Historical Dictionary of Unitarian universalism


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HistoricalDictionaryof
UnitarianUniversalism
MarkW.Harris
TheScarecrowPress
HISTORICALDICTIONARIES OFRELIGIONS,
PHILOSOPHIES, AND MOVEMENTS
Edited by Jon Woronoff
Ecumenical Christianity,
by Ans Joachim van der Bent, 1994
Terrorism,
by Sean Anderson and Stephen Sloan, 1995.
by W. H. McLeod, 1995
Feminism,
United States Political Parties,
by Harold F. Bass Jr., 2000
Heideggers Philosophy,
by Alfred Denker, 2000
by Rafael Medoff and Chaim I. Waxman, 2000
Kierkegaards Philosophy,
by Julia Watkin, 2001
Hegelian Philosophy,
by John W. Burbidge, 2001
Lutheranism,
Larson and Mark W. Oldenburg, 2001
Holiness Movement,
by William Kostlevy, 2001
by Ludwig W. Adamec, 2001
Olympic Movement,
Slavery and Abolition,
by Martin A. Klein, 2002
Terrorism,
2nd ed.,by Sean Anderson and Stephen Sloan, 2002
New Religious Movements,
by George D. Chryssides, 2001
Historical Dictionary of
Unitarian Universalism
Mark W. Harris
Philosophies,and Movements,No. 48
Lanham, Maryland, and Oxford
2004
SCARECROWPRESS,INC.
Published in the United States of America
Awholly owned subsidiary of
www.scarecrowpress.com
Copyright ©2004 by Mark W. Harris
All rights reserved
Editors Foreword
Jon Woronoff
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
THE DICTIONARY
About the Author
Editors Foreword
other Christian denominations, it sought tolerance for itself, and surpris-
ingly, freely granted tolerance to others. Thus it has evolved in its prin-
This volume was written by Mark W. Harris, who is presently minis-
ter of the First Parish of Watertown (Unitarian Universalist) in Massa-
viii€
EDITORS FOREWORD
Acknowledgments
This book has been at least eight years in the making. That period of time
has given me a chance to assess some of the important recent studies of
gregational polity to seminarians. I am grateful to all those people, in-
cluding my student ministers in Watertown, who have in some way par-
ticipated in stimulating discussions about our history. During the course
along the way. Both of my mentors in the ministry, Charles Slap and
Arnold Crompton, are deceased, but I want to especially mention Dr.
Crompton, who wrote fine works on Unitarianism in the West and
Thomas Starr King and inspired me with his great stories. Although I was
debted to the work of Conrad Wright, who always called us to task when
wife, the Rev. Andrea Greenwood, has borne the consequences of hav-
she said, You can do it.Ž Finally, I would like to dedicate this diction-
ary to my four boys, Joel, Levi, Dana, and Asher. They represent the fu-
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
AUWAlliance of Unitarian Women
AHAAmerican Humanist Association
AUAAmerican Unitarian Association
AUWAssociation of Universalist Women
AYS
About Your Sexuality
Sexuality, About Your)
CUCCanadian Unitarian Council
CLFChurch of the Larger Fellowship
CLCCouncil of Liberal Churches
EUUEuropean Unitarian Universalists
FRHFellowship of Religious Humanists
FCFFree Church Fellowship
FRAFree Religious Association
IARFInternational Association for Religious Freedom
ICUUInternational Council of Unitarians and Universalists
LREDALiberal Religious Educators Association
LRYLiberal Religious Youth
MFCMinisterial Fellowship Committee
UUAUnitarian Universalist Association
Chronology
Nicene Creed adopted at Council of Nicea establishes dogma of the
Trinity.
John Murray lands in America. On September 30, Murry
xiv€
1811
1811
The Universalists begin publishing a weekly paper,
salist Magazine
lished continuously since, now part of the UU World.
William Ellery Channings Baltimore Sermon Unitarian Chris-
Christian Register
American Unitarian Association (AUA) is established.
The British and Foreign Unitarian Association is founded.
€xv
Childrens Sunday yearly observance is started by the Universalist
xvi€
The Unitarian Laymens League is reorganized.
Commission of Appraisal is appointed by the AUA.
Washington Profession of Faith is adopted by Universalist General
Convention at Washington, D.C.
AUACommission of Appraisal publishes
Unitarians Face a
New Age.
Frederick May Eliot is elected president of the AUA. Sophia
Lyons Fahs is appointed childrens editor.
Unitarian Service Committee is organized.
The Church of the Larger Fellowship is organized to serve Uni-
The Universalist Service Committee organizes and works in
€xvii
xviii€
Introduction
xx€
North America in two of these instances. The earliest preachers of the
gospel of universal salvation appeared in what were later the Middle At-
lantic and Southern states, including European refugee George de Ben-
neville. By 1781 Elhanan Winchester had organized a Philadelphia con-
gregation of Universal Baptists. Among its members was Benjamin
Rush, the famous physician and signer of the Declaration of Indepen-
dence. The most well-known founder was John Murray, an English
preacher, who arrived in 1770 and founded the first Universalist church
€xxi
color, race, class, or sexual orientation.
xxii€
pecially with the publication of a new, inclusive hymnal. In 1999 the as-
sociation announced that just over 50 percent of its active ministers
were women. The denomination has been especially proactive in af-
€xxiii
seek a nondogmatic, antiauthoritarian faith. Today Unitarian Universal-
ists tend to be less rational and more interested in spirituality. Although
the term is vague to some and overused by others, the trend toward sup-
ciplines has captured the hearts of many in the denomination. This has
been fueled by the womens spirituality movement, Eastern traditions
and practices, and a renewed appreciation for the interdependence of all
creation. Young people are also seeking religious renewal within the
As a result, the UUAhas put an increased emphasis on Unitarian Uni-
vidual freedom. Balancing radical religious individualism with strong
xxiv€
The Dictionary
… A …
ABBOT, FRANCIS ELLINGWOOD(1836…1903).
Free Religious Association (FRA)
Index
. Abbot was born in Boston on November 6,
Meadville Theological School
in 1863. Even as a student, Abbot be-
agreed to the change. Part of the plan was for Abbot to have sole edi-
torship of a weekly journal, and this bore fruit when the first issue of
Index
came out on January 1, 1870. The periodical carried Abbots
Fifty Affirmations.Ž This editorship continued until 1880. The latter
Scientific The-
(1885), in which Abbot said that the pursuit of science and religion
1903, after final years of personal sadness. Abbot was an uncompro-
mising believer in intellectual freedom, and he was a leader of the re-
dom, you must abandon Christianity.Ž
ABOLITION OFSLAVERY.
been portrayed as activists in the crusade to abolish slavery. George
Willis Cooke in his
Unitarianism in America
to promote the antislavery reform as the Unitarian.Ž In fact, the pic-
Conrad Wright
three ways: Abolitionists who called for an immediate end to slavery;
moderates, who were a majority, and strongly antislavery, but they
preferred to contain it and see its gradual abolishment; and finally, an
William Ellery Channing
erate views on slavery. He believed, Ahuman being cannot right-
fully be held and used as property. No legislation, not that of all coun-
tries or worlds, could make him so.Ž The great scar of slavery on the
individual soul was that it did not allow individuals the right to their
own moral fulfillment. Although Channing became more outspoken
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
Charles Follen
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
more militant, The man who attacks me to reduce me to slavery, in
that moment of attack alienates his right to life, and if I were a fugi-
tive, and could escape in no other way, I would kill him with as little
compunction as I would drive a mosquito from my face.Ž When
With this sword, I thee wed.Ž After this, Parker wrote his sermons
with a sword in the drawer under his ink stand and a loaded pistol in
the flap of his desk. The arms were appropriate, as Parker soon en-
weapons. The armed conflict they were materially and emotionally
advocating became a reality the year after Parker died in 1860.
Although less well known, the Universalists also played a role in
fighting the greatest social issue of the 19th century. In fact, the Uni-
versalists made the first official denominational challenge to slavery
when they adopted the following resolution at their convention in
„We believe it to be incon-
sistent with the union of the human race in a common Saviour, and
union, to hold any part of our fellow creatures in bondage. We there-
fore recommend a total refraining from the African trade and the
of the negroes in our country, and for the instruction and education of
gospel.Ž The eminent Dr.
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
as mixed as the Unitarians. While a small number of Universalists
made abolition the central goal of their lives, most opposed slavery
nominational unity. As a group, Universalists usually argued against
slavery on moral and religious grounds, rather than for political or
economic reasons. Using their unique theology, they believed that
humanity was one great familyŽ that would ultimately share one
common destiny.Ž Like the Unitarians, most Universalists were
against slavery, but they were more likely to refuse to be part of the
mainstream antislavery movement for political and religious reasons
that included orthodox believers). Preferring to operate indepen-
dently, their national influence was limited. Slowly the Universalists
began to take an official position. The leader of the Universalists,
, attended the third annual Universalist Anti-Slavery
building was dedicated as a proving place of worship unhampered
by creed or dogma, or denominations, a place of study, and a platform
for every honest message.Ž The facility had a gymnasium, art gallery,
guest rooms, chapel, and auditorium and offered every conceivable
type of program to educate and uplift people. Jones became the first
director and continued there until his death in 1918. This attempt to
stated purpose: For the advancement of the physical, intellectual, so-
cial, civic, moral, cultural, and religious interests of the community
without restrictions as to age, sex, race, creed, color, or economic cir-
During the 1930s the church collapsed, but then services were re-
center. Attendance dwindled as the surrounding neighborhood
nity Fund required support of secular activities and not the mainte-
, moved to the center. After this the fellowship
lost a number of members, but its founder and minister, Lewis
McGee, helped stabilize the congregation before he left in 1953. The
church took on the original name All Souls and merged in 1971 with
ACADEMIES
in the early 20th century was Orlando Hollister, who was also presi-
ADAMS, ABIGAIL (1744…1818)
ADAMS, JAMES LUTHER (1901…1994)
but he challenged all perspectives with his belief that religious lib-
eralism affirms the moral obligation to direct ones effort toward the
establishment of a just and loving community.Ž He died on July 26,
1994. Adams received the Award for Distinguished Service to the
on by the James Luther Adams Foundation.
ADAMS, JOHN(1735…1826).
ADAMS, JOHN (1735…1826)
10€
ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY (1767…1848)
Christ. You see my orthodoxy grows upon me.Ž Over the years
causing much of his questioning: The miracles in the Bible furnish
the most powerful of all the objections against its authenticity,Ž and
he wanted to strip it of all its supernatural agency.Ž He wrote in his
Memoirs
ADDAMS, JANE (1860…1935)
€11
12€
AGNOSTICISM
ALCOTT, AMOS BRONSON (1799…1888)
€13
14€
ALCOTT, LOUISA MAY (1832…1888)
time, but could never manage to earn a living. Two more girls were
Little Women
. After moving from Boston to
Concord, Louisa began to write at the age of eight when she com-
posed her first poem, To the First Robin.Ž Louisas mother, known
as Marmee, worked long hours to ensure the survival of her family.
ALCOTT, LOUISA MAY (1832…1888)
€15
Browns martyrdom, which was published in the
Liberator
journal annotations, Alcott commented that she found religion as a
girl when mother Nature led her to God.Ž She tried to maintain this
pression. In 1881 she was a cofounder with her friend Ellen Emerson
of the Womens Parish Association of the First Parish in Concord, the
oldest church womens group in town. During the 1870s and 1880s
16€
ALGER, HORATIO JR. (1832…1899)
Writing became the sole focus of Algers life, and some earlier sto-
ries about city life took their mature form in 1867 with the appear-
Ragged Dick
forms of revealed religion.Ž Ezra Stiles called Allen, a profane &
impious Deist.Ž Allen acknowledged the truth in this label to even
makes me one.Ž Allen believed that the finite human mind could not
apprehend the infinite God, but that aspects of God were revealed to
18€
ALLIANCE OF UNITARIAN WOMEN (AUW)
Womens Western Unitarian Conference was formed and in 1890 a
Under its first president, Abby W. May, several important projects
were undertaken by the AUW. The Post Office Mission was an effort
came through public relations efforts. This program sent thousands of
ALLIANCE OF UNITARIAN WOMEN (AUW)
€19
with the Universalists in 1963, this organization became the
Universalist Womens Federation
AMERICAN HUMANISTASSOCIATION (AHA).
Press Association (HPA) (1935) was the first organized national as-
The New Humanist
leading humanist, was the inspiration for the reorganization and in-
corporation of the HPAin 1941 as the American Humanist Associa-
tion (AHA). Ever since, this organization has been the major repre-
sentative organization of humanism in the United States. For many
years it was headquartered in Yellow Springs, Ohio, and later San
Francisco, but since 1978 its offices have been located in Amherst,
New York. Its publication is called
(New York, 1969) Corliss Lamont wrote that the pur-
pose of the AHAis to educate the American people on the meaning
this way of life.Ž The AHAis organized in local chapters. It was a
major player with other humanist groups in an International Congress
20€
AMERICAN HUMANIST ASSOCIATION (AHA)
creation of this organization. Five years prior to this
William Ellery
AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION (AUA)
€21
22€
AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION (AUA)
eventually offered for the support of a principal, a professor, and for
scholarships. During its formative years the AUAwas hindered by
lack of financial support. The Boston area churches had largely been
logical differences. By 1853 Transcendentalists and other radicals
threatened the Christian basis of the AUA, and in response the annual
AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION (AUA)
€23
AMES COVENANT.
24€
AMES COVENANT
While in Rochester, she continued to teach. Her family began to be-
come involved in antislavery activities and split with the Rochester
ANTHONY, SUSAN BROWNELL (1820…1906)
€25
spoke state by state, Anthony labored to convince both Republicans
and Democrats alike that suffrage for women belonged in their party
planks and in the Constitution. In her later years Anthony was
26€
ANTI-TRINITARIANISM
God who inspires humans by the purity of his character. Except for
€27
28€
ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSALIST WOMEN (AUW)
Friendly House in Pigeon River Valley. One of the great success sto-
ries of the association began in 1920 with the purchase of the Clara
Barton birthplace. The Universalist women wanted to create a shrine
devoted to the great humanitarian and also carry on some kind of so-
ATHEISM
€29
Jonathan Mayhew, an important 18th-century liberal described
of becoming so.Ž Liberals such as Mayhew encouraged their parish-
ioners to believe in God only after impartially examining the ques-
tions. This rational and empirical path to God ultimately led most
Unitarians to the position of Theodore Parker, the famed Transcen-
dentalist, who said that the foundation of religion is laid in human
nature.Ž While Parker still affirmed that the Divine could be experi-
enced inwardly, Gods role in the observable world became less ten-
AbnerKneeland
United States to be convicted and imprisoned for blasphemy. While
believe that their god, with all his moral attributes (aside from nature
the end of the 19th century the idea of believing in God became more
were found wanting. This is precisely why atheism became a com-
The Faith
of a Religious Atheist
30€
ATHEISM
cept. These percentages led
Newsweek
to report on April 17, 1967:
To many mainstream Christians, Unitarians are largely atheistic in-
tellectuals who cant kick the habit of going to church.Ž While the
and more like a human being„intellectually, emotionally, and
morally„the shapers of religion made it feasible to abandon God and
believe simply in humanity.
Seealso
ATONEMENT.
Treatise on Atonement
(1805). Traditionally Christ had to atone for
Ballous view, Christs role is to reconcile humanity to God and not
the reverse. God is not a vengeful being seeking infinite satisfaction
for the sins of humanity but rather a benevolent Father who sends
Christ to show His infinite love. Ballou wrote: To say that God
loved man any less after transgression than before, denies his un-
him in his real character. As God was not the unreconciled party, no
Treatise
ATWOOD, ISAAC MORGAN (1838…1917).
stricken, self-educated background, Atwood became one of the fore-
most leaders of the Universalist church in the late 19th century. At-
wood went to work when he was 11 and experienced farming, stable
cleaning, and mule driving on the Erie Canal. He managed to educate
life devoted to the church and its ministry starting at the age of 23
York. That same year he married Almira Church; they had five chil-
dren. He served a succession of churches in New York, Maine, and
ATWOOD, ISAAC MORGAN (1838…1917)
€31
Christian Leader
) from 1867 to 1872. He was minister of the
32€
ATWOOD, JOHN MURRAY (1869…1951)
Universalism and upstate New York. His father,
Isaac Morgan At-
, was president of the Canton Theological School for 20 years
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND
€33
in Adelaide. In October 1855 the first service was held with the Rev.
John Crawford Woods, who was sent by the British and Foreign Uni-
tarian Association. Membership peaked at nearly 750 in 1881 and has
fluctuated greatly, with about 100 at present. Woods had a long and
successful ministry in Adelaide from 1855…1889. Catherine Helen
greater opportunities for women in education, employment, and po-
the right to vote in 1894. This amazing woman became South Aus-
tralias first female preacher in 1878, helped establish the first gov-
Spence now appears on the Australian $5 bill.
