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THE FACULTY OF LIBERAL ARTS
The specific issues to be discussed will be the examination of the different as
pects of the economics, historical facts and culture of alcohol production, consump
tion and regulation. We invite economists, sociologists, anthropologists, historians
and the scholars from other spheres in the social sciences and humanities for the
dialogue.
Conference languages:
nglish and Russian
Organizing Committee:
Aleksei
udrin (S
bSU), Danila Raskov (S
bSU),
line
oelmans (Catholic University Leuven, Beeronomics Society), Deirdre McCloskey
(University of Illinois at Chicago), Denis
adochnikov (S
bSU), Alexander
ogrebnyak
(S
bSU), Viktor Rjazanov (S
bSU), Alexander Nemtzov (Moscow Research Institute
of
sychiatry), Vladimir Ignatiev (Novosibirsk State Technical University), Alexander
Skorobogatov (Higher School of
conomics)
While accepting the assumption about the rationality of economic agents as
starting
point of analysis, economists still cannot afford to ignore that rational choice in any case
is made within
framework of specific beliefs, values and behavioral patterns. Some of
these behavioral patterns are traditionally considered to represent virtues, and some”—
passions and vices, and in different cultures and subcultures the interpretation may vary.
Is this kind of assessment relevant for economic science and economic policy? In order
to understand this, we propose to discuss (from the point of view of economics and cul
ture) such phenomena as addictions and habits in consumption of certain products, the
specifics of policy”— making in such cases, problems of interpretation of consumer ad
dictions and habits in culture and social science, as well as the problem of prohibitions.
This topic is supposed to come back to the discussion of the provocative thesis of
Bernard de Mandeville in his «The Fable of the Bees» (1714) that the private vices tend
to form the public benefit.
The Conference topics will include:
Virtues and Vices: criteria and interpretations;
conomy and culture of production and consumption of alcohol (beer, wine and
strong spirits);
conomics on Virtues and Vices;
Formation of attachments and addictions, as
business strategy;
Overcoming attachments and addictions, as
state policy target;
conomics of prohibitions, Temperance movements and
ublic
olicy;
conomy and culture of smoking / of gambling / of Internet addiction;
••
reen lifestyle––”— the Virtues or Vices?
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In February 1966, the sheriff of Hinds County raided the annual Junior League Mardi
ras ball at the Jackson Country Club. The Associated
ress reported that the
¤Tuxedo-clad
ov.
aul
Johnson Jr. and the cream of Mississippi society watched
helplessly as sheriffs removed cases of illegal liquor from the club¥. After this raid, the
Legislature quickly created
bill to install
system of local option legalization and re
peal the nation–
last statewide law prohibiting the sale of wine and liquor.
Richard White
University of
Alabama in
Huntsville, United
States of America
e-mail:
[email protected]
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… (1908–1966)
£In Name Only¤ Alcohol Prohibition
inMississippi (1908–1966)
Mississippi selected state-wide alcohol prohibition in 1908. In 1918, Mississippi was
the 1st to ratify the 18
th
Amendment only 20 days after it passed the
House of
Representatives. One important aspect of the 18
th
Amendment is that it outlawed
the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors, but not the actual con
sumption of the alcohol. In 1933, the state did not pass
referendum to call for
con
vention to ratify the 21
Amendment (Repeal of the 18
th
Amendment). To this day
Mississippi has not ratified the 21
Amendment. It would take an additional 33 years
before the Mississippi Legislature approved county-wide local option elections to al
low the individual counties to legalize alcohol sales.
Just because Mississippi voted itself prohibition did not mean that alcohol was not
being consumed. An article in the American Bottler Vol. 31 January 15, 1911 de
scribes the existence of
¤whiskey fleet¥ on the Mississippi River. This fleet would
steam up and down the river, and then would anchor in midstream for customers to
come out for purchases. After 1933, there was
well-known saying in Mississippi
The drys have their law, the wets have their whisky and the state gets its
taxes.
" During World War II, Mississippi passed the Black Market Tax Law of 1944.
The law called for
10% tax on ¤black market–– items to be collected by the State
Tax Collector. While the state made some allowances for the sale of
3.2%
(Alcohol
by Weight) beer in 1945, liquor and wine sales continued to be illegal. In 1960,
Vicksburg, Mississippi bootlegger refused to pay
Baton Rouge, Louisiana whole
saler for his $100,000 shipment. The Mississippi Supreme Court ruled in the bootleg
ger–
favor by stating that the debt was illegal and could not be collected.
Future
overnor William Winter was elected to State Tax Collector in 1956. Mr.
Winter brought
new level of efficiency to the collection of the Black Market tax.
His innovation was to have the Louisiana state government send him copies of
all the invoices of shipments to Mississippi. Since the State Tax Collector re
ceived
10% reimbursement for the collection of the ¤black market¥ tax, in 1961
Mr. Winter was able to earn $145,000 before expenses and the
overnor of
Mississippi earned”$25,000.
John Taylor
St.
etersburg
State University,
St.”
etersburg,
Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
harvard.edu
will argue in this paper that the third earl of Shaftesbury (1671™1713) influenced
Adam Smith–
notion of greed. In The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), Smith
(1723™1790) took his whole theory of sentiments from Shaftesbury–
utilitarian
philosophy, of course.
reed was
sentiment.
It was therefore not subject to voluntary restraint because, as Shaftesbury said,
sentiment was impulse rooted in the four humors. Smith–
famous ¤invisible hand¥
was
corollary concept: the invisible hand was an involuntary natural restraint on
an involuntary natural sentiment.
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Adam Smith and Greed asa
Sentiment
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The Impact of Climate Change
on the European Wine Market
Karl Storchmann
New York University,
New York, United
States of America
e-mail:
karl.storchmann
@nyu.edu
This presentation consists of two parts. In the first part,
employ
panel model
to analyze the impact of warming on revenue, cost, subsidies and profits of grape
growers in all viticultural regions within the
uropean Union. The model draws on
