, which are small but highly important organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones. 
The glands of the endocrine system are hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland (hypophysis), thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, testes .
These glands produce different types of hormones. Hormones are molecules released by a group of cells in the body that influence the behavior of another group of cells. Hormones are the chemicals of the endocrine system. In response to a signal from the brain, hormones are secreted directly into the blood by the endocrine glands.
Like the nervous system, the endocrine system is one of your body’s main communicators. But instead of using nerves to transmit information, the endocrine system uses blood vessels to deliver hormones to cells.
The pituitary gland is often referred to as the "master gland”. It greatly influences other organs in the body, and its function is vital to the overall well-being of a person. 
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What do endocrine glands produce?
What does endocrine mean?
What are the functions of the endocrine system?
What glands compose the endocrine system?
What are hormones?
How are hormones delivered to the cells?
What gland is considered the chief endocrine gland?
Exercise 7. Match the words to their definitions
pineal glanda large elongated glandular organ, situated behind the stomach, 
that secretes  insulin
pituitary glandthe female gonad, one of a pair of reproductive glands in women
thyroida small gland that is located near the center of the brain
adrenals a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain and produces hormones which control other glands
pancreasa gland located in the lower part of the neck
ovary the male sex gland
testis  a small gland located on top of the kidney
Exercise 8. Translate into English
Ендокринні залози, виділяти гормони безпосередньо в кров, контролювати ріст і розвиток, контролювати гомеостаз і обмін речовин, гіпоталамус і шишкоподібна залоза, гіпофіз і щитовидна залоза, надниркові залози, доставляти гормони до клітин, загальне самопочуття людини, виділятися безпосередньо у кров
Exercise 9. Put questions to the underlined words
Endocrine glands produce different types of hormones.
The pituitary gland is actually made of 2 completely separate structures.
Many blood vessels surround the pituitary gland to carry the hormones it releases throughout the body.
The thyroid gland is located at the base of the neck.
The gonads – ovaries in females and testes in males – are responsible for producing the sex hormones of the body.
The earliest study of endocrinology began in China.
Insulin – the hormone produced in the pancreas – was discovered in 1922.
The branch of medicine that studies endocrine glands and hormones is called endocrinology.
Exercise 10. Open the brackets. Translate
An endocrinologist is a physician who (to specialize) in treating disorders of the endocrine system.
The ovaries of the female (to locate) in the pelvic cavity.
The Ancient Chinese (to isolate) sex and pituitary hormones from human urine and (to use) them for medicinal purposes.
Endocrine glands (to activate) to release their hormones by humoral, neural, or hormonal stimuli.
The endocrine system (to include) nine glands and over 100 hormones of the body.
One hormone may (to have) several effects on different organs.
The term “hormone”, from the Greek hormao –“to excite”, (to enter) the English lexicon in 1905.
A disease due to a disorder of the endocrine system often (to call) a “hormonal imbalance”.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студента
1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Ендокринні залози
Виділяти гормони безпосередньо у кров
Гіпофіз і щитовидна залоза
Контролювати обмін речовин
Контролювати ріст і розвиток
2) Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
What does the endocrine system consist of?
What do endocrine glands produce?
What are the functions of the endocrine system?
How are hormones delivered to the cells?
3) Поясніть термін
Ендокринна система
Ендокринні залози
Гормони
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. THE BRAIN
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Communication [kǝˏmju:ni'keiʃn] зв’язки
Decision [di'siʒn] рішення
Delicate ['delikit] тонкий (хрупкий, непрочный)
To evaluate [i'væljueit] оцінювати, визначати
Fiber ['faibǝ] волокно
Highways ['haiweiz] магістраль, шлях
Matter ['mætǝ] речовина (матерія, предмет)
Neuron ['njuǝrɒn] нейрон
Processing ['prǝʋsesiŋ] обробка
Sensory organs ['sensǝri 'ɔ:gǝnz] органи чуття
Smooth ['smu:ð] гладкий, гладенький
Wrinkled ['riŋkǝld] складчастий (*wrinkle – зморшка)
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly. Translate without a dictionary
Peripheral [pəʹrıf(ə)rəl], nerve [nɜːv], nervous [ˈnɜːvəs], receptor [rɪˈseptə], integration [ˌɪntɪˈɡreɪʃən], signal [ˈsɪɡn(ə)l], motor [ˈməʊtə]
Exercise 3. Read the following word-combinations, translate them and pay attention to the
possible use of keywords
Nervous: the nervous system, nervous stimulation, nervous impulses, nervous activities, nervous laughter, central nervous system depressants;
Sensory: sensory organs, sensory receptors, sensory nerves, sensory neurons, sensory stimulation, sensory function;
Matter : the white matter of the brain, the grey matter of the brain; subject matter, spirit, and matter, no matter
Exercise 4. Translate into Ukrainian
spinal cord, responsible for the control of the body, the central nervous system, the sensory nerves, to monitor conditions inside and outside of the body, inside the cranial cavity, the vertebral cavity of the spine, the white and grey matter, the wrinkled outer surface, the largest part of the brain, the cerebral cortex collecting information from sensory receptors
Grammar. Present Perfect
They have just finished their experiments.
Вони щойно закінчили свої досліди.
He has lost his dictionary.
Він загубив свій словник.
*Прислівники just, already, yet, а також ever, never у значенні неконкретного минулого, а також recently, in the last few days (weeks, years…), since часто використовуються у часі Present Perfect (теперішній доконаний)
Exercise 5. Translate. Pay attention to the use of the Present Perfect
He has just arrived. He was at the conference.
Have you ever spoken to practical psychologists? No, I haven’t.
I haven’t seen the professor since Monday.
Have you read “Interpretation of Dreams”? Yes, I have.
I’ve met a lot of interesting people in the last few days.
Professor N has already delivered a lecture on sensitive receptors.
Philosophers, physiologists, psychologists have discussed the brain and its functions since the ancient times.
Exercise 6. Read the text. Write out the keywords and word-combinations
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs to the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts.
The brain and the spinal cord form the control center known as the central nervous system (CNS), where information is evaluated and decisions made.
The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) monitor conditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the CNS.
The brain, a soft, wrinkled organ, is located inside the cranial cavity. The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body. Its weight is about 1.5 kg.
The brain's nerve cells are known as neurons, which make up the organ's so-called "gray matter". The neurons transmit and gather electrochemical signals that are communicated via a network of millions of nerves. These are the brain's "white matter."
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, accounting for 85 percent of the organ's weight. The distinctive, deeply wrinkled outer surface is the cerebral cortex, which consists of gray matter. Beneath this the white matter lies. The cerebrum has two halves, or hemispheres. Experimental studies have determined that the motor cortex controlling many body movements becomes tired rapidly.
The approximately 100 billion neurons of the brain form the main control center of the body. Scientists have determined that each cell is connected to the other by nerve fibers. Numerous investigations have shown that nervous cells are the most delicate cells of the human body.
The spinal cord is a long, thin mass of neurons that carries information through the vertebral cavity of the spine. The spinal cord contains the white and grey matter.
Nerves act as information highways to carry signals between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body.
The nervous system has 3 main functions: sensory, integration, and motorю
Exercise 7. Answer the questions
What parts is the nervous system composed of?
What does the abbreviation CNS mean?
What organs does CNS consist of?
Which part of the nervous system do the sensory nerves and sense organs compose?
How are the nervous cells called?
How is the largest part of the brain called?
What does the cerebral cortex consist of?
What is the spinal cord?
What is the function of the nerves?
What are the functions of the nervous system?
Exercise 8. Match the words to their definitions
brain a) a bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory and motor information from one body part to another
spinal cord b) specialized neurons or nerve endings that respond to changes in the environment
neuron c) the major column of nerve tissue that lies within the vertebral canal 
nerve d) the portion of the central nervous system  that is located within the skull. It functions as a primary receiver, organizer, and distributor of information for the body.
sensory receptor e) a nerve cell that receives and sends electrical signals over long distances within the body
Exercise 9. What organs and parts of the body do the adjectives below refer to? Make up
sentences with them on your own
Model: cardiac – heart. The heart pumps blood through the vessels.
Cranial –
Spinal –
Vertebral –
Cervical –
Thoracic –
Nervous –
Facial –
Costal –
Oral –
Vascular –
Exercise 10. Translate into English
Головний та спинний мозок, центральна нервова система, периферична нервова система, органи чуття, нервова клітина, чутливі рецептори, знаходитися всередині черепної порожнини, сіра і біла речовина головного та спинного мозку, глибоко складчаста зовнішня поверхня, найбільша частина мозку, великий мозок і мозочок, півкулі головного мозку, шляхи інформації між мозком та рештою організму
Exercise 11. Put questions to the underlined words
Neurons communicate within the body by transmitting electrochemical signals.
Vital functions are controlled by the brain.
Movement of the body is due to nerve stimuli.
The spinal cord is enclosed in the vertebral column.
There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves.
The peripheral nervous system includes all of the parts of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord.
Galen saw the spinal cord as an extension of the brain.
The term ‘neurology’ was coined in 1681.
Numerous investigations have shown that nervous cells are the most delicate cells of the human body.
Exercise 12. Open the brackets. Translate
The Greek philosopher Aristotle (to believe) that the nerves were controlled by the heart.
The central nervous system (to include) the brain and the spinal cord.
The Roman physician Galen (to contradict) Aristotle and (to conclude) that the brain was the most important organ of the body.
Recently the scientists (to find) that the nervous cells can restore.
The peripheral nervous system (to make up) of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
I think we (to finish) our experiments with sensory receptors next week.
If they (to come) tomorrow I’ll explain them the principles of the nervous activities.
He just (to phone) his psychotherapist.
*Exercise 13. Read about some interesting fact about the human brain. Do you know any other amazing facts about the brain?
1. The human brain feels no pain because it doesn’t have pain receptors.
2. The human brain consumes 20% of the total energy that is generated in the human body.
3. The energy consumed by the brain which is approximately 25 watts is sufficient enough to illuminate a light bulb.
4. The human brain is the fattest organ in the human body. About 60 % of the human brain is made of fat.
5. Actually, your brain is more active when you are asleep.
6. A big brain doesn’t make you smarter.
7. You could survive only having one side of your brain.
8. Every day, you have about 70,000 thoughts.
Exercise 14. Tell about the human brain by the plan:
The system it is a part of;
Location;
Weight;
Structure;
Functions
Завдання для самостійної роботи студента
1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Головний і спинний мозок
Сіра і біла речовина головного мозку
Півкулі головного мозку
Чутливі рецептори
Реагувати на подразники
Органи чуття
2) Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
1) What parts is the nervous system composed of?
2) What organs does CNS consist of?
3) How are the nervous cells called?
4) What is the spinal cord?
5) What is the function of the nerves?
