healthhospital, nambulance, n drug-store, n
centers surgery, nemergency, n maternity home
polyclinic, nchemist’s, n nursing center
to take to the hospital waiting room ward
medical record (card) patient’s file to be admitted to a hospital to be discharged from a hospital urgent call
to call an ambulance stretcher emergency case
examination couch instrument table
indispositiondisease, n injury, n
illness, nmalady, n
sickness, nailment, n
be in poor / no / critical condition
be unfit for something
be weakened / indisposed
a bout of depression
(non) communicable diseases
(in)curable, catching, contagious diseases
Pneumonia is a chest disease, which makes breathing very difficult
organslung, nstomach, nback, n
of bodyheart, nbelly, nbackbone, n
liver, nintestine(s), nside, n
kidney, nskin, nankle, nchest, nlimb, nknee, n
breast, njoint, nbowels, n
brain, windpipe vein
artery bronchus lung
gullet bladder blood circulation
nervous system muscle
Mark has broken his arm. His knee is also damaged.
medicinesdrug, nmixture, nantibiotic, n
pill, ndrops, nantiseptic, n
capsule, nointment, nanesthetic, n
tablet, ncream, npain killer
powder, niodine, nmedical herb
extract, ngargle, ntranquilizer, n
make up a medicine take a medicine (for)
a tablespoonful , a teaspoonful,
take this pills three times a day, every two hours , after / before meals, on an empty stomach
to take for a headache/cough/ a cold
to apply a mustard plaster to be inoculated against
to put a dressing to put a hot water bottle( to)
to remove the bandage
You much take these tablets to reduce the inflammation.
You can only get this ointment on prescription.
medicalbandage, n heating pad stethoscope, n
appliancessyringe, n plaster, n cotton-wool, n
thermometer, n injection, n inhalation, n
to give a shot ( injection )
The doctor protected the wound from the air by putting a bandage over it.
symptomspain, n sore eyes running nose
chest ~ sore throat shiver, n
ache, n sore back vomit, n
stomach ~ swollen ear diarrhea, n
headache, n insomnia, dizziness, n
earache, n fainting, n giddiness, n
temperature, n bleeding, n sleepiness, n
fever, n cough, n fatigue, n
inflammation, n sneezing, n rash, n
My throat is store. It hurts to swallow.
complaintsfeel bad / sick / ill / dizzy / giddy / feverish / faint
fall ill / be taken ill
suffer from, v
complain of / about, v
have / develop pain in kidneys / liver / stomach
have a sore throat / headache / temperature/high blood pressure
catch cold / have a cold
fall over, v
pill a muscle
twist one’s ankle
have a heart attack
have poor vision
to have pain in the stomach
have a runny / stuffed-up nose /clogged nose
have a nervous breakdown
be depressed / tired
lose appetite / voice
have a chill
be near / far sighted
I’m allergic to odors.It hurts me to move.
I have a high blood pressure.My eyes itch.
My ear aches.What shall I take for it?
diseases flu / influenza, nheart disease blood pressure
tonsillitis, n hay fever, n appendicitis, n
quinsy, nfood poisoning AIDS, n
sore throatindigestion, n cancer, n
grippe, n sun-stroke, n allergy, n
catarrh, nchest infection pneumonia, n
asthma, near infection the measles, n
He was suffering from chronic appendicitis.
My appendix is causing me trouble again.
doctor’s test / take blood pressure do X-ray
activity examine / feel the pulse do blood test
sound the chest / hearth / lungs remove tonsils
pull / take out a tooth operate, v
make / give an injection treat, v
to write out a prescription to write out a sickleave cure, v to cure smb. of smth. to be operated on /for
to have the mixture made up
The doctor arranged for me a complete series of tests.
He gave me an injection to relieve the pain.
patient’s strip to the waist take the shirt off
activity spread fingers inhale, v
stretch arms exhale,
to be prescribed to a diet to stay in bed
to undergo an operation to gargle to bare an arm
to complain of smth. to have after-effects
to have the symptoms of
follow the directions of the doctor
Before going to the doctor you should make an appointment.
prescriptions prescribe an injection
apply the ointment/drops
rub the cream
wear glasses / contact lenses
stay from work
put a bandage / plaster on
have an operation
stay in bed for some time
be on a sick list
take a hot water bottle/bag
consult a doctor
do blood transfusion
take more exercise
The doctor prescribed an antibiotic to the sick man.
How should the medicine be taken? On an empty stomach? After / before a meal?How do I take this medicine? How often / how much should I take it?
How long is your sick-leave?
At the dentist’s
To make an appointment with a dentist for a check up, for a dental care
instrument tray dentures set of false teeth
drill bridge crown
seat porcelain tooth filling
extraction forceps to have one’s tooth treated
to be loose to fit on a crown/bridge
to pull out (remove, extract) a tooth
To have one’s tooth stopped/filled
medical general practitioner (GP) neurologist, n
specialists surgeon, n urologist, n
pediatrician, n gynecologist, n
physiotherapist, n anesthesiologist, n
psychiatrist, n ophthalmologist, n
pathologist, n orthopedist, n
internist, n pharmacist, n
dentist, n optician, n
nurse, n veterinarian, n
This surgeon operated on my leg last year.
other medical in-patient, n sick-note, n recover, v
terminology out-patient, n sick-leave, n die, v
check-up, n ward, n disability, n
affect, n addict, n hygiene, n
PROVERBS AND SAYINGS
An apple a day keeps a doctor away.
Sound mind in a sound body.Health is better than wealth.
Prevention is better than cure.
One man’s meat is another man’s poison.
Health is not valued till sickness comes
Take turn for a better /worse
A man’s health is failing.
A man’s health is picking up.
He is doing well, he is on the mend, he is over the worst/
Get over the/ an illness.
To ruin one’ s health.
Feel /be/ look/ washed out.
Feel /be/ look/ run down.
Run /be running a temperature.
Fall ill (with a disease) go down with /be down with a disease.
To be laid up with.
To pass away, to depart this life.
To die a natural death, to die of heart attack, to commit suicide.
The words usually confused:
Illness – disease
“Illness” is the state of being ill;» disease” refers to a particular kind of illness with special symptoms and name.
Pain – ache
“Pain “ refers to suffering of body. It is sharp and sudden;
“ Ache “ means a continuous pain.
Cure – heal –treat
“Cure “ means to bring back to health;” heal” means to make healthy after wounds of any kind; “treat “ means to take care of with medicines
Make your choice of the words in italics.
To work well you must be healthy / ill.
It’s not healthy to be slim / stout.
A temperature is another word for illness / fever.
The doctor feels your pulse / temperature.
When something irritates your throat you have to cough / sneeze.
When something tickles inside your nose you have to sneeze / cough.
I can’t stand the pain. It’s very sharp / dull.
I think I’ve got fly / food poisoning. The weather was so wet these days.
When the doctor knows the symptoms he gives his diagnosis / medical insurance.
When you have recovered we say that the doctor has cured / treated you.
When you are seriously ill you are taken to a hospital / health center.
Find the proper definitions for the words.
Disease ailment malady sickness illness
The state of being sick / ill health / inclination to vomit / stomach distress.
The state or condition of being sick, whether in body or mind.
Disease / physical disorder.
A particular kind of illness with special symptoms and name.
Disease / illness (also social / spiritual).
Fill the gaps with suitable words.
If you want to find out someone’s temperature, use a ………. .
Please don’t cough all over everyone! Don’t forget that a cold is ………. . As it is a virus, there is no ………. for it.
I hurt my wrist yesterday playing football and today it’s ………. .
I had to wait three-quarters of an hour in the doctor’s ………. .
I went to the doctor about my insomnia and she prescribed some ………. .
The main symptom of hay fever is that you keep ………. .
It was quite a bad cut and it was bleeding a lot, so I put on a ………. .
I think he’s broken his leg! Quick, someone call an ………. .
If someone is seriously ill they need to go to hospital to have an ………. .
I hate going to the dentist – I’ve got to have two ………. done.
If you want to stay fit, don’t eat too much and take plenty of ………. .
Her mother sent her to bed because she had a ………. .
He was ten kilos overweight and was advised to go on a ………. .
You’ve eaten too much, that’s why you have a pain in your ………. .
Oh, dear. I feel awful. I think I’m going to ………. .
Choose the best alternative to fill each of the gaps in the next five sentences.
If you want antibiotics, you’ll have to ask the doctor for a ………. .
She was in terrible pain, so the nurse gave her a (n) ………. injection scratch stab vaccine wound.
If you’ve got measles, your skin is covered in ………. blots dots freckles spots stains.
Why not take up tennis? It’ll help you to keep fit and it’s a great ………. amusement game match play tournament.
He didn’t feel like going to the party because he had a terrible ………. disease headache homesickness infection nostalgia.
In the last five sentences THREE of the alternatives are correct and TWO of them are wrong. Choose the three best alternatives for each.
1. If you’ve got a bad cold, it’s no wonder you’re feeling …… 1) off your food 2) out of order 3) out of sorts 4) under the weather.5)on form
2. I walked into a door yesterday, which is why I have a ………. on my forehead.1) black eye2) bruise 3) bump4) cut 5) hurt.
3. You’re less likely to become ill if you are ……….1) hygienic 2) physically fit 3) living a healthy life4) in good shape5) running
4. Doctor say that smoking and drinking can ………. your health.1) affect 2) damage3) improve4) ruin5) wound
5. As I haven’t had anything to eat today, I’m feeling a bit ……….1) dizzy2) faint 3) unny4) silly5) unconscious
Fill in the right prepositions where necessary.