accountancy data of test farms from 1991 to 2012 and the results suggest that
the impact of global warming will be ambiguous. While grape growers in the south
and east of
urope (notably Southern Spain,
reece, Bulgaria) may lose from fur
ther warming, grape growers in the northwestern viticultural regions of
urope
, Champagne, Burgundy,
ermany) will benefit from climate change.
In the second part of the presentation
will focus on the
erman wine market
and analyze how the gains from warming are distributed. In particular, will warm
ing-induced wine price increases benefit producers and retailers? Drawing on
data set of producer and retail prices for identical
erman wines
find that retail
prices are significantly more sensitive to temperature increases than are producer
prices. Therefore, retail margins,
, the difference between producer and retail
prices, are positively correlated with growing season temperatures, especially in
higher price brackets and in warm years. On the other, retail prices are not tem
perature-responsive in cooler years. This suggests that retailers profit from global
warming more than producers do. While enjoying higher prices and margins for
wines from warmer vintages, retailers do not decrease the prices for wines from
cooler vintages.
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The Effect of Historical Events on
the Brewing of Beer Throughout Time:
Case Study Belgium
Eline Poelmans
The
atholieke
Universiteit Leuven,
Leuven, Belgium
e-mail:
[email protected]
kuleuven.be
In this presentation
explain how historical events (such as the
reek and Roman
conquests, the monasteries in the Middle Ages, the border line of the Holy Roman
mpire, brewer guilds, local government regulations, the French Revolution, innov
ations, coincidences, both World Wars, the
reat Depression, the microbrewery
movement, etc.) have determined what tradition of beer brewing originated in different
countries in continental
urope. While focusing on larger historical events, the case
study Belgium is investigated.
John Nye
eorge Mason
University,
USA
e-mail:
[email protected]
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How Taxes and Trade Shaped Our
Tastes: the Wine Trade in Nineteenth
Century Britain and France
What determines national patterns of consumption? If the good in question is an
alcoholic beverage, it is almost certainly the case that tax and trade policies have
played large and significant roles. Consider the cases of Britain and France in the
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
While it is certainly true that wine production is difficult in Britain and common
place in France, relative endowment has less effect on what people buy than how
the state chose to regulate these goods. Where Britain had been an enthusiastic
consumer of French and Spanish wines before 1689, war and taxes in the centur
ies that followed confined the consumption of wine to
small, wealthy elite and lim
ited its growth even after the coming of widespread industrialization. High taxes de
signed to protect British beer and colonial spirits forced France to focus on export
ing ever higher quality products to the premium British market.
In Britain it became convention that the poor drank beer and the rich, wine.
Conversely, France was plagued by high domestic taxes and
variety of constraints
on internal trade, which kept wine production small and overly artisanal till the end
of the nineteenth century. At various times trade between Bordeaux and
urope
may have been easier than between the Western and
astern parts of France.
Consumption was local and marked by limited variety.
Changes in the tax laws increased efficiency but also set into motion political forces
that sought to regain protection through increased regulation in the name of qual
ity. These laws not only constrained the way the industry could evolve but have
hampered France–
ability to capture the modern day wine market in the twenty first
century.
Alcohol overconsumption is one of the biggest problems worldwide. It is
reason
for
lot of deaths and diseases among people. All these problems push govern
mental agencies in different countries to regulate such markets, since it really un
dermines the physical and moral health of the society. In
yrgyzstan, there are also
certain instruments of regulation, such as licensing or excise taxation, which are de
signed to take control over the market of alcohol. But here the main question arises:
whether the instruments are really designed to decrease the level of consumption
of such
dangerous product? According to
yrgyzstan'
statistical data, there is an
increase of alcohol consumption over the past years, and it directly increases the
collection of excise taxation, therefore, the main goal of
yrgyzstan'
regulation in
struments has to be determined.
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Alcohol market regulation in Kyrgyzstan
Gulnara Nurieva
American University
of Central Asia,
Bishkek,
yrgyz
Republic
e-mail:
[email protected]
In
yrgyzstan, no feast can be organized without ¤beshbarmak¥: national dish of diced
boiled meat with noodles, accompanied with additionally served large pieces of meat.
At the same time, beshbarmak takes
huge part of total expenses for the event. For
example, one sheep can be served up to 12 guests only, because it has twelve dif
ferent ¤honorable¥ pieces. Which means that for an average number of guests that is
65, sheep are not enough anymore and at least one calf is needed (and its average
market price is 15000 soms or 320
USD
Other part of ritual life and ritual economy in
yrgyzstan is bride kidnapping. Customs
require then payment of ¤kalym¥ (monetary amount paid for
bride to her relatives),
which also contributes to the overall expenses for wedding ceremony (and actually
makes big part of it). The size of kalym differs according to the region where the fam
ilies of bride and groom come from, their social status, and personal characteristics
of the couple. According to the
, the size of kalym paid in
yrgyzstan was up to
800000 soms (17021
USD
”— very rare case), averaged at 36876 soms for one bride
(785
USD
).
Overall, it seems that the sizes of feast economy are just increasing over time (it is il
lustrated by
2010, 2011, and 2012 numbers). Different rituals and celebrations are
part of any
yrgyz family–
life, and probably they will keep their importance at least
in the nearest future. They serve to keep ties with close people, keep up with tradi
tions, ¤show off¥ and prove that the family is not worse than others, to demonstrate in
creased economic status and success, and finally, just to demonstrate the honor (ac
cording to
data). More detailed analysis of why families spend so much money on
festivities and it affects the overall economy is needed.