3) Поясніть термін
Нервова система
Центральна нервова система
Головний мозок
14. CONDITIONED AND UNCONDITIONED REFLEXES
УМОВНІ ТА БЕЗУМОВНІ РЕФЛЕКСИ
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Blinking ['bliŋkiŋ] моргання
Conditioned [kǝn'diʃnd] умовний
To elicit [i'lisit] викликати
To extinguish [ik'stiŋgwiʃ] пригасити
Inborn [ˏin'bɔ:n] вроджений
Lacrimal ['lækrimǝl] слізний
Pupil ['pjʋ:pil] зіниця
Pupillary ['pju:pilǝri] зіничний
Salivation [ˏsæli'veiʃn] слиновиділення
Scratching ['skræʧiŋ] чухання
Sneezing ['sni:ziŋ] чхання
Subcortical nuclei [ˏsʌb'kɔ:tikǝl 'nju:kliai] підкіркові ядра (мозку)
Sucking ['sʌkiŋ] смоктання
Swallowing ['swɒlǝuiŋ] ковтання
Yawning ['jɔ:niŋ] позіхання
Exercise 2. Make up the words with the meaning opposite to the given ones by the model.
Translate. Use any three of them in sentences
Model. Known – unknown (відомий – невідомий)
Hippocrates is known as a father of medicine.
The causes of many mental disorders are unknown.
Conditioned, learned, trained, experienced, stable, clear, conscious, believable, pleasant, favourable, employed
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
A response to a stimulus, to occur naturally, dependent on previous experience, to become smaller, greater intensity light, to irritate the eye, to stimulate the lacrimal glands, the foundation for the nervous activity, to learn through training, a response to a specific situation, lower divisions of the higher nervous system, a function of the cerebral cortex, the theory of how organisms learn, in the mid-20th century
Exercise 4. Read the text. Write out the key words and word-combinations
REFLEXES
A reflex is an automatic response to a stimulus.
All reflexes are divided into unconditioned and conditioned ones.
An unconditioned reflex is a normal, instinctive, unlearned reaction to a stimulus that occurs naturally and is not dependent on previous experience. Unconditioned reflexes are also called inborn reflexes.
Unconditioned reflexes serve as the foundation for the rest of the nervous activity of the organism.
There are a lot of unconditioned (unlearned) reflexes. The simplest ones include swallowing, salivation, blinking, scratching, sucking (in infants), sneezing, yawning, and others.
Probably the best-known reflex is the pupillary reflex. If light is flashed near one eye, the pupils of both eyes contract. Greater intensity light causes the pupil to become smaller, whereas lower intensity light causes the pupil to become larger.
Another reflex involving the eye is known as the lacrimal reflex. When something irritates the eye, the lacrimal reflex causes nerve impulses to stimulate the lacrimal glands.
A conditioned reflex is some action or feeling that you learn to do in response to a specific situation or stimulus. It is an automatic reaction learned through training to a stimulus that does not normally elicit such response. In Pavlov’s classic experiment, dogs learned to associate the sound of a ringing bell with feeding time so that they salivated at the sound of the bell, regardless of whether or not food was given to them. Conditioned reflexes are also called acquired reflexes, behavior reflexes, or trained reflexes.
Unlike conditioned reflexes, the unconditioned reflexes are mostly stable. The conditioned reflexes are not only unstable but can be modified and extinguished.
A leading role in the performance of unconditioned reflexes is played by the lower divisions of the higher nervous system, the subcortical nuclei, brain stem, and spinal cord. Conditioned reflexes, in contrast, are a function of the cerebral cortex.
The investigation of conditioned reflexes became the basis for the theory of how organisms learn. Learning theory grew into the foundation of Behaviourism, a school of physiology that had great societal influence in the mid-20th century.
Exercise 5. Answer the questions
What is a reflex?
Which group of reflexes doesn’t depend on previous experience?
What is the role of unconditioned reflexes in the human organism?
How does the pupillary light reflex control the diameter of the pupil?
What kind of automatic reaction is a conditioned reflex?
Which reflexes are more stable?
Which reflexes are regulated by the cerebral cortex?
Exercise 6. Say for which reflexes the following statements are true
Model: they are also called acquired reflexes – conditioned reflexes
they are learned through training;
they are also called inborn reflexes;
they are not dependent on previous experience;
they are a function of the cerebral cortex;
the foundation for the rest of the nervous activity of the body;
they are also called behavior reflexes;
they can be modified;
they are unstable;
they are a function of the subcortical nuclei, brain stem, and spinal cord;
they are unlearned reactions
Exercise 7. Match the names of unconditioned responses to their definitions
Swallowing a) the common motor response to itching
Salivation b) a reflex act of a sudden violent spasmodic expiration of breath through the nose and mouth following irritation of the nasal mucous membrane
Blinking c) the process that usually involves the movement of food from the mouth to the stomach via the esophagus
Scratching d) secretion or production of saliva
Sucking e) an involuntary act, or reflex action, usually associated with drowsiness or boredom when the mouth is opened wide and a slow, deep breath is taken through it
Sneezing f) movements of an infant's lips elicited by touching them or the adjacent skin
Yawning g) a reflex that closes and opens the eyes rapidly
Exercise 8. Translate into English
Умовні і безумовні рефлекси, вроджені і набуті рефлекси, реакція на подразник, не залежний від попереднього досвіду, ковтання і слиновиділення, чхання і позіхання, зіничний рефлекс, примусити зіниці звужуватись, подразнювати око, слізний рефлекс, сльозова залоза, навчений шляхом тренування, поведінкові рефлекси, стійкі і нестійкі рефлекси, функція кори головного мозку
Exercise 9. Fill in the gaps with proper prepositions where it is necessary
In 1870, I.Pavlov entered … the university in St.Petersburg.
In his investigations I.Pavlov focused … the functioning of the digestive system.
Pavlov was … the fourth year when he did his first research project.
Pavlov’s dogs learned to associate the sound of the bell …feeding time.
A conditioned reflex is some action that you learn to do in response … a specific situation or stimulus.
Pavlov got the Nobel Prize … Physiology and Medicine.
Pavlov performed his experiments mostly … dogs.
Pavlov extended his experiments … children.
Exercise 10. Put questions to the underlined words
Studying reflexes is often used to assess the health of the nervous system.
The word “reflex” was introduced into Biology by a 19th-centure English neurologist, Marshall Hall.
A pupillary light reflex controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity of light.
Disease or damage may result in absence of the reflex.
Conditioned reflexes are also called acquired reflexes.
Lower intensity light causes the pupil to become larger.
Newborn babies have reflexes which are not seen in adults.
Physiologists have investigated human and animal reflexes for the few last centuries.
Sneezing cannot occur during sleep.
Exercise 11. Open the brackets. Translate
Marshall Hall (to introduce) the term “reflex” in the 19th century.
The pupillary reflex (to associate) with the pupils’ function.
The ancient Greeks (to believe) that sneezing was a sign from the gods.
The neural regions involved in the sneeze reflex (to locate) in the brain stem.
In English-speaking countries, the common verbal response to another person’s sneeze (to be) “(God) bless you”.
In Renaissance times people (to think) that one’s heart stopped for a moment during the sneeze.
In the last few decades scientists (to propose) approximately 20 physiological reasons for yawning.
Exercise 12. Fill in the table. Tell about conditioned and unconditioned reflexes by the table
REFLEXES Other names Biological basis (a part of the nervous system they are controlled by) Dependence on the previous experience Features (stable/unstable, changeable/unchangeable)
Unconditioned
Conditioned
Завдання для самостійної роботи студента
1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
умовні і безумовні рефлекси
вроджені і набуті рефлекси
стійкі і нестійкі рефлекси
не залежний від попереднього досвіду
зіничний рефлекс
ковтання і слиновиділення
чхання і позіхання
2) Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
What is a reflex?
What is the role of unconditioned reflexes in the human organism?
What kind of automatic reaction is a conditioned reflex?
Which reflexes are more stable?
3) Поясніть термін
рефлексиумовні рефлекси
безумовні рефлекси
15. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Sensation [senʹseıʃ(ə)n]- відчуття
Perception [ pəʹsepʃ(ə)n ]- сприйняття
Consciously[ˈkɒn(t)ʃəslɪ]- свідомо
Property [ˈprɒpətɪ]- властивість
To represent[‚reprɪ’zent]- представляти
Expectation[͵ekspekʹteıʃ(ə)n]- сподівання
Namely- а саме
Goal- мета
Wrong- хибний, помилковий
Gestalt psychology [ɡəˈʃtɑːlt …] - гештальтпсихологія
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly. Translate without dictionary
Stage [steɪdʒ], biochemical [͵baıəʋʹkemık(ə)l], identification [aıdentıfıʹkeıʃ(ə)n], interpretation [ın͵tɜ:prıʹteıʃ(ə)n], mmemory [’memərɪ], occasion [əˈkeɪʒ(ə)n], illusion [ıʹlu:ʒ(ə)n], hallucination [hə͵lu:sıʹneıʃ(ə)n], false [fɔ:ls]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
The passive process of bringing information, the receptor cells of a sensory organ, the elementary properties of a stimulus, interpretation of sensory information, to represent and understand the environment, to create useful information of the surroundings, a higher brain function, to be transformed into neural signals, the errors of perception, a wrong perception, a false perception
Grammar. Modal verbs and their substitutes
We must learn to control our mood and behavior.
MUST We have to learn to control our mood and behavior.
= TO HAVE TO
Ми повинні (маємо) навчитися контролювати наш настрій і поведінку.
We may translate the text with a dictionary
MAY We are allowed to translate the text with a dictionary
= TO BE ALLOWED TO
Ми можемо (нам дозволили) перекладати текст зі словником.
Dogs can perceive smells much better than people do.
CAN Dogs are able to perceive smells much better than people do.
= TO BE ABLE TO
Собаки можуть (здатні) сприймати запахи набагато краще, ніж люди.
*Modal verbs’ substitutes can be used in the Present, Past, and Future Tenses
Exercise 4. Translate. Pay attention to the use of modal verbs and their substitutes
Extrasensory perception can be found in animals.
All students have to attend their classes regularly.
You may stay here only for a week.
Elephants are able to detect vibrations through the ground for up to 50 km.
Great White Sharks can smell one drop of blood in a volume of water equivalent to an Olympic-size Swimming Pool.
Mary had to go to the dean’s office yesterday.
You will be allowed to smoke here.
Exercise 5. Read the text. Write out the keywords related to sensation and perception in
two groups
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
In psychology, sensation and perception are stages of processing of the senses in human and animal systems.
Sensations can be defined as the passive process of bringing information from the outside world into the body and to the brain. The process is passive in the sense that we do not have to be consciously involved in a "sensing" process.
Sensation is the function of the low-level biochemical and neurological  events that begin with a stimulus upon the receptor cells of a sensory organ. It is the detection of the elementary properties of a stimulus.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio, percipio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment.
All perception involves signals in the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sense organs. Perception is not the passive receiving of these signals but is shaped by learning, memory, expectation, and attention. The goal of sensation is to detect, the goal of perception is to create useful information about the surroundings.
In other words, sensations are the first stages in the functioning of senses to represent stimuli from the environment, and perception is a higher brain function about interpreting events and objects in the world. Stimuli from the environment are transformed into neural signals, which are then interpreted by the brain.
It is quite possible that the same object may be perceived differently by different people or by the same person on different occasions. There are two errors of perception namely illusion and hallucination.
A wrong perception is called illusion. In illusion, we take a wrong meaning of the stimulus present before us. A false perception is called hallucination. In hallucination a person begins to perceive something in spite of the absence of any external stimulus.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What stages of processing of the senses do you know?
What kind of process is sensation?
What is perception?
What are the goals of sensation and perception?