I fell ill…. flu. 2. Nobody has yet found a cure …the common colds.3. He was treated …flu while he had quinsy.4. What do you take …coughing? 5. Make this medicine for me, please.6.He has been treated…long but he is not cured .7.I can hardly walk… rheumatism .8. You are pale …pain.9. If you are not treated you won’t … it .10. If you don’t have that tooth attended…. you will loose it. 11. You must consult …a doctor. 12 . You must be put…. sick leave. 13. You must have this prescription made …
VII. Translate into English.
А) Аптека, регистратура, слечь, лихорадить ,охрипнуть, хромать ,болеутоляющее, амбулаторный больной, быть переутомленным, первая помощь, осматривать больного, грелка, горчичник, насморк, пломба, сделать компресс, кашлять, лекарство, больница, дом отдыха, аптека, знобить, пациент, нервный, приемная врача.
B) Приступ кашля, испытывать головокружение, сделать операцию, сделать рентген, ходить на костылях, измерять кровяное давление, находиться под наблюдением врача, бесплатная медицинская помощь, позвать врача, пломбировать зуб, осведомляться о здоровье, удалять зуб, порезать руку, сломать ногу, испытывать боль в спине, получать больничный лист, подвергнуться операции, умереть от неизлечимой болезни, вызвать скорую помощь, вылечиться от воспаления легких, проверить пульс, показаться врачу, прописать микстуру от кашля , выслушать легкие, следовать указаниям врача.
С ) 1) Когда вы заболели? 2) В какие часы принимает врач? 3) На что вы жалуетесь ? 4) Где болит ? 5) Этот зуб следует удалить. 6) Вам не больно глотать? 7) Врач прописал мне микстуру.8) Ты выглядишь совсем плохо. 9)У меня сильно болит голова . 10) У вас грипп. 11) Вам следует полежать в постели. У вас температура 38,5. 12) Она болела корью? 13) Осложнений после болезней не было? 14) Как ваше здоровье? Спасибо, я прекрасно себя чувствую. 15) У него болит горло . 16) Какой диагноз? 17 ) Дайте мне что-либо от боли в желудке. Как принимать это лекарств ? 18) Прежнее лекарство мне совсем не помогло. 19) Она целую зиму страдала от простуд. 20) Ему удалили аппендицит. К сожалению на чались осложнения . 21. Вам нужно вырвать зуб. Попросите сестру сделать вам обезболивающий укол. 22) Мне дурно, меня тошнит, голова просто раскалывается. 23) Разденьтесь до пояса. Я хочу прослушать ваши легкие. 24 ) Вам нужно посидеть на диете три дня и так же принимайте это лекарство по одной столовой ложке три раза в день.
VIII. Fill in the right words.
1) The other day I witnessed a terrible accident. A bus collided with a motor car .The drivers were badly… . Many passengers were also seriously … They were transported to the nearest…in an …which the policeman had called for. They were.. . first aid.2) Why do you speak so softly ? I am … 3) Why are you …., John? I …my ankle yesterday, while playing tennis. 4) I have just …my hand . You must put some ointment on it. Then it won’t … 5) Ann has two
children … … with scarlet fever. They were taken to the ….
at once as scarlet fever is a very …disease. It is such a pity they were not against it. They say there is an …of scarlet fever in town now.
DISEASES. Fill in the blanks.
He often _ _ _ _ _ r _ from bronchitis.
That’s rights, darling; Mummy’s got a fat tummy because she’s _ _ _ g _ _ _ _.
She is colour-blind, which means that she can’t _ _ _ _ _ n _ _ _ _ _ between colors.
I am allergic to this kind of pollen. I start _ _ _ e _ _ _ _ any time it gets into my nose.
She is not coming today. She has got a _ _ _ cold.
Please don’t cough all over everyone! Your cold may be _ _ _ _ _ t _ _ _ _ .The epidemic seems to be dying out: only four _ _ _ e _ of cholera were reported last week.
The illness from which Alice is suffering has now been _ i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ as pneumonia.
I have a sore _ _ _ o _ _, perhaps I smoked too many cigarettes yesterday.
I had to stay in bed because I had _ _ _ g _ _ a cold.
It was just a _ _ l _ attack of bronchitis.
I am very _ _ _ i _ _ _ about her health. She seems so weak and his a high temperature.
DISEASES. The following are terms referring to some types of diseases. Match the types with their definitions.
psychosomatic indicating hypersensitivity to particular foods, kinds of pollen, insect stings, etc.
caused by mental stress
coming sharply to a crisis
lasting for a long time
due to disturbances in anabolic and katabolic processes
transmitted genetically from parent to child
caused by improper diet
spread by bacteria or viruses.
present from or before birth
spreading by physical contact
DISEASES. Choose the best answer.
Children with ….. diseases should not be allowed to go to school.
a) constant b) contact c) infectious d) influential
He has ….. bronchitis. He has suffered from it for many years.
a) chronic b) durable c) fatal d) mortal
I have been advised to take every ….. against catching flu again this winter.
a) precaution b) prediction c) premeditation d) prevention
After the outbreak of a mysterious illness, investigation revealed ….. of the town’s water supply.
a) contagion b) eruption c) infiltration d) pollution
Apart from the ….. cough and cold, I have been remarkably healthy all my life.
a) irregular b) odd c) opportune d) timely
Smallpox, once responsible for millions of deaths, has been virtually ….. .
a) abolished b) eradicated c) erased d) exterminated
Unless we take immediate precautions, we shall not be able to ….. the epidemic.
a) contain b) destroy c) hold d) staunch
Peter can’t play with the children next door because he is still in ….. with measles.
a) confinement b) detention c) seclusion d) quarantine
The outbreak of whooping cough among children under 5 has now reached ….. proportions.
a) contagious b) endemic c) epidemic d) pathological
My little daughter is not allowed to play with her friends next door because one of them is suffering from a ….. disease.
a)contagious b) contiguous c) touching d) transmitting
An illness that is caused by the mind is known as ….. illness.
a) an acute b) a congenital c) a familial d) a psychosomatic
She suffers from a morbid fear of spiders, known to doctor as ….. .
a) agoraphobia b) arachnophobia c) claustrophobia d) xenophobia
DISEASES. Fill the blanks with the words below. You may use each word only once.
bacteria body break dangerous delicate
disease eyes germs line liquids
membrane moisture mouth nose parts
prick skin sneeze stomach How the Body Fights Disease
The ….. is often called “the body’s first ….. of defence”. It acts as armor, resisting many germs that might harm the more ….. parts of the ….. . Any ….. in the skin even a pin ….. , provides an opening for ….. germs. Some …… enter the body through the ….. and ….. and other natural openings. These areas provided warmth and ….. , in which germs thrive. When the ….. of the nose and throat becomes irritated, we cough or ….. , blowing out the unwanted substances.
Other body ….. also contain a defense against ….. . Tears, for example, wash ….. from the ….. . Tears also contain substances that fight bacteria. Acid in the ….. kills man germs before they can reach other ….. of the body.
Choose the best answer.
Smoking is a very bad habit, which many people find difficult to ….. .
a) beat b) break c) breathe d) cough
Can you ….. me an effective way to stop smoking?
a) advise b) instruct c) show d) suggest
All cigarette packets carry ….. about the effect of smoking on health.
a) an advice b) an alarm c) an alert d) a warning
It has been conclusively ….. that smoking causes many diseases.
a) admitted b) approved c) declared d) established
Expert have found that breathing in tobacco smoke can be ….. to non-smokers.
a) harmful b) spoiling c) unhealthy d) wholesome
He never stops smoking, one cigarette after another. I’m afraid he’s become smoker.
a) chain b) cord c) line d) rope
You have a very nasty cough. You must ….. on cigarettes.
a) cut down b) give up c) reduce d) take down
I hope you don’t ….. to my smoking.
a) disapprove b) disagree c) object d) oppose
Many people have ….. smoking. Why don’t you follow their example!
a) ended b) given up c) gone from d) left
SPECIALISTS. Where can you find these patients? Match the patients with the correct words or departments.
Intensive Care Unit
Casualty and Emergency Department
Mary who has just had a baby
John who has broken his leg
My grandmother who is suffering from pneumonia complications
Peter who will have his appendix removed.
Betty’s mother who is from women’s disease
My mother who will be operated on for an eye cataract
Samuel who is unconscious
Paul who has just been in a car crash
Your son who has measles
SPECIALISTS. Give the name of the persons defined below.
1. a family doctor g _ _ _ _ _ _ p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ er2. someone who looks after people in hospital _ _ _ s _
3. sick person who has to stay in hospital i _-_ _ _ _ _ _ _
4. sick person who has to visit hospital regularly for treatment
o _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _
5. someone who operates on sick people _ _ _ _ _ o _
6. person badly injured in an accident, fire, war _ a _ _ _ _ _ _
7. person who helps at the birth of a baby m _ _ _ _ _ _
8. person who specialized in one area of medicine
_ p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
SPECIALISTS. Some of these words look so much alike that we often confuse them. See if you can get them straight. Here are some specialists with brief descriptions of their specialties. Check the one correct title that fits the description in each case.
He treats children’s diseases.
He is an orthopedist.
He is a pediatrician.
He is a pathologist.
He corrects deformities of the body.
He is a gynecologist.
He is an orthopedist.
He is a pathologist.
He straightens crooked teeth.
He is an orthodontist.
He is an orthopedist.
He is a pathologist.
He is a medical doctor who specializes in the diseases of the eyes.
He is an oculist.
He is an optician.
He is an orthopedist.
He makes your eyeglasses.
He is an oculist.
He is an orthopedist.
He is an optician.
He specializes in the disorders of the mind.
He is an internist.
He is a psychiatrist.
He is a physiotherapist.
His specialty is taking and interpreting X rays.
He is a gynecologist.
He is a neurologist.
He is a radiologist.
He specializes in diseases of the nervous system.
He is a cardiologist.
He is a dermatologist.
He is a neurologist.