¤Life in
yrgyzstan¥ survey (2009™2012) conducted under the ¤
conomic
Transformation, Household Behavior and Well-Being in Central Asia: The Case
of
yrgyzstan¥ by the
erman Institute for
conomic Research (
DIW
Berlin)
in collaboration with Humboldt-University of Berlin, the Center for Social and
conomic Research in
yrgyzstan, and the American University of Central Asia
www.diw.de/kyrgyzstan
National Statistical Office of
yrgyz Republic (
www.stat.kg
3.
ReevesM.
Black Work,
reen Money: Remittances, Ritual, and Domestic
conomies in Southern
yrgyzstan // Slavic Review. 2012. 71 (1).
p. 108™134.
RubinovI.
Migration, Development, and the •Toi
conomy–: cultural integration of
remittances in Northern
yrgyzstan. Report by Social Research Center, American
University of Central Asia. 2010. (
www.src.auca.kg/images/stories/files/Igor_
Rubinov_eng.pdf
¤Toi¥ is the feast or communal gathering to celebrate some event or seve
ral events. It is
common part of ¤ritual economy¥ in Central Asia, particularly
yrgyzstan.
eople in the
country tend to invite 150™200 people for the wedding and around hundred people for
other events like birth of
child and his first birthday, circumcision ceremony, purchase of
new house, and other (¤Life in
yrgyzstan¥ survey, 2011). Funerals also collect about hun
dreds of people, and sometimes the number of visitors reach thousand of guests (¤Life
in
yrgyzstan¥ survey, 2011). All these events contribute to demonstrative consumption of
population and affect restaurant and entertainment industry, as well as cattle breeding.
It is not just
matter of celebrating different events and holidays, ¤toi¥ often serves as
way
of strengthening social ties and demonstrating the success and financial well-being of the
host. Big celebration is
source of prestige for households in
yrgyz society built on family
ties and tribal community. If individuals belong to more prestigious social class or live in richer
community, the spending for different types of festivities become even bigger. It happens
due to several reasons:
more expensive gifts or greater amounts of money given to hosts
of celebrations that are visited and
more pompous and costly celebrations that are held.
The first work that uses term ¤toi economy¥ was done in 2010 by Igor Rubinov.
¤Migration, development, and the ¤toi economy¥ cultural integration of remittances in
Northern
yrgyzstan¥ has analyzed how cultural traditions and social networks are re
lated to migration and spending of remittances. Rubinov has noted that migrant having
households benefit from symbolic capital and networking. While symbolic capital is ex
pressed in terms of prestige and praise, networking helps households to get connec
tions to works abroad and ask for other favors (Rubinov 2010). Although it is one of
few
economic works done on the topic, it does not fully answer to question why people in
yrgyzstan spend huge amounts on celebrations. He focuses on migrant having house
holds only, and does not cover rich ¤favor making¥ families or families with no migrants.
Theoretically, each household–
utility function depends on its earnings relative to aver
age earnings in its social circle, wealth status relative to its social circle, consumption (in
cluding celebrations expenditures). The greater is the average consumption in the com
munity, the greater is the individual household consumption.
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Toi Economy: Economics
of Festivity inKyrgyzstan
Akylai
Muktarbek kyzy
American University
of Central Asia,
Bishkek,
yrgyz
Republic
e-mail:
[email protected]
Jim Leitzel
University of Chicago,
Chicago,
e-mail:
[email protected]
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Robust Alcohol Policy inRussia
Alcohol consumption is associated with externalities”— through drunk driving deaths
and violent encounters, for instance”— as well as negative effects suffered by drink
ers themselves. The usual prescription for promoting social wellbeing in the face of
externalities is to use regulations, including taxes, to force decision makers to con
front the full social costs of their choices, to ¤internalize¥ the externalities. For harms
to those (adult) users themselves,
standard economics approach would be to con
sider whether drinkers are rational and informed about the consequences stemming
from their alcohol-related decisions. The rational component of drinking, under this
approach, offers little rationale for coercive policies aimed at stemming alcohol con
sumption. Irrational drinking, or perhaps drinking undertaken by those suffering from
present bias or the ¤disease¥ of alcoholism, however, would be fit subjects for social
intervention.
The ¤first best¥ policy of leaving rational drinking unfettered, while attempting to
dissuade potentially irrational choices, is not available in practice. How can soci
ety judge which drinking (or abstinence) decisions are rational, and which are the
product of misled or ailing reasoning? How can an individual drinker herself tell
when her drinking choices shift from being fully considered to being the product
of addiction-induced compulsion? The inherent unknowability of the extent of ra
tionality in drinking decisions suggests that
second-best approach will be ro
bust, in the sense that the policy regime will work fairly well when drinkers are fully
rational, and also will do
creditable job of serving social wellbeing when alco
hol-related choices are marked by substantial amounts of addicted or disordered
reasoning. The sorts of policies that form components of
robust regime tend
to create barriers to ¤excessive¥ drinking or the development of alcohol addiction,
while doing so in ways that do not impose large costs upon rational imbibers.
This paper compares Russian alcohol policies with such
robustness standard.
Issues that receive attention include stronger policy differentiation between fermented
and distilled beverages, as well as the extent to which voluntary commitments to limit
or eliminate alcohol consumption can be supported by public policy.
Samuli Hurri
University of Helsinki,
Helsinki, Finland
e-mail:
[email protected]
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Revisiting Michel
Foucault¡s
Uncompleted History of
Sexuality: Confession of Sins
Michel Foucault–
last project was his history of sexuality. From an economic point
of view, this appears as
history that generated the conditions for the birth of new
type of government: by incentives rather than by prohibitions.
Foucault–
problem was, in other words, what made it possible that societies
learned to make use of self-interest and desire in the governing of individuals? In
Foucault–
mind, this type of governing is something radically other than the juridical
type of governing that requires obedience to the law. Assuming that the modern sep
aration of economic governing from juridical rule is an end-result of
long history,
Foucault attempted to retrace its steps through
thin thread of one single practice.
This was about the movements and shifts that took place in the development of the
Christian confession of sins.
His idea seems to have been that this genealogy produced, cultivated and mod
ulated sinful desire into
specific element of governability, and this was later em
ployed in order to subject political societies to the logic of the market.
will present
sketch of this genealogy that spans over the centuries between early Christian
communities and Renaissance, focusing especially on the role played by juridical
forms in the process.
Herland Michel
Universit
des
Antilles, France
e-mail:
[email protected]
gmail.com
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To be living without doing any work, is it to be living at the expense of somebody
else? The answer is yes without doubt but is it necessarily the case that such
situation would be inevitably unjust? We are indeed used to live in
world of re
ciprocity. As
rule, the non-working people belong to the three following classes:
children who prepare themselves to work when they will grown-up; the elderly who
won already the right to rest; the unemployed who are ready to work as soon as
they find
job.
Nevertheless, in many cases reciprocity is not so obvious. In which sense is it just to
inherit the wealth accumulated by one–
ancestors? Does
person with very high in
come give back to society as much as she receives?
tc. Besides, in judicial matters,
the rule is far from the strict reciprocity, which would amount to the
lex talionis
of an
eye for an eye,
tooth for
tooth.
Some philosophies stand against the reciprocity principle. Authentic charity, accord
ing to Christianity, equals selfless love of one–
fellow human being. One does not
expect gratitude nor the supreme reward which would be
seat in paradise at the
Father–
right. The charitable person forgives the offense without asking for apologies.
Another example: The philosopher
hilippe Van
arijs calls ••real freedom–– the right for
anybody to live without working. This right corresponds specifically to his definitions
of goodness
and
of justice.
All these exceptions of reciprocity in facts as well as principles prevent us to condemn
non-reciprocity without further inquiry.
Our paper will be devoted to that inquiry.
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Aleksandr
Shmakov
Novosibirsk State
Technical University,
Novosibirsk,
Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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Trust— The Virtues or Vices?
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Tatiana Shishkina
St.”
etersburg
State University,
St.”
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Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
gmail.com
  \f\f\b\f 
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Economicus ­
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‚\b
The Pursuit to Personal Enrichment
as a
Virtue: Legitimization of Homo
Economicus in Early Political Economy
 