The Unitarians erected their first church building in 1856, and the
congregation held services there until 1971. At that time the land on
34€
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND
years in both Australia and New Zealand. The Australian Assembly
of Unitarian and Liberal Christian Churches was expanded in 1974 to
become the Australia and New Zealand Unitarian Association
(ANZUA). Their publication is
The church in Auckland, New Zealand, was founded in 1898, but
services were first held in 1863 when Franklin Bradley, who had
vices for 18 months. Their first minister, William Jellie, arrived in
structed in 1901, at which time there were 468 members. The church
declined after Jellie left around 1910, and like the Australian
churches, membership has fluctuated greatly. All of these congrega-
tions belong to the British General Assembly of Unitarian and Free
Christian Churches, and the Adelaide and Auckland groups are mem-
Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA)
. Among all
these congregations there are more than 300 members and they be-
BALCH, EMILYGREENE(1867…1961).
maica Plain section of Boston as one of six children, Emily Greene
BALCH, EMILY GREENE (1867…1961)
€35
Wellesley College, where she remained until 1915. Balch was active
in many reform movements helping to combat industrial accidents,
childhood poverty, and overcrowded and dangerous housing condi-
Boston Womens Trade Union League to help women establish trade
class on it at Wellesley. In his Province of Reason, Sam Bass Warner
Jr. writes of Balch, Beneath the respect for facts and the attention to
36€
BALLOU, ADIN (1803…1890)
in Cumberland, Rhode Island, on April 23, 1803, into a large ex-
parents were Ariel and Edilda, farmers who also owned a sawmill
and cidermill. Adin became a tall farm boy who attended school
BALLOU, ADIN (1803…1890)
€37
ernments, as the only law is the will of God. Many of his ideas were
The Practical Christian
nally called Fraternal Community Number One. The principles of the
no taking of oaths, and no participation in war.
work and profits would be shared. The community, now called Hope-
dale because they first occupied an overgrown farm that had no ap-
600 hundred acres added to the original farm. The venture collapsed
when its two largest financiers withdrew their capital. This was a last-
ing disappointment to Ballou. His story of the experiment is re-
(1890). After its
collapse, the community continued as a church with Ballou as its
minister. It was organized as the Hopedale Liberal Christian Parish
practical Christianity. For many years he corresponded with the Rus-
sian philosopher Leo Tolstoy, who greatly admired Ballous thoughts
and writings. He died on August 5, 1890.
BALLOU, HOSEA(1771…1852).
ist movement in the 19th century. Ballou was born the 11th child of
Maturin and Lydia Ballou on April 30, 1771. The family had moved
ther was a Baptist preacher and farmer, and his mother died before he
was two. Hosea had very limited schooling and learned the skills of
farming in a difficult environment. After he joined his fathers
church, he began to have questions of faith. This was partly brought
38€
BALLOU, HOSEA (1771…1852)
watching as he hid the book in the woodpile. Later Maturin went to
Hosea was able to save some money, had one term of school at
Chesterfield Academy, and showed such promise that he was given a
BALLOU, HOSEA (1771…1852)
€39
ination a solid foundation. Two years later he started and edited the
Universalist Magazine
In 1821 he helped publish a hymnal. Alittle more than 10 years
Ballou remained committed to the position that people suffer for their
sins in earthly life. He rejected the idea of individual moral rewards
for behavior and advocated a corporate view of salvation. The rene-
for 10 years. Universalism expanded rapidly in Ballous later years,
and he frequently went on preaching tours, including a visit to New
York six months before his death. He died on June 7, 1852, the ac-
BALLOU, HOSEAII (1796…1861).
Tufts College
Guilford, Vermont, on October 18, 1796. He attended local schools,
and then became a teacher. In 1813 he began to work in a school in
had oversight. Father BallouŽ encouraged him in the ministry, and
was a recognized minister within three years. Ballous first regular
parish work began in 1817 in Stafford, Connecticut, the only Univer-
40€
BALLOU, HOSEA II (1796…1861)
Thomas StarrKing
tionist controversy, where he developed a reputation as a peacemaker.
was clerk for many years. He was known as a scholar, writer, and
thinker, but not for pulpit eloquence. He ended his ministerial career
BAPTISM
€41
had not had a conversion experience, could be allowed to have their
After the Great Awakening, liberals began to baptize any infants
whose parents made a request, and although most continued to use
the word baptism well into the 20th century, they rejected the Puri-
tan belief in the stain of original sin: Dont you think that a child
brings enough sin into the world to damn it forever?Ž Some Unitar-
tial of each child was affirmed and the Trinitarian formula did not
The Universalist Manual
religion.Ž This publication also provided for an alternative dedica-
tion of children.Ž Stating that there were many in the Universalist
tism, they did not consider it a duty incumbent on them, to offer up
their children in the ordinance of water baptism, either by immersion
or sprinkling.Ž The public dedication of children had become a pop-
ular practice, as children were offered up to Gods service. Leonard
American Unitarian Association (AUA)
42€
BAPTISM
gregations, by the word christenŽ by 1950. Other UU congregations
began to use the naming ceremonyŽ or, more frequently, child ded-
1961. Despite the differences in the use of terminology, most UU
their faith community and the world. The ceremony may be public or
tismal font or other symbolic representations of life such as a flower.
Most clergy use whatever words or practices they are comfortable
some variation thereof). Despite the differences in theology, affirm-
BARNUM, PHINEAS TAYLOR (1810…1891)
€43
44€
BARNUM, PHINEAS TAYLOR (1810…1891)
thinking faith that promised self-expression and salvation for all, and
selor to many. There is a Memorial Hospital in Kharang named for
perintendent minister for the Unitarian Union of the Khasi and Jain-
tia Hills, a position she had held since 1936. She had charge of ar-
ranging services and training leaders. She disliked the idea that she
might be considered a missionary. Rather she saw herself as a
46€
BARTÓK, BÉLA (1881…1945)
were no longer part of Hungary after World War I. Bartók also be-
came interested in childrens musical expressions. He once wrote, I
cannot conceive of music that expresses nothing.Ž He left Hungary in
1940 to lecture in the United States and remained there during the
war. He taught as a visiting associate in music at Columbia, from
BARTON, CLARISSA HARLOWE (1821…1912)
€47
she lived in Washington.
Encouraged to be a teacher, Clara began to teach in North Oxford
tute in New York. After her graduation she moved to New Jersey,
public school in Bordentown. The school was a great success and led
to the establishment of a permanent public school there. When the job
of principal that she wanted was offered to a man, Clara felt rebuffed
and resigned. Feeling worn from her labors, Clara moved to Wash-
ington, D.C., and became a clerk in the U.S. Patent Office. When the
Civil War broke out, Bartons compassion was activated by the sight
48€
BARTON, CLARISSA HARLOWE (1821…1912)
churches. The next year the property was purchased, eventually be-
BEACON PRESS
€49
success, so much so that when Arnold left in 1956, Beacon had a
integrity. This was especially evident in 1971 when Beacon, under
the leadership of Gobin Stair, and the UUAmade a decision to pub-
Pentagon Papers
. This 7,000-page collection of documents
50€
the association has owned a number of office buildings on Beacon
BELLOWS, HENRY WHITNEY (1814…1882)
€51
Christian Inquirer
, a weekly paper,
which Bellows was editor of for 11 years. He also edited the
52€
BELLOWS, HENRY WHITNEY (1814…1882)
Bellowss death when Frederic Henry Hedge referred to him as our
BELSHAM, THOMAS (1750…1829)
€53
reprinted by Jedediah Morse in America to show that American and
British views on Jesus were identical. In fact most of the Americans
were Arian, while the British were Socinian. Of greatest importance at
this time was the passage of the Trinity Bill (1813), which finally made
Unitarianism legal. Several Anglican clergy attacked the Unitarians
and said the old laws denying civil rights to deniers of the Trinity
should be restored. Belsham courageously defended the Unitarian faith
in print and from pulpit against all challenges. An assistant came to join
Belsham in 1825. By this date there were over 200 Unitarian churches
only two. Belsham had always had weight problems, and this became
54€
BENEVOLENT FRATERNITY OF CHRISTIAN CHURCHES (BFCC)
kind of group that would be mutually beneficial to all the clergy. The
56€
BIANDRATA, GIORGIO (1516…1588)
BIANDRATA, GIORGIO (1516…1588)
€57
58€
and others began to question the infallibility of the Bible and rejected
€59
iwork of God.Ž This general superintendent of the Universalist
Church of America (UCA) said Universalists find God more fully
After 1920 a strong humanist influence was felt. Horace Westwood
church, Bible, sacred person, nor tradition save insofar as this au-
thority confirms the verdict of ones own soul.Ž Thus the Bible be-
came a personal document. Amodern view of the Bible was summed
60€
of Faith Touching the Holy Trinity,according to Scripture
questioned the doctrine of the Trinity as it had been corrupted by the
Catholic church and also raised a furor. He was released on bail for a
BLACK EMPOWERMENT CONTROVERSY
€61
Rebellion.Ž The conference began on October 6, 1967, at the Bilt-
more Hotel in New York City. Amovement supporting black powerŽ
had developed at the Los Angeles church where Black Unitarian Uni-
versalists for Radical Reform (BURR) had formed. As people gath-
ered for the conference, several black delegates were invited by
BURR members to help form a black caucus. This black caucus for-
mulated a plan to present to the conference. This included calling for
greater black participation on UUAstaff, board, and committees. The
central request was for the creation of a new black controlled organ-
ization called the Black Affairs Council (BAC), which would be
its funds. While the conference voted to support this proposal, it had
no binding authority with the UUABoard. The central issue was how
62€
BLACK EMPOWERMENT CONTROVERSY
have a programmatic response to racism, even though the BUUC had
BLACK EMPOWERMENT CONTROVERSY
€63
64€
tarian Congregationalism. After she was married to Samuel Black-
BOARD OF TRUSTEES
€65
66€
BOSTON
Upward Forever.Ž The appearance that the origins and locus for the
the five points: The Fatherhood of God, The Brotherhood of Man,
and the Neighborhood of Boston. Henry Adams, who grew up on
BOSTON DECLARATION.
the Universalist General Convention in 1899 as an addition to the
WinchesterProfession
BOSTON DECLARATION
€67
ination. While acknowledging the important historic character of the
AHindu reform group that had important Unitar-
68€
Brahmo Samaj. Sen died suddenly, but a few years later there was an
effort by the American
tions. Ajoint Brahmo Samaj committee was created, and then the
British and Foreign Unitarian Association voted in 1896 to support a
BROAD CHURCH MOVEMENT
€69
not want to limit the growth of what the word meant. The name
gued that that there is no absolute religion for humanity, but only par-
70€
BROOK FARM (1841…1847)
, p. 373). To accomplish this he proposed a communal ven-
a school or college in which instruction was given from the simplest
level to the higher moral philosophy.
racism. Brown was born on July 11, 1875, in Falmouth, Jamaica, to
James and Florence Brown. The oldest of five, Brown remembered
that he liked to make speeches as a child. He entered the civil service
to become a minister. Theologically he had many doubts and was at-
72€
try to fulfill a dream of building a Unitarian church in Harlem. After
BROWN, OLYMPIA (1835…1926)
€73
Horace Mann
74€
BROWN, OLYMPIA (1835…1926)
istry in Bridgeport, she was married in 1873 to John Henry Willis, but
BROWNSON, ORESTES (1803…1876)
€75
preacher. Back east he continued his studies and then was ordained in
76€
BROWNSON, ORESTES (1803…1876)
fathers attention. Abandoning much of his radical social thought, he
found solace in the Catholic church and converted in 1844. He con-
tinued to write and edit for many years thereafter, but his universal
He died on April 17, 1876.
BUCHTELCOLLEGE.
AUniversalist school that was opened in
1872 and remained under denominational control until 1907. At the
€77
78€
BUEHRENS, JOHN A. (1947… )
Peekskill, New York. Raised mostly in the Midwest, Buehrens was a
BUEHRENS, JOHN A. (1947… )
€79
80€
Bulfinch became Americas first professional architect as a result
him. He was also active in the community, being chairman of the
James Monroe visited Boston and was pleased with the public build-
ings he saw. After Benjamin Latrobe resigned, Bulfinch was offered
the position of Architect of the Capitol. The family moved to Wash-
€81
82€
that was revealed to her each day. Her husband, who had died in
March, had encouraged her to be a minister.
Julia Ward Howe
CALL, LON RAY (1894…1985)
€83
tarian Church of Louisville, Kentucky. In 1930 he went to the West
Side Church in New York and the following year he became an as-
sistant minister at Community Church in New York. Then his wife
84€
CALVINISM
(1536). After his
CAMBRIDGE PLATFORM
€85
86€
CAMPS AND CONFERENCES
North Middlesex Unitarian Conference, of which Mr. Elliott was
president, had summer conferences at the Weirs on Lake Win-
nipesaukee, New Hampshire. The Elliotts visited the Oceanic Hotel
on Star Island in the summer of 1896 and that winter negotiated for
CAMPS AND CONFERENCES
€87
88€
CANADA
psychiatry in Canada. Later, the first woman doctor in Canada, Emily
support for her work for voting rights. Their first minister was
William Adam, the Baptist minister who had been converted to Uni-
CANADA
€89
was established in 1961. The association with the
UUAafter merger was often divisive. Canadians felt as though their
national identity was slighted and they were treated like Americans.
called National until 1911, when it was renamed General Conference.
90€
CANADIAN UNITARIAN COUNCIL (CUC)
and be a public representative for all Canadians. By the following
, was revived. Then in June 1958 the WCUAvoted to sup-
port the establishment of a Canadian Unitarian Council to further de-
Universalists in the United States were considering merger. In
does not contain the Universalist name). Most Canadian Unitarians
favored the consolidation. After consolidation, Charles Eddis, a
Canadian minister, became the chief spokesperson for a new Cana-
dian organization. By March 1961 a draft constitution for a CUC was
CANADIAN UNITARIAN COUNCIL (CUC)
€91
came as a result of the more than 30-year conflict over dissatisfaction
with the delivery of services to Canadians. More than 80 percent of
92€
CAPEK, NORBERT F. (1870…1942)
In 1934 Capek received a D.D. from the American
. The Prague church and its outreach efforts were
Nazis. Soon many spies listened to Capeks preaching, and eventu-
ally he was arrested and all his writings were seized while he was
charged with treason. Although he was initially released, the assassi-
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT
€93
punishment brutalizes both the criminal and the public at large. He
and a theology that taught that all people would be restored to happi-
ness, more and more Universalists argued against the death penalty for
94€
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT
General Assembly (GA)
resolution. An additional resolution was
Supreme Court in 1972. The reversal of this decision has led to re-
newed action on behalf of those who live on death row. The GAbe-
gan to reaffirm its commitment to abolishing the death penalty in
executions started again. More recent actions include another GAres-
olution in 1989 and the establishment of a new grassroots organiza-
tion, Unitarian Universalists Against the Death Penalty.
CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY(1780…1842).
most significant religious thinkers of the 19th century. His sermons
CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY (1780…1842)
€95
the Cambridge Association of ministers. His theology began to
evolve from a moderate Calvinism and the more cruel deity of this
96€
CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY (1780…1842)
Literature
, which helped formulate the idea of a true American liter-
the Transcendentalists, who always acknowledged their debt to him.
Prior to 1830 Channing had not spoken out against slavery, but af-
ter a visit to the West Indies where he observed slavery under the
British, he began to lift up his voice against its stain on the American
character. In 1835 he published
CHANNING, WILLIAM HENRY (1810…1884)
€97
a lawyer, died before the boy was born, and his uncle became a sur-
98€
CHANNING, WILLIAM HENRY (1810…1884)
tive in abolitionism. His radicalism made it difficult to secure pulpits
in America, and this helped influence his decision to go to England
CHAPIN, AUGUSTA JANE (1836…1905)
€99
Gen-
eral Convention
and she advocated that half of the trustees should
be women. Prior to being called to a Hillside, Michigan, pastorate in
1884, she finished an M.A. at the University of Michigan, which had
Boston. Eventually he came to differ from Ballou in his theological
100€
CHAPIN, EDWIN HUBBELL (1814…1880)
orientation. Chapin held Restorationist opinions so that he believed
Liberal Institute and even convinced Henry Ward Beecher to give a
education efforts and spoke at the laying of the cornerstone for Can-
ton Theological School. He was outspokenly antiwar and attended a
World Peace Convention in Germany in 1850. He was also active in
CHAPIN, EDWIN HUBBELL (1814…1880)
€101
and his kind, genial, hearty voice.Ž Chapins wife became active in
helping to establish the Chapin Home for the Aged and Infirm in
Alayperson who has certain ministerial responsibilities,
the position of chaplain was created in Canadian Unitarian Universal-
provincial authorities. Achaplain is appointed by his or her congrega-
gregations where there is no minister, the chaplain serves both the so-
102€
he became an automatic member of the Harvard Board of Overseers.
In 1740 Samuel Osborn of Eastham was accused of Arminianism,
cially concerned at the political implications of a dismissal. Chal-
ological hair-splitting. At this time Chauncy was plunged into the
arguments that swirled around the
Great Awakening
ter George Whitfield appeared in Boston. It was matters of style and
the political implications that continued to concern Chauncy. He was
stitutionally he worried about itinerants moving from town to town
CHAUNCY, CHARLES (1705…1787)
€103
CHILD, LYDIAMARIAFRANCIS(1802…1880).
America for her poem The Boys Thanksgiving Song,Ž which be-
writer and reformer. Lydia Francis was born in Medford, Massachu-
104€
CHILD, LYDIA MARIA FRANCIS (1802…1880)
National Anti-Slavery Standard
New York she resigned.
rations in religion. She produced a three-volume work that took eight
The Progress of Religious Ideas through Successive
Ages
. This work, which covers all the world religions and argues for
the divine origin of each, was an attempt to foster understanding be-
tween the worlds faiths. Child had been especially concerned that
childish fablesŽ or filthy superstitions.Ž Many years later, Child
Progress
quotations from religious thinkers (1878). Two years prior to that she
CHILD, LYDIA MARIA FRANCIS (1802…1880)
€105
106€
CHILDRENS SUNDAY
there was controversy over the choice of a new editor, but its finan-
cial problems were also worsening, too. The editorship of Francis
Universalist Leader
at this time. This was also the year that Emerson died and was suc-
ceeded by Frederick Bisbee. During his editorship, the content of the
ward organizational development and news. There was significant
John van Schaick became the editor. Following a successful ministry
in Washington, he had also been a frequent contributor of articles. He
came first as acting editor in 1922 and then editor, a position he re-
tained until 1945. Unlike his predecessor, he was a strong advocate
Universalist Leader
€107
nalism, including helping to start the Associated Church Press. The
108€
American Unitarian Association (AUA)
paper that included not only liberal Christian views, but national and
international political, social, and cultural news as well. At first, it
carried little church news. Although the paper often advocated for
various reforms, it was rarely controversial. The historian George W.