He treats diseases of old age.
He is a cardiologist.
He is a geriatrician.
He is a pediatrician.
He specializes in skin diseases.
He is a dermatologist.
He is a geriatrician.
He is a pathologist.
He treats women’s diseases.
He is a dermatologist.
He is a geriatrician.
He is a gynecologist.
He brings children into the world.
He is a gynecologist.
He is an obstetrician.
He is a pediatrician.
He treats diseases by electricity.
He is a pathologist.
He is a physiotherapist.
He is a psychologist.
SPECIALISTS. Which of the professionals would you consult in each of the following cases?
To operate on an eye cataract _ c _ _ _ _ _
To cure your son’s measles _ _ d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
To make your new glasses _ _ _ i _ _ _ _
To deliver a baby ob _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
To test your eyesight _ _ t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
To cure a rash on the skin d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
To treat a sick mind p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
To operate on your appendix _ _ r _ _ _ _
To examine the old-age complaints of your grandmother
g _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
To treat Peter’s deformed hip _ _ _ _ _ p _ _ _ _ _
To analyze your dreams s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
To treat the ailments of your wife _ _ n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
SPECIALISTS. What is the difference between a psychiatrist and a psychoanalyst?
SYMPTOMS. Match the symptoms with the explanation what caused them.
Why are you sneezing?
Why are you crying?
Why are you yawning?
Why are you coughing?
Why are you bleeding?
Why are you sweating?
Why are you shivering?
Why are you shaking?
Why are you vomiting? I’m terrified by this story.
I’ve cut myself with a bread-knife.
I’m bored with this lecture.
Cigarette smoke irritates my throat.
You are hurting me.
I have a bad cold.
I’m very cold.
I must have eaten some bad food.
It’s too warm in here
SYMPTOMS. Match the following symptoms of disease with their definitions.
rash difficult or infrequent emptying of the bowels
weariness from bodily or mental exertion
to become senseless and motionless
feeling as if everything were turning round
act of sending out gas from the stomach noisily through the mouth
a burning sensation in the stomach from indigestion
pain in a nerve
feeling of sickness as caused by bad food
yellowness of the skin and the whites of the eyes
inability to sleep
a sensation in the skin causing a desire to scratch
the soft yellowish substance formed in and coming out from a poisoned place in the body
patch of tiny red sports on the skin
severe pain in the stomach and bowels
too frequent and too watery emptying of the bowels
sudden and painful tightening of the muscles
condition of the body with temperature higher than usual
a spasm of the respiratory muscles
a redness and swelling attended with heat, pain
difficulty in digesting food
SYMPTOMS. Choose words from the group below to complete the sentences. It may be necessary to change the form of the given words.
dizzy feverish queasy rash runny seedy sore
swollen to cough to vomit 1. I haven’t taken her temperature yet but her face is flushed and she seems ….. .
2. It’s hard to describe. I just feel generally ….. . Can you prescribe a topic?
3. When I stand up the room seems to be going round. I feel really …… .4. I’m not in pain but the glands in my neck seem to be ….. .
5. I’ve got a tickle in my throat. I can’t stop ….. .
6. I feel a bit queasy. I think I’m going to …… .7. I’ve come out in a ….. all over my chest and arms. I think I may be allergic to straw berries.
8. It’s like being sea-sick. I feel …… whenever I move about.
9. My throat is awfully ….. I hope it’s not bout of tonsillitis.
I’ve got a ….. nose. I suppose it’s a cold coming on.
SYMPTOMS. Choose the correct answers.
You should put your hand in front of your mouth when you ….. .
a) sniff b) snore c) swallow d) yawn
Six people were overcome by ….. from a container in the laboratory.
a) fumes b) leaks c) odours d) outflows
She has been working so hard she feels quite ….. .
a) careful b)dull c) exhausted d) wasted
The dog was in a terrible ….. when we found it.
a) condition b) danger c) illness d) sickness
His illness made him ….. of concentration.
a) incapable b) incompetent c)powerless d) unable
I felt a sharp ….. when I put my hand in the boiling water.
a) ache b) harm c) pain d) suffer
If you have got measles, your body is covered in ….. .
a) blots b)dots c)freckles d) spots
Every time she eats shellfish, she comes out in ….. .
a) a blush b) a bruise c) an itch d) a rash
The baby is very fretful: he must be ….. some teeth.
a) cutting b)grinding c) making d) producing
There is a small hard ….. on my wrist. I think I’d better see the doctor.
a) bruise b)limp c) rash d)swelling
I have a bad cold, and have lost all ….. of smell.
a) degree b) scent c) sense d)skill
He ….. from rheumatism.
a) hurts b) pains c) suffers d) troubles
Women seem able to ….. pain better than men.
a)bear b) carry c) support d) wear
I couldn’t go to the party because of a ….. cold.
a) fast b) hurried c) sudden d) surprising
He fell heavily and was immediately conscious of ….. pain in his right arm.
a) acute b) hard c) raw d) strong
Left on his back, an unconscious casualty may ….. in his own vomit.
a) drown b) sink c) submerge d) suffocate
I have a ….. headache.
a) burning b) raving c) spitting d) splitting
Her sister’s ….. kept me awake for half the night.
a) blowing b) coughing c) flowing d) swallowing
His stomach began to ….. because of the bad food he had eaten.
a) ache b) be hurt c) harm d) pain
You can die from breathing the ….. from a car engine for too long.
a) air b) fumes c) smoke d)steam
He says he had got ….. in his stomach.
a) aches b) hurt c) pains d) suffering
I’ve got such a ….. throat I’m sure I must be going to have a cold.
a) hurt b) irritable c) sensitive d) sore
I think you should see a doctor about that ….. .
a) belch b) blister c) inflammation d) pimple
I’m not really ill, but I have a ….. headache.
a) delicate b) pale c) slight d) weak
Colour-blind people often find it difficult to ….. between blue and green.
a) compare b) contrast c) distinguish d) separate
SYMPTOMS. Choose the right answer.
When I tried to walk I had a sharp ….. in my leg.
a) cut b) hurt c) pain d) wound
Whenever she catches …, she gets a ….. all over her face.
a) blemish b) lump c) rash d) sore
She ….. of severe pains in her arms and legs.
a) complains b) grumbles c) remarks d) says
You’re looking very pale – do you ….. sick?
a) become b) fall c) faint d) feel
My husband does not feel at all well. I think he must have eaten something that him.
a) disagreed b) disturbed c) hurt d) poisoned
If you have a sore throat it is very difficult to ….. .
a) bite b) chew c) digest d) swallow
If you didn’t keep scratching that spot on your face, it would soon ….. .
a) cure b) heal c) mend d) remedy
When I took his temperature, it was two degrees above ….. .
a) normal b) ordinary c) regular d) usual
I was so tired I couldn’t stop ….. .
a) coughing b) crying c) laughing d) yawning
After the accident she suffered brain ….. and couldn’t speak.
a) damage b) decay c) destruction d) disease
The child who swallowed a peanut began to ….. .
a) breathe b) choke c) cough d) yawn
May I please have a glass of water? I feel a little ….. .
a) bad b) faint c) hungry d) ill
SYMPTOMS. Choose the correct form.
The clinical thermometer is used (for, to) measuring (body’s, body) temperature. It (consist of, contains, includes) a tube made (from, of, with) glass, which (comprises, contains, consists of) a certain (amount, number) of mercury. When the mercury is (hot, heated), it (expands, extends, increases) and (raises, rises) up the tube, which is graduated in degrees Fahrenheit or Centigrade (according, depending) on the country of manufacture.
SYMPTOMS. Choose the correct form.
The dying man said nothing: he merely ….. .
a) mumbled b) sighed c) stammered d) whispered
There is something wrong with his vocal chords and, as a result, he has always been ….. .
a) deaf b) dumb c) silent d) speechless
He suffers from a speech ….. and so he cannot pronounce the letter “r” correctly.
a) break b) defect c) error d)mistake
She had lost her voice and could only speak in a ….. .
a) breath b) rustle c) whisper d) whistle
After speaking for two hours, the lecturer found he could scarcely talk, as he had become ….. .
a) dumb b) hoarse c) inarticulate d) speechless
When he spoke on the telephone, his voice was so ….. that I could hardly hear him.
a) dim b) dull c) faint d) unnoticeable
You will find John rather difficult to understand at first, as he has a slight ….. in his speech.
a) complication b) contraction c) difficulty d) impediment
You will have to ….. , Aunt Betty is rather deaf.
a) call up b) ring up c) speak up d) stand up
After a fall from a horse, his speech became rather ….. .
a) anxious b) confused c) confusing d) clear
I’m afraid I’m rather ….. of hearing. Will you speak a little louder, please?
a) deaf b) hard c) quiet d)slow
His stomach felt very ….. after that rough journey in a lorry.
a) disused b) undone c) used up d) upset
It was so cold my fingers were quite ….. .
a) insensible b) numb c) paralyzed d) senseless
Although the injured driver was almost unconscious, he was ….. in pain.
a) moaning b) mumbling c) stammering d) whispering
He was so cold that his teeth were ….. .
a) chattering b) perishing c) shivering d) shuddering
He ….. over the body of a cat lying on the pavement.
a) crashed b)stumbled c) toppled d) tumbled
John broke his leg. That is why he still ….. a little.
a) halts b) limps c) staggers d) trips
I was ….. by the gas in the room and fell to the ground.
a) depressed b) overcome c) overturned d) submerged
Her right eye ….. when she anxious.
a) twiddles b) twirls c) twitches d) twists
I have got such a ….. headache that I can’t concentrate on the lecture.
a) beating b) drumming c) hammering d) throbbing
He had a terrible cold and found it difficult to breathe as his nose was ….. .
a) closed up b) filled up c) shut up d) stuffed up
The fumes were so thick that he was ….. for breath.
a) gasping b) inhaling c) suffocating d) wheezing
Go straight to the hospital and have your hand attended to – it looks ….. to me.
a) affected b) infected c)intoxicated d) polluted
DISEASES. Give the Russian names of the following diseases.
chicken pox diabetes
DISEASES. Choose the correct answer.