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Morality in Economics
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Mikhail Shishkin
St.”
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State University,
St.”
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Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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\f
,
-\n\t,

Tat™yana
Shipunova
St.”
etersburg
State University,
St.”
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Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
Homo possible ­
‚\bƒ\f
…   \t\b ­\f \f ­\t …  \f\f\b‰
Homo Possible in the Economic Space
of the Consumer Society
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Manet¡s
Bar at the Folies-Berg
re.
¢¢Intoxicating Life¡¡ as a
“„
\r\n

 
­

˜\t\f 
\n
,

Daria Tsyplakova
Russian
residental
Academy of National
conomy and
ublic Administration,
Moscow, Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
Œ\t \t 
… \f \t \fŠ \r \f‰Š:
\f\f€\b\f \f…\fƒ\f\b\f ˆ\t 

Taking Care of Elderly Parents:
Family Provision of Care in Russia
Recent increase in healthy life expectancy brings to the surface the problem of
elderly care.
lderly often require care on the daily basis, but they also provide
substantial support to their spouses, children and grandchildren. In Russia, less
than
of the elderly receive long-term care services in institutions and less than
receives social services at home (
SA
GE
, 2007™2010). Therefore, significant
burden of elderly care rests with family. The issue of tackling provision of elderly
care remains
very important priority even in the state of current economic
turmoil.
erformance of care-givers became an object of interest for economic theory
relatively recently and the overall theory is still absent. Care-giving services
differ from the household production, although these two types of activities may
overlap considerably. Classical theoretical approach to care-giving is based on
the concept of altruism,
care-giver derives satisfaction from the utility of care-
receiver. However, motivation for care-giving might include other considerations
(strategic exchange of services, concern for inheritance, etc.).
The research on determinants of adult children–
time and money spent on parental
care-giving is being impeded by necessity to disentangle the causality linking
different types of transfers. Using panel data from the survey «
arents and Children,
Men and Women in Family and Society» (Russia,
= 4095, years 2004, 2011),
study monetary and time transfers given by adult children to their mothers aged
50 and above. When caring of dependent parents, adults have
choice between
provision of care by monetary transfer and by devoting their time to caregiving.
Results based on IV regression suggest that monetary transfers weakly substitute
family care for Russian care-givers. This conclusion has an important policy-making
implication”— substitutability of two types of transfers should be taken into account
when social policies and healthcare policies are designed.
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\f\t   œ‡­  
.

Guariguata
Tracking the
lobal
pidemic — New
stimates from the
IDF
Diabetes Atlas Update for 2012 // Diabets in Society. 2012. Vol. 57. Issue
p.”12™15.
2.
\n
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, 
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13™15.
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 \fŠ\b‰  \t\b …\t\b€
\b  „\f\b ?
Children¡s
Branding: Marketing
Technology or Socially Dangerous Tools?
“ 
\f \n,
Ÿ

‘\n
\t
\f
­
,
\t,

Tsoi Marina,
SchekoldinVladislav
Novosibirsk State
Technical University,
Novosibirsk, Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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  œ
-\n\t
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\b  
­ -\n\t
\r  ­ \f.
\t œ œ‡ \f:
\f  \f \f  (, , , ‹
\r   \f­ \r\f­  (
\f­ \t, \f­ \t­, \t, \tœ
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-\n\t
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˜
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\r\f
,
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Ekaterina
Khaustova
Russian State Social
University, Moscow,
Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
 ­
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(1820–1917)
Alcohol in Late Imperial Russia
(1820–1917)
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Sergei Fokin
St.
etersburg
State University,
St.”
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e-mail:
[email protected]
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…„, \r\f\b 
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Economy of Lumpen-intellectual: Wine
and Opium, Money and Credits in the
Life and Work of Charles Baudelaire
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-
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\f
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-\n\t,

Vyacheslav
Ushankov
St.
etersburg
State University,
St.”
etersburg,
Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
\t  ­ \t \r \t ,
ˆ‘\f 
‘
Wealth as Sufficiency,
Surplus and Luxury
 ‡ œ ˜  «\t»
 
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
Conflict Aspects
of Philanthropy inRussia
\n
   \n
\r\f
\r
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‹ »,
-\n\t,

Grigorij Tul™chinskij
National Research
University ••Higher school
of economics––, St.
etersburg, Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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Iryna Skubii
harkiv
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National Research
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St.
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Sexual
artners of Street-Based Female Sex Workers in St.
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Model of
artnership Characteristics as
Basis for Further Research // Human Organization, 2012.
71(
p. 32™43.
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Levina
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Clients of street-based female sex workers and potential bridging of
HIV
STI
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pilot study //
AIDS
care. 2012. 24(
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Maia Rusakova,
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Research Center
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Sociological
Institute of the
Russian Academy
of Sciences,
St.”
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Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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Mikhail
Rumyantsev
St.
etersburg
State University,
St.”
etersburg,
Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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\r \r\f \f\f€:
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Economy of Vices and Virtues:
the Philosophy-Economic Context
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XVI
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The goal of this project is to find out the influence of some economic and social
factors on the demand for different beverages and on the choice of consumption
pattern in modern Russia. The number of regression models is estimated on the
base of ••The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (
RLMS
HS
)–– 1994™2012.
There are classic models of demand for alcohol of Becker and Murphy (1988): static,
myopic and rational addiction models. We use two-step way of estimation because of
two-step consumer decision (••to drink or not to drink–– and how much to drink). This
way let it possible to find out the factors of every decision separately.
The idea of this research is to use as independent variables not only economic
parameters (as prices and incomes of respondent and his\her family members)
but some social characteristics such as educational level, gender, age, nationality,
optimism level, alcohol use by other family members, and other.
The first results have demonstrated that some social factors (education, marital status,
alcohol use by other family members) are more important that the economic ones
(as price for alcohol), as for the demand for pure alcohol as for the demand for every
beverage. Also 13 drinking patterns were found using the cluster analysis. They differ
by the structure of consumption, habits and social and demographic characteristics.
‹
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,