What two kinds of perception errors are there?
What is hallucination?
Exercise 7. Choose the pairs of words with the opposite meaning from those given below
False, passive, first, internal, active, absent, higher, wrong, true, low, (the) same, last, external, different, right, present
Exercise 8. Tell for which of the two processes – sensation or perception - the following
statements are true
Model: the passive process – sensation
the low-level biochemical and neurological function;
creating useful information of the surroundings;
a higher brain function;
bringing information from the outside world;
first stages in the functioning of senses;
interpretation of sensory information;
detecting information of the surroundings
Exercise 9. Translate into English
Відчуття і сприйняття, пасивний процес доставки інформації, функція нижнього біохімічного рівня, клітини-рецептори органів чуття, інтерпретація чуттєвої інформації, формуватися навчанням і пам’яттю, створювати корисну інформацію про оточення, вища функція мозку, трансформуватися в нервові сигнали, помилки сприйняття, хибне сприйняття
Exercise 10. Write the following sentences in the Past replacing the modal verbs by their
substitutesI may go out.
Students in class must focus on what the teachers are saying.
The patient may walk after procedures.
Dogs can understand human emotions.
He must get up early to make an appointment with his psychologist.
People actually can see color and dogs can’t.
Exercise 11. Put up questions to the underlined words
Perception is shaped by learning, memory, expectation, and attention. 
Perception depends on complex functions of the nervous system.
Since 19th century psychology’s understanding of perception has progressed.
There are two errors of perception.
Many types of sense loss occur due to a dysfunctional sensation process.
Psychologist Jerome Bruner has developed a model of perception. 
We sense a lot of information.
Experimental psychology began with the study of sensation and perception.
Exercise 12. Open the brackets. Translate
Perception (to be) the process of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli.
In the mid-nineteenth century a number of German scientists (to perform) the first systemic studies of sensation and perception.
The process of perception (to begin) with an object in the real world.
In 1879, the first laboratory of psychology (to establish) by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, Germany.
We already (to finish) listening to the lecture on sensory perception.
Gestalt psychology (to try) to understand the laws of our ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic world. 
The concept of gestalt first (to introduce) in philosophy and psychology in 1890.
Exercise 13. Fill in the table. Tell about sensation and perception by the table
active or passive brain function (low-level or higher ) How it is performed
(unconsciously or by learning, memory, expectation, and attention goal
sensation perception Завдання для самостійної роботи студента
1) Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Відчуття і сприйняття
пасивний процес доставки інформації
інтерпретація чуттєвої інформації
помилки сприйняття
хибне сприйняття
2) Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
What kind of process is sensation?
What is perception?
What are the goals of sensation and perception?
What two kinds of perception errors are there?
3) Поясніть термін
Відчуття
Сприйняття
SENSORY SYSTEM AND FORMS OF SENSORY PERCEPTION
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Pathway [ˈpɑːθweɪ]- шлях
Somatic- соматичний (тілесний)
Gustation [ɡʌˈsteɪʃən]- проба на смак (дегустація)
Olfaction [ɒlˈfækʃ(ə)n] - нюх
Loudness [ˈlaʊdnəs]- гучність
Brightness [ˈbraɪtnəs]- яскравість
Haptic- тактильний
Warmth [wɔːmθ]- теплота
To warn [wɔːn]- попереджувати
Posture [ˈpɒstʃə]- осанка
Kinesthesia [kin.əsˈθiː.zi.ə ]- кінестезія (м’язове відчуття)
Blindness [ˈblaɪndnɪs]- сліпота
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly. Translate without dictionary
Intensity [ɪn’tensətɪ], vestibular [vɛˈstɪbjʊlə], distance [ʹdıst(ə)ns], vibration [vaıʹbreıʃ(ə)n], coordinated [ˌkəʊˈɔːdɪneɪtɪd], actually [’æktʃʋəlɪ, ’ækʃəlɪ], molecule [ʹmɒlıkju:l], tactile [ˈtæktaɪl]
Exercise 3. Make up nouns from the given adjectives by the model. Translate. Use any
three of them in sentences
Model. Blind – blindness (сліпий – сліпота)
Loud, bright, cold, kind, nervous, ill, hopeful, full, deaf, dark, sleepless, restless
Exercise 4. Translate into Ukrainian
responsible for processing sensory information, a sensory experience, the relationship between physical stimuli and sensory experience, to have five senses, the ability to perceive sound, to depend on vibration of the air, sound waves, sensitive to chemical molecules, to be situated in the nasal passages, to be located on the tongue, to recognize object through touch, a warning system for your body, to prevent damage to your organism, the body sense of balance, to maintain posture and balance
Exercise 5. Read the text. Translate. Make the plan of the text
SENSORY SYSTEM AND FORMS OF SENSORY PERCEPTION
A sensory system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. Commonly recognized sensory systems are those for vision, hearing, somatic sensation (touch), taste (gustation), and olfaction (smell).
The world is filled with physical changes which result in sensation – of loudness, brightness, pain, heat, tastes, smells, and so on. Any aspect of the environment to which an organism responds is called a stimulus.
A stimulus can be measured in some physical way – by its size, its duration, its intensity, its wavelength, etc. A sensory experience is what and how we feel. Psychologists are interested in the relationship between physical stimuli and sensory experience.
Although people are thought to have five senses, there are actually more. In addition to vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch, there are several skin senses and two ‘internal” senses: vestibular and kinesthetic.
Vision is the most studied of all the senses. Vision provides a great deal of information about one’s environment and the objects in it, the sizes, shapes, and location of things, their materials, colors, and distances.
Hearing (or audition) as the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibration. Hearing depends on the vibration of the air, called sound waves.
Smell and taste are known as the chemical senses because their receptors are sensitive to chemical molecules. Smell receptors are situated in the nasal passages. Taste receptors are located on the tongue.
Haptic perception is the process of recognizing object through touch. At any touch of the skin receptors in it provide the brain with at least four kinds of information about the environment: pressure, warmth, cold, and pain. These sensations act as a warning system for your body. They make it possible for you to prevent damage to your organism.
The body sense of balance is regulated by the vestibular system inside the inner ear.
Vestibular senses are closely connected with kinesthesia, the sense of movement and body position. It helps to maintain posture and balance. Without kinesthetic sensation your movement would be uncoordinated and complex physical activities, such as piano playing would be impossible.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What are the parts of a sensory system?
What main sensory systems are there?
How can stimuli be measured?
What five senses are traditionally recognized?
What kind of sensory information does vision provide?
How do people perceive sounds?
Which senses are known as the chemical senses?
What kinds of information can we perceive through touch?
Exercise 7. Find out the pairs of synonyms
smell ache
sight haptics
hearing vision
taste olfaction
touch gustation
pain audition
Exercise 8. Fill in the table. Compare the role of different kinds of sensory perception in
knowledge gaining
Type of sensory perception Sense organ Senses Knowledge gaining
Visual eye vision 83%
Auditory 11%
Olfactory 3.5%
Taste 1.0%
Tactile (haptic) 1.5%
Exercise 9. Translate into English
Обробка чуттєвої інформації, нервові шляхи, зір і слух, смак і нюх, гучність і яскравість, вимірюватися певним фізичним способом, зв’язок між фізичними подразниками і чуттєвим досвідом, здатність сприймати звуки, залежати від вібрації повітря, чутливий до хімічних молекул, тактильне сприйняття і дотик, запобігти пошкодженню, відчуття руху, підтримувати осанку і баланс
Exercise 10. Put questions to the underlined words
Haptic perception is the ability to recognize object through touch.
A stimulus can be measured by its size, its duration, its intensity, its wavelength.
The brain receives information from the senses.
Stimuli from the environment are transformed into neural signals.
Aristotle postulated that the two most basic tastes were sweet and bitter.
People have five commonly recognized senses.
The vibration of the air is called sound waves.
Animals may possess senses that are absent in humans.
Exercise 11. Open the brackets. Translate
The human visual system (to involve) communication between the eye and the brain.
In 2010, researchers (to find) bitter taste receptors in lung tissue.
A hearing test (to perform) by an audiometer.
Many types of sense loss (to occur) due to ineffective receptors, nerve damage or cerebral impairment.
Tomorrow I (to check up) my vision.
The inability to see (to call) blindness.
The traditional “five senses” model - sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste – (to create) by Aristotle.
Exercise 12. Tell about the forms of sensory perception using the text and your plan
Завдання для самостійної роботи студента
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Обробка чуттєвої інформації
зір і слух
смак і нюх
чуттєвий досвід
тактильне сприйняття і дотик
здатність сприймати звуки
Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
What main sensory systems are there?
What five senses are traditionally recognized?
What kind of sensory information does vision provide?
How do people perceive sounds?
Which senses are known as the chemical senses?
Поясніть термін
Форми чуттєвого сприйняття
17. COGNITIVE PROCESSES
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
cognition- пізнання
storage  ['stɔ:rɪdʒ]- зберігання, накопичення
decision [ dɪˈsɪʒən ]- рішення
input- ввід (інформація на вході)
processing- обробка (інформації)
output- вихід
ability- здатність, властивість
feature  ['fi:tʃər]- характерна ознака
extraction- виділення
to file- подати
to distinguish[dɪ'stɪŋgwɪʃ]- розрізняти
instant- мить
to retrieve  [rɪ'tri:v]- поновити (восстановить, извлечь)
attempt- спроба, намагання
imagery [ʹımıdʒ(ə)rı]- образність
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly. Make up word-combinations with the words in bold type
conscious ['kɔn∫əs], language [’læŋgwɪdʒ], behavior [bɪ’heɪvjə(r)], perhaps [pər'hæps], unless [ʌn'les], previous [’pri:vɪəs], experience  [ɪk'spɪərɪəns], thought [Ɵɔ:t] 
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
to use knowledge, attention and memory, to understand language, to solve problems, to make decisions, human behaviour, information processing, the ability to choose, the selected information, storage of inputs, to register information, the act of remembering, short-term memory, long-term memory, useless information, to create new information with thinking, previous experience, systematic and logical thinking, free flow of thoughts through the mind
Exercise 4. A) Translate. Pay attention to the sentences in Passive
The process by which a person can selectively pick out one message from a mixture of messages is called selective attention.
The continuing storage of information is termed long-time memory.
All selected information is registered in the brain.
Cognitive processes are studied by philosophy, psychology, sociology.
The stored information can be retrieved from memory whenever it is needed.
B) Change sentences into Passive
1) Our brain stores a lot of information.
2) Poisons or medications can cause temporary or permanent blindness.
3) In the brain, the olfactory system processes olfaction (smell).
4) Brain injuries can disturb the brain activity.
5) Scientists study the relationships between attention and consciousness.
6) The vestibular nerve conducts information from sensory receptors.
Exercise 5. Read the text. Be ready to retell it briefly
Cognitive processes
Cognitive processes, or cognition, are processes that involve knowledge and how people use their knowledge. They include matters such as attention, memory, producing and understanding language, solving problems and making decisions. All these are very important for human behaviour.
Psychologists refer to all cognitive and mental activities as information processing. This involves three steps: input, central processing, and output. Input is the information people receive from their senses. Central processing is the storing (in memory) and sorting (by thought) of this information in the brain. Output refers to the ideas and actions that result from processing.