Cooke referred to it as mild and placid.Ž The
Christian Register
€109
1946 a former AUAboard member, Larry Davidow, wrote that
ian Register
of the Committee of Free Unitarians. Linscott Tyler, who also be-
the Unitarian Service Committee with accusations of communism as
well. Then he turned on Fritchman. Both Tyler and Davidow tried to
convince the AUAExecutive Committee that Fritchman was a card
carrying member of the Communist Party.
The controversy received national attention. Fritchman testified
before the House Committee on Un-American Activities in Washing-
operate with the editorial board or resign as editor. The Executive
110€
A Christmas Carol
a sermon by the Unitarian minister at the Little Portland Street
Chapel in London. In 1849 W. P. Lunt, the Unitarian minister in
CHURCH, F. FORRESTER (1948… )
€111
112€
CHURCH, F. FORRESTER (1948… )
CHURCH OF THE LARGER FELLOWSHIP (CLF)
€113
tion materials, and personal contact with a minister. That first Acting
Minister was Albert Dieffenbach. The Bond of Fellowship was:
Avowing as our sole bond of Fellowship our earnest desire to lead
114€
CLARKE, JAMES FREEMAN (1810…1888)
Gorham Palfrey, the dean of the Divinity School, and he accepted. He
was ordained on July 21, 1833, at Second Church, Boston. Those
often felt cut off from Boston. This led Clarke to seek a special peri-
CLARKE, JAMES FREEMAN (1810…1888)
€115
congregation. The family moved to Meadville, Pennsylvania, to live
116€
CLARKE, JAMES FREEMAN (1810…1888)
COBB, SYLVANUS(1798…1866).
former before the Civil War. Cobb was born on July 17, 1798, in Nor-
way, Maine, where Maines first Universalist church was founded the
following year. Cobb attended district schools and received some in-
struction at Paris Hill. He converted to Unversalism when he was 16
COBB, SYLVANUS (1798…1866)
€117
spoke out against the death penalty. During these years Cobb ac-
Gospel Messenger
Gospel Foun-
, and merged them with the
Freeman
118€
COLLYER, ROBERT (1823…1912)
COMMISSION ON APPRAISAL
€119
James LutherAdams
120€
COMMITTEE ON GOALS
erate inclusiveness. Believing that liberal religions growth potential
lay with contemporary concerns rather than traditional formulations,
expansion of the quality of life.Ž The report found that most Unitar-
ian Universalist members no longer regard their faith as distinc-
tion will move toward a universal or distinctively humanistic religion
in contrast to liberal Protestantism or ecumenical Christianity.Ž This
faith was disturbing to many of the denominationsChristians. The
€121
to fear participating in the Lords Supper. The bread and the wine
are no otherwise holy, after their consecration, then as they are sep-
tion of the many individuals of Adams race, in the person of Christ,
ungratefully
122€
Emerson represented a minority view, and communion was widely
celebrated into the 20th century.
the Messiah in New York, was one of the great proponents of a wide-
I would wish that every person who believes in Christianity, and se-
engage in the acts and offices and meditations of this holy season.Ž
Dewey also wanted to devote entire morning services to it, rather
munion from the gallery and pitying the persons engaged in it more
than any people in the world„I thought they were so unhappy.Ž
analysis of liberal views on communion. Bowen argued that the ma-
rial and fellowship aspects emphasized, rationally and devoutly re-
religious lives of the people in our churches.Ž Although Vincent Sil-
liman produced a communion liturgy in 1922, he realized that the cel-
ebration of communion was becoming unpopular. While a short and
a survey conducted by John W. Laws the following year found that
only about half of the clergy said they celebrated communion. Those
services in the hymnal were developed by Von Ogden Vogt, but many
ministers designed their own celebrations. Laws argued that meaning
could still be found in the rite. It has a long historical tradition which
faithful of all ages.Ž Despite his call that communion could help lib-erals dedicate themselves more fully to God, its meaning and useful-
ness in worship were lost on many.
Hymns for the Celebration of Life
ion services. There were those who continued to seek meaning in this
ritual, including UU Christians, and two groups who sought liturgi-
in the 1950s and Abraxas in the
€123
124€
students when Cone assumed his new position. He tried to expand the
by the end of his term they were no longer the majority. He also at-
tempted to broaden the religious affiliations of the faculty. Unfortu-
CONGREGATIONAL POLITY
€125
126€
COMMUNITY CHURCH MOVEMENT
theistic. The idea of universal religion supplanted Christianity. Fi-
€127
, the Universalist missionary, reported in his autobi-
ography that she first appeared in Sheshequin, Pennsylvania, in 1810,
where she held a number of religious gatherings. Then she asked to
preach before the Western Association in Bainbridge, New York, in
1811. This caused a great controversy, but there was enough curios-
faith, becoming zeal, was well educated, and had more than ordinary
different counties in New York over the course of the next year. She
continued to preach until intolerance led to her being jailed in Coop-
erstown, New York, on a charge of vagrancy. She stayed in prison for
128€
Boston Unitarianism. The Autumnal Convention was held in Mon-
€129
AUAbureaucracy. Related by marriage to the Eliot family, he
130€
Czechoslovakia. Cornish traveled a great deal to help foster religious
Unitarians Face a
New Age
was called, along with Charles Wendte, one of the two great interna-
tional leaders in the denomination. Unfortunately, much of his work
COVENANT
€131
132€
COVENANT FOR FREE WORSHIP
(1937). Frequently used in worship, the original text reads: Love is
the Doctrine of this Church, The quest of truth is its Sacrament, And
CUMMINS, ROBERT (1897…1982)
€133
graduation from college (Miami University…Ohio), he took charge of
the Boon-It Institute in Bangkok, a Presbyterian mission. After only
134€
CUMMINS, ROBERT (1897…1982)
tialism, the fellowship bearing its name must succeed in making it un-
mistakably clear that all are welcome: theist and humanist, unitarian
and Trinitarian, colored and color-less. Acircumscribed Universalism
After World War I many Czechs abandoned the
Thomas Masaryk. Although they had no heritage of religious free-
dom, the Czechoslovak National Church emerged as the major reli-
€135
was hindered by the effects of the Great Depression, but Capek
preached to large congregations until 1941 when, after speaking out
tually sent to Dachau concentration camp where he was killed. The
tion, but in the immediate postwar period Capeks son-in-law, Karel
Haspl, assumed leadership of the church and membership was stabi-
went repeated interrogations at the hands of the communist regime,
the Czech Unitarian Association invited the Rev. Vladimir Strejcek,
136€
DALL, CAROLINE WELLS HEALEY (1822…1912)
that when once a womans earnest convictions are given to the world,
the world seems to doubt her humanity.Ž After marrying
but her marriage was not a happy one. When he left for a Unitarian
Caroline Dall was already a staunch womens rights activist. Dur-
Womans Right to
Labor; or,Low Wages and Hard Work
Womans Rights Under the
The College,the
hold it, who reject the errors which we believe others have added to
Dall was encouraged to establish friendly relations with all sects,
and eventually the Unitarian schools gave very little overt religious
instruction. Dalls work in the early years of the mission focused on
establishing a strong church with preaching, baptizing, visiting, and
publishing tracts. After 1860, the mission emphasis became educa-
was the School of Useful Arts. Dall had numerous conflicts with the
European, English-speaking community, but made many enduring
friendships with the Indian intelligentsia. The culmination of these
the British Unitarians, began to wane. They preferred indigenous re-
formers. In a 25th anniversary report on his work, Dall emphasized
138€
DAVID, FRANCIS (1510…1579)
his election as chief minister. After 1555 Kolosvar became the center
tianity. From 1557 to 1559 he was the bishop of the Transylvanian
He began to believe that a more perfect reformation of Christianity
could still occur beyond Lutheranism, and began to follow the Swiss
Nagyenyed failed when they could not agree on communion. Then
. This was only a brief stop
stages helping to reach pure truth. In his biblical searching he re-
jected the doctrine of the Trinity as a human creation and began to
tarianism. The first public Unitarian oration was in Kolosvar on Jan-
uary 20, 1566. After that he and Dr.
1567 and several more the following year. One of the great events in
DAVID, FRANCIS (1510…1579)
€139
anism and convinced the king to increase to four the received religions
of the kingdom: Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, and Unitarian. This
140€
DAVIDOFF, DENISE TAFT (1932… )
Womens Federation (UUWF)
tion. In 1981 several womens groups presented a nontheistic, de-
. Davidoff decided that an immediate vote could cause a seri-
to study the issue and report back a year later. Although this action
Davidoff was elected to the GAPlanning Committee in 1985 and
then became its chair from 1987 to1989. That was followed by her
election to the position of UUAtrustee-at-large. During this time she
In 1993 she was elected moderator of the UUAand then was reelected
Buehrens
DAVIDOFF, DENISE TAFT (1932… )
€141
president of the Interfaith Alliance Foundation in Washington, D.C.
Davidoff is also a member of the Trustee Council of the World Con-
ference on Religion and Peace. Professionally, she has worked as a
DAVIES, A. (ARTHUR) POWELL(1902…1957).
important midcentury spokesperson for American Unitarianism,
George Bernard Shaw urged him to follow these political inclina-
tions, Davies felt a call to the ministry. He entered Richmond Theo-
142€
DAVIES, A. (ARTHUR) POWELL (1902…1957)
introducing universal military training, continue American occupa-
tion of Europe, and also continue economic aid to war-torn areas. In
some ways he helped the forces that shaped McCarthyism by his stri-
dent support for America. In 1953 he spoke at the Anniversary Ser-
American Unitarian Association
s
DAVIES, A. (ARTHUR) POWELL (1902…1957)
€143
branch of Christianity. Much of his inspiration for church growth was
evident in Washington from 1952 to 1957, where he helped create five
satellite churches around the city, which in turn created three more
144€
DEAN, PAUL (1783…1860)
Ballous dominant position as a denominational leader. Dean re-
more
DEAN, PAUL (1783…1860)
€145
DEATH.
changed much over the centuries. From the late Middle Ages onward,
Western thought increasingly focused on individual salvation. This
the beauty of death became a cultural obsession and cults of the dead,
146€
DEATH
chine, The New Motive Power, that sat on a hill overlooking Lynn,
DEATH WITH DIGNITY
€147
Unitarian Universalist Associa-
right to die with dignity. The
General Assembly (GA)
148€
and Trance of George de Benneville
. Finally, he was reunited with his
body in a coffin, because his friends thought he was dead. They dis-
flabbergasted mourners helped him out of the coffin. This vision
helped lead de Benneville to believe that he was called to preach in
€149
churchŽ to concur with the parishs decision would have ended the
young mans candidacy. The Dedham parish, however, assumed the
legal right to contract Lamson, and they did so. This action was up-
son was ordained in October 1818. The church, although they only
had a majority of two (17 to 15), refused to allow a liberal to become
their minister and they withdrew from the parish taking the records,
the communion service, trust deeds, and securities. Then the minor-
ity of church members promptly elected their own deacons and sued
150€
€151
thoughtŽ on the most important questions of the day. The
an indelible impression on the young boy. In 1836 he married Cather-
ine Hogarth. An interest in Unitarianism was stimulated by the great
William Ellery Channing
152€
ism by 1915. He claimed that all traditional sources of religious au-
154€
Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA)
was formed in 1961 the structure of intermediate organizations was not
€155
Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Prairie Star, Southwest, St.
Lawrence, Thomas Jefferson, and Western Canada.
DIVINITYSCHOOLADDRESS.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
livered the Divinity School AddressŽ in 1838 to the fledgling minis-
to the profession behind. Tired of what he saw as outmoded liturgical
practices such as the celebration of the Lords Supper and uncomfort-
156€
DIVINITY SCHOOL ADDRESS
miracles with heresy. Emerson mostly remained aloof from the con-
uments of Unitarian history, the Divinity School AddressŽ produced
a firestorm of protest and radically challenged the Unitarian ortho-
DIX, DOROTHEALYNDE (1802…1887).
DIX, DOROTHEA LYNDE (1802…1887)
€157
beyond the physical capabilities of her body and became ill with tuber-
much time with the family. After her recovery she again ran a school
cially inspired her to address the social problems of the day. Finally in
place she visited many years before on a social outreach ministry with
ill. The deplorable conditions and lack of aid made her vow that these
people would be treated fairly. Her first small victory was a public ex-
posé of the conditions at the jail and the subsequent installation of a
spect every jail in the commonwealth, and, eventually, she did.
With the help of
158€
DIX, DOROTHEA LYNDE (1802…1887)
EASTER.
The Christian holy day that celebrates the resurrection of Je-
€159
of spring, or maintain a strong affinity for the Christian heritage with
palms on Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday communions where the
Friday tennebrae services, and finally glorious Easter celebrations.
Despite the theological issues many liberals have with the traditional
make it an important day in the cycle of the church year.
ELIOT, FREDERICK MAY(1889…1958).
160€
ELIOT, FREDERICK MAY (1889…1958)
structure might be implemented. The final report, published in 1936,
Unitarians Face a New Age
. The success of this project gave
many fellow Unitarians the belief that this new leader of the plan for
Eliot was elected president of the AUAin 1937 and then went on
to be reelected five more times. He immediately transformed a weak-
rector of the department, initiated a new curriculum planning with the
Sophia Lyon Fahs
to the staff. The growth of the entire
minister-at-large in 1941. Eventually the AUAinitiated the fellow-
Monroe Husbands
hundreds of new congregations. The development of the
Church of
the LargerFellowship
ELIOT, FREDERICK MAY (1889…1958)
€161
God: When I use the word God,I am using a symbol for the real-
ity that I believe exists behind the deepest convictions of my own
Frederick May Eliot,An An-
thology
162€
ELIOT, SAMUEL ATKINS (1862…1950)
munity, including the Indian Rights Association. When he went to
ELIOT, SAMUEL ATKINS (1862…1950)
€163
found it two years later. It was revitalized after the war. Eliot urged the
organization and development of Sunday Schools and he brought
164€
ELIOT, THOMAS LAMB (1841…1936)
ELIOT, THOMAS LAMB (1841…1936)
€165
ELIOT, WILLIAM GREENLEAFJR.(1811…1887).
important exponents of Unitarianism in the Midwest, Eliot also was
an accomplished educator. He was born on August 5, 1811, in New
166€
ELIOT, WILLIAM GREENLEAF JR. (1811…1887)
Unitarian Conference (WUC)
by Unitarian standards, and in a proposed preamble to the WUC con-
stitution that drew upon Eliots
Unitarian Views
ferred to Jesus as the Son of God and Redeemer of the World and not
a mere inspired man.Ž Then in Alton, Illinois, in 1857, Eliot and the
members of his congregation (now called The Church of the Mes-
EMERSON, RALPH WALDO (1803…1882)
€167
168€
EMERSON, RALPH WALDO (1803…1882)
what do some of them do? . . . They denounce him, and all who are
EMLYN, THOMAS (1663…1741)
€169
practical subjects, but after 11 years a parishioner noted that he never
170€
ENGEL, JOHN RONALD (1936… )
training he was student minister at All Souls Church in Washington,
D.C. He organized a University Neighborhoods Council during that
time. From 1963 to 1965 he served as minister of the Unitarian Uni-
versalist Fellowship of Berrien County, Michigan. From 1965 to
ENGEL, JOHN RONALD (1936… )
€171
Dunes in 1970. Here in the birthplace of ecology,Ž Engel became
172€
conduct the first avowedly Unitarian service. Among those attending
Lindsey had resigned from the Anglican priesthood, moved to Lon-
EVANGELICAL UNITARIANS
€173
group of Unitarians believed in a special, supernatural redemption
174€
EVANGELICAL UNITARIANS
EVERYDAYCHURCH.
Avenue Universalist Church in Boston after it began to offer a num-
176€
EVERY DAY CHURCH
tracts was also a prominent feature of the Post Office Mission,
formed in 1881. The written word was an important means of exten-
sion for Universalists in the 19th century as well. This was especially
lished in different times and places.
Often involved in vicious debates, the Universalists became fre-
ford, who preached for 25 years in the West,Ž heard that Univer-
devils work.Ž Nevertheless, these circuit riders enabled Universal-
bers in the mid-19th century of 800,000 members. Among those
who helped spread the word in New York, Pennsylvania, and west-
€177
fornia, later in the century,
Thomas StarrKing
tours. The most well-known Universalist missionary in the United
said that no well-founded policy of church extension is apparent since
1900.Ž Two years later he said that there were no active Unitarians in 11
states: Alabama, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, West
Virginia, Arkansas, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming,
groundwork helped lead to the formation of the fellowship movement,
the development of lay centers. This effort, which was carried out under
Monroe Husbands
Unitarian Laymans League
Church of the LargerFellowship (CLF)
was organized.
This home church for isolated liberals became the spawning ground for
178€
FAHS, SOPHIA LYON (1876…1978)
She was born on August 2, 1876, in Hangchow, China, the daughter
of Presbyterian missionaries. The large family left China when
Sophia was three, and she grew up in Wisconsin and Ohio, where she
attended public schools. It was her intention to follow the careers of
Presbyterian University of Wooster (now the College of Wooster) in
and this concern continued at the University of Chicago Divinity
New York. She then attended Teachers College, Columbia University
for an M.A. where she studied under Frank McMurry, a follower of
John Dewey. Fahs worked at an experimental Sunday School at
Teachers College that McMurry had founded.