Yana Roshchina
National Research
University
••Higher School
of
conomics––,
Moscow, Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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Alcoholic Beverages Use in Modern
Russia: Factors of Demand and
Consumption Patterns
spirits»
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Ivan Rozmainsky
National Research
University
••Higher School of
conomics––, St.
etersburg, Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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Investor Myopia as the Factor of
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˜ Simple
Wine News, ,

Vasilii Raskov
Simple Wine News
magazine, Moscow,
Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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Terroir and Society: Bordeaux,
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Published in:
Radaev, V.
Impact of a
New Alcohol
olicy on Homemade Alcohol Consumption and
Sales in Russia //
Alcohol and Alcoholism
, 2015, 1™8. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agv008
Advance access:
www.alcalc.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/agv008?ijkey=qa
3iQjqp9pdYzx&keytype=ref
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2015 
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The paper reveals an impact of new alcohol policy in Russia including effects of
price increase on recorded alcohol and restrictions of alcohol availability on the
consumption of recorded and unrecorded alcohol, with specific reference to
homemade alcohol. Other factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption and
purchasing are investigated.
Consumption and preferred beverage data were collected from
RLMS
HS
nationwide panel surveys from 1994™2013, with
detailed analysis of 2012 data
(18221 respondents aged 16+ years). Questions concerning homemade wine were
first added to the survey. Official statistics on manufactured alcohol sales, regional
price increase and real disposable income were used. Data showed that homemade
distilled spirits (samogon) consumption decreased together with that of recorded
and unrecorded manufactured spirits since 2000. The consumption of spirits was
partially replaced by the consumption of beer and wine. Some of these trends in
alcohol consumption were interrupted in 2008™2013. The interruption was more likely
affected by the economic crises and recession than by the new policy measures.
Social networks and availability of unrecorded alcohol were more important predictors
of homemade alcohol consumption and purchasing than was
recorded alcohol
price increase in 2010™2012.
The author concludes that homemade alcohol consumption does not replace
the declining market for recorded spirits as it happened in previous years in Russia.
The effects of economic and social factors on homemade alcohol consumption are
greater than are the short-term effects of the new alcohol policy. The most recent
(2015) alcohol policy developments turning down some of restrictive measures are
not supported by strong empirical evidence.

\b
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\r\f
\r

«†\f‹ ‰
»,
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Vadim Radaev
National Research
University
••Higher School
of
conomics––,
Moscow, Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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…„…
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Impact of a
New Alcohol Policy on
Homemade Alcohol Consumption and
Sales in Russia
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Aleksandr
Pogrebnyak
St.
etersburg State
University,
St.”
etersburg,
Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
com
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How is Enotherapy of Economy
Possible?
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Hox,
Multilevel analysis: techniques and applications
Mahwan, NJ and London: Lawrence
rlbaum Associates. 2002.
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Š
,
-\n\t,

Olga Ozerova
Sociological Institute
of the Russian
Academy of Sciences,
St.”
etersburg, Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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\b\f \t­\f\b ­ ­
…  \f\f\b
\t‰:   1990-Š
2000-
.
Dynamics of Economic Inequality
in Alcohol Consumption: 1990-s
to
2000-s.
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Š
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-\n\t,