The ability to choose among the various available inputs is called selective attention. It is only the first step of cognition. The second step is to decide which aspects of the selected information you will focus on. This process is called feature extraction.
In order to be used, the inputs that reach the brain must be registered, perhaps “filed” for future reference. We call the storage of inputs memory.
Memory is the way in which we record the past, the act of remembering. Psychologists distinguish three kinds of memory: sensory storage holds information for only an instant; short-term memory keeps it in mind for about twenty seconds; long-term memory stores it indefinitely.
The things you have in your conscious mind at any moment are being held in short-term memory. If the information is worth holding into, it must be transferred to long-term memory.
The stored information is useless unless it can be retrieved from memory. We can only create new information with thinking. By thinking, humans are able to put together any combination of previous experience from memory and create something new.
People think in two distinct ways. The first, called directed thinking, is a systematic and logical attempt to reach a specific goal, such as the solution of a problem. The other type called non-directed thinking, consists of a free flow of thoughts through the mind, with no particular goal or plan. Non-directed thinking is usually rich in imagery and feelings.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What kind of mental activity are cognitive processes?
What do cognitive processes include?
What are the three stages of information processing?
What is called selective attention?
What phenomenon is called memory?
What kinds of memory are there?
How can people create new information?
What kind of thinking is used for solving problems?
What kind of thinking is characterized by free flow of thoughts through the mind?
Exercise 7. a) match the words to their definitions
b) work in pairs: ask each other “What does ‘memory(…)’ mean?” and
answer the question
memory сoncentration of the mental powers upon an object
cognition the action of using your mind to product ideas, decisions, memories
attention the process in which information is encoded, stored and retrieved
thinking one of the five natural powers (touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing) through which you receive information about the word around you
sense the mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment.
Exercise 8. Translate into English
пізнання; вирішення задач; прийняття рішень; важливий для людської поведінки; ввід, обробка і вихід інформації; накопичення і відбір інформації; зосереджуватися на відібраній інформації; виділення характерних ознак; акт запам’ятовування; короткотривала пам’ять; довготривала пам’ять; непотрібна інформація; попередній досвід; створювати щось нову за допомогою мислення; вільний потік думок
Exercise 9. Explain the term “cognitive processes” by completing the sentences below with
proper information:
Cognitive processes are the processes that … .Cognitive processes include … .Cognitive processes consist of three stages: … .Input is receiving information, processing is…., output is using information.
Studying cognitive processes is very important for … .Exercise 10. Fill in the table comparing direct and indirect thinking. Use the words in
brackets
(systematic, logical, free flow of thoughts, a specific goal, no particular goal or plan, the solution of a problem, rich in imagery and feelings)
Kind of cognitive process Features
(It is characterized by …) Kind of goal
(It has a… goal) Where it’s used
(It is used for …)
directed thinking a cognitive process that helps use previous experience and create something new. non-directed
thinking Exercise 11. Put questions to the underlined words
Information processing involves three steps.
Today, psychology is defined as "the study of behavior and mental processes".
Daydreams, fantasies are typical examples of non-directed thinking.
Aristotle focused on cognitive areas related to memory, perception, and mental imagery.
The term cognitive style or "thinking style" is used in cognitive psychology to describe the way individuals think, perceive and remember information.
Sigmund Freud developed and applied the methods of hypnosis, free association, and dream interpretation in the 1890s.
The most important information must be transferred to long-term memory.
Exercise 12. Open the brackets. Translate
If inputs (to be) useful, they (to pass) to long-term memory.
Attention (to remain) a major area of investigation within education, psychology, and neuroscience.
Cognitive processes (to analyze) by many scientists.
We (to finish) our research work yet.
Our brain (to receive and process) a lot of information from our senses.
In the 13th century, Thomas Aquinas (Фома Аквинський) (to divide) the study of behavior into two categories: cognitive (how we know the world), and affective (how we understand the world via feelings and emotions).
Visual perception (to be) the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that (to contain) in visible light.
Cognition (to include) attention, memory, producing and understanding language, solving problems and making decisions.
Next Tuesday, we (to attend) a lecture on visual perception.
Exercise 13. Tell what type of thinking you have got. Give the examples to prove it
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову, складіть з ними речення
ввід, обробка і вихід інформації
накопичення і відбір інформації
виділення характерних ознак
акт запам’ятовування
попередній досвід
вільний потік думок
Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
What do cognitive processes include?
What is called selective attention?
What kind of thinking is used for solving problems?
What kind of thinking is characterized by free flow of thoughts through the mind?
Поясніть термін (не менше 5-ти речень)
Когнітивні процеси
Мислення
MEMORY
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
retrieval [ rɪtri:v(ə)l ]- відновлення
to encode - кодувати
to maintain [ meɪnˈteɪn ]- утримувати
recall- нагадування
recollection- спогад
forgetfulness[fər’getfəlnɪs]- забудькуватість
to decay [dɪ'keɪ]- згасати, руйнуватися
database  ['deɪtə‚beɪs]- база даних
capacity [kə'pæsətɪ]- об’єм
to a lesser extent - меншою мірою
duration- тривалість
life span- тривалість життя
consolidation- закріплення
Exercise 2. Read the following word-combinations, translate them and pay attention to the possible use of keywords
Memory: active memory, associative memory, long-term memory, genetic memory, to control memory, loss of memory;
Information: much information, received information, to encode information, to recall information, to retrieve information, information desk, information technologies, information database;
Code: alphabetic code, acoustic code, semantic code, Morse code, web-site code; Code of ethics, Code of Honour, criminal code
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
to encode, store, and retrieve information; chemical and physical stimuli; the formation and retrieval of memory; received information; a permanent record of the encoded information; to be out of cognitive control; an automatic response; is a fast decaying store of information; visual information; auditory information; a database for touch stimuli; a strictly limited capacity and duration; an acoustic code for storing information; to store much larger quantities of information; the consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory

Exercise 4. a) Write the comparative and superlative, translate
large, quickly, difficult, much, heavy, expensive, thin, little, small, funny, comfortable, far, cheap, heavy, few
b) Translate
менше часу, найдорожче обладнання, вищий рівень, більше інформації, найкращий хірург, сильніший подразник (стимул), найдовший день року, менше роботи, найцікавіша інформація, більш швидка реакція, довший період, найхолодніша зима
Exercise 5. Read the text and be ready to name and characterize the main stages of memory as a process
MEMORY
In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. It is the first stage. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that we maintain information over periods of time. Finally, the third process is the retrieval of information that we have stored. We must locate it and return it to our consciousness.
So, there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory:
 Encoding or registration: receiving, processing and combining of received information
Storage: creation of a permanent record of the encoded information
Retrieval, recall or recollection: calling back the stored information for use in a process or activity
The loss of memory is described as forgetfulness, as a medical disorder, amnesia. 
Sensory memory holds sensory information for a few seconds or less. It is out of cognitive control and is an automatic response. 
There are three types of sensory memories. Iconic memory is a fast decaying store of visual information, a type of sensory memory that briefly stores an image. Echoic memory is a fast decaying store of auditory information, another type of sensory memory that briefly stores sounds. Haptic memory is a type of sensory memory that represents a database for touch stimuli.
Short-term memory allows recall for a period of several seconds to a minute. Its capacity is also very limited. Short-term memory relies mostly on an acoustic code for storing information, and to a lesser extent a visual code.
The storage in sensory memory and short-term memory generally has a strictly limited capacity and duration. By contrast, long-term memory can store much larger quantities of information for the potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole life span). Its capacity is extremely large. While short-term memory encodes information acoustically, long-term memory encodes it semantically.
The hypothalamus is essential (for learning new information) to the consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory. Without the hippocampus, new memories are unable to be stored into long-term memory.
Physical exercise, particularly continuous aerobic exercises such as running, cycling and swimming, has many cognitive benefits and effects on the brain.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What kind of mental process is memory?
What stages does memory include?
How is a loss of memory called in common use and as a medical disorder?
What are the features of sensory memory?
What three types of sensory memory are there?
What kind of memory relies mostly on an acoustic code for storing information?
What are the characteristics of short-term memory?
How is information encoded in long-term memory?
What parts of the brain are essential to long-term memory?
Exercise 7. a) Match the words to their definitions
b) Work in pairs: ask each other “What type of memory is ‘sensory
memory(…)’?” and answer the question
sensory memory the auditory version of  sensory memory refers to the phenomenon in which a brief mental echo continues to sound after an auditory stimulus has been heard
iconic memory "primary" or "active memory" is the capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind for a short period of time
echoic memory is the final stage of the dual memory model proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin, in which data can be stored for long periods of time
haptic memory a type of short-term visual memory 
short-term memory the brief storage of information brought in through the senses
long-term memory a form of sensory memory that refers to the recollection of data acquired by touch after a stimulus has been presented
Exercise 8. Translate into English
кодування, зберігання і використання (извлечение) інформації; фізичні та хімічні подразники; прийом, обробка та збір отриманої інформації; втрата пам’яті; сенсорна пам’ять; іконічна (зорова) пам’ять; слухова пам’ять; тактильна пам’ять; короткотривала і довготривала пам’ять; обмежений об’єм пам’яті; звуковий код для зберігання інформації; потенційно необмежена тривалість; тривалість життя; кодувати інформацію семантично
Exercise 9. Put questions to the underlined words
Iconic memory was named by George Sperling in 1960.
Iconic memory is responsible for creating a visual representation of an object in your mind.
Echonic memory lasts for several seconds.
Sleep is an important factor in establishing well-organized long-term memory.
Different types of memory are stored in different regions of the brain.
Many neurodegenerative diseases can cause memory loss.
In 1974 Baddeley and Hitch proposed an alternative theory of short-term memory.
According to Tarnow's theory, long-term memories are stored in dream format. 
Exercise 10. Open the brackets. Translate
Sleep (to affect) the efficiency of certain cognitive functions such as learning and memory.
The relationship between short-term memory and working memory (to describe) differently by different theories.
Autobiographic memory (to refer) to knowledge about events and personal experiences from an individual’s own life.
Amnesia (to cause) by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
In March 2007 German researchers (to find) they (can) use odors to re-activate new memories in the brains of people while they (to sleep) and the volunteers (to remember) better later.
When the event (to remember) or (recall) in the future, the neurons more easily (to make) the connection with each other.
Stress (to have) a significant effect on memory formation and learning.
Exercise 11. Fill in the table comparing short-term memory and long-term memory
short-term memory long-term memory
capacity duration type of encoding Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову, складіть з ними речення
кодування, зберігання і використання інформації
фізичні та хімічні подразники
втрата пам’яті
короткотривала і довготривала пам’ять
обмежений об’єм пам’яті
Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
What stages does memory include?
What three types of sensory memory are there?
How is loss of memory called in common use and as a medical disorder?
What are the characteristics of short-term memory?