FAHS, SOPHIA LYON (1876…1978)
€179
only one source book. She wanted children to experience the mystery
of life and understand the universality of religious experiences.
Fahss philosophy of religious education is summed up in
Todays
Children and Yesterdays Heritage
. (1952) We need to learn how to
are found which have a religious quality.Ž Not long after she assumed
the position of editor, she wrote
Consider the Children; How They
Grow
a member of the Curriculum Committee until 1964. The year she left
as editor she received the AUAs Award for Meritorious Service. In
180€
182€
FELLOWSHIP MOVEMENT
American Unitarian Association
ganization of Lay Centers.Ž Little came out of these earlier efforts,
but the idea surfaced again in 1945. AUApresident
Frederick May
the matter up with the AUABoard, which created a study committee.
The committee included Albert Dieffenbach, the
Church of the
LargerFellowship (CLF)
minister, George Davis, the AUAexten-
sion director, and Roland Burbank of the New Hampshire Unitarian
, the AUAminister-at-large.
In 1946 Call issued AResearch on Church Extension and Main-
tenance Since 1900: AProgress Report.Ž Despite finding many pre-
vious failures, Call said that the best solution to extension of the faith
would be the creation of Lay Groups.Ž With this recommendation
ceed. The resulting recommendation was that the new groups be al-
FELLOWSHIP MOVEMENT
€183
184€
FELLOWSHIP OF RELIGIOUS HUMANISTS
FENN, WILLIAM WALLACE (1862…1932).
ologians and professors among Unitarians in the 20th century. Fenn
was born in Boston on February 12, 1862, to William and Hannah
house. After attending the Boston Latin School, he entered
guages and majored in Greek and Latin. After that he immediately
cal studies, helping one professor assemble a Greek New Testament
Lexicon. Although he had been brought up in more orthodox faiths,
Fenn converted to Unitarianism in the seminary. In 1887 he was or-
FENN, WILLIAM WALLACE (1862…1932)
€185
that people became coworkers with God in an unfinished evolution-
186€
€187
188€
FLOWER CELEBRATION
logical difficulties the people had with Christian communion, Capek
FOLLEN, CHARLES THEODORE CHRISTIAN (1796…1840)
€189
190€
FOLLEN, CHARLES THEODORE CHRISTIAN (1796…1840)
ated with a protest of Elijah Lovejoys murder. Finally, the church
told him he could stay another year, but they would be looking over
€191
tertown to start a school in 1832. Intellectually, Francis had few
equals. He was a historian who wrote the history of Watertown and a
Transcendental Club
was chosen moderator, perhaps owing to his being the eldest and also
skilled in diplomacy. He was a longtime admirer of
Ralph Waldo
, of whom he said: Was ever a mind cast in a finer mold
than Emersons? He seems to have already anticipated the purity of
a Purely Internal Principle
, which argued that the religion of Christ is
Natural Theology
peaceable ways enabled the parish in Watertown to bypass the Uni-
192€
FREE CHURCH FELLOWSHIP.
FREE CHURCH IN A CHANGING WORLD
€193
Changing World
. The study was started with the hope that it would
help provide a vision for the future of the denomination. Six com-
Greeley
Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA)
as chairman. The first commission was called The Church and Its
194€
FREE CHURCH IN A CHANGING WORLD
and not casual, verbal opinions or feelings of the individual. The
FREEDOM OFTHE WILL.
eral Arminians from the Calvinists. Liberals in the 18th century re-
known as original sin. Atotally depraved creature in the Calvinist
FREEMAN, JAMES (1759…1835)
€195
196€
FREE RELIGIOUS ASSOCIATION (FRA)
FREE RELIGIOUS ASSOCIATION (FRA)
€197
Affirmations, which stated that free religion was the final form of re-
ligion. After 10 years Abbot gave the Index over to the FRAto pub-
lish, and Potter became one of its editors. The FRAalso held annual
198€
€199
FROTHINGHAM, OCTAVIUS BROOKS(1822…1895).
Areligious
radical and founder of the Free Religious Association, Frothingham
ham, and his wife, Ann Brooks. Octavius attended Boston Latin
ing half-monastic.Ž After that he was called to the North Church in
200€
FROTHINGHAM, OCTAVIUS BROOKS (1822…1895)
preacher, Frothingham was courted by a group to help form the
Free
Religious Association (FRA)
(when it was founded) to 1878. Like his mentor Parker, he led his
€201
product of slave labor.
202€
FULGHUM, ROBERT (1937… )
tarian Universalist congregation in Woodinville, Washington, from
1964 to 1968. From 1968 to 1985 Fulghum was minister in Edmonds,
Washington, and was named emeritus minister at the end of his
tenure. Fame followed his days in the active ministry. In 1998 his
All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten
New York Times
It Was on Fire When I Lay
Uh-Oh:Some Observations from Both Sides
of the Refrigerator Door
FULGHUM, ROBERT (1937… )
€203
From Beginning
True Love
,and
Words I Wish I Wrote
204€
206€
FURNESS, WILLIAM HENRY (1802…1896)
208€
come AUApresident and held that post for five years. His work in
In 1883 he became minister at large for the
Western Unitarian
Conference (WUC)
. After this, his relationships with the Western
210€
GAY, EBENEZER (1696…1787)
GAY, EBENEZER (1696…1787)
€211
Natural Religion
can discern what is needed for salvation through their own natures
and relations. With his long ministry of nearly 70 years in Hingham,
Gay became a symbol for community solidarity. This peace was in-
212€
GAY AND LESBIAN
GAvoted to affirm ministers who performed gay or lesbian Services
of Union and to encourage congregations to support these ministers.
Other actions in the late 1980s included opposition to AIDS discrim-
Common Vision Planning Committee found that many gay, lesbian,
firming. The GAsubsequently voted into being the Welcoming Con-
The most recent resolution by the GAwas Support for the Right to
tarian Universalist have been consistent advocates of affirming the
human worth and dignity and legal rights of every gay, lesbian, bi-
GENERALASSEMBLY(GA).
GENERAL ASSEMBLY (GA)
€213
and trustees and members of UUAstanding committees may also
take place. The first General Assembly, which was the organizing
214€
€215
resentative of the whole church. In October 1897 the General Con-
216€
tendent mediate congregational disputes and have the authority to
much to effectively organize the denomination and move it beyond
its narrow limitations as a Christian sect. Cummins was succeeded by
frustrated that the position made him neither a minister or a busi-
nessman.Ž The general superintendent job was abolished in 1961
GILES, PHILIP RANDALL (1917… )
€217
overwhelmingly to affirm the concept. After merger Giless admin-
vices, a district executive, and later as head of development. Later in
his career Giles served churches in Denver, Colorado, and Muncie,
merger was a good idea and that it worked well,Ž and that when he
and institutions,Ž and his goal was to strengthen the Universalist de-
nomination so it could carry more of its weight in the merger.Ž
The first Universalist church in America was organ-
218€
their God-given capacities for the improvement of moral character to
the fullest extent. This kindly God was made manifest in several doc-
trinal ways. The idea of a brutish God who would choose some peo-
jected in favor of a God who gave all people a chance to embrace a
universal offer of salvation. Because they believed that babies are
a life mired in sin. They also believed that human beings are free to
respond to Gods offer of salvation, and so they rejected the idea of a
choices God required of them. In these ways the concept of God was
reshaped in the development of Unitarian theology.
Universalists also affirmed a benevolent deity, but their emphasis
initially was less on individual salvation and more on a God who
braced by Gods goodness. Both movements affirmed the unity of
God, in which God is one and distinguished from the Son. This one
God is chiefly understood by His moral character. This was also a
greater emphasis on Gods moral perfection rather than His power
and majesty. God was viewed as a parent who educates, and thus the
world was viewed as a place of education where humans pursue ever-
growing virtue. Although
William Ellery Channing
firmed natural religion. The wonders of nature proved the existence
of God. The concept of God evolved within the
Transcendentalist
thing, including each breast. Emerson believed that God is the moral
With the Transcendentalists, God began to lose its personality.
When God the father became the Blessed Unity, then some liberals,
Henry Ware Jr.
diatribes on The Personality of the Deity.Ž
Octavius Brooks Froth-
€219
many liberals turned to a scientific naturalism as an outgrowth of the
serving one universal end. While the 19th-century liberals stretched
220€
pluralistic UUAfold, and this included Jewish and Christian teach-
ings which call us to respond to Gods love.Ž Some of the broader
definitions of God have included feminist perspectives with empha-
ologians have made important contributions. These are
son Wieman
listen and learn from one another and achieve greater spiritual under-
live our lives as the growing edge of an evolving God. Unitarian Uni-
sectarian ways, and this is reflected in the pluralism that characterizes
she primarily remained in Saffords shadow, who as the more charis-
Gordon then struck out on her own as sole minister in Iowa City,
Burlington, and then Fargo, North Dakota, and then back to an
Iowa parish in Des Moines, where she relieved Safford who had
222€
GREAT AWAKENING
GREAT BRITAIN
€223
The leader of the liberal movement in South Wales was David
tarian beliefs first developed in Wales much as they had in England
in the 17th century, especially after 1662. This movement was par-
ticularly strong in rural communities in mid and south Wales where
academies had been founded. The most important training center for
ential early liberal tutors there was Thomas Perrot. Jenkin Jones, the
Frank Lloyd Wright
of Perrots. There are more than 35 congregations today in Wales,
many of which are Welsh-speaking.
224€
GREAT BRITAIN
the father of non-subscription in Ireland. He helped organize the
GREAT BRITAIN
€225
British and Foreign Unitarian Association merging into the General
primarily in Lancashire, the Midlands, and the London area. The
General Assembly is headquartered in London, but the individual
churches all have a congregational form of government. There are an-
226€
GREELEY, DANA MCLEAN (1908…1986)
GREELEY, DANA MCLEAN (1908…1986)
€227
the establishment of the World Conference on Religion and Peace.
Starting in his own office in 1962 and making contacts all over the
world, by 1969 he had built a world organization, partly forged
through his friendship with Nikkyo Niwano, the founder of the lib-
eral Buddhist group Rissho Kosei-kai in Japan. That same year he
International Association forReligious
Freedom (IARF)
tireless devotion to his faith. In 1969 he received the denominations
Distinguished Service Award. Before he died the Dana Greeley
Foundation for Peace and Justice was established as a way to honor
228€
GREELEY, HORACE (1811…1872)
bune
first appeared on April 10, 1841, as a daily Whig pennyŽ pa-
per. It soon won wide acclaim for its editorial quality, literary content
and book reviews, and wide political and international coverage. Two
important Transcendentalists served as literary critics. First
GREELEY, HORACE (1811…1872)
€229
230€
GULBRANDSEN, NATALIE WEBBER (1919… )
GULBRANDSEN, NATALIE WEBBER (1919… )
€231
orientation, Gulbrandsen affirms liberal religion because it gives
honored her volunteerism with an honorary degree in 1996. She has
also received the UUAs Holmes-Weatherly Award for lifelong
commitment to social justice and the UUAs highest honor, the Dis-
tinguished Service Award, in 2001.
232€
story Ten Times One Is Ten,Ž which was first published in
Ten Times
One Is Ten:The Possible Reformation
(1871). This led to the forma-
tion of Lend-a-Hand Clubs all over the country, eventually numbering
50,000 worldwide. These charity groups had the motto: Look up and
Heralds
HANAFORD, PHEBE ANN COFFIN (1829…1921)
€233
234€
HARPER, FRANCES ELLEN WATKINS (1825…1911)
she was 25, Harper taught domestic science at Union Seminary (now
part of Wilberforce University), a school for free Africans founded by
HARTSHORNE, CHARLES (1897…2000)
€235
236€
HARTSHORNE, CHARLES (1897…2000)
HARVARD DIVINITY SCHOOL
€237
commonwealth. Increasingly during the 18th century, Harvard be-
came the school that was identified with liberal factions within the
Congregational church. These beginnings reflected a breakdown in
238€
HARVARD DIVINITY SCHOOL
seemingly always present at the school to offer stability and was the
senior member of the faculty. The fields of study included: natural
and revealed religion, Hebrew, biblical criticism, ecclesiastical his-
tory, and pastoral theology. Henry Ware Jr. was commonly thought to
be the ideal parish minister, and through his classes in pastoral care
Ralph Waldo Emerson
s ad-
dress to the graduating class in 1838. The
Divinity School Address
Andrews
A Discourse on the Latest Form of In-
fidelity
Transcendentalism
, evolution, and slavery. The Di-
vinity School remained small throughout the 19th century. There
were less than 25 students enrolled and the faculty was small. Finally,
HARVARD DIVINITY SCHOOL
€239
group of churches. The efforts to broaden its approach seem to have
students. Through the early decades of the 20th century registration
soared, and the faculty included such luminaries as Albert Darby
William Wallace Fenn
, and Dean Willard Sperry. By the
1950s the school was suffering from low morale, much as it had in
the post…Civil War period. Fortunately, the president of the Univer-
sity, Nathan M. Pusey, carried out his intentions to revitalize the
school in the country. In recent years, this nondenominational school
rolled. It remains the central East Coast seminary for the training of
HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL(1804…1864).
The first great Ameri-
Brook Farm
evil than most of his Transcendental friends. Hawthornes ancestors
came to America in 1630. Judge John Hathorne served as a magis-
trate in Salem during the witch trials. Because of this, Hawthorne al-
240€
HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL (1804…1864)
cile ourselves to it. Hester Pryne in Hawthornes
HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL (1804…1864)
€241
HEDGE, FREDERIC HENRY(1805…1890).
Abrilliant and far-
sighted minister who reconciled his Transcendental thought with a
242€
HEDGE, FREDERIC HENRY (1805…1890)
Hymns for the Church of Christ
marks the first appearance of Hedges translation of Martin Luthers
famous AMighty Fortress Is Our God.Ž Unlike many of the other
Transcendentalists, Hedge had a great respect for tradition and his-
torical authority. In 1846 he wrote that a true church must combine
HIGGINSON, THOMAS WENTWORTH (1823…1911)
€243
fascinating career as minister, editor, writer, and abolitionist. He was
244€
HIGGINSON, THOMAS WENTWORTH (1823…1911)
Free Religious As-
for the World Parliament of Religions, was called The Sympathy of
Every year brings new knowledge of the religions of the world, and
€245
precipitating event in the Unitarian controversy, the splitting of the
246€
HOLMES, JOHN HAYNES (1879…1964).
activists in Unitarian history, Holmes was born in Philadelphia on
HOLMES, JOHN HAYNES (1879…1964)
€247
outlined four positions Unitarians had taken in response to the war.
of the supreme abominations of history.Ž Holmes wanted to lead the
ism fade away. In response Taft offered a resolution supporting the war
effort. It was passed and then was followed in April 1918 with a vote of
American Unitarian Association (AUA)
gregation that employs an antiwar minister ineligible for aid. Holmes
then tried to lead his congregation out of the AUAinto a new church
movement. Although his congregation pledged their allegiance to the
concept of a larger community ministry that went beyond sectarian
boundaries, they refused to withdraw from the AUA, but in 1919 they
the General Conference and from his life membership in the AUA.
became a disciple of Gandhi, whom he considered the greatest living
248€
HOLMES, JOHN HAYNES (1879…1964)
suffered form Parkinsons disease and died in New York on April 3,
HOLMES, OLIVER WENDELLJR.(1841…1935).
tism. Holmes was born on March 8, 1841, in Boston to Oliver Wen-
dell Holmes Sr., the renowned writer and doctor, and Amelia Lee
Jackson, whose father was a judge. The elder Holmes had rejected his
fathers Calvinism and joined Kings Chapel. Later he championed
holding of private property, and law and order. Holmes feared the dis-
ruption of government by the abolitionists who would inflame the
evil passions.Ž The younger Holmes, who was the oldest child, at-
tended Harvard College like his father. While he was there he became
a member of the Christian Union, a liberal group that advocated for
HOLMES, OLIVER WENDELL JR. (1841…1935)
€249
American Law Review
oped out of a series of lectures he gave for the Lowell Institute. In
1882 he was made the Weld Professor of Law at Harvard and that
250€
HOPEDALE
said that upon their Practical Christian platform they had to try to
build a new civilization.Ž Initially, Ballou and
over Ballous insistence that the StandardŽ had to be used as a test
of membership. Ballous intention was that Hopedale would be a
HOPEDALE
€251
resign as president and he was succeeded by Ebenezer Draper. Bal-
institution, but his son Adin died, and the community showed an op-
erating loss within a year. Ballou made plans to expand west and
started to write his perfectionist vision. Unfortunately, Draper and his
HOSMER, FREDERICK LUCIAN (1840…1929).
One of the premier
Unitarian hymn writers. Hosmer was born in Framingham, Massa-
252€
til his death on June 7, 1929. The author of eight hymns in the cur-
Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA)
Living Tradition
in Unitarian history.
HOWE, JULIAWARD(1819…1910).
of the Republic,Ž Howe was an important writer, reformer, and peace
advocate who was also an active Unitarian. Born in New York City
children. Julia was the third oldest and thought of her childhood as
she was 16. Her family connections gave her access to a wealthy,
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
HOWE, JULIA WARD (1819…1910)
€253
friendship with Clarke, even though she preferred Parkers preaching
254€
HOWE, JULIA WARD (1819…1910)
for Mothers Day included a cry from the devastated earth, Disarm!
Disarm!Ž After her husbands death in 1876, Julia traveled in Europe
HOWE, SAMUEL GRIDLEY (1801…1876)
€255
to prove the Unitarian belief in the innate moral goodness of the soul
Howe had to defend his use of Laura as a refutation of Calvinism.
Writers for the
attacked his Fifteenth Annual
gianism„the view that human beings are naturally holy. His oppo-
nents said he was trying to make converts to Unitarianism. Although
his religious theory did not prove entirely successful with Laura, his
256€
HOWE, SAMUEL GRIDLEY (1801…1876)
The Rev.