Veronika Odinokova
Research Center
of Sociology of
of Childhood
Sociological Institute
of the Russian
Academy of Sciences,
St.”
etersburg, Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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Application of Sociological Theory
for an Explanation and Control of
¢¢Problem¡¡ Alcohol Consumption
.
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Rustem Nureev
Financial University
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Evgeny Markin
Russian State
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Elena Nikolaeva
etersburg State
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Herzen State
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St.”
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[email protected]
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National Bank of the
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Novosibirsk State
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Novosibirsk, Russia
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National Research
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Maxim Markov
St.
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National Research
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St.
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St.”
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Sergey Lishaev
Samara Academy
of Humanities,
Samara, Russia
e-mail:
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Oleg Leibovich
Cultural Studies
Department
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Academy of Art
and Culture,
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Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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National Research
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National Research
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Aleksandr Korolev
Russian Institute
of Art History
(Zubovsky),
St.”
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Russia
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Ludmila
Kolesnikova
Russian
residental
Academy of National
conomy and
ublic Administration,
Moscow, Russia
Ekaterina Mityasova
University of
Manchester,
Manchester, United
ingdom; Centre for
social innovation and
communication in civil
society ¤
SOCINCO
¥,
Moscow, Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
[email protected]
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Binaries of Humans According to
Bernard Mandeville in the Evolution of
Economy of Vice and Virtue from the
Standpoint of Fractal Cross-Disciplinary
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, Oldfather
Onasander.
auly•
Real-
ncyclop
die
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Wissowa.
Stuttgart, 1939. Sp. 403™405.
Onosandri de imperatoris officio liber. rec.
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Leonis Diaconi Caloe›nsis
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Nicephori Augusti. Rec.
Hasii. Bonnae, 1828.
5.
Ioannis Scylitzae.
Synopsis historiarum. Rec.
Thurn. Berlin; New York, 1973.
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Karina Kapsalykova
The Ural Federal
University named after
the first
resident of
Russia B.”N.”Yeltsin,
Yekaterinburg, Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
gmail.com
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Denis
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St.
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Russia
e-mail:
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yahoo.com
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Novosibirsk State
Technical University,
Novosibirsk, Russia
e-mail:
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Moscow branch
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RS
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e-mail:
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Olga Zinevich
Novosibirsk State
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Novosibirsk, Russia
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Aleksandr
Dubyanskii
St.
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State University,
St.”
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Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
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Oleg Donskikh
Novosibirsk State
University of
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Management,
Novosibirsk, Russia
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Voronezh State
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Belarus State
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Minsk, Belarus
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ZIL Cultural Center,
Moscow, Russia
Gennadij
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center ••Memorial––,
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Anna Kirzjuk
Russian
National Library,
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e-mail:
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St.
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State Research
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Yury Akimov
St.
etersburg
State University,
St.”
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Russia
e-mail:
[email protected]
Olga Zinevich,
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
«¢ ”— \f  ?»
Alcohol between the Archaic and the Civilization
Moderator”—
Yuriy Akimov
Akylai Muktarbek kyzy,
American University of Central Asia, Bishkek,
yrgyz Republic
«Toi
conomy:
conomics of Festivity in
yrgyzstan»
Yuriy Akimov,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Alcohol and Natives in Colonial North America: economy and culture»
Souren Takhtajan,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Barbarians, Civilization, and Alcohol: from Classical Antiquity to the New Age»
Aleksandr Dubyanskiy,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
«The Clash of
conomic Cultures in the
roduction of Alcoholic Beverages in Russia»
Alcohol Consumption in the
USSR
Moderator”—
Aleksandr Sekatskiy
Nikolay Gladkikh, Anna Kirzjuk, Gennadij Kuzovkin
ZIL
Cultural Center, Moscow; Russian National Library, St.”
etersburg; Scientific Information and
ducational center «Memorial», Moscow, Russia
«Boozing 70s. Alcoholic Beverages in Samizdat Literature»
Oleg Leibovich,
erm State Academy of Art and Culture,
erm–, Russia
«••Militia portion––: the
ractice of Alcohol Consumption in the Nomenclature of the
rovincial Militia
in the First
ostwar Decade»
Iryna Skubii,
harkiv
etr Vasilenko National Technical University of Agriculture,
harkiv, Ukraine
«••
harkiv Customs Requests to Bring to the Justice