Поясніть термін (не менше 5-ти речень)
Пам’ять
Сенсорна пам’ять
19. PERSONALITY. PERSONALITY THEORIES
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
wear (wore, worn)  [weər]- носити
to imply [ɪm’plaɪ]- мати на увазі
consistency- постійність, сталість
predominant- домінуючий
needs- потреби
cheerful ['tʃɪərfəl]- веселий, життєрадісний
gloomy- похмурий
violent [’vaɪələnt]- жорстокий
calm [kɑ:m]- спокійний
trait[treɪt]- риса
to obscure [əb’skjʋr]- затінювати
demand [dɪ'mænd] - вимога
extent- ступінь, міра
at will- за власним бажанням
predict- передбачити
to contribute (to) [kən’trɪbju:t]- сприяти
foresight  ['fɔ:r‚saɪt] - передбачення
anticipation [æn‚tɪsə'peɪʃən]- передчуття
sociability[ ˌsəuʃɪˈbɪlɪtɪ ]- комунікабельність
affectivity [ əfek’tɪvɪtɪ ] - емоційність
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly
Characteristic [‚kærɪktə'rɪstɪk], distinguish [dɪ'stɪŋgwɪʃ], stimuli [ˈstɪmjulaɪ], desire [dɪ’zaɪə], sanguine ['sæŋwɪn], melancholic [melən’koʊlic], choleric [ˈkɒlərɪk], phlegmatic [fleɡˈmætɪk ], initiate [ɪ'nɪʃɪ‚eɪt]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
a pattern of characteristic thoughts and feelings, to persist over time and situations, to predict human reactions to other people, to change from day to day, person’s responses to different stimuli, typical modes of expressing needs and feelings, the description of four temperaments, personality traits, to affect behavior, the biological basis of personality, to be responsible for foresight and anticipation, processing visual information, to depend on the volume of the brain cortex
Exercise 4. Translate the sentences in the Passive. Use them in the Past
An emotion is initiated by certain perception and stimulated by the situation.
Personality traits can be used to classify people.
The choleric temperament is traditionally associated with fire.
The title character of Hamlet by William Shakespeare is self-described as melancholic.
In Waldorf education and anthroposophy, the temperaments are used to help understand personality.
Most personality traits are based on the joint influence of genetics and environment.
Exercise 5. Read the text. Be ready to name and characterize the main characteristics of
personalityPERSONALITY
Personality is that pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that distinguishes one person from another and that persists over time and situations.
The Latin term “persona” means “actor’s face mask”. In a sense, one’s personality is the “mask” worn as a person moves from situation to situation during a lifetime.
Personality also predicts human reactions to other people, problems, and stress. There is still no universal consensus on the definition of "personality" in psychology.
At a general level, the concept of personality has a number of characteristics relatively stable across time.
The first characteristic of personality implies that a person’s behavior should show some degree of consistency that distinguishes them from person’s responses to different stimuli. Though people change from day to day, from year to year – with age and experience, they remain more or less what they are.
The second characteristic of personality is that the behaviours should distinguish the person from others. People differ in their predominant desires, in their characteristic feelings, and in their typical modes of expressing needs and feelings. In the 5th century B.C. Hippocrates gave the description of four temperaments: sanguine (cheerful and active), melancholic (gloomy), choleric (angry and violent), and phlegmatic (calm and passive).
The specific attributes of a person are called personality traits. A trait is any characteristic in which one person differs from another. Every trait can be used to classify people. A person’s personality may be described in terms of a particular combination of traits.
The third characteristic of personality is that person’s behavioral consistency may be obscured by demands of the situations. Two different situations may produce radically different effect in person. Both individual differences and situations affect behavior to some extent.
A response of a person to a situation is an emotion. An emotion is not an independent element which comes and goes at will. It is initiated by certain perception and stimulated by the situation.
The fourth characteristic of personality lies in impossibility to accurately predict an individual’s behavior on the specific occasion from a single measure of personality.
The biological basis of personality is the theory that anatomical structures located in the brain contribute to personality traits. For instance, in human beings, frontal lobes are responsible for foresight and anticipation, and the occipital lobes are responsible for processing visual information. In addition, certain physiological functions such as hormone secretion also affect personality. For example, the hormone testosterone is important for sociability, affectivity, aggressiveness, and sexuality. Additionally, studies show that the expression of a personality trait depends on the volume of the brain cortex.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What is personality?
What does the Latin term “persona” literally mean?
How can you explain the concept of consistency in the personality structure?
What types of temperament are there?
What is a personality trait?
How can situations influence the person?
What is emotion?
What is the biological basis of personality?
Exercise 7. Find out the pairs of words with the similar meaning. Use three of them in sentences
to affect to differ
to distinguish to answer
to initiate to influence
to respond to stay
to remain to cause
to produce to begin
Exercise 8. Match the words to their definitions
1) person a) the combination of mental and emotional traits of a person; natural predisposition
2) personality b) a distinguishing feature, as of a persons character
3) temperament c) the way in which one acts or conducts oneself
4) trait d) an individual human being
5) behaviour e) a strong feeling deriving from one’s circumstances, mood, or relationships with others
6) emotion f) the set of emotional qualities, ways of behaving, etc., that makes a person different from other people
Exercise 9. Translate into English
відрізняти одну особу від іншої, передбачати реакції людини, поняття особистості, ряд характеристик відносно сталих у часі, певний ступінь сталості, реакції на різні подразники, змінюватися з віком і досвідом, риси особистості, особливе поєднання рис, впливати на поведінку, передбачення та передчуття, комунікабельність та емоційність, залежати від об’єму кори головного мозку
Exercise 10. Read the text and say for what personality theories the following statements
are true.
Biological theories suggest that genetics is responsible for personality. Research suggests that there is a link between genetics and personality traits.
Behavioral theories suggest that personality is a result of interaction between the individual and the environment. Behavioral theorists study observable and measurable behaviors, rejecting theories that take internal thoughts and feelings into account.
Psychodynamic theories of personality emphasize the influence of the unconscious mind and childhood experiences on personality. Psychodynamic theories include Sigmund Freud's psychosexual stage.
Humanist theories emphasize the importance of free will and individual experience in the development of personality. Humanist theorists emphasized the concept of self-actualization, which is an innate need for personal growth that motivates behavior
The trait theory approach is one of the largest areas within personality psychology. According to this theory, personality is made up of a number of broad traits. A trait is basically a relatively stable characteristic that causes an individual to behave in certain ways.
Model: each stage of personality development is characterized by certain conflicts –
psychodynamic theories
internal thoughts and feelings aren’t taken into consideration;
the unconscious mind influences personality significantly;
genetics is responsible for personality;
free will and individual experience are the basic components of personality;
psychosexual experience is very important for personality;
self-actualization is an innate need of a person;
a personality trait causes an individual to behave in certain ways
Exercise 11. Tell about the concept of personality by the plan below.
Personality as a pattern;
The meaning of the term ‘personality’;
The characteristics of personality (behavioral consistency, personality traits (individual differences), influence of situation);
The biological basis of personality/
Exercise 12. Put questions to the underlined words
In the 5th century B.C. Hippocrates gave the description of four temperaments.
The frontal lobes are responsible for foresight and anticipation.
Freud proposed five psychosexual stages of personality development. 
Both individual differences and situations affect behavior.
Humanistic psychology emphasizes that people have free will. 
Personality can predict human reactions to different problems and stress. 
Biology plays a very important role in the development of personality. 
There are two major types of personality tests, projective and objective.
Exercise 13. Open the brackets. Translate
The study of personality (to base) on the essential insight that all people (to be) similar in some ways, yet different in others.
Hippocrates (to believe) that human moods, emotions and behaviors (to cause) by an excess or lack of body fluids, called "humors": blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm.
The Roman physician Galen (to explain) the four temperaments - sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic – with a matrix of hot/cold and dry/wet.
Avicenna (980–1037 AD) (to extend) the theory of temperaments.
Modern medical science already (to reject) the theories of the four temperaments, though they (to use) as a metaphor.
Charles Darwin (to develop) the theory of the evolution of the species. 
The evolutionary approach to personality psychology (to base) on Darwin’s theory.
This theory (to examine) how individual personality differences (to associate) with natural selection.
Exercise 14. Look at the table below and describe the four types of temperament how they were seen by ancient philosophers and physicians. Discuss it.
Humour Season Element Organ Qualities Ancient name Modern Ancient characteristics
Blood spring air liver warm & moist sanguine artisan courageous, hopeful, amorous
Yellow bile summer fire spleen warm & dry choleric idealist easily angered, bad tempered
Black bile autumn earth gall bladder cold & dry melancholic guardian despondent, sleepless, irritable 
Phlegm winter water brain/lungs cold & moist phlegmatic rational calm, unemotional
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову, складіть з ними речення
відрізняти одну особу від іншої
поняття особистості
риси особистості
впливати на поведінку
реакції на різні подразники
Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на питання
What does the Latin term “persona” literally mean?
What types of temperament are there?
What is a personality trait?
What is emotion?
Поясніть термін (не менше 5-ти речень)
Особистість
Темперамент
Теорії особистості
20. PROBLEMS OF SMOKING
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Claim[kleɪm]- заявляти
Enhancement[ɪnˈhɑːnsm(ə)nt]- поліпшення, підсилення
Calming [ˈkɑːmɪŋ]- заспокійливий
Withdrawal (symptom) [wɪðˈdrɔːəl]- синдром відміни
Craving- палке бажання, прагнення
Performance enhancement- підвищення продуктивності
Anger [ˈaŋɡə]- гнів
Irritability [ˌɪrɪtəˈbɪlɪti]- дратівливість
Anxiety [aŋˈzʌɪəti]- тривожність
Impatience [ɪmˈpeɪʃns]- нетерпимість
Addiction- залежність (як згубна звичка)
Overcome- подолати
Cure-all- панацея (універсальні ліки)
Quit- кинути, перестати
Dependence- залежність
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly and translate without dictionary
Psychomotor [͵saıkəʋʹməʋtə], euphoria [juːˈfɔːrɪə], nicotine [ˈnɪkətiːn], acupuncture [ˈakjʊˌpʌŋ(k)tʃə], hypnotherapy [ˌhɪpnə(ʊ)ˈθɛrəpi]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
The physical health effects, to affect the brain, to cause improvement in reaction, mood enhancing and calming effect, the amount of nicotine in the bloodstream, mood change, nicotine withdrawal, the withdrawal symptoms, the feeling of euphoria, performance enhancement, craving for nicotine, to quit smoking, the psychological desire for cigarettes, the physical addiction, to feel calm, to act as a stimulant, to light up a cigarette, to overcome the physical addiction
Exercise 4. Translate. Pay attention to the use and meaning of Participles
The psychological effects of smoking are directly linked to nicotine effects on the brain.
Smokers say cigarettes are mood enhancing and have a calming effect.
Smoking leads to lack of oxygen reaching skin cells.
The changes to physical appearance and the serious skin conditions associated with smoking may help motivate individuals to quit smoking.
Women’s skin is more affected by tobacco smoke exposure than men’s skin.
Smoking has a calming, rather than stimulating, effect.
Exercise 5. Read the text
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SMOKING
While the physical health effects of smoking are well known the psychological effects are rarely discussed.
In large part, the psychological effects of smoking are directly linked to how nicotine physically affects the brain. Early cigarette use can cause improvement in reaction because nicotine is a psychomotor stimulant. Even though this improved skill does not last long, smokers claim the enhancement from cigarettes.
Smokers also claim that cigarettes are mood enhancing or have a calming effect. There is research that shows smoking may indeed have a calming, rather than stimulating, effect depending on the amount of nicotine in the bloodstream.