He died after a long ….. .
a) disease b) failing c) illness d) sickness
The doctor had three ….. of nose-bleeding in the same day.
a) aspects b) cases c) examples d) illnesses
He still suffers from a rare tropical disease which he ….. while in the Congo.
a) contracted b) gained c) infected d) received
My grandmother is very old and is not ….. very good health.
a) from b) in c) on d) with
The teachers at the school went ….. with flu one after another.
a) down b) off c) out d) under
Malaria is ….. by the female mosquito.
a) broadcast b) sent c) transmitted d) transported
Mary is in bad with a ….. attack of flu.
a) hard b) heavy c) large d) severe
My brother was ….. ill yesterday and is now in hospital.
a) broken b) caught c) fallen d) taken
The school is half empty as a serious epidemic of measles has broken ….. .
a) down b) in c) out d) up
Several ….. of malaria have been reported.
a) cases b) doses c)occurrences d) types
To our ….. , Mary’s illness proved not to be as serious as we had feared.
a) anxiety b) eyes c) judgement d) relief
He ….. a rare disease when he was working in the hospital.
a) caught b) infected c) suffered d) took
My headaches are usually brought ….. by worry.
a) in b) on c) up d) out
The doctor examined him carefully and ….. influenza.
a) concluded b) decided c) diagnosed d) realized
Some diseases ….. quickly from one person to another.
a) catch b) get about c) move d) spread
Tropical diseases are comparatively ….. in Poland.
a) few b) rare c) scarce d) slight
It was a minor illness and he soon got ….. it.
a) around b) on with c) over d) up to
The ….. last thing I want now is to catch a cold.
a) extremely b) most c) utterly d) very
I can never touch lobster because I am …… to shellfish.
a) allergic b) infected c) sensible d) sensitive
She couldn’t go out because she had a ….. cold.
a) flowing b) leaking c) running d) streaming
The local medical officer reported a serious ….. of food-poisoning.
a) event b) incident c) outbreak d) state
The patient ….. his illness down to a virus infection.
a) laid b) placed c) put d) traced
You keep sneezing. You must have caught ….. .
a) a cold b) a cough c) a headache d) an illness
The children were suffering from the ….. of the hot weather.
a) consequences b) effects c) products d) results
He had a very bad cold and couldn’t stop …… .a) sneezing b) snoring c) spitting d) yawning
Our Body and Our Health
Study the vocabulary given above each paragraph of the text. Read the paragraphs and note down the following points:
types of cells
names of the main bones and muscles
the main function of the heart
the structure of a tooth
the layers of our skin
the structure of a hair
the way of the food into the stomach
the functions of the lungs
the information the nervous system gathers
the functions of the brain and the main senses
Our Body and Our Health
Our body is made up of thousands of different parts. All these parts work together to keep us alive and to help us move around. Some of the things we do require the strength of our MUSCLES. Other activities need the work of our BRAIN. All the parts of our body need to be kept strong and healthy. For example, we have the right FOOD for our BONES and TEETH to grow strong and hard. We must sleep to rest our body and take exercise to keep fit.
Muscle cells, nerve cells, bone cells, cells in the intestine.
All living things are made up of tiny parts called cells. Our body consists of millions and millions of these cells. Each cell takes in food and oxygen from the BLOOD.
Cells are many different shapes and sizes and each of them has a different job to do, BONE cells need to be strong and firm so they are linked together in circles. The nerve cells are very small, but they have long nerve fibers. Messages travel along these fibers. Some fibers carry messages to the BRAIN, telling it what is going on. Others carry messages from the brain, telling each part of the body to do a particular job. MUSCLE cells are long and thin. They are arranged in groups for strength.
Skull, spine, collarbone, breast bone, hummers, rids, radius, ulna, pelvis, femur, tibia, fibula.
Our bones form a framework called a skeleton. This skeleton supports our whole body. Bones also help to protect the more delicate parts of our body. Ribs protect the HEART and lungs, and the skull protects the BRAIN.
Bone is a hard, whitish substance. Most bones are not solid but are slightly hollow. Inside is a fatty material, called marrow, where the BLOOD CELLS are made.
Biceps contracted, triceps relaxed, biceps, tendon, triceps
Muscles are made of strong fleshy fibers. At each end they are firmly attached to a BONE by a tendon. By pulling on the bones, muscles enable us to move. Without muscles, it would be impossible for us to make movements at all. The HEART is made up of a special kind of muscle. As this muscle contract, the heart beats. Heart muscle works continuously and tirelessly throughout our lives. EATING involves muscular movements of our digestive system.
Heart, artery, vein, corpuscle.Blood is a red liquid which travels throughout the body. It is carried in a network of tubes. The largest of these tubes are called arteries and veins. The smallest branches are called capillaries. Blood takes with it the food and oxygen which keep the body alive and working properly.
Blood is made up of many red CELLS and a smaller number of white cells. Red blood cells are like tiny discs. They carry oxygen. White blood cells are larger. Their job is to fight disease. They surround and destroy harmful particles like BACTERIA which sometimes get into the blood. Blood cells are commonly known as corpuscles.
If you cut your finger, blood will start to flow out. But it soon thickens or clots to prevent too much escaping. A healthy child has about four liters of blood, a healthy grow-up person has about six liters.
Left auricle, left ventricle, right auricle, right ventricle
The heart is a kind of pump which drives BLOOD through the body. An adult’s heart beats about 70 to 80 times a minute when he is standing still.
When you are running about and playing hard, the body needs more food and oxygen. Then the heart beats faster, pumping the blood, with its food and oxygen, quickly through the body.
Blood flows along the veins into the right side of the heart. From there it is pumped to the lungs where it takes in oxygen from the air. It comes back from the lungs into the left side of the heart. From there it is pumped into all parts of the body through the arteries. Valves in the heart prevent the blood from flowing backwards.
Flat incisor, pointed canine, grinding molar, dentine, enamel, nerves, blood vessels, jawbone, root.
Teeth are for chewing FOOD. At the age of about six months, the first set of 20 teeth begins to grow through the gums. These first, or ‘milk’, teeth are soon lost. They are replaced by 32 permanent teeth. By the time you are about 14 years old you should have nearly all your permanent teeth.
Each tooth is held into the jawbone by a root that is hidden by your gums. The hard white part that you can see in the mouth is called the crown. The crown is covered by a hard layer of enamel. Under the enamel is a thick layer of strong material called dentine. The center of the tooth is made up of softer pulp that contains nerves and BLOOD vessels.
Pore, germ, sweat.The whole of our body is covered by skin. It protects us against injury and germs and also gives the body information about changes in temperature.
The skin is divided into two layers. The outer layer is dead. CELLS flake off from this all the time. Underneath this protective layer there are thousands of sensitive cells. All over the skin are tiny openings called pores. Sweat escapes through these pores to cold the body.
Dead layer, pore, sweat gland, living layer, hair follicle, hair, nerves, layer of fat
Hair grows on nearly every part of the human body. It is most noticeable, however, on the head.
The hair on our head usually grows about 15 centimeters a year.
Each hair grows from a root in its own follicle, or opening, in the SKIN. Every follicle has a GLAND which supplies oils to the hair and to the skin. The follicle also has a MUSCLE attached to it which makes the hair stand on end when we shiver. Normally, each hair lies flat against the skin.
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, appendix, small intestine, anus.The FOOD we eat helps to give us energy. It has a long journey to make before all its goodness has been taken into our body.
When we put food into our mouth, it is first chewed into tiny pieces by our TEETH. These pieces of food are then mixed with a juice called saliva. Saliva is made in GLANDS in the mouth. It is produced whenever food is put into the mouth. Saliva contains special chemicals, called enzymes, which begin to digest the food.
The food is then swallowed and down the food pipe, or esophagus, into the stomach. Here it is mixed with digestive juices and turned over and over until a thick liquid is formed. The food takes up to six hours to be digested in the stomach, depending on the size of the meal.
A little at a time, this liquid leaves the stomach and passes into the small intestine. The small intestine is a coiled tube about seven meters long. In the small intestine, more enzymes are added to the liquid to complete the digestion process. All the goodness from the food then passes through the walls of the intestine and into the BLOOD. The digested food is carried in the blood along the arteries and veins to the Cells of the body.
Any undigested food passed into the large intestine or bower. This tube is wider than the small intestine, but not as long. In the bowel the water is taken out of the waste food. In its more solid form the food passes out of the body through the opening called the anus. The complete digestive process takes about 24 hours.
The appendix, located close to where the large and small intestines meet, serves no purpose in humans. When it is infected, it becomes inflamed and fills with pus. This condition is called appendicitis.
Nostril, windpipe, ribs, bronchi, diaphragm, lung.
Breathing is the process of taking in and expelling air. We need air because it contains oxygen. Oxygen enables our body to release the energy contained in our FOOD and keep us moving. When you sit still, you breathe in and out about twenty times every minute. When you run about, you need more energy than when you sit still, and so you need more oxygen. You breathe more quickly when you are running - perhaps as much as fifty times every minute.
Air is drawn in through the nose or the mouth.
Next, it passes into the windpipe. The windpipe divides into two passages, called bronchi. One of these goes to each lung. Our lungs are like two large balloons in the chest. When we breathe in, the MUSCLES between our ribs lift the rib cage and the sheet of muscle at the bottom of the ribs, called the diaphragm, pushes downwards. When this happens there is more space inside the ribs and the lungs can swell up as air is taken in.