James Freeman Clarke
after noon. Despite some difficulties in their marriage at times, Julia
had been blessed by her husbands benevolence.
within Unitarianism in the early 20th century. Humanists said that
€257
calling for a crudely worded statement that Unitarians must affirm
Within Christianity, humanism downplayed the importance of doc-
258€
HUMANIST MANIFESTO
€259
experiences which are humanly significant. . . . Eighth: Religious
260€
HUMILIATI
tion, the Humiliati wanted to promote a new Universalism that was
more universal in its theological approach and tied less to the Protes-
tant Christian mainstream. They termed their ideas emergent Uni-
jection of an exclusive Christian theology, the group emphasized a
much more elaborate liturgy, vestments, and other visual symbols of
design of the circle with the off-center cross, a new symbol for Uni-
versalism that recognized Christian origins but intended to signify
that Universalism had grown beyond its beginnings. The name Hu-
miliati derives from a 12th-century Italian lay order. Seeking deeper
emotional experience and a faith liberated from dead dogma,Ž the
Humiliati were often seen as an insurrectionary group.Ž The eclec-
tic Universalism they preached began to be the dominant denomina-
tional voice, and even though the group only lasted for 10 years, its
influence was felt for decades, with most of its members becoming
Unitarian Universalist Asso-
. These included Raymond Hopkins, the first execu-
HUNGARY.
Although Unitarianisms long history in Europe is asso-
ciated with the Hungarian-speaking people of Transylvania, its his-
tory in what is now the nation of Hungary is not as extensive. When
Unitarianism spread in Transylvania in the 16th century, there was
some activity in Hungary. Stephen Balasz was a key figure in this
mission work, which established key centers in Temesvar and Pecs.
The Turks proved much more tolerant than the Catholics. In 1687
the Turks were forced out and the Unitarians were banished from
Pecs. By 1710 all the Unitarian churches were outlawed. There
century when Transylvania was reunited with Hungary and some of
the Austro-Hungarian Empire and organized congregations there.
HUNGARY
€261
Unitarian congregation in Budapest was organized in 1873 with its
one at Budapest in 1923. In 1902 these congregations were made an
independent church district. After Transylvania was ceded to Ro-
mania as a result of the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, a boundary was
262€
HUSBANDS, MONROE (1909…1984)
didate for the director of fellowships and associate director of exten-
HYMNODY
€263
is an example of this tradition where the words of Psalm 100 were
264€
HYMNODY
Christmas carol It Came Upon the Midnight
Clear.Ž The most important Universalist collection from the 19th cen-
tury was edited by John Greenleaf Adams and the famed New York
Hymns for Christian Devo-
HYMNODY
€265
266€
ICELANDIC UNITARIANISM
ICELANDIC UNITARIANISM
€267
268€
€269
who was born in Scotland, worked in India 1821…1829, and later be-
came active in the antislavery movement. In the 1850s the American
Charles Dall began a 31-year missionary effort. This more traditional
effort to convert Indians to a liberal form of Christianity failed to suc-
ceed except in the area of education. The British sent the American
in approach to mission work. Rather than an emphasis on conversion,
an effective liberal religious voice among Hindus. Sunderland also
groups in India was organized.
INTERNATIONALASSOCIATION FOR RELIGIOUS FREE-
The oldest continuing interfaith organization was
270€
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM (IARF)
INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF UNITARIANS AND UNIVERSALISTS (ICUU)
€271
272€
IOWA SISTERHOOD
The shortage of men who were willing to help start liberal religious
The idea for a sisterhood rose out of the Womens Ministerial Confer-
ence, organized by
Julia Ward Howe
, a farmers daughter from Quincy,
ISSUE IN THE WEST
€273
274€
JAPAN
JAPAN
€275
The peak years in Japan occurred just prior to World War II when
several secular buildings, including two kindergartens. The leader of
the mission during this time was Henry M. Cary, who arrived in
1924. He successfully rebuilt the mission after a devastating earth-
in 1941, when the American missionaries had to leave. The native
Japanese missionary, John Shidara, continued to work throughout the
war years. After the Tokyo mission was destroyed, he and his wife,
Tsune, relocated to the rural Nagano area where they founded the still
extant Komagame Universalist Church. When the Japanese mission
was surveyed after the war, only one kindergarten, Ohayo Kinder-
Women
Universalist Church of America
276€
JEFFERSON, THOMAS (1743…1826)
JEFFERSON, THOMAS (1743…1826)
€277
While religion was always a central concern for Jefferson, his be-
ans of his day. His correspondence with
ligion. In April 1823 he told Adams, It would be more pardonable to
tributes of CalvinŽ (Jefferson to Adams,
Born on April 13, 1743, Jefferson died on the same day as Adams,
July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Indepen-
dence. After his death and, especially, in the 20th century Jefferson
became one of the saints of the church he never officially joined. Be-
difference, and trust in reason and science, Jefferson was embraced
278€
JENKINS, LYDIA ANN MOULTON (1824/25…1874)
After that time she became a physician in Binghamton, New York,
where she remained until her death on May 7, 1874. Throughout her
adult life she was a speaker for womens rights, and her effectiveness
as a preacher convinced many, including Universalist leaders like
JOHN SIGISMUND, KING OF TRANSYLVANIA (1540…1571)
€279
Bishop George Martinuzzi, seized the crown for Ferdinand. Isabella
and young John had to flee to her brothers court in Poland. John was
11 years of age at the time of the exile, which lasted for five years.
by her mothers doctor,
, an anti-Trinitarian. Su-
layman once again came to Isabellas aid when King John and Is-
abella were restored to the throne as part of a peace treaty in 1555.
The Reformation had spread quickly in Transylvania and was com-
280€
JOHN SIGISMUND, KING OF TRANSYLVANIA (1540…1571)
health had always been frail, including chronic intestinal problems
and epilepsy. During his life he often tested his body with active
shortly before he died. Despite the Edict of Torda, the Unitarian
churches did not enjoy full legal recognition. This was granted at the
€281
Johnson was a minor Transcendentalist whose faith was centered
join any organized groups. His later years were devoted to study and
writing. He often looked outside of Christianity for his inspiration. In
his hymn Life of AgesŽ he writes, Never was to chosen race that
. These were
Persia
Johnson believed in many of the reform movements of his time, in-
Liberator
Slavery Standard
to speak on reform subjects. He moved to a family home in North An-
282€
JONES, JENKIN LLOYD (1843…1918)
pose creedal tests on the clergy, and the other group, which Jones
joined, argued for freedom of belief.
JONES, JENKIN LLOYD (1843…1918)
€283
its multifold offerings. During his later years, Jones was frequently
employed as a lecturer. Politically, he became very active in antiwar
September 12, 1918. Jones was the great leader of the Western con-
ference during a critical time in its history. He helped expand the
284€
JORDAN, JOSEPH H. (1842…1901)
House. This mission and educational center in Suffolk, Virginia, was
started by Thomas Wise and flourished under the direction of one of
Joseph F. Jordan
. When his
daughter, Annie Willis, succeeded him, the services included a pre-
natal and well-baby clinic, as well as the school, which had offered
educational opportunities to thousands of black children during its
Known as the Suffolk Normal Training School when Jordan was
its principal, its identity as a school changed when opportunities for
blacks in the public schools opened up. In 1939 and 1940 the eight
grades for school classroom work were discontinued. The name
coming more of a social service center. Eventually the Universalists
JORDAN, JOSEPH F. (1863…1929)
€285
and then went to work with Thomas Wise in Suffolk, Virginia, who
the first black Universalist minister.
Joseph F. Jordan received Universalist fellowship when he became
principal of the Suffolk Normal Training School in 1904. He also
markable reversals from near defunct organizations in 1904. Jordan
also published what was intended to be a monthly paper, the
Colored
Universalist
. He was active in the temperance movement as well. At
divided in half, attending on alternate days. Jordan also served as a
probation officer for about 700 black youths in Suffolk. He main-
286€
JOY, CHARLES RHIND (1885…1978)
when he called World War I an unrighteous war.Ž Joy said his
prayers went out to both Germans and Americans, and the next day
he was burned in effigy outside the church. He worked for a time
American Unitarian Association
nish during his presidency, 1927…37. He was also the adult advisor
Young Peoples Religious Union
, the continental youth organization. For a time in 1937 he
was a candidate for the presidency of the AUA, but he withdrew
Frederick May Eliot
Following up on an effort to aid Unitarians in Czechoslovakia, the
sent to work with Waitstill and Martha Sharp in September and by the
end of the year he had replaced them in the Lisbon office. He con-
JOY, CHARLES RHIND (1885…1978)
€287
Joy as AUAvice president in charge of the USC (still the official des-
ignation for the USC executive director). When he left the USC, Joy
rean Relief Program for CARE. In 1945, while still with the USC, Joy
had authorized the sending of a grant to Albert Schweitzers Hospital
in Lambarene, Africa. On the verge of financial collapse, the grant
of the Larger Fellowship; Joy visited Schweitzer and wrote several
books about him. Joy also wrote a textbook on Africa and a popular
Harpers Topical Concordance
time, Joy became devoted to Star Island, the Unitarian conference
center.
JUDD, SYLVESTER(1813…1853).
AUnitarian minister and pacifist,
and became friends with Jones Very,
288€
JUDD, SYLVESTER (1813…1853)
he began to preach on some of the reform issues of the day, he began
spoken pacifist and even condemned the American Revolution as a
moral evil. This resulted in his being dismissed as chaplain to the
€289
ministry. Freeman embraced the Anglican liturgy, but he expressed
doubts about the theology, especially the doctrine of the Trinity.
290€
KING, THOMAS STARR (1824…1864)
KING, THOMAS STARR (1824…1864)
€291
country and his fellowmen.Ž As a result of his Civil War era leader-
ship, California has honored him as one of two representatives in the
KNEELAND, ABNER(1774…1844).
son to be jailed for blasphemy in America, Kneeland was a consistent
and outspoken advocate for free speech. Kneeland was born on April
7, 1774, to Timothy and Marie (Stone) Kneeland in Gardner, Massa-
Whitestown, New York, in 1817. This was followed after a year by a
292€
KNEELAND, ABNER (1774…1844)
after he declared his belief in no period of punishment after death.
KNEELAND, ABNER (1774…1844)
€293
294€
KOLOSVAR
fort in 1921, Kings Chapel in Boston chose the church in Kolosvar
as a sister congregation. More than $5,000 was sent. In 1949 the var-
ious Protestant schools were unified into a Protestant Theological In-
stitute with university rank in Kolosvar, with shared faculty. One of
moil, the city of Kolosvar remains the center of the Unitarian faith,
where its headquarters is located and its theological students train for
the ministry.
KUEBLER, ERNESTWILLIAM(1903…1992).
in Unitarian religious education in the 20th century. He was born in
Kansas City, Missouri, on October 29, 1903, grew up there, and at-
tended Kansas City Junior College. He briefly attended Northwestern
University and then moved east to go to Boston University, where he
Work and an M.A. in psychology. In the late 1920s he was involved
with Sunday School administration in Dauphin County and then Har-
risburg, Pennsylvania. After that he studied at Yale Divinity School,
where he tried to work out his dynamic theories about education with
theological doubts. His dean, Luther Weigle, told Kuebler that he had
wiped out his scholarship. Then in 1932 he became Director of Reli-
KUEBLER, ERNEST WILLIAM (1903…1992)
€295
296€
KUEBLER, ERNEST WILLIAM (1903…1992)
LATIMER, LEWIS HOWARD(1848…1928).
tor and engineer who was also talented artistically and was a founder
of the Flushing, New York, church. He was born in Chelsea, Massa-
LATIMER, LEWIS HOWARD (1848…1928)
€297
298€
help other people. Many of these clubs were informally organized,
spirit and lives of service to others was a resounding success. One
€299
300€
LIBERAL RELIGIOUS EDUCATION DIRECTORS ASSOCIATION (LREDA)
tor became a staff member in the Department of Education. The di-
rector of the youth office at that time was C. Leon Hopper Jr. The
(SRL). The LRYdelegates to the General Assembly in 1969 played
an important supportive role of protest with the Black Affairs Coun-
cil. Unfortunately, reports of youth conferences became legendary
activity. The LRYs reputation threatened its very survival as some
congregations refused to affiliate.
Declines in interest and affiliation led the
to establish a committee to study the LRYin
1976. They reported that youth programming was inadequate and a
LIBERTY CLAUSE
€301
This new quest for doctrinal unity was put to the test in 1872 with
the Bisbee Heresy Trial. Herman Bisbee was pastor at St. Anthony
Free Religious Association (FRA)
a series of lectures he gave on natural religion. Bisbee denied the mir-
myth. He said that natural religion was the effort man makes to per-
fect himself, not the effort that God makes to perfect him.Ž The de-
ship and that his teachings were subversive. While Bisbee admitted
ism, he believed that the liberty clause allowed him liberty of inter-
302€
LINDSEY, THEOPHILUS (1723…1808)
Courtesy of Unitarian Universalist Association
Nathaniel Stacy.
William Ellery Channing.
Courtesy of Unitarian Universalist Association
Theodore Parker.
Thomas Starr King.
Courtesy of Unitarian Universalist Association
Courtesy of The Schlesinger Library,
Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University
Lydia Maria Child.
Courtesy of The Schlesinger Library,
Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University
Olympia Brown.
Courtesy of Unitarian Universalist Association
Mary Livermore.
Clarence Russell Skinner.
Courtesy of Unitarian Universalist Association
Aurelia Henry Reinhardt.
Courtesy of Mills College Art Museum
William Sinkford.
Courtesy of Unitarian Universalist Association
Yorkshire. Here he became friendly with Archdeacon Blackburne and
eventually married Blackburnes stepdaughter, who was a firm sup-
porter of Lindsey when all others deserted him. After three years he
LINDSEY, THEOPHILUS (1723…1808)
€303
all the Unitarian movements in one history,
An Historical View . . . of
the Unitarian Doctrine and Worship from the Reformation to Our
Own Times
. Afew years after that Lindsey publicly defended his
Vindiciae Priestleianae:An Address to the Students of Oxford and
Cambridge
more directly addressed the question of Christs nature:
A Second Ad-
dress,. . .
304€
LIVERMORE, MARY ASHTON RICE (1820…1905)
LIVERMORE, MARY ASHTON RICE (1820…1905)
€305
a Boston paper,
Womans Journal
, of which she became editor. The
306€
ior year there. Traveling to Europe before taking up the new position,
English-language texts of European literature. After teaching at Bow-
Longfellows mother had long been active and his father became in-
William Ellery Channing
who had been his classmate. Stephen Longfellow became one of the
American Unitarian Association (AUA)
after it was organized in 1825. Samuel Longfellow said, It was in
low was nurtured at church and at home. And there is no reason to
suppose that he ever found these insufficient, or that he ever essen-
tially departed from them. Of his genuine religious feeling his writ-
ings give ample testimony. . . . He did not care to talk much on theo-
Unitarianism in America
Divine Tragedy
During Longfellows tenure at Bowdoin he became a founding
LONGFELLOW, HENRY WADSWORTH (1807…1882)
€307
wife died from burns she received in a house fire. Thereafter,
throughout Europe, including a bust at Westminster Abbey. Longfel-
308€
LONGFELLOW, SAMUEL (1819…1892)
mained for five years. He spent the last years of his life in Cam-
manifest in all aspects of nature and throughout the worlds religions,
Earth, the Sky, the SeaŽ and Light of Ages and of Nations.Ž In all,
Octavius Brooks Frothingham
ered him a mystical Transcendentalist who had a reflective and med-
itative personality. Samuel Longfellow died on October 3, 1892.
LOVE IS THE SPIRITOFTHIS CHURCH.
Apopular covenant in
Unitarian Universalists congregations written by James Vila Blake
(1842…1925) and adopted by the Church of All Souls, Evanston, Illi-
nois, on April 29, 1894. Blake also served congregations in Quincy
Unity Hymns and Chorals
(1892). The text is: Love is the
spirit of this church, and service its law. This is our great covenant:
LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL (1819…1891)
€309
from Harvard in 1838, Lowell considered being a preacher like his
father but decided to take a law degree instead. The year of his grad-
uation he said, I am an infidel to the Christianity of today.Ž Later in
310€
LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL (1819…1891)
Review
monthly gathering of local writers for dinner and conversation. As he
grew older the reform impulse of his youth faded as he embraced his
says on important literary figures. He won political appointments
from 1877 to 1885, first as U.S. Ambassador to Spain and later to
England. Lowell died on August 19, 1891.
MACLEAN, ANGUS HECTOR(1892…1969).
Aprincipal Universal-
MACLEAN, ANGUS HECTOR (1892…1969)
€311
1940s when he embraced Universalism. Then he was ordained in
1945 at the Church of the Divine Paternity in New York. In 1946 he
versalist Church of America (UCA)
John Murray Atwood
dean he saw the immediate need to bolster the financial base and a
Development Office was established in 1957. He placed a strong em-
phasis on pastoral duties in preparing students for the ministry.