It has also been shown that the impression of mood change can be due to short-term nicotine withdrawal. Such withdrawal can happen any time a smoker goes without cigarettes longer than they are used to, such as when they sleep. Withdrawal symptoms include craving for nicotine, anger and irritability, anxiety, depression, impatience, trouble sleeping, hunger, gain of weight, and difficulty concentration. Thus, the first cigarette of the day stops the withdrawal symptoms, causing the smoker to feel calmer.
The feelings of euphoria and calm with the perceptions of performance enhancement are at the root of psychological addiction to cigarettes. When a person tries to quit smoking, the physical addiction is usually overcome within fourteen days. However, the psychological desire for cigarettes can last for years.
This is because smokers often see cigarettes as a cure-all. When under stress, inhalation of nicotine can enable the smoker to feel calm. When tired, cigarettes can act as a stimulant to wake the smoker up. When a smoker was bored, they would light up a cigarette as well.
Because of the combined effect of these psychological factors, smokers who try to quit often find that even after they have overcome the physical addiction they still need help. Many people turn to acupuncture, hypnotherapy, or support groups for assistance in dealing with the psychological dependence on cigarettes.
Exercise 5. Answer the questions
How can smoking affect the smoker’s reaction?
What different effects can smoking have?
What is nicotine withdrawal?
What are the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal?
What is the root of psychological addiction to cigarettes?
Why do smokers see cigarettes as a cure-all?
Why do ex-smokers need help after overcoming the physical addiction?
What approaches help ex-smokers cope with psychological dependence on cigarettes?
Exercise 6. Translate into English
Вплив куріння на здоров’я, курці, спричинити покращення реакції, покращення настрою, заспокійлива дія, кількість нікотину у кровотоку, синдром відміни, зміна настрою, кинути курити, нікотинова залежність, сигарети як панацея, подолати фізичну залежність, звертатися до акупунктури і гіпнотерапії
Exercise 7. Fill in the gaps with the proper prepositions where it is necessary
The temporary feeling of euphoria produces psychological addiction … cigarettes.
Cigarette smoke acts … a stimulant of the nervous system.
Smoking influences … the mood and behaviour.
Brett started smoking … the age of16 to impress a girl. 
Alan has been smoke-free … 4 years. 
Cigarette smoke contains toxic and cancer-causing chemicals that are harmful … both smokers and non-smokers.
Smoking effects … the brain are well-known.
Exercise 8. Put questions to the underlined words
Smoking can harm nearly every organ of the body.
Nicotine creates an immediate sense of relaxation.
Smokers are more sensitive to emotional stress.
When you inhale, you deliver a concentrated dose of nicotine into your bloodstream.
In Australia, tobacco use is responsible for approximately 15,000 deaths each year.
Passive smoking can irritate the eyes and nose.
By the time she turned 20, Annette was a regular smoker.
Brandon started smoking in his mid-teens.
Exercise 9. Open the brackets. Translate. Tell about the effects of smoking on your health.
Almost every body system can (to affect) by smoking.
Smoking (to be) one of many factors — including weight, alcohol consumption, and activity level — that (to increase) your risk for osteoporosis, a condition in which bones (to weaken).The chemicals in tobacco smoke can (to harm) your blood cells and (to damage) the function of your heart.
Smoking (to cause) breathing problems. Smoking cigarettes (to be) the number-one risk factor for lung cancer. 
Recent research (to link) smoking to an increased risk of developing eyes diseases which can (to lead) to blindness.
Exercise 10. Correct the mistakes
1) Speak you English?
2) What can I for you do?
3) Where you study?
4) You smoke?
5) What problems smoking can lead to?
6) How much cigarettes you smoke a day?
7) Did he quitted smoking last month?
Exercise 11. Complete the sentences to define nicotine dependence.
Nicotine dependence is an addiction to tobacco products caused by nicotine.
Physical effects of tobacco smoking are … .
Psychological effects of tobacco smoking are … .
Withdrawal symptoms occur when … .

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
вплив куріння на здоров’я
заспокійлива дія
синдром відміни
зміна настрою
кинути курити
нікотинова залежність
подолати фізичну залежність
Дайте відповідь на питання
What is nicotine withdrawal?
What are the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal?
What is the root of psychological addiction to cigarettes?
3) Поясніть поняття
Нікотинова залежність
21. ALCOHOLISM
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Willpower- сила волі
Alcohol abuse- зловживання алкоголем
Alcohol dependence- алкогольна залежність
Craving- тяга, палке прагнення
Legal problems- проблеми із законом
Failure [ˈfeɪljə] - недостатність
Homicide [ˈhɒmɪsʌɪd]- вбивство
Suicide [ˈs(j)uːɪsʌɪd]- самогубство
Pregnancy- вагітність
Sibling- рідний брат або сестра
Treatment- лікування
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly. Translate without dictionary
Alcohol [ˈalkəhɒl], alcoholic [alkəˈhɒlɪk], tolerance [ˈtɒl(ə)r(ə)ns], social [ˈsəʊʃ(ə)l], cultural [ˈkʌltʃ(ə)r(ə)], detoxification [diːˌtɒksɪfɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n], cancer [ˈkansə], therapy [ˈθerəpɪ]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
drinking of alcohol, a strong need to drink, withdrawal symptoms, not physically dependent, to lead to legal or social problems, to affect the brain, to result in mental illness, liver failure, heavy drinking, to increase the risk of death, death from car crashes, more sensitive to alcohol’s effects, a parent or sibling with alcoholism, both a physical and mental illness, alcohol detoxification, to help keep a person from returning to drinking
Exercise 4. Read the text
ALCOHOLISM
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems. Alcoholism is a long-term (chronic) disease. It’s not a weakness or a lack of willpower. It can be divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.
Alcohol dependence is a disease that causes
craving (a strong need to drink)
loss of control (not being able to stop drinking once you’ve started)
physical dependence (withdrawal symptoms)
tolerance (the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect)
With alcohol abuse, the individual is not physically dependent but still has a serious problem. The drinking may cause problems at home or school. It may cause someone to put themselves in a dangerous situation, or lead to legal or social problems.
Alcohol can affect all parts of the body but particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, and immune system. This can result in mental illness, irregular heartbeat, liver failure, and an increase in the risk of cancer. Heavy drinking can increase the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide.
Drinking during pregnancy can cause damage to the baby. Generally, women are more sensitive to alcohol’s harmful physical and mental effects than men.
Both environmental factors and genetics are associated with alcoholism. A person with a parent or sibling with alcoholism is three to four times more likely to be alcoholic themselves. Environmental factors include social, cultural, and behavioral influences. Medically alcoholism is considered both a physical and mental illness.
Treatment may take several steps and includes medication and/or psychotherapy. Because of medical problems that can occur during withdrawal, alcohol detoxification should be carefully controlled. After detoxification group therapy or support groups are used to help keep a person from returning to drinking. One commonly used form of support is the group Alcoholics Anonimous.
Exercise 5. Answer the questions
What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)?
How can alcoholism be defined?
What distinguishes alcohol dependence from alcohol abuse?
What social and personal problems can heavy drinking lead to?
How does alcohol affect the human body?
What factors contribute to alcoholism development?
What does the treatment for alcoholism include?
Exercise 6. True or false?Alcoholism is a bad habit.
Alcoholism is caused by extremely poor social conditions and bad education.
Alcoholism develops in women more rapidly than in men.
Alcohol dependence includes both physical and mental addiction.
Withdrawal symptoms are caused by mental dependence on alcohol.
Alcohol heavily affects the individual’s health.
Alcohol dependence is treated by the group Alcoholics Anonimous.
Tolerance to alcohol is a strong need to drink.
Exercise 7. Match two parts of the sentences below. Translate
Signs of alcohol intoxication include … about 10% of women and 20 of men in the USA.
Alcohol abuse affects … from mild mood changes to complete loss of coordination, vision, balance, and speech.
With treatment, about 70 of people with alcoholism … die each year as a result of alcohol abuse.
The immediate physical effects of drinking alcohol range … a progressive, potentially fatal disease.
Nearly 100,000 Americans … the smell of alcohol on the breath or skin, glazed or bloodshot eyes, the person being unusually passive, and/or a deterioration in person’s appearance or hygiene.
Chronic alcoholism is … improve their overall health status within six months.
Exercise 8. Translate into English
Довготривала хронічна хвороба, відсутність сили волі, зловживання алкоголем, алкогольна залежність, втрата контролю, фізична залежність, синдром відміни, уражати всі частини організму, ризик раку, під час вагітності, фактори оточуючого середовища, фізичне і психічне захворювання, алкогольна детоксикація, групи анонімних алкоголіків
Exercise 9. Put questions to the underlined words
Beer is the world’s most widely consumed alcoholic beverage.
Alcoholism often reduces a person’s life expectancy by around ten years.
Children of alcoholic parents can develop a number of emotional problems.
The research has found that over 50 percent of all suicides are associated with alcohol or drug dependence.
Most alcoholics develop alcoholism during adolescence or young adulthood.
Excessive alcohol misuse and drunkenness were recognized as causing social problems even thousands of years ago.
Risk factors for developing a drinking problem include low self-esteem, depression, anxiety or another mood problem.
A 20-year-old man developed severe symptoms during alcohol withdrawal.
Exercise 10. Open the brackets. Translate
One day before admission to the hospital, the patient (to discontinue) his daily consumption of alcohol.
Two days ago his temperature (to be) 37.4°C.
The treatment for alcoholism (to include) both medication and psychotherapy.
Recent research (to show) a high risk of alcohol problems among medical students.
The organization Alcoholics Anonymous (to found) in 1935.
Alcoholism (to characterize) by an increased tolerance to and physical dependence on alcohol.
A complex mixture of genetic and environmental factors (to influence) the risk of the development of alcoholism.
Tomorrow students (to visit) the toxicology department in the hospital.
Exercise 11. Choose the correct words to describe the term “alcohol dependence”. Complete the definition on your own
Alcohol dependence is an acute/a chronic disease, caused by heavy alcohol drinking.
It is characterized by a craving to drink/ problems at home, environmental factors/withdrawal symptoms, tolerance to alcohol/ alcohol detoxification.
Alcohol dependence is treated by medication and psychotherapy/in a mental hospital only.

*Exercise 12. Read the article to get the general idea. Answer the questions after it. What do you think about the problem of drinking among students?
Alcohol Abuse Common Among Med Students, Study Finds
Research shows their rate of drinking problems is double that of the general population
By Robert Preidt
Wednesday, March 16, 2016
WEDNESDAY, March 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Medical students may be more at risk for problem drinking, a new study says, citing burnout and school debt as two possible reasons why.
"Our findings clearly show there is reason for concern," said study senior author Dr. Liselotte Dyrbye.
The study found an association between being a medical student and a higher risk of alcohol problems.
For the study, the researchers sent surveys to 12,500 medical students in the United States. About one-third responded.
The researchers found that about 1,400 medical students reported alcohol abuse or dependence. That's about a third of medical students who responded. By comparison, about 16 percent of people who aren't in medical school have an alcohol abuse or dependence problem, the study said.
Medical students had twice the rate of alcohol problems as surgeons, physicians and the general public, the study noted.