Citizen”... Whose Three
airs of Stockings Were
Confiscated––: To the Question of Consumer Affections of Residents of
harkiv in 1920s»
Economics of Vices in Literature
Moderator”—
Filipp Fedchin
Maria Chernysheva,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
Conference Program
Tatiana Lukicheva,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
xperiential Marketing»
Rustem Nureev,
Financial University at the
overnment of Russia, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Sports: Virtue or Vice?»
Andrei Sosnilo,
Financial University under the
overnment of the Russian Federation,
St.
etersburg, Russia
«The
conomic Aspect of the Modern Vision of Virtues and Vices»
Aleksandr Shmakov,
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
«Trust”— the Virtues or Vices?»
Alcohol Policy and Alcohol Consumption Consequences
Moderator”—
Aleksandr Skorobogatov
Ivan Rozmainsky,
Higher School of
conomics, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Investor Myopia as the Factor of Negative Investment in Health Capital»
Veronika Odinokova,
Scientific Center of Childhood Sociology of the Sociological Instute of
RAS
St.
etersburg, Russia
«Application of Sociological Theory for an
xplanation and Control of ••
roblem–– Alcohol Consumption»
Yekaterina Khaustova,
Russian State Humanitarian University, Moscow, Russia
«Alcohol in Late Imperial Russia (1820™1917)»
Andrey Vorobyev,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Wine Revenues of the Russian
mpire: the Roles of
ragmatism and Morality»
Economics of Wine and Beer
Moderator”—
Danila Raskov
Kirill Martynov,
Higher School of
conomics, Moscow, Russia
«Craft Revolution Worldwide and its Consequences for Russia»
Aleksandr Pogrebnyak,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
«How possible is
notherapy of the
conomy?»
Vasiliy Raskov,
Simple Wine News, Moscow, Russia
«Terroir and Socium: Bordeaux, Champagne,
uban–?»
PARALL
SE
SSIONS
Economics of Temptation and Sexuality
Moderator”—
Aleksandr Pogrebnyak
Maia Rusakova; Veronika Odinokova,
Scientific Center of Childhood Sociology of
the Sociological Instute of
RAS
, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Demand on the Sex Market: What Do We
now About the Clients?»
Arseniy Tarabanov,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
eterburg, Russia
«The
conomics of Urban Temptations: Actor-Network Analysis»
Samuli Hurri,
University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
«Revisiting Michel Foucault–
Uncompleted History of Sexuality by: Confession of Sins»
ORNIN
G SE
SSION
Moderator”—
Vladimir Ignatyev
Sergey Fokin,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
conomics of Lumpen-Intellectual: Wine and Opium, Money and Loans in the Life and Works of Charles
Baudelaire»
Vladimir Lovchev,
azan National Research Technological University,
azan, Russia
«Robert Burns: Idol or Victims of the Soviet Alcohol
xperiment? (The question of alcoholic tendencies
in perception Burns poetry in Soviet times)»
OFF
EE B
OON
SSION
Moderator”—
Danila Raskov
John Nye,
eorge Mason University,
USA
«How Taxes and Trade Shaped our Tastes: The Wine Trade in Nineteenth Century
ngland and France»
Karl Storchman,
New York University,
«Wine
conomics and Climate Change in
urope»
Olga Ozerova,
Sociological Institute of
RAS
, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Dynamics of
conomic Inequality in Alcohol Consumption: 1990-
to 2000-
UNCH
PARALL
SE
SSIONS
Excitement and Inhibition
Moderator”—
Sergey Fokin
Aleksandr Marey,
Higher School of
conomics, Moscow, Russia
«Legal Regulation of
ambling in Medieval Castile»
Aleksandr Sekatskiy,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
xcitement,
ntrepreneurship and
xistence»
Sergey Lishaev,
Samara Humanitarian Academy, Samara, Russia
«Baths, Bath Besom and Some Snacks with Beer (Materials to the Analysis of Cultural
ractices
Deceleration)»
Aleksandr Korolev,
Russian Institute of Art History (Zubovsky), St.
etersburg, Russia
«The
conomy of Virtue and Vice as
History and Typology of
xchange»
Economics of Vices and Virtues of Modern Man
Moderator”—
Ozerova
Helena Nikolaeva,
Russian State
edagogical Herzen University, St.
etersburg, Russia
volutional and Anthropological Basis of the Modern Human Being–
Vice and Virtue»
Tat™yana Shipunova,
St.”
etersburg State University, St.”
etersburg, Russia
«Homo
ossible in the
conomic Space of the Consumer Society»
UNCH
OUND
ABL
¤Temptation by
rohibition:
conomic and Social Aspects of Alcohol Industry Regulation¥
Moderator”—
Inna Karpushina
The history of alcohol is inextricably linked with the history of humankind. Since ancient times alcohol
has become an integral part of social life. However attitudes towards it were always ambiguous, bal
ancing between treating it as
source of vice and that of virtue. There have always been social prob
lems associated with excessive alcohol consumption, but there is also
culture and traditions asso
ciated with alcohol, there is significant economic implications related to alcohol (state revenues, jobs,
technological progress). Fighting alcohol abuse, governments tried to take control of the industry,
sometimes resorting to
complete prohibition. However, history clearly demonstrates the inefficiency
of this approach. To eradicate
vice by
prohibition is hardly possible. And yet governments all over
the world do not leave these attempts.
Is alcohol
vice or
virtue for the society? What is the reverse side of prohibitions? Is it possible to
find
reasonable balance between government regulation, corporate responsibility and social chal
lenges? The round table participants will try to discuss these questions.
Participants:
Nemtsov
A.V.
onomarev Yu. Yu., Radaev
oelmans
, Leitzel
J.
, Skorobogatov
, Titov
Yu.
OFF
EE B
EV
NIN
G
SSION
Moderator”—
Vadim Radaev
Eline Poelmans
University of Leuven, Belgium
«The
ffect of Historical
vents on the Brewing of Beer throughout Time: Case Study of Belgium»
Zoya Kotelnikova
Higher School of
conomics, Moscow, Russia
«Alcohol Drinking
atterns and Social Structure in Contemporary Russia»
Yana Roschina
Higher School of
conomics, Moscow, Russia
«Alcoholic Drinks in Russia: Factors of Demand and Consumption»
RE
EP
TION
Halina Maisechyk,
National Bank of the Republic of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus
«Semiotical
conomics as
ostmodern Branch of
conomics of Vices and Virtues»
Tatiana Shishkina,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
«The
ursuit to
ersonal
nrichment as
Virtue: Legitimization of Homo conomicus in
arly
olitical
conomy»
Nikita Zorin,
Society of Conclusive Medicine Specialists, Moscow, Russia
«Hypostases of Vices and Virtues»
Private Vices— Societal Virtues?
Moderator”—
Aleksandr Dubyanskiy