312€
MCGEE, LEWIS A. (1893…1979)
Theological School at Wilberforce University, where he received a
B.D. in 1916. The following year he was ordained an elder in the
ter of a number of AME churches in Ohio and West Virginia. In 1927
MCGEE, LEWIS A. (1893…1979)
€313
early years the fellowship grew to have 98 members and offered a va-
314€
MCKEEMAN, GORDON B. (1920… )
UUAawarded its Distinguished Service Award in 1993, the McKee-
MCKEEMAN, GORDON B. (1920… )
€315
long been troubled by bad dreams, and now following the death of his
brother, he saw images of a God who enjoyed Stephens torment. He
decided that this unjust God was not for him and the road to Unitar-
class of 1819. He attended the Litchfield (Connecticut) Law School,
was admitted to the bar in 1823, and began practicing in Dedham,
316€
MANN, HORACE (1796…1859)
olation of their agreement. His experience at the nearby First Parish
the minister and hold the property. During Manns service in the state
MANN, HORACE (1796…1859)
€317
childs natural, God-given pleasure of learning itself. Mann once said
that if we gave all the money we used for war to education, the mil-
cial difficulties and Mann was accused of trying to make it into an
outpost of Unitarianism. He was aided in his fund-raising efforts by
Henry Whitney Bellows
318€
MARTINEAU, JAMES (1805…1900)
ued to teach at the college for the remainder of his career. He pub-
Endeavors after the Christian Life
Review. Ayears study in Germany radicalized him even further. He
College resigned and this caused teaching positions to be reassigned.
The board wanted to appoint Martineau to a chaired professorship.
MAY, SAMUEL JOSEPH (1797…1871)
€319
320€
MAY, SAMUEL JOSEPH (1797…1871)
year he accepted a call to the church in South Scituate, Massachu-
Bronson Alcott kept accumulating. By 1842 May had come into con-
flict with his congregation over segregated pews, and he resigned that
MAYHEW, JONATHAN (1720…1766)
€321
Mayhew, had carried on a family tradition of missionizing the Native
Americans. His mother, Remember Bourne, was Experiences second
wife, with Jonathan being their fifth and last child to survive, as she
from his father and his fathers library. He entered
when he was 19, considerably older than most of his classmates. Dur-
ing his time at Harvard he was fined a number of times for miscon-
duct. The Great Awakening may have played some role in Jonathans
decision to enter the ministry. His theology was in flux at this time,
trust such revival techniques. After he finished at Harvard in 1744, he
received grants to continue his studies. During this time he seems to
EbenezerGay
322€
MAYHEW, JONATHAN (1720…1766)
mous sermon, ADiscourse Concerning Unlimited Submission and
Non-Resistance to the Higher Powers.Ž Here Mayhew argued that it
Rebellion was the right thing to do when a monarch exercised arbi-
trary power. Years later
dicative of those principles and feelings that produced the Revolu-
tion. In 1752 Mayhew was afflicted with small-pox, but he survived.
324€
MEADVILLE LOMBARD THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL
put to the test during the schools early history when the biblical crit-
icism of Huidekoper was questioned by some of the faculty, includ-
ing Stebbins. They voted in 1854 to exclude anyone who doubted the
biblical miracles, and Huidekoper immediately resigned, feeling that
this would force him to compromise his teaching. With waning sup-
a Harvard graduate who immediately rescinded the exclusion rule.
Huidekoper was invited back to teach church history.
Stearns was followed in 1863 by A. A. Livermore, who guided the
members of the Christian denomination resigned from the faculty,
but the early alliance had been important to enable the school to suc-
ceed. Under Livermores leadership the curriculum was broadened to
include course work in non-Christian religions and the impact of
cruiting women to the ministry. In 1870, the
Western Unitarian
Conference (WUC)
president Artemus Carter declared that the min-
in the West. Carter urged the Conference to accept a $50,000 offer
MEADVILLE LOMBARD THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL
€325
Sydney Snow, the school dedicated a new academic building in 1932.
Snow, who was described by the
as the Illinois Liberal Institute in Galesburg, Illinois, by the Univer-
RyderDivinity School
Meadville. After World War II, Meadville/Lombard became increas-
Chicago. This evolved from the Federated Theological School fac-
ulty within the university to the Chicago Cluster of Theological
Schools, which had been created in October 1843, to the current As-
sociation of Chicago Theological Schools (ACTS). Meadville/Lom-
liberal religion. The Center for the Advanced Study of Religion and
Science was established at the school by Professor Ralph Burhoe,
326€
MELVILLE, HERMAN (1819…1891)
Supreme Court. Anumber of important events occurred in his life in
1849. These included the birth of his son Malcolm, the publication of
Mardi
Redburn
MELVILLE, HERMAN (1819…1891)
€327
MENDELSOHN, JACK(1918… ).
tivists in the denomination, Mendelsohn was born on July 22, 1918,
328€
MENDELSOHN, JACK (1918… )
MENDELSOHN, JACK (1918… )
€329
God,Allah and Ju Ju
The Forest Calls Back
(Dr. Binder in
The Martyrs
Within the denomination Mendelsohn has served as president of
Unitarian Universalist Ministers Association (UUMA)
honored in 1997 with the UUAs Distinguished Service Award for his
330€
MINISTERIAL FELLOWSHIP COMMITTEE
€331
In 1870 the conference voted to ask each local conference to create a
Committee on Fellowship. This agitation for change continued until
on Fellowship. This committee was then able to admit ministers to
332€
MINISTERIAL FELLOWSHIP COMMITTEE
MIRACLES CONTROVERSY
€333
334€
MIRACLES CONTROVERSY
Four Gospels
no role in the fight over his address. Oliver Wendell Holmes com-
pared him to Patroclus when the Greeks and Trojans were fighting
over his body. The leading voice in the Transcendental counterattack
was again that of George Ripley. In July 1839 Norton had delivered
Discourse on the Latest Form of InfidelityŽ before an alumni asso-
authenticated Christianity. Ripley responded with The Latest Form
of Infidelity Examined.Ž Ripley said that Nortons belief that mira-
just personal dogma. Then Norton fired back in Remarks on . . .
The Latest Form of Infidelity Examined,Ž that miracles show that
these truths come from God. The two adversaries found some mea-
sure of accommodation, as Norton admitted that truth can be discov-
ered by other means than through the empirical. At this point
Theodore Parker
€335
336€
MODERATOR
MONTANAINDUSTRIALSCHOOL.
denominations became involved in the education of Native Ameri-
cans. The most significant Unitarian effort was the Montana Indus-
trial School, opened in 1886 just south of Custer Station, Montana,
under the direction of the Rev. Henry F. Bond. The purpose was to
port of Mary Hemenway, this
American Unitarian Association
€337
the great truths of Unitarianism.Ž The Unitarians of Ireland (organ-
ized as the Non-Subscribing Presbyterian Church) gathered to ordain
Cordner in September, and he arrived in Montreal in early Novem-
338€
MORRISON-REED, MARK D. (1949… )
out their careers with both being fellowshipped and ordained in 1979.
MORRISON-REED, MARK D. (1949… )
€339
MURRAY, JOHN(1741…1815).
in America. John Murray was born on December 10, 1741, in Alton,
England, southwest of London. The oldest of nine children, John and
his family moved to Ireland when he was 10 to live in a village near
Cork. The family was converted from a strict Anglicanism to
cover a new life in America.
In July 1770 he sailed for the New World, landing at Philadelphia,
but then headed to New York. Before they arrived the ship became
340€
MURRAY, JOHN (1741…1815)
ing the winds had not changed, and Murray, keeping the agreement
mon in America on September 30, 1770. For the next few years, Mur-
ray became an itinerant preacher of universal salvation. By 1772 he
MURRAY, JOHN (1741…1815)
€341
remained clear about the divinity of Christ. In terms of the doctrine
of election, he universalized Calvins idea of the elect so that all peo-
the West Indies to escape debtors prison, and he died there. Wid-
owed and poor, Judith took up writing in earnest. Ever since her fa-
ther had brought John Murray to Gloucester, Judith had corresponded
the first was stillborn, but the second, Julia Maria, survived, even
342€
MURRAY, JUDITH SARGENT (1751…1820)
mental powers of reason, memory, judgment, and imagination. Be-
NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF UNITARIAN CHURCHES
€343
American Unitarian Association (AUA)
individuals, not congregations, but it was the only true national in-
strument of influence and organization. Second, from 1842 to 1863,
344€
NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF UNITARIAN CHURCHES
tional Conference of Unitarian Churches. With 202 churches repre-
sented, the denomination now had a national, representative, ecclesi-
astical organization to shape a common purpose, while the AUA
NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF UNITARIAN CHURCHES
€345
346€
NATURAL RELIGION
children directly relate their own experiences. There were to be sto-
community. Out of this preparation came the
Martin and Judy
ographies, including Fahss own
Jesus the Carpenters Son
and others on Abraham, Moses, and Joseph. Thanks to the coopera-
tion of Riverside Church in New York where Fahs had previously
worked, many of these curricula were field tested extensively, in-
Martin and Judy
series. This also reflected that many of
ent and teachersguides were available as well. ACurriculum Com-
mittee also helped Fahs formulate and refine her ideas and plans. The
day Schools. The dynamic new curriculum helped revitalize the en-
tire denomination under the inspirational leadership of Sophia Lyon
NEWZEALAND.
AUSTRALIAAND NEWZEALAND.
The Unitarian Brotherhood Church was organized in Lagos
nominations. The chief leader was Dr. Adeniran Adedeji Ishola, who
found the word Unitarian in a dictionary. He had been a member of
an Anglican church and was married to the priests daughter. He be-
gan to question the Trinity and then in 1918 formed an indigenous
group called 1st Free Thinkers.Ž He also wrote hymns in the native
Yoruba language. Many of those are still used today along with other
translated hymn texts. Their first place of worship was in the Lagos
came the United African Church and then changed the name to Uni-
tarian Brotherhood Church in 1921, after they made the dictionary
discovery of the word that summed up their beliefs. The church suf-
members lost jobs, were denied education, or became subject to abu-
sive language. Dr. Ishola was called a devil, charged with disturbing
€347
the peace in the Assize Court, and eventually was forced from his job
with the civil service. He even survived an assassination attempt.
old Church of Zion building, where the Unitarians established their
church and primary school in 1936…37. At this time the head of the
348€
NORTON, ANDREWS (1786…1853)
. At this time he began work on his most famous publication,
ican Unitarian Association (AUA)
sorship to work full time on finishing his masterpiece on the evi-
dencesŽ of Christianity.
troversy
ORDINATION
€349
for that group without any need for hierarchal sanction. Although
election by a congregation was intended to be the most significant
1700s ordination took primacy over election. The act of ordination
cal order, and the development of this pattern was preceded by a
been chosen by one and then elected to serve it. After some inter-
val, ordination was conferred upon the candidate as the culmination
Ordination in the Universalist tradition had always differed from
the Unitarian pattern, as statewide fellowship committees sanctioned
committees. Since the Unitarian and Universalist merger in 1961 cre-
Ministerial Fellowship Committee. While this has become the means
has been eroded. Ordinarily a minister is both fellowshipped and or-
350€
ORDINATION
relationship a person has with one congregation that was the locus of
relationship with one community. This raises questions as to the
tion, but are serving a broader constituency as teachers, counselors,
and chaplains. Their relationships with individual congregations need
ORIGINAL SIN
€351
ians who would emphasize the dignity of human nature, the Armini-
ans believed that life was a process of trial and discipline and that
overcoming sin was not easy, but that it could be done. After 1743
denied the doctrine of original sin. Arminians, such as
Briant, were influenced by several dissenting clergy from England,
including John Taylor. Within a decade they were asserting that peo-
ple could strive for and achieve some measure of personal righteous-
352€
Meadville Lombard Theological School
(1998…92). Acol-
Step off the Sidewalk
John Buehrens
. The next year she received an honorary
OXFORD CONVENTIONS
€353
made a request to hold a New England convention. Although originally
organized as an appendage of the Philadelphia group, the New England
354€
PACIFISM
pagan
paganus
try dweller. Today pagan is identified with those who find their pri-
mary religious sustenance in an earth centered spirituality. Paganism
by Christianity. Many of its practices were co-opted by Christians,
especially in Easter and Christmas customs and rites. Paganism has
largely enjoyed a revival due to the influence of the womens move-
ment. An adult religious education curriculum,
Cakes for the Queen
hope in female images of God or Goddess. This has led to additional
that centered their religious practices on paganism. Although Unitar-
pecially evident in the Transcendentalists who believed, like the pa-
of paganism in modern Unitarian Universalism was expressed in the
traditions which celebrate the sacred circle of life and instruct us to
PAINE, THOMAS(1737…1809).
PAINE, THOMAS (1737…1809)
€355
leading to the free and independent states of America.Ž In addition
356€
PANTHEISM
PARK, CHARLES EDWARDS(1873…1962).
from the middle of the 20th century who is chiefly remembered for
March 14, 1873, in Mahabaleshwar, India. He was the son and
PARK, CHARLES EDWARDS (1873…1962)
€357
Christianity:How It
Came to Us; What It Is; What It Might Be
address before the South Middlesex conference on ADefinition of
UnitarianismŽ that was widely circulated by the AUA. Here he said
358€
PARKER, THEODORE (1810…1860)
After graduation Parker preached in several locations, including a
summer on Cape Cod at Barnstable. Then in April 1837 he was called
PARKER, THEODORE (1810…1860)
€359
with the most vehement force. He became an important figure in the
tured fugitive slave Anthony Burns and was arrested for the obstruction
360€
PARKMAN, FRANCIS (1823…1893)
privilege and prejudice. While he corrected many misconceptions of
the west and wrote strikingly beautiful passages of observation, he
also predicted the demise of native culture, which he found savage,Ž
and was hard pressed to find much value in it. He once wrote, He
will not learn the arts of civilization, and he and his forest must per-
became minister of the Unitarian Church in Madison, Wisconsin, in
Frank Lloyd Wright
362€
to Nathaniel and Eliza Peabody, who had been married in 1802. Both
her parents worked at the Franklin Academy, but her mother soon
Temple School
364€
PEABODY, FRANCIS GREENWOOD (1847…1936)
Boston, the son of Ephraim and Mary Jane (Derby) Peabody, who
had seven children, but only four survived childhood. His father was
PEABODY, FRANCIS GREENWOOD (1847…1936)
€365
366€
PEACE
After the Civil War,
Julia Ward Howe
versal peace and especially advocated for a Mothers Peace Day. In
her proclamation she wrote, From the bosom of the devastated earth
a voice goes up with our own, it says, Disarm! Disarm!Ž Although
the Spanish-American War was mostly a popular affair, Francis Ellen
Watkins-Harper, an African American from Philadelphia, wrote a
poem called Do Not Cheer, Men are Dying.Ž Resistance to war
proved difficult in several instances in the 20th century.
American Unitarian Association (AUA)
General Conference to keep America in the way of peace.Ž That
same year he had declared from his pulpit: The interests of human
life are alone sovereign. War . . . is the enemy of life and all its inter-
ests. Therefore . . . I declare to you that war must be condemned uni-
versally and unconditionallyŽ (as quoted in Voss, ed.
, p. 116). Holmes disagreed vigorously with former Presi-
William Howard Taft
of the war, which was passed in 1917. Later the AUABoard voted
PEACE
€367
368€
PELAGIANISM
tire 7,000-page report, which included classified material about the
€369
becoming active, and their own convention was formed in 1793. A
group. The Universalists were a small sect in scattered locations with
a shortage of clergy and few financial resources. There were also the-
370€
rio Aglipay. The services were much like the Catholic mass, and
thousands converted to this Unitarian movement. Despite Unitarian
American Unitarian Association
, World War II
intervened. After the war, the church was reconstituted as an Angli-
can communion. Those who did not follow were organized as the In-
dependent Church of Filipino Christians with offices in Manila and
International Association forReligious
Freedom
was his primary mentor. Here he learned the importance of pastoral
work, a human touch that he would put to good use throughout his
ministry. When he was preaching at a summer institute, members
from the Unitarian church in Richmond, Virginia, heard him and
wanted him to become their minister. He stayed there for seven-
372€
€373
Racovian Catechism
(1605). This document rejected original sin
and predestination, and professed one sacrament, the Lords Supper.
Unfortunately, open attacks on the Socinians began during this period
as persecution of all Protestants increased dramatically. The church at
374€
POTTER, CHARLES FRANCIS (1885…1962)
entered Bucknell University. He transferred to Brown University the
POTTER, CHARLES FRANCIS (1885…1962)
€375
376€
POTTER, WILLIAM JAMES (1829…1893)
ary 1, 1829, the youngest of nine children of a Quaker family. He at-
POTTER, WILLIAM JAMES (1829…1893)
€377
the list after all. There was some controversy over this since Potter
was a well-respected life member of the AUAand served a Unitar-
ian church. There was also confusion over the criteria for being in-
cluded and the definition of a Unitarian Christian. The decision was
affirmed by the AUA, and Potter remained off the list of regular Uni-
378€
more executive authority if the title were changed to president. Many
cluding William Wallace Fenn, who was concerned about increasing
the power of the AUAadministration at the expense of the churches.
PRIESTLEY, JOSEPH (1733…1804)
€379
he could not subscribe to Calvinist beliefs in his aunts church, but he
wanted to be a minister. With improved health, he entered the dis-
senting academy at Daventry, which encouraged free thought. He
stayed there for four years and came out of school with Arian views
380€
PRIESTLEY, JOSEPH (1733…1804)
the result was increasing attacks by orthodox opponents. The most
These works tried to show that many views in the early church held
that Jesus was not part of the Trinity and later theories had distorted
Christianity.
honor of the second anniversary of Bastille Day. Because of their
days preceding the party of plotting treason. Amob gathered and at-
tacked the house. Although all the family and guests escaped harm,
Priestleys house and laboratory were destroyed. His books and pa-
PRINCIPLES AND PURPOSES
€381
the denomination today. The current Principles and Purposes grew
out of a similar theological affirmation, which was discussed during
382€
PRINCIPLES AND PURPOSES
The goal of world community with peace, liberty, and justice for all
Direct experience of that transcending mystery and wonder, affirmed in
RACIAL JUSTICE
€383
General Assembly (GA)
June 1963. At that same GAthe delegates had defeated a motion that
384€
RACIAL JUSTICE
ceived some UUABoard support. BAC sponsored many black con-
trolled projects throughout the country, but eventually denomina-
dermined its effectiveness. After the painful debacles of the
BAC/BAWAcontroversy, the UUAhad no major initiatives on racial
justice until 1980 when an institutional racism audit was undertaken.