The researchers found a strong link between burnout factors such as emotional exhaustion and problem drinking among medical students. Other significant factors included: younger age, not being married and large educational debt, the researchers found.
The average cost of medical school rose more than 200 percent from 1995 to 2014, the researchers pointed out. People graduating with a medical degree in 2014 had an average of $180,000 in educational debt, the researchers said.
Study first author Eric Jackson, a medical student at Mayo Medical School, said he recommends wellness programs in medical schools. These programs could help identify what's adding to the stress, as well as help to remove barriers to mental health services, he said.
The findings were published online recently in the journal Academic Medicine.
SOURCE: Mayo Clinic, news release, March 14, 2016
What problem was research devoted to?
How many medical students were surveyed?
How many students responded?
What factors contribute to alcohol abuse among medical students?
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Зловживання алкоголем
Алкогольна залежність
Синдром відміни
Довготривала хронічна хвороба
Алкогольна детоксикація
Група анонімних алкоголіків
Дайте відповідь на питання
How does alcohol affect the human body?
What factors contribute to alcoholism development?
What does the treatment for alcoholism include?
3) Поясніть поняття
Алкогольна залежність
22. ANOREXIA AND BULIMIA
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Eating disorders- розлади харчової поведінки
Restrictive- обмежений
Distort [dɪˈstɔːt]- спотворювати, деформувати
Teen- підліток
Fasting - голодування
Obsession [əbˈseʃn]- нав’язлива ідея
Binge eating [bɪndʒ …]- переїдання
To get rid of- позбавитись
Junk food- шкідлива їжа
Inedible [ɪnˈɛdɪb(ə)l]- неїстівний
To purge [pəːdʒ]- прочищати(ся)
Vomiting- блювання
Laxative- проносне
Complication- ускладнення
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly
Anorexia [ˌanəˈrɛksɪə], bulimia [buˈlɪmiə], calorie [ˈkaləri], psychotherapy [sʌɪkəʊˈθɛrəpi], compensate [ˈkɒmpɛnseɪt], measure [ˈmeʒə], dessert [dɪˈzɜːt]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
eating disorders, to lose weight, more restrictive diet, a real fear of weight gain, a distorted view of their body size and shape, to become dangerously underweight, the small amount of food, an obsession of calorie counting, to eat as little as possible, to eat a large amount of food, to feel powerless to stop the eating, to purge by vomiting, to prevent weight gain, to be very thin and underweight, to be an average weight or overweight, to start treatment as early as possible, to reduce the risk of serious complications
Exercise 4. Translate. Pay attention to the meaning and use of modal verbs
Anorexic people can become dangerously underweight.
People with bulimia may get rid of the food they’ve eaten by vomiting or taking laxatives.
Hospitalization may be necessary if anorexic people are dangerously malnourished and no longer want to live due to distress.
The parents of teens should be concerned about the significant loss of weight in their children.
Comments about their weight can be damaging to a teenager’s self-esteem, hurting their perception of their body and weight image and can lead to more eating problems.
Parents often feel they must take on responsibility for the eating disorder of their children.
You shouldn’t force a person with an eating disorder to change, but you can offer your support and encourage treatment. 
Exercise 5. Read the text. Discuss the problem of eating disorders
ANOREXIA AND BULIMIA
Eating disorders are more than just going on a diet to lose weight or trying to exercise every day. They represent extremes in eating behavior and ways of thinking about eating — the diet that never ends and gradually gets more restrictive.
The most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (usually called simply "anorexia" and "bulimia").
Anorexia
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an irrational fear of food as well as extreme, life-threatening weight loss. People with anorexia have a real fear of weight gain and a distorted view of their body size and shape. As a result, they eat very little and can become dangerously underweight. Many teens with anorexia restrict their food intake by dieting, fasting, or excessive exercise. They hardly eat at all — and the small amount of food they do eat becomes an obsession in terms of calorie counting or trying to eat as little as possible.
Bulimia
Bulimia is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging. Binge eating refers to eating a large amount of food in a short amount of time. Purging refers to the attempts to get rid of the food consumed to prevent weight gain. This may be done by vomiting, taking laxatives or excessive exercise. Over time, these steps can be dangerous — both physically and emotionally. People with bulimia eat a large amount of food (often junk food) at once, usually in secret. They typically feel powerless to stop the eating and can only stop once they're too full to eat anymore, or they may have to go to extreme measures (like pouring salt all over a dessert to make it inedible) in order to get themselves to stop eating.
Although anorexia and bulimia are very similar, people with anorexia are usually very thin and underweight, but those with bulimia may be an average weight or can be overweight.
Psychotherapy is the most common treatment for anorexia and bulimia. Hospitalization may be necessary if you are dangerously malnourished or so distressed that you no longer want to live. It's important for a person with eating disorders to start treatment as early as possible to reduce the risk of serious complications.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What eating disorders are the most common nowadays?
What is anorexia?
How do people with anorexia arrange their diet?
What is bulimia?
How do people with bulimia prevent weight gain?
How are eating disorders treated?
Exercise 7. Say for which disorder – anorexia or bulimia - the following is true
life-threatening weight loss;
underweight;
rapid and out-of-control eating;
average or slightly above or below average weight;
overeating;
food restriction;
a strong desire to be thin;
feeling unable to stop eating
Exercise 8. Write the opposite to the following words and word-combinations. Use any
three of them in sentences
Overweight, weight gain, insufficient exercise, a rare disorder, healthy food, edible seeds, different symptoms, a fat man, as much as possible, as late as possible, a true view
Exercise 9. Translate into English
Розлади харчової поведінки, втрата ваги, обмежувати вживання їжі, спроби позбутися спожитої їжі, запобігати набору ваги, підраховувати калорії, їсти якнайменше, недостатня вага, середня вага, надмірна вага, шкідлива їжа, блювання і прийом проносного, знизити ризик ускладнень
Exercise 10. Put questions to the underlined words
Anorexia nervosa is classified as a mental illness.
Anorexia starts most often during the patient’s teenage years or young adulthood.
The physician to Queen Victoria, Sir William Gull (1816-1890), was the first to coin the term anorexia nervosa in his text Anorexia Hysterica.
The rate of development of new cases of eating disorders has been increasing since 1950.
People with bulimia can feel shame and guilt about their inability to control their compulsive behaviors.
Antidepressants have the potential to improve bulimic symptoms in people who also have depression. 
Nearly 10 million females have a form of anorexia or bulimia in the United States.
British physician Sir Richard Morton (1637-1698) recorded the earliest medical description of anorexia illness.
In the late 1990s, websites called pro-ana (pro-anorexia) and pro-mia (pro-bulimia) were created for anorexics and bulimics
Exercise 11. Open the brackets. Translate
Anorexia nervosa (to mean) "nervous loss of appetite". 
Bulimia (“bous”-ox, “limous”-hunger) nervosa first (to enter) the English language in the late 1970s.
Eating disorders (to associate) with unstable or troubled family relationships.
Anorexia (to be) a serious eating disorder that (to affect) women and men of all ages.
Many people with anorexia nervosa (to see) themselves as overweight, even when they (to be) clearly underweight. 
In 1689, an English physician Richard Morton (to describe) two cases of anorexia.
 The medical facts of anorexia nervosa (to document) since the 1870s.
Anorexia nervosa (to be) a well-known disease for psychologists and other medical professionals since 1870s.
*Exercise 12. What kind of eating disorder does Maria have? Give reasons for your decision. Do you know people with anorexia or bulimia? How can you describe those cases?
Maria’s Story
Seventeen-year-old Maria has been on one diet or another since she was in junior high. She lost 10 pounds after becoming a strict vegetarian. Her parents are concerned about the weight loss, but Maria insists that she’s just under stress at school. Meanwhile, her vegetarian diet is becoming stricter by the day.
Maria obsessively counts calories, measures food portions, and weighs herself at least twice a day. She refuses to eat at restaurants, in the school cafeteria, or anywhere else in public, and she lives on salad dressed with vinegar, rice cakes, and sugar-free Jello.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Розлади харчової поведінки
Втрата ваги
Обмежувати вживання їжі
Запобігати набору ваги
Недостатня вага
Шкідлива їжа
Дайте відповідь на питання
What is anorexia?
What is bulimia?
How are eating disorders treated?
3) Поясніть поняття
Анорексія
Булімія
23. VITAMINS AND MINERALS
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Compound [ˈkɒmpaʊnd]- (хімічна) сполука
Essential [ɪˈsɛnʃ(ə)l]- необхідний
Soluble [ˈsɒljʊb(ə)l]- розчинний
To dissolve [dɪˈzɒlv]- розчиняти(ся)
Soil- грунт
Vitamin deficiency- авітаміноз
Scurvy [ˈskəːvi]- цинга
Blindness [ˈblaɪndnɪs]- сліпота
Rickets [ˈrɪkɪts]- рахіт
Physical capabilities- фізичні можливості
Fatigue [fəˈtiːɡ]- втома
Tearfulness[ˈtɪəfʊlnɪs]- плаксивість
Anxiety [æŋˈzaɪəti]- тривога, занепокоєння
Poisoning [ˈpɔɪzənɪŋ]- отруєння, інтоксикація
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly. Translate without dictionary
Calcium [ˈkælsiəm], chromium [ˈkrəʊmɪəm], copper [ˈkɒpə], iodine [ˈʌɪədiːn; ˈaɪədaɪn], selenium [sɪˈliːnɪəm], zinc [zɪŋk], magnesium [maɡˈniːzɪəm], phosphorus [ˈfɒsf(ə)rəs], guarantee [gærənˈtiː], deficiency [dɪˈfɪʃənsɪ], deformity [dɪˈfɔːmɪti], caries [ˈkeəriːz], paranoia [ˌparəˈnɔɪə]
Exercise 3. Read the following word-combinations, translate them and pay attention to the
possible use of the keywords
Vitamin: vitamin deficiency, vitamin poisoning, B-complex vitamins, rich in vitamin C, to store vitamins in the body, the daily amount of vitamins;
Deficiency: calcium deficiency, deficiency in vitamin C, deficiencies in a number of vitamins and minerals, to result from vitamin deficiency, to prevent micronutrients deficiency
Exercise 4. Translate into Ukrainian
organic compounds, very small amounts, to support normal physiologic function, fat soluble and water soluble, to dissolve in water, be stored in the body, inorganic elements, absorbed by plants, to result from vitamin deficiency, the main sources of vitamin C, the bleeding gums, to become blind, soft, weak bones, to lead to skeletal deformities, to protect bones against fractures, to prevent dental caries, to affect the mental health
Exercise 5. Read the text. Translate it. Write out into three columns the names of minerals,
the names of symptoms, and the names of diseases
VITAMINS AND MINERALS
Vitamins are organic compounds that are essential in very small amounts for supporting normal physiologic function.
Vitamins fall into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble. The fat-soluble vitamins — A, D, E, and K — dissolve in fat and can be stored in your body. The water-soluble vitamins — C and the B-complex vitamins (such as vitamins B6, B12, niacin (vitamin B3), riboflavin (vitamin B2), and folic acid or folate (vitamin B9)) — need to dissolve in water before your body can absorb them. Because of this, your body can't store these vitamins. So you need a fresh supply of these vitamins every day.