Inside the lung the bronchi divide again and again forming a network of small air passages inside the lungs. Each one of these air passages ends in a tiny air sac called an alveolus. BLOOD collects oxygen from the alveoli and carries it round the body to all CELLS. When the cells use the oxygen, they produce another gas called carbon dioxide. Blood carried this gas back to the lungs and we breathe it out.
We do not have to think about breathing because we do it automatically. The BRAIN sends signals to the diaphragm and rib cage muscles, telling them how often to relax and tighten and so make us breathe in and out.
Brain, spinal cord, cerebellum, nerves.The nervous system gather information about what is going on inside and outside our body using the SENSES and nerves. The BRAIN and spinal cord receive this information. They then send messages back which can make MUSCLES or CLANDS work. In this way we respond to situations around us. Sometimes we respond quickly and without thinking. If we touch something hot, we soon take our hand away. Often we choose what to do. When we cross a street we look, listen and thinks before we decide that it is safe to step forward.
The brain controls almost all the things that we do. Messages from all over the body pass to and from the brain along the spinal cord. Each part of the brain controls a different activity. Parts of the outer layer receive messages from the SENSES. Another area of the brain governs speech. The brain stores some information as memory. We learn from this memory and use its information to make decisions.
The five senses
Nostril, smell cells, nose cavity, palate, retina, optic nerve, iris, pupil, cornea, lens, semi-circular canals, cochlea, nerve cells, inner ear, throat, middle ear, eardrum, external ear.
The five senses are: sight, taste. hearing, smell and touch. All the sense organs collect information in a different way. But they all send messages along nerves to the BRAIN, where they are interpreted and acted upon.
Light enters the eye through an opening at the center of the iris called the pupil. What we see is focused (made clearer) by the lens, and is recorded on the retina at the back of the eye. Within the retina are nerve CELLS that messages to the brain about the colour and brightness of light entering the pupil.
Taste buds in the tongue give us a sense of taste. Different taste buds can recognize the four flavors: salt, sour, sweet and bitter.
The eardrum vibrates when sounds hit it. This in turn makes three small bones in the middle ear vibrate. The vibrations pass to the cochlea of the inner ear. Nerve cells in the cochlea inform the brain of the loudness and pitch of the sound waves entering the ear.
Many substances give off a scent or smell. The smell consist of millions of tiny particles which float in the air. We use our noses to detect them. When we smell a flower, for example, the particles are drawn up the nose to the smell cells in the upper part of the nasal cavity. The cells tell the brain what kinds of particles they are.
Nerves in our skin give us a sense of touch. We can feel whether objects are rough or smooth, wet or dry and we can respond to sharp pressure. Fingertips and lips are the most sensitive areas.
Body. Give names for the indicated parts of the head.
_ _ _ _
_ _ _ e _ _ _ _
_ _ _ b _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ s _
_ _ e _ _ _
_ _ _ e _
_ _ _ t _ _ _
_ _ u _ _
_ _ _
_ h _ _
_ a _
_ _ c _
Body. Match each of the following parts of the body with the correct number in the picture below.
…thumb …Adam’s apple
The blind man ran the ….. of his fingers over the box.
a) points b) edges c) tips d) ends
When people sweat, the liquid comes out through the ….. of the skin.
a) veins b) vents c) pores d) holes
The ….. is the main air passage of the body.
a) intestine b) ear c) windpipe d) kidney
The main function of the heart is to ….. blood round the body.
a) push b) propel c) pump d) walk
Arnold Schwartzeneger has an enormous chest ….. .
a) growth b) swelling c)expansion d) inflation
Body. Complete the sentences. The number of dashes is identical with the number of letters in the missing words.
We have ten _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on our hands and ten _ _ _ son our feet.
The function of the heart is to enable the _ _ o _ _ to circulate.
The _ _ _ _ a _ _ is used for digesting food.
The flesh your teeth grow from is your _ _ _.
Do you wear your watch on your right _ _ _ s _ because you are left-handed?
A bear crushed him and cracked several of his _ _ _ s.
With the help of our _ _ _ _ u _ we are able to speak eat.
Our _ _ _ i _ enables us to think.
At first she thought the body had a high temperature, but when she put her hand on his _ _ _ e _ _ _ _ to make sure, she found it was cold.
I dropped a heavy box on my _ _ _ _ and broke one of my toes.
cistern of the milk-producing of a woman (6)
conducts blood away from the heart (6)
part of the body that includes the bowels (7)
of or for the teeth (6)
a large box or part of the body (5)
any one of the twelve pairs of curved bones in the chest (3)
a tree or part of the hand (4)
flat sea fish with a delicate flavor or under surface of the foot (4)
a flower or part of the eye (4)
movable cover for the teapot or flap of skin that covers the eye (3)
for hearing (3)
organ shaped like a bag in which urine collects (7)
one of five on your foot (3)
the part of the body from the shoulder to hand (3)
conducts impulses from the brain (5)
for seeing (3)
9. a young cow part of the leg (4)
11. fills your veins (5)
a schoolboy or part of the eye (5)
a large organ which produces bile and cleans the blood (5)
conducts blood back to the heart (4)
for smelling (4)
Body. Each of the ten words below are regularly used to describe an action or gesture made with a part of the body. Write which. In some cases more than one answer is possible.
stick out point
Body. Choose the correct answer.
The PUPIL is part of the ….. .
a) ear b) stomach c) eye d) hand
The SOLE is part of the ….. .
a) hand b) foot c) eye d) ear
The CALF is part of the ….. .
a) leg b) arm c) chest d) head
The Wrist is part of the ….. .
a) hand b) foot c) eye d) ear
The IRIS is part of the ….. .
a) hand b) foot c) eye d) ear
The HEEL is part of the ….. .
a) hand b) foot c) eye d) breast
The PALM is part of the ….. .
a) hand b) foot c) eye d) breast
The NIPPLE is part of the ….. .
a) hand b) foot c) eye d) breast
The THUMB is part of the ….. .
a) hand b) foot c) head d) chest
The SHIN is part of the ….. .
a) arm b) leg c) head d) brBody. What’s the Russian for?
Body. Match the following parts of the body with the jumbled definitions on the right.
throat organ in the head which controls thought and feeling
long pipe leading from the stomach which takes waste matter from the body
Two small, fleshy organs in the throat
baglike organ in which food is broken down for use by the body
one of twenty four bones protecting the chest
one of a pair of organs which separate waste liquid from the blood
one of two bony parts of the face in which teeth are set
large organ which cleans the blood
one of a pair of breathing organs in the chest
passage from the back of the mouth down inside the neck
short organ of little use which leads off the large intestine
organ in the chest which controls the flow of blood by pushing it round the body
Body. Choose one of the possibilities that best completes the sentence.
He must be terribly strong! Look at his ….. .
a) skin b) limbs c) muscles d) nerves
He stood with his hands on his ….. daring me to go past him.
a) ankles b) knees c) shoulders d) hips
Every tooth in my upper ….. seemed to be aching.
a) chin b) cheek c) jaw d) forehead
When Mary twisted her ankle, John carried her home on his ….. .
a) shoulders b) knees c) hands d) arms
His shoes were so old that his ….. were sticking out of them.
a) fingers b) thumbs c) tips d) toes
Ideas for discussian:
Structure of our body.
Functions of the organs.
Read the text again and analyze its paragraph structure. Write down topic sentences from each paragraph of the text and combine them into a short summary
At the Doctor’s
Study the vocabulary:
 regarding – осматривая
 occasionally – временами
 the best cure for – лучшее лечение от …
 I have come to see you about – Я пришел к Вам на осмотр
 for years – в течении лет
 so I am used to that – поэтому я привык к такому
 has been bothering me a good deal lately – очень беспокоит меня в последнее время
 It comes and goes – Она приходит и уходит
 any number of things – и многое другое
 without first giving you a series of tests – не сделав сначала серию анализов
 exercise too little – слишком мало двигаетесь
 Could that be the case ? – Может быть в этом причина?
 all day long – весь день
 to check blood-pressure – проверить кровяное давление
 but nothing to worry about – не о чем беспокоиться
 for about – в течение (приблизительно)
 later it moves down into my ankle – позже перешла в лодыжку
 it is more like – это больше похоже на …
 avoid getting chilled – избегать простуды
 stay out of drafts – избегать сквозняков
 to build yourself up in general – укреплять здоровье вообще
 I want you to be sure to get in touch with me every two or three days – Обязательно связывайтесь со мной через каждые 2-3 дня.
 You take only one a day – Принимайте только по одной в день
 try to take it easy – постарайтесь проще смотреть на вещи
 In the matter of sleeping – что касается сна
 to take your mind off your business – не думать о деле
 find yourself – оказаться (очутиться)
Read the dialogue; and the pay attention to the new vocabulary.
At the doctor’s office
(Doctor, regarding  his patient) You don’t look very cheerful today, Mr.Liss.
I don’t feel very well, Doctor.
What seems to be the trouble?
Well, for one thing I haven’t bee sleeping so well. I feel a little tired. I also have pain occasionally. 
You mean that you have insomnia. You know the best cure for  insomnia, don’t you? A good night’s sleep. Have you tried drinking a little warm milk and eating a few crackers before going to bed?
Six months ago you told me not to eat anything before I went to bed.
(Smiling) That just goes to show you what great progress medical science has made recently.
Anyway, it’s more the pain in my leg that I have come to see you about.  I haven’t slept well for years,  so I am used to that.  But this pain has been bothering me a good deal lately.  It’s not a steady pain. It comes and goes.  It is in my right leg. Do you think it might be a little rheumatism?
It might be rheumatism, neuritis, arthritis, poor circulation, kidney trouble, heart trouble – any number of things.  It is hard to say what it is without first giving you a series of tests.  How do you feel in general? You say that you are tired. How is your appetite? Do you eat well?