RADICAL REFORMATION
€385
386€
RAKOW
tians had lived. There was much controversy in the early years, espe-
cially when Gregory Paul tried to impose economic communism. The
RAKOW
€387
All ArianŽ inhabitants were requested to leave town within four
weeks. Within months, a cornerstone for a new Catholic church was
388€
RANKIN, DAVID O. (1937… )
Portraits from the Cross
San Francisco, Rankin defined what the church is to him: I have
learned not to take my position too seriously. Or my image too seri-
ously. Or myself too seriously. I have learned that the most important
munity. And I have learned that the real church can be defined as our
How we smile and trust each other.
How we talk and touch each other.
How we share and protect each other.
How we welcome new friends and forgive old enemies.
then the largest Unitarian Universalist church„Atlanta, Georgia. He
€389
which they could use to discern Gods goodness through the natural
universe. The faculty of reason made it possible for humans to or-
390€
REEB, JAMES (1927…1965)
the sacrifice of others, be untiring in the task begun, till everyone on
earth is free.Ž James Reeb died on March 11, 1965.
REESE, CURTIS WILLIFORD (1887…1961).
humanist leaders in the Unitarian ranks. Reese was born on Septem-
ber 3, 1887, in Madison County, North Carolina. He came from a
Baptist College at Mars Hill, North Carolina, and was ordained to
the ministry. He supplied a church in Alabama, where his brother was
a preacher, and then he served two churches in Kentucky. At the
attended Baptist seminary in Louisville, Kentucky, where he gradu-
Louisville. After that he became a state missionary for the Illinois
State Baptist Association. During this time he attended Ewing Col-
lege and received a Ph.B. in 1911. Then he was called to serve the
First Baptist Church in Tiffin, Ohio. Increasingly Reese was unable
to accept his Baptist faith and after reading a book by the Unitarian
Francis Greenwood Peabody
in Toledo. He made a profession of faith that included: a Universal
Father, God; a Universal Brotherhood, mankind; a Universal right,
in Alton, Illinois, in 1913. Here he built a reputation as a community
REESE, CURTIS WILLIFORD (1887…1961)
€391
freedom. Out of this basic content has come the conviction of the su-
premacy of reason, of the primary worth of character, and of the im-
mediate access of man to spiritual sources. Always religious liberal-
ism has tended to replace alleged divine revelations and commands
went on to say that personality had supreme worth. He also became
Meadville Theological School
preventing a financial collapse, but it was merged with Meadville in
For many years Reese was affiliated with the periodical
ther as managing editor or editor. During World War II, Reese de-
, the editor, and took over the editorship. In 1930 Reese re-
392€
REESE, CURTIS WILLIFORD (1887…1961)
The more progress humankind attains, he said, the more the individ-
Humanist Manifesto
Conference of the AUAand was briefly an interim minister in Oak-
REINHARDT, AURELIA ISABEL HENRY (1877…1948)
€393
woman and the only Westerner on this commission. She wrote the ar-
ticle on the place of worship in the liberal church. Feeling that some
There is visible proof that the liberal church cannot exist unless wor-
tion.Ž In 1936 the commissions findings were published as
ans Face a New Age
dency, of the Pacific Unitarian School for the Ministry. In May 1945,
394€
RELIGIOUS EDUCATION
people all over the world. These kits were developed from a more sec-
Your Sexuality
. After the convening of the
tures Committee
versalist identity. Religious Education became lifespan so that all ages
would become involved in a church wide effort to nurture broader as-
Very little was done to promote Universalist Sunday School ac-
tivities prior to the 20th century. The entire movement was local and
neither organized nor coherent. The first Universalist Sunday School
versalists used catechisms in the 19th century. The Universalist Pub-
A Gospel Catechism for Sunday Schools
St. John Chambre in 1869. Apopular Sunday School paper was the
until 1924. The denomination did not create its own graded lessons
itorship of John Coleman Adams, who also edited the
Universalist Helper
printed. Finally, after years of efforts to create a central organization,
RELIGIOUS EDUCATION
€395
this, even as adult membership declined. Religious Education also
came professor of education at the Canton School at St. Lawrence in
1928. It was not until 1948 that the GSSAwas merged into a De-
first Executive Director. During the 1930s representatives of the
GSSAserved on the curriculum committee of the Unitarian Depart-
Seealso
396€
RELIGIOUS EDUCATION FUTURES COMMITTEE
which resulted in the UUAs Renaissance Training Modules; 4. A
; 5. A
call for more satisfying worship for all ages; 6. Youth programs; 7.
RESTORATIONIST CONTROVERSY
€397
Wood scheduled a counter convention at his house in Shirley, Mass-
tures, and this led the Restorationists to wonder if Ballous theology
ultimately led to infidelity.
AUniversalist
York, in 1827 exposed some of the structural weaknesses of the de-
England Convention into a national body. The new proposal suggested
officially considered for another year. The Restorationists responded
precipitously by forming a new Providence Association in the fall of
1827. That summer Edward Turner decided he would leave the de-
398€
RESTORATIONIST CONTROVERSY
RICE, WILLIAM BROOKS (1905…1970)
€399
the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) presidency,
Greeley
of the Young Peoples Religious Union (Unitarian). He was educated
Tufts College
400€
RICE, WILLIAM BROOKS (1905…1970)
RICH, CALEB(1750…1821).
RICH, CALEB (1750…1821)
€401
in Richmond, converted several Ballou cousins and Hoseas
brother David, and this may have played a significant role in Bal-
lous own conversion in 1790. He had a profound influence on
Hoseas ideas and also introduced Ballou to his future wife, Ruth
Washburn. Rich also converted Thomas Barnes, a future Univer-
salist preacher, when Barnes became convinced that he could not
402€
RIPLEY, GEORGE (1802…1880)
Ripley became one of the pioneers in introducing German idealism
to America. He introduced the language and the literature of both
American translations. In 1834 Ripley delivered an important sermon
Orestes Brownson
Harbinger
, which he tried to continue in New York. His wife was
New York Tribune
RIPLEY, GEORGE (1802…1880)
€403
ROY, RAMMOHUN(1772…1833).
form. Anumber of influences combined to be a catalyst for his re-
404€
ROY, RAMMOHUN (1772…1833)
during the early months of 1828 Roy decided on a new approach that
would mean the organization of the Hindu Unitarians into a new
RUSH, BENJAMIN (1745…1813)
€405
406€
RUSH, BENJAMIN (1745…1813)
plan to invite all Christians to gather on a platform of reason and
Universalists. Anumber of social reforms were voted for with Rushs
support. His major contribution was to edit and arrange the Articles
Win-
chesterProfession
RYDER DIVINITY SCHOOL
€407
chair, and their building was sold to the University in 1928. The
was maintained until 1964 when the new name, Meadville Theolog-
ical School of Lombard College was adopted. Even after merger with
number of Universalist students, and it accomplished little in the way
of improving standards or alleviating the shortage of Universalist
clergy.
SAFFORD, MARYAUGUSTA(1851…1927).
. Safford was born on December 23, 1851, to Stephen and
Louisa (Hunt) Safford on a farm in Quincy, Illinois. The family
died when she was nine, but he had helped introduce her to Darwin-
ism and radical religious thinking. After that she went to Iowa State
University, but her own ill health and then the need to care for a sis-
ter who was sick prevented her from finishing. She became a teacher
408€
SAFFORD, MARY AUGUSTA (1851…1927)
came president for a time of the Iowa Suffrage Association. In 1899
Safford moved on to Des Moines, where she remained until 1910.
Safford was active in a number of larger denominational groups in
ST. LAWRENCE UNIVERSITY AND CANTON THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL
€409
Lawrence University and Canton Theological School was organized
in 1856 with an unsectarian college and a theological school intended
for training and preparation for the Universalist ministry. Funds were
separated, but the schools shared common trustees. The charter was
amended in 1910 giving the theological school its own trustees ap-
was begun in 1856. The first dean was Ebenezer Fisher. The school
Brown
Fishers tenure the school produced more clergy than it did graduates,
410€
ST. LAWRENCE UNIVERSITY AND CANTON THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL
created the Joint Fund for Theological Education. New York
money to a general fund. The school was already suffering from a fi-
nancial crisis when the Taylor Report was issued in 1962. This criti-
SAVAGE, MINOT JUDSON (1841…1918)
€411
412€
SAVAGE, MINOT JUDSON (1841…1918)
American Unitarian Association (AUA)
SAWYER, THOMAS JEFFERSON (1804…1899)
€413
TuftsCollege
414€
Thomas StarrKing
€415
science and religion, saying one dealt with the facts and phenomena
spiritual world. The Unitarian astronomer
wanted to reconcile science and religion, believing that science
416€
€417
the environmental movement and are organizers of eco-justice proj-
418€
SCHULZ, WILLIAM F. (1949… )
SCHULZ, WILLIAM F. (1949… )
€419
in the local congregations. The UUAalso developed the Welcoming
420€
SCHULZ, WILLIAM F. (1949… )
faith that the future of the world is in our hands„not those of an an-
can make a difference to historyŽ (Schulz,
Finding Time
SCOTT, CLINTON LEE(1887…1985).
Universalism,Ž Clinton Lee Scott was born in Vermont in 1887. As a
young man he worked as a granite and marble cutter. While em-
ployed as an organ pumper, Scott became inspired by the Universal-
TuftsCollege
SCOTT, CLINTON LEE (1887…1985)
€421
One of the greatest difficulties for both Clint and Mary was the
422€
SCOTTISH COMMON SENSE PHILOSOPHY
trained to apprehend the truth in external objects. While humans are
seem self-evident. The most important American text elucidating
Frederic Henry Hedge
Elements of Logick
SEARS, EDMUND HAMILTON (1810…1876).
his authorship of the Christmas carol It Came upon the Midnight
Clear,Ž Sears was also a pacifist and biblical critic. He was born in
SEARS, EDMUND HAMILTON (1810…1876)
€423
Monthly Religious Magazine
424€
more Hindu oriented. Sen wanted to inspire a young generation of
Bengali youth to embrace the spiritual Christ, but he wanted a faith
social caste, whereas Tagore had built a Samaj that only accepted
than 50 lectures. He was extremely well received and was granted
money by the British Unitarians, although Charles Dall was offended
ian. Dall tried to remedy this by joining the Brahmo Samaj. Sen had
426€
whom he had disfigured with his dreams, denying that he came in our
a sole Redeemer. But when I saw that all this did no good I did not
SEWELL, MARILYN J. (1941… )
€427
Unitarian Universalist Association
s
Living Tradition.
womens writings. Foremost among these is the award-winning
Beacon Press
source of nourishment, life-giving bread for a new day, to those
428€
SEXUALITY, ABOUT YOUR
SHINN, QUILLEN HAMILTON (1845…1907)
€429
Shinn finished school in 1879 and was fellowshipped by the Ver-
tried, without success, to start a church in Wheeling, West Virginia,
430€
SHIN, QUILLEN HAMILTON (1845…1907)
superintendents authority. Shinn had a lifelong interest in temper-
the Prohibition Party and the Good Templars. Shinns war record
of the southern states had district superintendents. He died on Sep-
SINKFORD, WILLIAM G. (1946… )
€431
training he was hired to serve on the staff of the UUA. Aclose friend
John Buehrens
oversee congregational health and growth. The following year he was
church in Cincinnati. In 2001 he ran for president of the UUAagainst
Diane Miller, the director of the UUADepartment of Ministry. He
won by a large majority, but soon after taking office, Sinkford found
that as a religious leader, he had to respond to the terrorist attacks on
New York. He believes that the shared tragedy has heightened our
appreciation of the importance of religious life and community.Ž
432€
York, and he and Skinner became friends. They agreed that the
€433
resigned three years later. There was some opposition to Skinner tak-
ued to teach during his term of 12 years as dean. The school also con-
tinued to grow and improve academically. After the stresses of World
War II and ill health, Skinner decided to resign from his position. He
died four years later on August 26, 1949. After his death many of his
ideas on worship and spirituality were gathered from previously un-
Worship and the Well-Ordered Life
contained a vision for a new Universalism as a religion of universals
transcending all particulars, and some of this was articulated in
gion for Greatness
SLAVERY.
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY.
SMITH, GARYE.(1947… ).
The minister of the largest Unitarian Uni-
versalist church in New England. He was born in Waterville, Maine,
on July 14, 1947, the youngest of three boys to Clarence and Anita
went to the Divinity School of Vanderbilt University and graduated
434€
SLAVERY
Smith left the UUAin 1988 to become senior minister at the First
€435
denies any divine nature in Christ. He is wholly human, although he
436€
SOCINUS, FAUSTUS (1539…1604)
for born Christians. Socinus became a widely respected theologian
and published many tracts defending the church against charges of
heresy. He was also active in synod debates where the issues that di-
€437
438€
SOULE, CAROLINE AUGUSTA WHITE (1824…1903)
Soule had personal experience). Soule was its first president and
traveled extensively raising funds, lecturing, organizing, writing,
and, most especially, mailing tracts all over the world to spread the
Universalist message. Her efforts included the fund-raising for an en-
dowed womans professorship at Buchtel College. Two years later
the group was reorganized as the Womens Centenary Association,
the first national womens organization in the United States, and she
remained president for eleven years. Always suffering from poor
perate. But Soule plunged into denominational work there as well
and helped organize the Scottish Universalist Convention. By 1878
appointed by the Womens Centenary Association. She became min-
ister of St. Pauls Universalist Church in Glasgow in 1879 and was
SOUTH AFRICA
€439
440€
first column devoted to the humane treatment of animals. Charles
ued to receive his devoted attention for his remaining years of life, as
his goal was to apply the spirit of charity to all outcasts.Ž He died in
This religious movement developed a large follow-
€441
Univercoelum
Spiritual Telegraph
. John Murray Spear, a radi-
cal reformer among Universalists, came to believe that he received
versalism, John Murray. Spear founded a utopian community, Har-
monia, which drew its name from the Harmonial Philosophy of An-
drew Jackson Davis, the Poughkeepsie Seer,Ž who believed in the
s
tualist activity; Ballou also wrote a history of spiritualism. Many
Charles Chauncey Burr, who had been minister of Universalist soci-
442€
STACY, NATHANIEL (1778…1868)
standing order.Ž Stacy had embraced Universalism as a religion of
youthful vivacityŽ by the time he moved to Dana. There he fell un-
Stacy to become a minister. One Sunday in October 1802, Ballou
feigned a headache and told Stacy he must preach in his place: You
STACY, NATHANIEL (1778…1868)
€443
444€
STANDING ORDER
be caried [sic] to jail or have his goods taken by force for ministers
STARR KING SCHOOL FOR THE MINISTRY
€445
salary and AUAmission money to establish a church in Berkeley,
whose minister would teach at the seminary. The conference ap-
The plan for a school was revived again in 1900 when George
446€
STARR KING SCHOOL FOR THE MINISTRY
the 1950s and 1960s, said that the school had no curriculum and its
STATE CONVENTIONS
€447
ciation took the lead in forming the Convention, the Genesee Asso-
was organ-
448€
STEBBINS, HORATIO (1821…1902)
and he helped his father work a successful farm. He attended school
during the winter months and later went to high school in Springfield.
He hired out on a farm and also worked for his father. He was even-
tually licensed to teach and kept school for several years. Then he
STEBBINS, HORATIO (1821…1902)
€449
450€
SULLIVAN, WILLIAM LAURENCE (1872…1935)
SULLIVAN, WILLIAM LAURENCE (1872…1935)
€451
Tribune
tarian Christianity who felt that humanists were really atheists who
452€
Unitarian Association (AUA)
. After this the execution of the soci-
454€
SUNDERLAND, JABEZ THOMAS (1842…1936)
Jones and others were scheming to change the WUC to a branch of
SUNDERLAND, JABEZ THOMAS (1842…1936)
€455
served for four years. After that he was in Hartford, Connecticut, and
Ottawa, Ontario. All this time he lectured regularly on Indian reli-
dia.Ž Sunderlands attack on British rule was the first indictment
before a wide American audience. During the next 20 years, Sunder-
freedom in any way he could. In 1913 he was appointed a Billings
Lecturer for the AUA. Previous to this he had published an AUA
456€
SUPERNATURAL RATIONALISM
doctrines included the miracles, for which they assumed historical
evidence. Both supernatural rationalists and deists rejected claims of
differed on the content of that revelation. In 1821
William Ellery
delivered Evidences of Revealed Religion,Ž stating, To
pear as possible as any other effect, as the most common event in life;
and the argument against miracles, drawn from the uniformity of na-
and proof of the Creators disposition to accomplish his purposes by
a fixed order or mode of operation.Ž For the supernatural rationalists,
In the mid-19th century, Unitarianism was introduced by
the author Viktor Rydberg, who was influenced by Theodore Parker.
In 1929 the Unitarian organization Sveriges Religiosa Reformfor-
bund was formed by Emanual Linderhold of Uppsala. In 1976 a fel-
TAFT, WILLIAM HOWARD (1857…1930)
€457
1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio. His family was affiliated with the First
memorial to Taft. Tafts father Alphonso had rejected his Baptist faith
to become Unitarian, and young Will attended Sunday School there.
458€
TAFT, WILLIAM HOWARD (1857…1930)
come tax was established, Taft ran into conflict over several issues.