Whereas vitamins are organic substances (made by plants or animals), minerals are inorganic elements that come from the soil and water and are absorbed by plants or eaten by animals. Your body needs larger amounts of some minerals (macro-elements), such as calcium, to grow and stay healthy. Other minerals like chromium, copper, iodine, iron, selenium, and zinc are called microelements because you only need very small amounts of them each day.
Vitamins and minerals are often called micronutrients because your body needs only tiny amounts of them. But lack of even those small quantities virtually guarantees disease. Here are a few examples of diseases that can result from vitamin deficiency:
Scurvy. Old-time sailors learned that living for months without fresh fruits and vegetables – the main sources of vitamin C – causes the bleeding gums and weakness.
Blindness. In some developing countries, people still become blind from vitamin A deficiency.
Rickets. A deficiency in vitamin D can cause rickets, a condition marked by soft, weak bones that can lead to skeletal deformities.
Just as a lack of key micronutrients can cause substantial harm to your body, getting sufficient quantities can provide a substantial benefit. Some examples of these benefits:
Strong bones. A combination of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, magnesium, and phosphorus protects your bones against fractures.
Healthy teeth. The mineral fluoride not only helps bone formation but also prevent dental caries.
 It is important to remember that vitamin and mineral deficiencies can negatively affect not only your physical capabilities but also your mental health. Deficiencies in a number of vitamins and minerals can lead to the symptoms of depression, paranoia, anxiety, fatigue, and tearfulness. But it is also important to remember that high doses of certain vitamins can cause vitamin poisoning.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions
What kind of substances are vitamins?
How can vitamins be classified?
Which vitamins can be stored in the body?
What are minerals?
What is the difference between micro-elements and macro-elements?
What is the cause of scurvy? What are the symptoms of this disease?
What disease can be due to lack of vitamin D?
What micronutrients should be taken to provide strong bones?
How do vitamin and mineral deficiencies affect the mental health?
What can high doses of certain vitamins cause?
Exercise 7. Match the words to their definitions
scurvy is a disease that happens in young children. It happens in children who do not get enough vitamin D and calcium. 
blindness is distress or uneasiness of mind caused by fear of danger or misfortune
rickets is a mood disorder classifying individuals who feel sad and pessimistic
weakness also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see. 
anxiety is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C. 
depression is a medical condition in which there is a damage in the continuity of the bone.  
fracture or asthenia is a condition where the force exerted by the muscles is less than would be expected
Exercise 8. Find out the pairs of synonyms. Make up sentences with any three of them
Quantity, hypervitaminosis, lack, enough, vitamin B2, niacin, amount, riboflavin, benefit, vitamin poisoning, deficiency, support, vitamin B3, good, sufficient, maintenance
Exercise 9. Translate into English
Органічні сполуки, дуже маленька кількість, підтримувати нормальну фізіологічну функцію, жиророзчинні і водорозчинні вітаміни, розчинятися у жирі, накопичуватися в організмі, неорганічні елементи, кальцій і залізо, йод і цинк, авітаміноз, спричиняти цингу, головне джерело вітаміну С, кровоточивість ясен і слабкість, сліпота через недостатність вітаміну А, захищати кості від переломів, запобігти карієсу, негативно впливати на фізичні можливості, впливати на психічне здоров’я, втома і плаксивість, вітамінна інтоксикація
Exercise 10. Fill in the gaps with a proper preposition where it is necessary
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) helps the body turn food … energy.
A lack … B6 also can cause depression, confusion, or susceptibility… infections.
Pregnant women … a B9 deficiency could give birth … babies with defects.
Vitamin toxicity (hypervitaminosis) usually results … taking mega-doses of vitamin A, D, C, B6, or niacin.
Known as the sunshine vitamin, vitamin D is produced … the body in response … skin being exposed to sunlight.
Depression is a common symptom … folate deficiency. 
Those with alcohol problems often suffer … vitamin B complex deficiencies.
Vitamins are divided … two categories: fat soluble and water soluble.
Exercise 11. Read. Translate. Pay attention to the use of verbs in the Past. Make 5
special questions to the text.
In 1905, the first scientist to determine that if special factors [vitamins] were removed from food disease would occur was an Englishmen, William Fletcher. Doctor Fletcher was researching the causes of the disease Beriberi when he discovered that eating unpolished rice prevented Beriberi* and eating polished rice did not. William Fletcher believed that there were special nutrients contained in the husk of the rice. 
In 1906, English biochemist Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins also discovered that certain food factors were important to health. In 1912, Polish scientist Cashmir Funk named the special nutritional parts of food as a "vitamine" after "vita" meaning life  and "amine" from compounds found in the thiamine he isolated from rice husks. ‘Vitamine’ later was shortened to ‘vitamin’. Together, Hopkins and Funk formulated the vitamin hypothesis of deficiency disease - that a lack of vitamins could make a person sick.
*Beriberi is a disease caused by a vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency. There are two types of the disease: wet beriberi and dry beriberi. Wet beriberi affects the heart and circulatory system. Dry beriberi damages the nerves and can lead to a loss of muscle strength and eventually, muscle paralysis.
Exercise 12. Open the brackets. Translate
Fat-soluble vitamins (to find) mainly in fatty foods and animal products, such as vegetable oils, milk and dairy foods, eggs, liver, oily fish, and butter.
Fruit, vegetables, potatoes, grains, milk and dairy foods (to include) a lot of water-soluble vitamins.
If you (to consume) sufficient micronutrients you will feel better.
The term “vitamine”(to coin) by Cashmir Funk in 1912.
Doctor Fletcher (to investigate) the causes of the disease Beriberi at the beginning of the 20th century.
In the future many diseases (to prevent) by a well-balanced diet and healthy lifestyle.
B12 deficiency (to lead) to depression, mania, and psychosis, and slowing of mental processes, confusion and memory defects.
Many symptoms of a poor mental health (to associate) with deficiencies in the essential minerals that a person (to need).
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
Водорозчинні вітаміни
Жиророзчинні вітаміни
Авітаміноз
Розчинятися у жирі або воді
Накопичуватися в організмі
Вітамінна інтоксикація
Дайте відповідь на питання
What is a vitamin?
Which vitamins can be stored in the body?
How do vitamin and mineral deficiencies affect the mental health?
What can high doses of certain vitamins cause?
Поясніть терміни
Вітаміни
Водорозчинні вітаміни
Жиророзчинні вітаміни
Мінерали
24. STRESS
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary
Beneficial [bɛnɪˈfɪʃ(ə)l]- корисний
Stroke- інсульт
Heart attack- серцевий напад (інфаркт)
Ulcer [ˈʌlsə]- виразка
Eustress [ʹju:stres]- еустрес (позитивний стрес)
Impact- вплив
Alarm reaction - початкова реакція організму на стрес (реакція тривожності)
Exhaustion [ɪɡˈzɔːstʃ(ə)n]- виснаження
Moodiness- пригніченість
Irritability- дратівливість
Loneliness [ˈləʊnlɪnɪs]- самотність
Nausea [ˈnɔːsɪə]- нудота
Dizziness- запаморочення
To cope with- справлятися з
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly and translate without dictionary
isolation [ʌɪsəˈleɪʃ(ə)n], chronic [ˈkrɒnɪk], effect [ɪˈfɛkt], functioning [ˈfʌŋkʃnɪŋ], adapt [əˈdæpt], adaptation [ædæpˈteɪʃn], adrenaline [əˈdrɛn(ə)lɪn], cortisol [ˈkɔːtɪsɔːl], syndrome [ˈsɪndrəʊm]
Exercise 3. Translate into Ukrainian
a psychological to changing conditions, small amounts of stress, to lead to bodily harm, to increase the risk of stroke, to promote health and growth, disorders of body and mind, to raise the level of adrenaline, to increase the heart rate, memory problems, inability to concentrate, sense of loneliness and isolation, sleeping too much or too little, using alcohol to relax, to cope with stress
Exercise 4. Read the text. Write out the keywords and word-combinations
STRESS
Stress is a psychological and physical response of the body to changing conditions. Small amounts of stress may be desired, beneficial, and even healthy. In most cases, stress promotes survival because it forces organisms to adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions. Excessive amounts of stress may lead to bodily harm and can increase the risk of stroke, heart attacks, ulcers, and mental disorders such as depression.
Thus, there are two types of stress, eustress (good stress) and distress (negative stress). Eustress refers to the optimal amount of stress which helps promote health and growth. Distress is damaging, excessive or pathogenic (disease producing) stress. Stress can, directly and indirectly, contribute to general or specific disorders of body and mind. Stress can have a major impact on the physical functioning of the human body. Stress raises the level of adrenaline and cortisol – so-called stress hormones - in the body, which in turn increases the heart rate, respiration, blood pressure and puts more physical stress on bodily organs.
Physiological response to stress is called the general adaptation syndrome. The general adaptation syndrome has three phases:
alarm reaction;
resistance;
either exhaustion or recovery.
Chronic stress is accompanied by cognitive, emotional, physical and behavioral symptoms.
cognitive symptoms: memory problems, inability to concentrate, seeing only the negative, etc;
emotional symptoms: moodiness, irritability, sense of loneliness and isolation, depression, etc;
physical symptoms: chest pain, rapid heartbeat, nausea, dizziness, etc;
behavioral symptoms: eating more or less, sleeping too much or too little, using alcohol to relax, etc.
Stress management can teach you healthier ways to cope with stress, help you reduce its harmful effects, and prevent stress in the future.
Exercise 5. Answer the questions
How can stress be defined?
What is eustress? How does it affect a person?
What is distress? What can it result in?
What substances are called stress hormones?
What is the general adaptation syndrome?
What are the stages of the general adaptation syndrome?
What cognitive symptoms can stress provoke?
How does stress affect a person emotionally?
What are the physical manifestations of stress?
How does stress influence the person’s behaviour?
Exercise 6. Say for which type of stress (eustress or distress) the following statements are
trueModel: the optimal amount of stress - eustress.
helps you stay focused;
gives you extra strength to defend yourself;
may lead to bodily harm;
drives you to study for an exam;
can damage your health, mood, relationships, and quality of life;
the excessive amount of stress;
helps promote health and growth;
can lead to stroke
Exercise 7. Translate into English
Психологічна і фізична реакція організму, адаптуватися до умов навколишнього середовища, підвищити ризик серцевого нападу, підвищити кров’яний тиск, реакція тривожності, адаптація і виснаження, нездатність зосередитися, пригніченість і дратівливість, нудота і запаморочення, спати занадто багато або занадто мало, скоротити шкідливий вплив стресу, попередити стрес у майбутньому
Exercise 8. Insert the prepositions where it is necessary
Stress is your body’s way of responding … any kind of demand or threat.
Adrenaline and cortisol are produced … the adrenal glands.
Everyone has stress … their lives.
Stress contributes … heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke and other illnesses.
The intensity and duration of stress changes depending … the circumstances and emotional condition … the person.
Hormones of stress reduce sensitivity … pain.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову і складіть з ними речення
психологічна і фізична реакція організму
підвищити ризик серцевого нападу
реакція тривожності
адаптація і виснаження
пригніченість і дратівливість
попередити стрес у майбутньому
Дайте відповідь на питання
What is eustress?
What is distress?
What substances are called stress hormones?
What are the physical manifestations of stress?
Опишіть термін
Стрес
.

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