You seem a little overweight. Maybe you eat too much and exercise too little.  Could that be the case? 
Naturally, I’m not as active physically as I used to be. I’m at my office all day long.  I have my own business, and I work pretty hard at it.
I suspect maybe you work too hard at it. Take off your coat and roll up your sleeve, please. I want to check your blood-pressure.  How old are you, Mr.Liss – about fifty?
)Doctor, testing blood pressure) Your blood-pressure is slightly above normal – but nothing to worry about.  Have you ever had any trouble with your heart – any shortness of breath? Any dizziness after climbing stairs?
No, I’ve never had any trouble of that sort.
How long have you had these pains in your leg? You say the pain comes and goes. Would you say that you feel it more in the joints or in the muscular part of your leg?
I believe it is more in the joints. I’ve had it now for about  three months. At first I felt it more in my knee; then later it moved down into my ankle. 
Do your knee or ankle swell?
I believe they swelled a little. I didn’t notice particularly. I know they were sore to the touch. Generally, it is a steady ache that I feel, but sometimes it is more like a series of sharp pains.
It sounds to me like the beginning of a little arthritis. I don’t think it is anything serious, but you naturally have to be careful. You should avoid getting chilled.  Don’t get your feet wet, and stay out of drafts.  You should also try to get a little more rest and to build yourself up in general.  I’ll give you some tablets that will help you. However, I want you to be sure to get in touch with me every two or three days  to let me know whether you feel any particular reaction. The pills are something new and rather potent. You take only one a day. 
Shall I come to your office or can I just telephone you?
You can telephone me. However, I’m giving you only enough pills to last you three weeks. Then you’d better come in again to see me. If there has been no improvement, I will give you some further tests. In the meantime, try to take it easy.  Don'’ work so hard. In the matter of sleeping  you can do a great deal to help you self. Try going to bed every night an hour earlier than usual. Read or do something relaxing each evening in order to take your mind off your business  and your personal problems.
I’m glad you think it’s nothing serious.
These things are not serious if you catch them in time. But you must also learn to take care of yourself. You are a man of fifty-two years of age. You can’t work as hard as you used to do. Take it easy. Otherwise one day you may find yourself  in a wheel-chair all crippled up with arthritis. That’s not a very happy prospect – is it?
Questions for discussion:
Does the above dialogue take place in the office of a dentist or in the office of a doctor?
What is insomnia?
What does the doctor say is the best cure for insomnia?
What does the doctor recommend that Mr.Liss do in order to help him sleep better?
Has Mr. Liss been suffering from a pain in his back or a pain in his leg?
Does Mr. Liss say that it is a steady pain, or a pain that comes and goes?
What, in medical terminology, is meant by “poor circulation”?
What is the opposite of “overweight”?
Does the doctor feel that Mr. Liss’ blood pressure is above normal or below normal?
In periods of stress or excitement does the blood pressure usually rise or fall?
What is normal body temperature?
During serious illness or attacks of fever, to what heights will body temperature sometimes go?
What are some of the symptoms of heart trouble? Of rheumatism? Of arthritis?
What treatment does the doctor recommended to Mr. Liss?
When you go to a doctor, do you always or seldom follow his advice?
Imagine, you are a doctor. Try to diagnose these illnesses.
1. Common symptoms ; weakness, fever, sore throat, and puffiness to the cheeks. The swelling may extend from the cheeks to under the angle of the jaw.
2. This common childhood illness has its highest incidence in These symptoms will give way to a rash ( pink ,circular spots ) that starts on the face and spreads to the trunk, arms, and legs. Duration of the rash is typically 1-3 days.
Common symptoms in the adults include: fever, chills, runny nose, sore throat, swollen glands, frontal headache, muscle and body aches, joint paints, dry cough, chest pains with coughing, and weakness.
Common presentation is abdominal pain with fever ,loss of appetite, and nausea. Within 6-7 hours the pain localizes to the right lower quadrant of the abdomen.
Common symptoms include productive cough, fever, and chills. Shortness of breath is seen in more severe cases, breathing out is more difficult than breathing in. The act of breathing out may be accompanied by a musical wheeze.
This infection will commonly start as an upper respiratory infection with symptoms of runny nose, fever, and sore throat. A cough may be present, but it is usually spreading to the limbs. The rash starts as red spots that later turn into blistery bumps. The rash will eventually crust over, scab, and only rarely cause scarring. This process may take 7-14 days.
It is generally a 3-7 days illness( often seasonal) that results in congestion, runny nose, sneezing, watery eyes, sore throat and dry cough. There may be an associated low-grade fever.
A home call
Between a Mother, her Son and the Doctor.M: Your nose is clogged up , your voice is hoarse and your face flushed. You must have a cold. I’m sure. I hope it’s nothing more. Where did you manage to get it?
S: I don’t know myself. I must have caught cold last night after a game of football when I felt so hot that I even took my jacket off.
M: How, thoughtless of you, the evening was chilly and windy. Now you will have to stay at in. Here is the thermometer, take your temperature.
S: Oh, I’ll be all right in a few hours.
M: Now, you do what you are told. Put the thermometer under your arm …. Oh, it’s thirty eight point three. You’ll have to away from classes today. I ‘ ll call the doctor. ( She phones to the local out patient hospital and is told that the doctor will call while making his daily round of the district).
D: What do you complain of , my boy?
S: I have a bad head ache and a sore throat. I feel sort of feverish.
D: Let me feel your pulse . Open your mouth, please. I see your tongue is coated and your throat inflamed. Now , strip to the waist, please. Take a deep breath…
Your son is to keep his bed for three days. Here is the prescription. This medicine is to be taken three times a day before meals, two tablespoonfuls each time. It will to keep the fever down . Blow your nose gently , young man, or else you’ll
have an earache…Nothing serious, but don’t get up before Wednesday , as there might be complications(bad after-effects)
Make up a dialogue on analogy using the vocabulary
Conditions/symptoms etc. which have developed recently.
finger is inflamed
back is very painful
have got a sore throat
have got a temperature
have got a stomachachehave got diarrheahave got toothache
feel sick cut myself
tripped and fell
reading too much
caught a bug
went out in the rain
ate too much
ate something that disagreed with me
lost a filling
something upset me
POSSIBLE DIAGNOSIS POSSIBLE CURE
it’s eye strain
it’s a throat infection
caught a chill
it’s a tummy upset
it’s a nerve
mild food poisoning have a penicillin injection
have/get it X-rayed
get some eye-drops
buy some lotion
get some pastilles
stay in bed
take a stomach-powder
take some tablets
see a dentist
see a doctor
Conditions/symptoms etc. which have been apparent for some time.
have got a bad cough
keep getting headaches very worried
smoking too much
hit my head
it’s just nerves
mild concussion take some sleeping pills
see a doctor/have it seen to
take it easy
1`. As you read the text look for an answer to the following question: When should you go to the emergency room?
You can get treatment for serious medical problems include heart attack, broken bones, serious bleeding, animal bites, or serious burns. Go to the emergency room for sudden serious pain, such as chest or stomach pains. For common health problems such as colds, fevers, and rushes, you should go to the polyclinic. Do not go to the emergency room for chronic problems or you can make a doctor’s appointment for. If possible, call your own doctor before you go to the emergency room.
Hospital emergency rooms are open 24 hours a day. They are often crowded and you might have to wait a long time to see a doctor. When the doctor examines you, she will ask many questions about your specific injury or condition. She will ask also if you have any allergies, what medications you are presently taking, and your medical history. Sometimes you might need x-rays or special laboratory tests. Usually, the emergency room releases you the same day. They will tell you to go to a doctor outside the hospital for follow up treatment. If your condition is serious, you might have to stay in the hospital.
Here are some tips on what to do at accidents. Read them and ask yourself if you know what to do in the case of emergency. Discuss if it is necessary to take a first aid course so that each person knows more about this.
(If emergency services are already at the scene, drive past slowly and don’t interfere)
Control any serious bleeding and make sure victims can breathe.
Leave victims in the car unless there is a danger from fire there.
Switch off ignition and lights of any car involved, Make sure the brakes are on.
Don’t smoke or allow any bystanders to smoke.
Look to see if any victims have been thrown over a nearby wall or hedge.
Set warning triangles or send bystanders 200 metres behind and ahead of the scene to warn other drivers to slow down.
Get a bystander to call the ambulance, write down exactly where you are, the number of victims and apparent injuries.
Treat the victims as best as you can without pulling them out.
Wait for the emergency services to arrive.
1`. Don’t cut the wound.
2.Don’t suck out the poison.
Encourage the patient to rest, lying down.
Wash the wound and apply a clean dry dressing.
Bandage firmly with a soft pad pressing on the wound.
Prevent the patient from moving the affected part-this reduces the spread of poison.
Get the victim to the hospital as soon as possible.
Move the patient as little as possible. Call for a doctor or ambulance.
Position the patient with his or her head low and feet raised – do not move any part that may be fractured.
Loosen tight clothing.
Keep the patients, cover them with a coat or blanket.
Artificial respiration. By holding the patient in this position, his lungs will be drained of any liquid almost immediately.
Lay the patient on his back …
… press the head back-wards and the lower jaw upwards …
… seal the patient’s nose by pinching his nostrils together …
… then, place your wide open mouth right round his and blow hard …
… and repeat six times quickly and then at about ten times a minute.
Repeat the action each time the patient’s chest falls
Carry on until the patient breathes naturally or help arrives.
Anyone whose breathing has stopped needs artificial respiration at once. Lack of oxygen can cause brain damage within only three to five minutes and longer oxygen starvation leads to death.
Breathing can stop from one of many reasons: drowning, electric shock, poisoning, suffocation or a sudden illness such as a heart attack.