Mikhail Shishkin,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Morality in
conomics»
Maxim Markov,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Alcohol in the Adam Smith–
Wealth of Nations»
John Taylor,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Adam Smith and
reed as an
motion»
Lyudmila Kolesnikova; Yekaterina Mityasova
Russian Academy of
conomics and State Service; Center of Social Innovations and
Communications in Civil Society ¤
SOCINCO
conomics of Vices
and Virtues in the Context of Fractal Cross-Disciplinary Analysis»
Viacheslav Uschankov,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Wealth as Sufficiency, Surplus and Luxury»
Vladimir Melnikov,
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
«Competition”—
Virtue or
Vice?»
ššVirtuous™™ Economics and Economic Policy
Moderator”—
Denis Kadochnikov
Nina Oding,
Leontief Centre, St.
etersburg, Russia
reen
conomy: From Selfishness to Stimulation of the
conomic Development»
Pavel Lukichev,
St.
etersburg State University of Culture and Arts, St.
etersburg, Russia
«••
reen Lifestyle––: an Aim or
Means of Survival?»
Grigoriy Tulchinsky,
Higher School of
conomics, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Conflict Aspects of
hilanthropy in Russia»
Daria Tsyplakova,
Russian Academy of
conomy and State Service under the
resident
of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia
«Taking care of elderly parents: family provision of care in Russia»
Denis Kadochnikov,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
«Can Language
olicy be Virtuous or Vicious?»
OPE
NIN
G
SSION
(room 152)
Aleksey Kudrin,
Dean of the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences of S
bSU
Danila Raskov,
Head of the Center for the Study of
conomic Culture of S
bSU
conomics of Vices and the Neutrality of
conomics»
ORNIN
G SE
SSION
Moderator —
Danila Raskov
Jim Leitzel,
University of Chicago,
«Robust Alcohol
olicy in Russia»
Vadim Radaev,
Higher School of
conomics, Moscow, Russia
«Does Antialcoholic Reform Affect Consumption and
urchases of Homemade Alcohol in Russia?»
OFF
EE B
PARALL
SE
SSIONS
Alcohol Policy and the Alcohol Consumption Consequences
Moderator”—
Aleksandr Nemtsov
Boytsov,
Samorodskaya,
Tret™jakov,
Vatolina
Federal State Budgetary Institution «State Research Center for
reventive Medicine under the Ministry
of Health of the Russian Federation»
conomic Losses due to
remature Death: Diseases and Defects»
Irina Kratko,
Higher School of
conomics, Moscow, Russia
«Does Statistic on
roduction and Consumption of Alcohol in Russia
ive the Answer about
the
ffectiveness of the
overnment–
Antialcoholic
olicy?»
Aleksandr Skorobogatov,
Higher School of
conomics, St.
etersburg, Russia
«The Influence of the
olicy of Restricting Night Sales of Alcohol upon the Consumption and Abuse
of Alcohol in Russia»
Richard White,
University of Alabama in Huntsville,
«¤In Name Only¥ Alcohol
rohibition in Mississippi (1908™1966)»
Gulnara Nurieva,
American University of Central Asia, Bishkek,
yrgyz Republic
«Alcohol market regulation in
yrgyzstan»
Philosophical-Religious Aspect of the Economics of Vices and Virtues
Moderator”—
Mikhail Rumyantsev
Konstantin Golubev,
Belarus State
conomic University, Minsk, Belarus
«The Role of the Concept of ••Natural Law–– in the Formation of
Model of Consumer Behavior
and Understanding of the Virtues and Dependencies»
Sergey Lukin,
Belarus State University, Minsk, Belarus
«Bible on Alcohol Consumption»
Mikhail Rumyantsev,
St.
etersburg State University, St.
etersburg, Russia
conomy of Vices and Virtues: the
hilosophy-
conomic Context»
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Trust— The Virtues or Vices? / Aleksandr Shmakov
AWorld Without Alcohol? / Aleksandr Nemtsov
Evolutional and Anthropological Basis of the Modern Human Being¡s Vice and Virtue /
Sports: Virtue or Vice? / Rustem Nureev, Evgeny Markin
Application of Sociological Theory for an Explanation and Control of ¢¢Problem¡¡
Alcohol Consumption / Veronika Odinokova
Vadim Radaev
Alcohol and Natives in Colonial North America: Economy and Culture / Yury Akimov
Economic Losses Due to Premature Death: Diseases and Defects / Sergei Boitsov,
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­\f\b€
Œ\f\f\b\t‰ ‚\b\t:   ‚ˆ\t  „ ­\t\b‹ ‚\bƒ\f \tˆ­ ‰ /
\f\b\f\b\f ƒ\f€  \f  \r‰ “‰\b\f\b‰ \b  ‰ «… \f\b»
…  \f\f\b‰ \t‰ /
\b\t\t ‚\bƒ\fŠ \b\f \t­\f\b ­ ­…  \f\f\b \t‰:   1990-Š 2000- . /
\t
\t ­ˆ\n\b\t ‚\b \f \t…‰ ‚\b? /
\b\t \f­ƒ
‰\f   \t\b \t\b\t‰ \f \t \b\t …  \f\f\b\f …„… \r\t‘\b\f
\t‰ ­
 \r, ”\t…\t\b,
­\f\b\f­ƒ
\b­\f \b\b\t‰ ˆ „  \t \t  \b\f\t ­\bŠ \b­\f € ­\t… \t
•…  \f\f\b\f \t\bŠ \b\t… ­ ­­ \f\f\b\b€
\r\f …  \f\f\b‰ /
\b\t … ­ \r \r\f \f\f€: -Šˆ‰€ ­\f\b\b€ \b \f  /
…  \b\t \b\f \f„\t\bŠ „„: ƒ   ˆ\b\t\f \f\b \tŠ? /
ˆ\t  , … \f\r… ƒ­  ‚ˆ \f\b‰ / \f\t€
‰\b\f …   \t\bƒ\f\b‰ \bƒ\b€ … \r\t\n  \f… \t‰ \b\t …  \f\f\b\f
ˆ„…  \f\f\b\f \t\f ­
 /  \t ­
\f\t\b\r \f \f\f­ƒ
«™\t ­\t‰  \t\n\b‰ …   … ­\fƒ  ­\f  ­\f\b\b   \t\n\r\t\b\b\tš
„\f \b­\t\b 3 …\t  ƒ„»: ­… „ …  \f \fŠ … ­‰ˆ\t\b\b ‰Š
\n \f\f€ ™\t ­\t ­1920-\f \r / „€
\bƒ\f€ \t…\f  ­ \f\f\b\b …\b\t\b‰ \r \r\f \f\f€ … ­ /
 \f­ƒ
\b\t  \rŠ \tˆ\b­: \t  \b-\f \f­€ \t\b\tˆ /
\r\f \n\t\b\f
 \t \f\b\b\f \f ­\t ­\b\t\b€ ­ \f­\f \b€
‚\bƒ\f€ -„ „ \b€ \t…\f  /
­ † € ‡\f \t\b­ƒ
\bƒ\f\f … \f  ­ \fˆ„ \t \f … \f\n\r\f­ \f\f\b\b€ \f  : \fˆ\b …  /
€­ \f \f€
\b\t \f­ƒ, \t \r\t‰
\t \b\t
\f ‰­
‰ƒ\f\t­­ƒ
\b\b\f \rŠ\r
…\f : ­‰\b\f … \t\t ˆ\t ­‰\b\f … \t\t ˆ\t
\b \t­ ­\f\b\b  /
\b\r \f€  \t\b\t­­ƒ
\b\f \b\t…  ­\tˆ\r\t €  \f \t „ \f /‡\t\rŠ
\t€
„ˆ­\b ‡\f\b\b\t\r€
Œ\b\tƒ\f\b\f …\b‰ ‰ «\f \f ­\f\b\b€ ˆ\t\b» \r‰   ­\t\b‰ \r\f …­\f\r\f\b‰
…  \f \f‰ …\b\t\b‰ \r \r\f \f\f€ ˆ\t­ \f€ / ‡„\f­
\b \t\b \b
\t\f­ƒ\f / ‡„\b\t
\t\f­\b\t
\f  ­ƒ
 \b­\f\b\f ‚\bƒ\fŠ „ „ \b\t … \f \f … ˆ­\r ­\t  \f…Š
…  \bŠ \b\t… ­ ­
\t\f­ƒ
\t
… \t … ­ \r \r\f \f\f€ / Œ \b
­\t\f\b \b  ‚ˆ \f\b ƒ\f­\f\t
 \f­ƒ
\n\f   ‰ˆ­\t‰ … \t   \r \r\f \f\b€ … ƒ\b€? /
\f \f  \t‹ \b …‰\b»: \b\f  \f \t…\f  ­\f\b\b€
„\n ­X–XI ­­. /
\b\t \b  ƒ\f­\f\t …
\t\b\r\f­‹ ­‚­‹ ‚\b … \t
\r \r\f \f …ˆ€  \t \t\b  \r…\b\t \b \b \fˆ\t /
\f\b­\t
‹\r\t
\b\r­\b\t,
\b\t \r \r\f \f\f€ … ­ \t   ‰  …‰ \f\b\t /
 \f­
\t  …  \f\f\b‰ \t‰ Š ­‰ˆ \t\b€   „ „ €
 \f\b­\t Œ‰
\t\r\t­­\b\t
\t\f    \t  \t … ˆ­\r ­\t …  \f\f\b‰ \t‰ ­
  ­\f 
\b\t ­…   ‚\f ­\b  „\r\t  ­\f\b\b€ \t\b \t\b€ …  /
\b\t ‡\f\b\b\t\r\f­\b\t
\f€\t‰ \b \t»: … \t  …  \f\f\b‰ \t‰ ­\b\f\b\t „ \b€
… ­\b\t\b€  \f\r\f ­…\f ­\f …\f­\f\b\b\f \r\f‰ \f \f /
\t\b‰, ­\f\b ƒ -  …­„ (\t \f \t \t\b\tˆ„ „ „ \bŠ … \t 
ˆ\t\f\r\f\b‰) /
‘\t\f­ \f \f€
\f  
’ \b: „  \n\f  ­\t ­\f  „ „ \b… \f€
­… „ … \t\bŠ  \f\b\r\f\b‰Š ­­… ‰ 
’ \b\t ­­\f \f ­ \f‰) /
‰ …  \f\f\b \t‰ /
„\b \f \f€
«Œ\f\f\b€  \tˆ \nˆ\b»: \f   \f\r ­ ­\n­\t\b‰? /
\t­\f
   \r\f \n\t\b
    «\r »
15-16  2015 ., -\n\t

\n   \f

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