To check whether a person is breathing, put your ear close to his nose and mouth: you should be able to hear air passing in and out of his throat. Or put a mirror close to his lips: if he is breathing, the mirror mists over.
3, Guided Conversation
Questions on the text If someone’s breathing has stopped what should you do immediately?
How long does it take for lack of oxygen to cause brain damage?
What happens if a person is starved of oxygen for more than minutes?
What can cause breathing to stop?
What’s the thing to do to see whether someone’s breathing?
What should you be able to hear?
How else can you check whether someone is breathing?
Why does the rescuer put the patient face down across his knees?
Where does he put the patient next.What does he do to the patient’s head and lower jaw.What does he do to the patient’s nose?
Where does the rescuer put his own mouth?
What does he do then?
How many times does he blow quickly?
How often does he repeat the process?
How long should he continue?
Check if Ask whether … .the patient it lying face upwards or face downwards.
The patient is on a bed or on the ground.
his head is pressed backwards or forwards.
the rescuer repeats her action each time the patient'’ chest falls.
the rescuer breathes hard or gently into the patient'’ mouth.
the rescuer repeats this six or ten times.
General test “How good are you in an emergency?”
How should you treat a nosebleed?
Lay the victim down with his head raised?
Put a bunch of keys down his back?
Get him to sit with his head slightly forward and pinch his nostrils?
a b c
When someone faints, should you:
Lay him down with his legs higher than his head?
See he has plenty of fresh air?
Loosen tight clothing?
a b c
In cases of electric shock, which should you do first:
Drag the victim clear?
Turn off the appliance?
Turn off the electricity at the power point or mains?
a b c
If you see a small child with his heard stuck between railings, should you:
Grease his ears try to pull him out?
Send for the Fire Brigade?
Turn him upside down gently and try to ease his head through face first?
a b c
For hiccups, should you give:
Sips of water?
A teaspoonful of dry, granulated sugar?
A sudden shock?
a b c
In cases of poisoning, should you:
Always make the victim sick?
Get him to drink a lot of water?
Send him to hospital?
a b c
What to do about flu
1. Read these sentences. Which do you think are true (T) or false (F)?
One symptom of fly is an aching back.
Antibiotics can help you to get better from flu.
Flu always last several days.
It’s advisable to drink two to three liters of liquid a day.
If you have flu, it’s essential too eat three times a day.
Flu is not a serious illness for anyone.
Fly is infectious – other people can it from you.
People are more likely to catch flu in a crowded place.
Elderly people should tell their doctor if they think they’ve got flu.
If you have flu badly, you should lie in a darkened room.
Doctors, nurses and policemen are always vaccinated against flu.
One vaccination gives several years’ protection against flu.
The worst time of year for flu is the autumn.
Wash up very thoroughly if someone in your family has flu.
You should call the doctor if your flu goes on for longer than a week
Discuss with your friend what can we do about flu
THE BRITISH HEALTH SERVICE
Read the interview of Hillary Max-Hyslop with a British General Practitioner (GP). What new facts about the British National Health Service have you learned?
The British National Health Service (NHS) was set up in 1948 with the intention of providing free health care for everyone. Recently it has been going through a period of reorganization. Those in favour of the reforms say that it is vital for the NHS to adapt to society today; advances in medicine have meant that people are living longer than ever before and the NHS must make the very best use of its resources. Those against the changes say the reforms have led to a worsening of the services provided. 'Kaleidoscope' has devoted the whole of this issue to an interview with a doctor, working in Cambridge. The doctor is General Practitioner (GP) who works in a practice.
Interview: the National Health Service
— Can you just explain "General Practice" and the role of a GP?
— Well, general practitioners are the first port of call for any patient, so they provide the primary healthcare. Something like 80 percent of medical interactions are with GPs, and only a very small percentage go on to hospital.
We are contracted to provide medical services for all our patients 24 hours a day.
— You say 24 hours a day. Do you work days and nights?
— I work part-time, so I work half as much as my full-time colleagues. I work from lunchtime on Monday to about 7.30 in the evening, including an evening surgery. And then I do a half share of nights and weekends.
— Could the NHS restrict night work and home visits?
— I think it must be feasible in that we are the only country in the world that provides this service. A lot of other countries manage by patients travelling to primary healthcare centres. One of the things that's happened over the last few years is that the Government has brought out their Patients' Charter, which lists the rights of patients; since then, there has been a rise in the number of out-of-hours-visits requested. There's a big move to change the system. Patients who can travel come to a healthcare centre and see a doctor who is waiting there to see people. It seems to be working quite well.
— Do you feel you have enough time to see patients?
— Just. We have an appointments system and we see patients every ten minutes. And if you have a patient coming back who you know has got a complicated problem, you can always get them to make a double appointment.
GP's are self-employed and have a contract with the local Health Authority, so practices can decide on their own appointments system. Nobody dictates how you should arrange things, except that now, of course, it's easy for patients to change doctors.
— Since the recent reorganization, the National Health Service (NHS) is frequently in the news. Do you think it's still worthy of admiration?
— Yes. I think it's certainly true that even before the recent reorganization it was one of the cheapest health services in the Western World, and yet provided as good care as any. So I think it always has been efficient.
— There have been considerable changes. Can you explain the main ones?
— Well, in the hospital service, individual hospitals have been invited to become self-running Trusts, so they organize their own finances and the services they offer. So there is an element of competition coming in between the different hospitals. The idea of the old National Health Service was to provide everybody with the same service.
And the other change is that GPs have been encouraged to become fundholders, which means that they get a budget at the beginning of the year and every time they refer a patient to a hospital, they pay for that particular referral.
— The Government is always telling us that there's more money for patients. Do you agree?
— I don't know. Waiting lists seem longer than five years ago, but I don't know whether that's due to increased demand or limited supply.
— One criticism of the NHS now is that there are too few doctors and nurses and too many managers. Do you think that criticism is justified?
— I don't — think that there are fewer doctors and nurses than before, but I think that the demands being made on them are greater. We have an ever-enlarging, ageing population, with more medical treatments available, so that doctors are stretched more than they were. We certainly have more managers. The whole structure of the new fund-holding Trust system requires lots more managers.
— Do you think that if resources are more limited, the NHS should give the public more details about how doctors make Judgements as to who goes to the top of the queue for treatment, and why a particular course of treatment is chosen?
— Who a doctor treats and how is a clinical decision and I don't think you gain anything by that being opened up. Mr. X is not helped by knowing that Mr Y is worse off than he is. But I think the decision about how much treatment is available is political.
— Do you think it is unrealistic to expect that one can have a free health service?
— No. I would be very upset if it was ever any difference from that. Most of the doctors I know would agree that medical care should be free at the point of the delivery. But there are health authorities now where certain areas of treatment, for instance varicose veins surgery or plastic surgery, are no longer available free on the NHS.
— Do you think medicine is going to change dramatically in the next twenty years?
— I think that what is changing faster than the medical advances are the political aspects of the delivery of the service. It will depend on what happens at the next general election.
The GP was interviewed by Hillary Max-Hyslop, Kaleidoscope
2. Discuss with your partner pros and cons of the British NHS.
1. While reading pay attention to the main differences in organizing Health Care Services in Belarus and Great Britain.
State Policy on Health Care Services
Organization and management
According to the Law On Health Protection of the Republic of Belarus, state policy on health protection is based on the following principles:
* free and accessible medical care;
* health protection directed towards disease prevention; priority for medical care to mothers and children;
* and responsibility for citizens' health rests with state bodies as well as employers.
The Parliament formulates health protection policy, determines strategies for health protection, approves national medical programs, monitors observance of health protection laws and approves the state budget for health protection of the population.
The President and the Cabinet of Ministers plan and approve programs for health protection and medical science development, including programs for eliminating the negative consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear plant catastrophe, pharmaceutical education and scientists training; develop national plans;
plan and approve medicine and medical equipment production programs; provide sanitary protection for the territory, sanitary and epidemiological protection for the population, and protection from radiation.
The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus directly governs the work in this sector. It manages the professional activities of all the bodies, organizations, institutions and enterprises of health protection, irrespective of their ownership or of the ministry they belong to, and also the activities of private medical and pharmacy workers; organizes and controls professional training of medical and pharmaceutical workers and coordinates research in the field of health protection; and approves sanitary hygienic and sanitary epidemiological norms and standards and sets rules for their enforcement.
Local bodies are responsible for the health of citizens living in their territory. They provide financing for the health protection agencies they control; carry out sanitary hygienic and sanitary epidemiological actions, undertake measures for protecting against radiation in production activities in state bodies, enterprises, institutions, organizations and public unions; are responsible for the development and material and technical efficiency of the health protection institutions under their authority; approve of and finance regional medical programs; and license certain kinds of medical and pharmaceutical activities.
Financing of health services
Financing for state health protection services is based on per capita expenditures for health protection. The part of the expenses to be spent annually for this purpose is set by the Law On the State Budget of the Republic of Belarus, but should not be less than 10 % of the national income.
Over the last 5 years, financing of health care has accounted for between 4.8 % and 5.3 % of national income, due to the decline in national income as a result of the worsening economic situation in the country. These funds cover no more than 50 % of demand.
Sources of financial contributions to health protection include:
*state budget funds; non-budgetary funds of local Soviets of Deputies; donations from enterprises, institutions, organizations, public unions and individuals; donations from foreign citizens and persons without citizenship; compensation from legal suits won by health protection bodies brought against enterprises, institutions and organizations to reimburse costs of restoring health following accidents and violations of technical procedures which caused loss of health in citizens; and payment for medical services not financed by slate health protection programs or medical insurance funds.
Institutions of health protection can also be financed by organizations that deal in medical insurance.
In 1994, 11.6 % of total budgetary expenditures were allocated to health care (7.5% in 1990 and 11.3% in 1993). Of that sum, 14 % was allocated for buying medicine and dressings, 14 % for purchasing equipment, 24 % for salaries of institutional workers, 6 % for meals in medical institutions and 5 % for construction and repair of buildings.
This amount is not enough however. Reduced availability of material resources and maintenance of equipment, as well as lack of modern diagnostic and treatment equipment can be observed in health care institutions. Availability of medicine is an acute problem for the Republic. There is some local production of pharmaceuticals, but the reagents must be imported and paid for with scarce foreign currency supplies. There is no local production of vaccines, which again must be purchased with scarce hard currency. Serious consideration is being given to developing a pharmaceutical industry within Belarus, and a state program for developing this industry, by the year 2000, is being worked out. With the development of a market economy, private medicine is beginning to develop.
The package of services offered is growing, including those of non-traditional medicine, but private medicine is still not widely practised.
Access to services
Health care in the Republic of Belarus is characterized by a high availability of medical personnel and hospital beds. In January 1995, there were 44,600 doctors (43.3 per 10,000 of the population) and 117,600 professional medical workers such as nurses and technologists/technicians (114.2 per 10,000 of the population). General practitioners account for 26 % of the total medical personnel, paediatricians for 11%, surgeons for 12%, dentists for 8 % and obstetrician/gynaecologists for 5 %. There are 128,500 hospital beds (125.4 per 10,000 of the population).
A well-developed network of treatment and preventive care institutions provides medical assistance (871 hospitals, including 428 in rural areas, and 1579 out-patient and polyclinic institutions, including 789 in rural areas). There are 204 ambulance stations. In rural areas, 2960 doctor's assistants and midwifery centres offer assistance to the population living in a 7 to 8 km radius. Doctors of out-patient and district hospitals offer assistance within 10 to 12 km.
At the same time, the system lacks horizontal integration which leads to a fragmentation of individuals' health problems among several specialists.
For example, during the course of having a baby, a woman will see one specialist (obstetrician/gynaecologist) during and after pregnancy (or several if she has health problems) and will be attended by different specialist (s) at the time of delivery.
There is also a strong emphasis on curative and institution-based care, with little attention to Primary Health Care. Some 80 % of sick children begin and end their treatment in poly clinics.
Access to highly-qualified and specialized medical assistance for the population in rural areas was reduced in 1993-94, due to a considerable reduction in public transportation necessitated by the economic situation.
The state health care system includes health care institutions under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health (92 % of doctors work in these) as well as health care services belonging to the Ministries of Defence and Internal Affairs and to the Belarusian Railways.
From A Situation Analysis of Children and Women 1995. Children and Women of Belarus. Unicef United Nations Children's fund.What changes would you like to introduce in the National Health Care Services in Belarus? Discuss it with your partners.
Maladies of the 21st century
We entered the 21st century with such maladies as heart and vascular system diseases, environmental diseases, cancer, AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The risk factors causing these diseases are poor environment (especially after Chernobyl disaster), constant stress and bad habits. We witness more and more cases when people suffer from such environmental diseases as food allergies, chronic fatigue syndrome, asthma, thyroid gland. They all have a huge impact on the quality of life, darken our prospects for future. Alcohol, drugs, smoking, AIDS have also become the reality of our life, especially among young and middle-aged people. Today we'll read the texts about the diseases which have come as a result of people's ignorance and lack of healthy habits.
1.Read the extract carefully and note down the follow points:
a) the reasons for smoking;
b) harmful consequences of smoking;
c) the most likely diseases caused by smoking;
d) smoking and life-span.
Smoking is very dangerous Most young people smoke because their friends pressure them to do so. They may be copying their parents who smoke, or other adults they respect. At one time this would have been accepted as normal. But in the past 30 years attitudes about smoking have changes. Smoking is now banned in many places so that other people don't have to breathe in smokers' shocking tobacco smoke.
Passive smoking, when you are breathing someone else’s smoke, can damage your health just like smoking can. Smoking becomes addictive very quickly, and it's one of the hardest habits to break.
Take 1000 young people who 20 cigarettes a day. A quarter of them will die from a disease caused by smoking. That's 250 lives wasted! Only six of those 1000 teenagers will die in road accidents. So what is it in cigarette smoke that is harmful? A chemical called nicotine is a substance that causes addiction. It is a stimulant that increases the pulse rate and a rise in the blood pressure. Cigarette smoke also contains tar - a major factor for causing cancer.
Chronic bronchitis occurs when tar damage and mucus the air sacks in the lungs. The sufferer has a bad cough which is worse in the mornings, and may get breathless easily.
Gases in cigarette smoke increase your blood pressure and pulse rate. This can contribute to heart disease. Smokers as twice as non-smokers are likely to have heart trouble.
Smokeless tobacco that is chewed rather than smoked, is also harmful, causing mouth sores, damage to teeth and cancer.
If you've ever watched an adult try to give up smoking, you know how hard it, can be. It's easier, healthier and cheaper never to start.
Facts about smoking
• The smell of smoke on your breath and clothes will put people off.
• Someone who smokes 15 cigarettes a day can forget six to nine years of their life.
• You're burning a great deal of money. In many countries cigarettes are heavily taxed.
• Your skin will wrinkle faster and deeper than that of a non-smoker.
• Females who smoke heavily may wrinkle like a woman 20 years older in age.
2.Read the extract and note down the facts about the danger caused by alcohol. Find some sentences proving that.
Another poison of many young people is alcohol. Remember, alcohol is a drug. It can make you sick, and you can become addicted to it. It's a very common form of drug abuse among teenagers. Don't let anyone at a party pressure you into drinking if you don't want to, especially if you're legally under age.
For years we have been told not to drive after we have drunk alcohol, which weakens our sense and clouds our judgement. And yet people still do. Young people, who are drunk are less likely to wear their seat belts, and are less experienced when a problem occurs. The alcohol makes them think they are brilliant drivers and can take risks without getting hurt. But, more importantly, they become a risk to other drivers and pedestrians - potential killers. If they do have an accident, the alcohol in their body will make treatment of an injury more difficult.
Alcohol drinks are made up chiefly of water and ethanol, which is an alcohol produced by fermenting fruits, vegetables or grain. Beer is about one part ethanol to 20 parts water. Wine is stronger, and spirits are about half ethanol and half water.
Alcohol is a drug. In fact, it is a mild poison. It is absorbed quickly into the bloodstream, within four or 10 minutes of being drunk. Absorption is slower if there's food in the stomach. Once inside the body it passes through the bloodstream to the liver, where poisons are digested. But the liver can only process 28 grams ofpure alcohol each hour.
This is a small amount - just over half a glass of beer. Anything else you drink is pumped round the body while it waits its turn to enter the liver.
When alcohol reaches your brain, you may immediately feel more relaxed and light-hearted. You may feel you cando crazy things. But after two or three drinks, your actions are clumsy and your speech is slurred. If you over-drink, youmight suffer from double vision and lossof balance, even fall unconscious, hangover.
3.Read the extract and note down the examples, showing the effect of drugs on a humanbeing. What social problems do the drugs cause?
In facts, all medicines are drugs. You take drugs for your headache or your asthma. But you need to remember that not all drugs are medicines. Alcohol is a drug, and nicotine is a drug. There are many drugs that do you no good at all.
There's nothing wrong with medicinal drugs if they're used properly. The trouble is, some people use them wrongly and make themselves ill. Most of the drugs are illegal, but some are ordinary medical substances that people use in the wrong way.
People take drugs because they think they make them feel better. Young people are often introduced to drug-taking by their friends.
Many users take drugs to escape from a life that may seem too hard to bear. Drugs may seem the only answer, but they are no answer at all. They simply make the problem worse.
Depending on the type and strength of the drug, all drug-abusers are in danger of developing side effects. Drugs can bring on confusion and frightening hallucinations and cause unbalanced emotions or more serious mental disorders.
First-time heroin users are sometimes violently sick. Cocaine, even in small amounts, can cause sudden death in some young people, due to heartbeat irregularities. Children born to drug-addicted parents can be badly affected.
Regular users may become constipated and girls can miss their periods. Some drugs can slow, even stop the breathing process, and if someone overdoses accidentally they may become unconscious or even die.
People who start taking drugs are unlikely to do so for long without being found out. Symptoms of even light drug use are drowsiness, moodiness, loss of appetite and, almost inevitably, a high level of deceit.
First there's the evidence to hide, but second, drugs are expensive and few young people are able to find the money they need from their allowance alone. Almost inevitably, needing money to pay for drugs leads to crime.
AIDS is a sickness that attacks the body's natural system against disease. AIDS itself doesn't kill, but because the body's defence system is damaged, the patient has a reduced ability to fight off many other diseases, including flu or the common cold.
It has been reported that about 10 million people worldwide may have been infected by the virus that causes AIDS. It is estimated that about 350 thousand people have the disease and that another million (!) may get it within the next five years. Africa and South America are the continents where AIDS is most rampant, although in the States alone about 50,000 people have already died of AIDS.
So far there is no cure for AIDS. We know that AIDS is caused by a virus which invades healthy cells, including the white blood cells that are part of our defence system. The virus takes control of the healthy cells genetic material and forces the cell to make a copy of the virus. The cell then dies and the multiplied virus moves on to invade and kill other healthy cells. The AIDS virus can be passed on sexually or by sharing needles used to inject drugs. It also can be passed in blood products or from a pregnant woman with AIDS to her baby.
Many stories about the spread of AIDS are false. One cannot get AIDS by working with someone who's got it, or by going to the same school, or by touching objects belonging to or touched by an infected person. Nobody caring for an AIDS patient has developed AIDS and, since there is no cure for it at present, be as helpful and understanding as possible to those suffering from this terrible disease.