Conservation issues became especially heated after Taft fired Gifford
Pinchot, the symbol of Roosevelts conservation policies. Taft was
order. Eventually, Roosevelt challenged Taft for the nomination of
the Republican Party and ended up creating the Bull Moose Party. In
the 1912 election Taft finished third. When he was president he ap-
Samuel Atkins Eliot
After his term as U.S. president, Taft became president of the Gen-
American Unitarian Association (AUA)
controversy over World War I. In his capacity as moderator of the pro-
ceedings, Taft gave an opening address. He called upon the confer-
ence to affirm President Woodrow Wilsons conduct of the war, only
s speech criticizing the war
effort. In the fiery debate that followed, Taft called for and received a
war. There was concern that some ministers were creating discord in
their parishes; Taft affirmed this with his own role at his home church
in helping to oust the pacifist minister. Taft was appointed chief jus-
tice in 1921 by President Warren G. Harding. When he became ill in
With a long-term interest in educational reform
Bronson Alcott
s most famous school opened at the Masonic
€459
460€
THAYER, THOMAS BALDWIN (1812…1886)
Universalist Quarterly
(1864…86) and was a frequent contributor as well. Thayer believed
sion became a reality. Richard Eddy came as Thayers assistant edi-
tor in 1885 and succeeded him the following year when Thayer died
on February 12, 1886. Thayer was an important Universalist intellec-
tual leader who tried to provide Universalism with a unified system
of divinity.
THINGS MOSTCOMMONLYBELIEVED TODAYAMONG US.
Astatement of faith written by
THINGS MOST COMMONLY BELIEVED TODAY AMONG US
€461
, pp. 130…131). Unfortunately, the
462€
THOREAU, HENRY DAVID (1817…1862)
ralism that would later be common in Unitarianism. Thoreau delved
. Thoreau may have experienced Transcendentalism more
ideas or concepts. Thoreau twice lived at the Emerson home when
they went abroad. His friend also acquired the land, where Thoreau
built the cabin later immortalized in Walden (1854). Thoreau also
A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers
Although Thoreaus thought is often remembered in the context of
the solitary man in nature, he also envisioned the creation of a just so-
€463
theological school to serve Universalists on the West Coast. Although
Universalist businessman, Amos G. Throop, presented the idea of form-
ing a school in the city of Pasadena. Throop had been a large donor to
Throop donated $200,000 and a site to start Throop University, and it
opened in 1891. The school was a combination college and technical
school. By 1892 there were 175 students at what was now called Throop
Polytechnic Institute. Throop died in 1894, but the school continued to
carry his name until 1920, when it adopted its current name, The Cali-
fornia Institute of Technology. Although the original board was made up
the denomination. Throops hope for training ministerial students on the
464€
TRANSCENDENTAL CLUB
TRANSCENDENTALISM
€465
did not reject the religion but rebelled against some of its forms,
braced by Transcendentalists. The Transcendentalists also borrowed
from their Unitarian progenitors. The rationalism of their Unitarian
all tradition. In fact, the Transcendentalists found inspiration in ear-
mystics who seemed to experience the divine more directly. The Pu-
ritans had also favored the Platonic system where an analogy was
466€
TRANSCENDENTALISM
ritual, the Lords Supper. Emerson published the chief manifesto of
Nature
we not also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should we
TRANSCENDENTALISM
€467
468€
TRANSIENT AND PERMANENT IN CHRISTIANITY
to preach before thousands in Boston. The sermon drew inspiration
1838 called On Transiency and Permanency in Christianity.Ž
Parkers theology had evolved from where he once accepted the
Among the transient doctrines that he felt had changed over time
s sensationalist philosophy, Parker fol-
dress Parker affirmed the liberal principle that new truths can contin-
ually be revealed and challenged his colleagues to reaffirm their be-
lief in the spirit of free inquiry.
TRANSYLVANIA.
The first Unitarian sermon in Transylvania was
in January 1566. He had been undergoing
Trinitarian thinking from
Trinity were held at Gyulafehervar and Torda in 1566. Further de-
TRANSYLVANIA
€469
worshipped. Biandrata feared that David would be accused of inno-
was brought in to mediate. The case
was not resolved; Biandratas fears proved true when David was ar-
Deva. Already ill, he died soon thereafter.
At the time of Davids death, there were nearly 500 Unitarian con-
gregations in Transylvania, but preserving that heritage over the cen-
turies has been difficult. At first there was resentment toward their
fellow Unitarians who did not support David, especially Biandrata
who some saw as a traitor. Initially the church survived under the
470€
TRANSYLVANIA
Hungary was reunited with Transylvania. Asecond Unitarian college,
in addition to the one at Kososvar, was established at Szekelykeresz-
tur, along with a school at Torda and many other village schools. In
TRANSYLVANIA
€471
Universalist Association (UUA)
gram where congregations are linked financially, socially, and emo-
tionally to one another. The Unitarians of Transylvania have endured
A TREATISE ON ATONEMENT
in the 19th century.
A Treatise on Atonement
lous career while he was circuit riding in Vermont. It was published
in 1805 and reprinted many times thereafter. The
Treatise
Ballous thought after he had an opportunity to become familiar with
472€
A TREATISE ON ATONEMENT
TRINITARIAN CONTROVERSY
€473
position at Cambridge University for his Arian views. Samuel
Clarke, an esteemed theologian, formulated an Arian subscription,Ž
Arians could hold their private beliefs without fear of persecution. In
The Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity
nate to God and should only be worshipped as a mediator. Later
Clarke made changes in the Book of Common Prayer, which were
s avowed Unitarian congre-
Kings Chapel
TUCKERMAN, JOSEPH(1778…1840).
poor, Tuckerman is considered one of the founders of the social work
profession in America. He was born in Boston on January 18, 1778, to
474€
Transcendentalism as a So-
cial Movement
reading and sewing. Tuckerman also helped form an association to
coordinate the work of 21 different charities. Unfortunately, he had to
April 20, 1840. Tuckerman helped educate his colleagues to the
causes of urban poverty and was a true pioneer in American social
gland,Ž Tufts was the first college opened under Universalist auspices
€475
benefactors name given to the new school. Astory about the found-
ing of the school states that Tufts was asked what he would do with
476€
reports, the trustees and the administration of Tufts tried to put the
School of Religion on a secure footing. Acombination of financial
mate put the schools fate more in doubt. The theological school was
dissolved in June 1968, with financial considerations listed as the
major contributing factor.
Tufts College continued to expand during the presidency of one its
to all departments on an equal footing with men. The great showman
P. T. Barnum
of stuffed animals to the museum, which is how Jumbo the elephant
began its reign as the popular symbol of Tufts. Eventually the college
century into a fine university, which it became by a charter change in
ULTRA UNIVERSALISM
€477
The major work by the English Universalist James Relly.
478€
Transylvania
. In Poland these anti-Trinitarians were
. Unlike the Ari-
shipped because he was human and not God. They also rejected the
being with a special mission. The word Unitarian was first used in
Transylvania, but it did not become the commonly accepted term for
UNITARIAN CONTROVERSY
€479
battle lines of exclusion from established groups were drawn. This
astical councils that were dominated by their opponents. These
opinions impossible to achieve. Finally, there were splits in many
along theological lines with the more conservative church members
mitted as the church members. This period of infighting ended with
480€
UNITARIAN CONTROVERSY
ing this period and organized separate churches. The Unitarians had
little time to recover from controversy. Only a year later, in 1836,
Ralph Waldo Emerson
s
Nature
with the Transcendentalists began.
UNITARIAN FELLOWSHIPFOR SOCIALJUSTICE.
20th century Unitarians began to organize for social action.
can Unitarian Association (AUA)
Samuel Atkins Eliot
had urged the denomination to establish a Department of Social and
ministers believed that the AUAwas only interested in study and rec-
ommendations without action. Wanting to deal with practical matters
and Arthur Weatherly, established the Unitarian Fel-
lowship for Social Justice in 1908. They accused the AUAof scul-
pulpits. When the United States entered World War I, the fellowship
opposed the Conscription Act and universal military training. Eliot
come an officially recognized denominational agency. He called it a
UNITARIAN LAYMENS LEAGUE
€481
American Unitarian Asso-
Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA)
pecially in the area of public relations. The Universalists organized
service or fund-raising efforts.
The Unitarian League was reorganized after World War I (1919),
482€
UNITARIAN LAYMENS LEAGUE
Advertising remained its major contribution to extension efforts and
it was among the first Unitarian Universalist groups to develop tele-
UNITARIAN MISCELLANY.
The first publication in America to
carry the Unitarian name. The
William Ellery Channing
s famous Baltimore Ser-
UNITARIANS FACE A NEW AGE
€483
called for greater cooperation with other religious groups, including
Free Church Fellowship
. The report also called for increased in-
ternational contacts. There were broad changes called for under Or-
roles. This section also recommended the creation of a Planning and
Review Board and the new position of moderator who would provide
ommendation for the AUAto assume the functions of the General
training of lay leaders, the formation of a Department of Ministry, and
484€
UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST ADVANCE
UNITARIAN UNIVERSALISTASSOCIATION (UUA).
Areligious
Unitarian Association (AUA)
Universalist Church of
in 1961. The UUAwas legally constituted at an or-
UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST ASSOCIATION (UUA)
€485
486€
UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST ASSOCIATION (UUA)
for the headquarters staff, which also includes all the field staff such
VEATCH FUNDS.
UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST MINISTERS ASSOCIATION (UUMA)
€487
offer support, and provide guidelines to maintain standards for mem-
488€
UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST SERVICE COMMITTEE (UUSC)
vice in Czechoslovakia. The Sharps primarily worked with refugees
cues. On March 23, Martha Sharp escorted 35 refugees to England.
tarian Service Committee was organized in May 1940 as a standing
committee of the association to investigate opportunities for hu-
manitarian service both in America and abroad.Ž (After 1948 it be-
came independent of the AUA.)
Wartime activities for the USC included numerous medical, edu-
cational, and relief programs. The prime site in France was in Mar-
seille, where the USC opened a medical clinic that continued to op-
erate throughout the war, serving over 2,500 people during its busiest
month in March 1942. The main office during and after the war was
There were other offices in Paris and Geneva offering medical care,
refugee assistance, clothing, and additional services. Aconflict
within the organization arose in 1944, when the first executive direc-
UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST SERVICE COMMITTEE (UUSC)
€489
15 countries was cut back to 14 programs and 12 workcamps. The
USC wanted to withdraw from the AUA, saying it could raise more
money if it were independent. They finally seceded during the direc-
ous problems at home. One project was the establishment of a com-
munity center in Gallup, New Mexico, for Native American popula-
tions, the brainchild of Tillie Moore. In this postwar period, the USC
made a commitment to social work education under the direction of
Helen Fogg, who began as director of the Child and Youth Projects
Department. The organization began to move away from war recon-
native peoples. In 1955 Helen Fogg helped start a teacher-training
school in Cambodia. The Unitarian and Universalist Service Com-
mittees merged in 1963. For a few years they continued the long es-
tablished work of the Jordan Neighborhood House in Suffolk, Vir-
ginia, the outgrowth of the work of the first black Universalist
minister,
International efforts reflected a growing interest in Third World
trol over their political, economic, and social institutions. In 1972
Richard Scobie took over as permanent executive director after the
unhappy departure of Harold Bejcek. Scobies long term of office re-
sulted in an expanded and stable service organization. Acentral phi-
losophy of cultural respect, collaborative work, and combined edu-
cational, medical, and economic efforts proved successful. Over the
programs. This proved especially true of a mothersand childrens
health program in Haiti in the 1960s, under the direction of Dr. Ary
Bordes. In Senegal the UUSC began to work with the Federation of
Senegalese Womens Associations to help rural women who had mi-
490€
UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST SERVICE COMMITTEE (UUSC)
violations in Central America. These were complemented by service
Later in the century, domestic programs included a moratorium
UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST WOMENS FEDERATION (UUWF)
€491
power, and the results, which showed strong sexist assumptions and
General Assembly (GA)
pass the resolution. This became a catalyst for the eventual revision
. The UUWF has a history of
advocating for the Equal Rights Amendment, abortion rights, pay eq-
uity, children and family issues, and other social justice concerns. It
has recognized leadership with its Ministry to Women Award and has
the Continental Women and Religion Committee and the Ministerial
Sisterhood (MSUU). The UUWF published the curriculum
and Call Her Name:A Woman Honoring-Journey into Global Earth-
492€
UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST WORLD
The World
€493
Unity
494€
Thomas Whittemore
Universalists. Many Universalists in the late 19th century named
their churches after St. Paul, who declared a universal faith, to indi-
cate this belief in the origins of Universalism. The theological con-
perfection of Gods love, Origen could not believe that wrath would
be the final expression of that love. The Universalist expression of
in the 19th century, especially the liberation of women. Their notion
portunities in the world. This also made them less God-centered, and,
tial. Universalism, as an organized church in America, understood it-
self as a branch of the Christian church throughout most of its history,
€495
UNIVERSALISTCHURCH OFAMERICA(UCA).
The official
name of the Universalist denomination after 1942 until the consoli-
dation with the Unitarians in 1961. Steps toward greater organiza-
tional cohesiveness had begun to take place in the late 19th century,
became general superintendent in 1938. The fol-
departments. To promote denominational unity, Cummins supported
an idea that had been raised in 1937 that the corporate name of the
In 1942 the governor of New York, where the church charter was
Convention to Universalist Church of America. Previously the Gen-
496€
UNIVERSALIST CHURCH OF AMERICA (UCA)
gia Universalist
Universalist Her-
as the papers name and it still continues publication in the new
Herald
during the height of its popularity in the 19th century.
UNIVERSALIST MAGAZINE
Universalist Magazine
UNIVERSALIST MAGAZINE
€497
combined after Whittemores death. After 1865 a number of publish-
. Just prior to that George H. Emerson began a term as editor
Universalist
498€
UNIVERSALIST NATIONAL MEMORIAL CHURCH
€499
500€
VEATCH FOUNDATION
… W …
WALKER, JAMES(1794…1874).
Afounder of the
ian Association (AUA)
WALKER, JAMES (1794…1874)
€501
WARE, HENRY(1764…1845).
Wares appointment as the
Hollis Pro-
fessorof Divinity
principal precipitating cause of the Unitarian controversy. He was
502€
WARE, HENRY (1764…1845)
witness to reason, conscience, and the value of human experience. He
wrong and these faculties are a humans rational moral sense.Ž
WARE, HENRY JR. (1794…1843)
€503
money. Wanting to root out apathy in the denomination he published
Sober Thoughts on the State of the Times
nounced, We are a community by ourselves.Ž He suffered from
Ralph Waldo Emerson
to help out and briefly served as his assistant and then his successor.
Ware had won a reputation as an outstanding parish minister who ex-
raneous Preaching
As a result of his renown, a position was created for him at Har-
vard Divinity School and he became the Professor of Pastoral Care
and Pulpit Eloquence in 1830. He was unable to begin his duties right
away. That same year he and Mary traveled to Europe for 17 months
to try to restore his health. He visited several countries, including
504€
WARE, HENRY JR. (1794…1843)
WASHBURN, ISRAELJR.(1813…1883).
Israel Washburn Jr. was one
of seven brothers from Livermore, Maine, who forged distinguished
careers, especially in public service. Israel Washburn, Sr. and Martha
WASHBURN, ISRAEL JR. (1813…1883)
€505
identified him as one of the pivotal figures in the Universalist church
in the 1870s and 1880s. He served on national committees and was
president of the board for Tufts College. He clearly identified the
cratic faith in his view. His blending of Universalism and democracy
pressed in the ideals of freedom and equality. This religious counter-
part to democracy was seen as the future church of America. In an ad-
dress he gave for the Universalist centennial celebration, he said the
faith was universal in its scope and ultimate membership„it will
embrace the world.Ž Israels faith continued to be central in his later
WinchesterProfession
WASHINGTON DECLARATION.
ABond of Fellowship and State-
last formal statement of faith made by the Universalists prior to con-
solidation with the Unitarians. In 1923 the Universalists had reaf-
faith. This avowal of faith had the Winchester Declaration (1803) and
the Five Principles of 1899 appended to it. Many changes both within
and without the denomination resulted in agitation for a new state-
John Murray Atwood
506€
WASHINGTON DECLARATION
and members were assured of historical continuity. The revised ver-
sion passed unanimously and when it came to the floor again in 1935,
it was also passed unanimously with no debate. Afew Universalists
nontheological statement without God, Jesus, or Christianity, but
they were a small minority. Thus humanism did not gain a foothold
in the formal statements of the Universalists. The text of the Bond of
shall be a common purpose to do the will of God as Jesus revealed it,
and to cooperate in establishing the Kingdom for which He lived and
WAYSIDE COMMUNITY PULPIT
€507
England, by H. Harrold Johnson. The Universalists in America also
salist Community Pulpit. The two denominations agreed to merge ef-
forts in 1932, and the now Wayside Community Pulpit appeared in
1933. After consolidation the messages continued to appear, but in-
risen markedly. The frequency of the service kept being reduced in the
508€
naturalist. This led him to membership in a conversation group called
The Radical Club and eventually to being one of the founders of the
Free Religious Association (FRA)
WENDTE, CHARLES WILLIAM (1844…1931)
€509
In 1876 Wendte was invited to be minister at First Unitarian in
Cincinnati. During his ministry there, one of his parishioners, Sallie
American Unitarian Association (AUA)
s Post Of-
fice Mission sending out AUAtracts to persons in the West. Although
Wendte had a successful ministry, ill health forced him to take a less
from 1882 to 1885. With his health restored Wendte was appointed
510€
WENDTE, CHARLES WILLIAM (1844…1931)
he had labored to found many years before. Wendte was a talented
lish widely including editing the papers of the International biennials,
Jubilate Deo
, a biography of Thomas Starr
King, and his own autobiography,
The Wider Fellowship
WEST, ROBERTNELSON(1929… ).
Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA)
rescuing the UUAfrom a financial quagmire. Bob West was born on
January 28, 1929, in Lynchburg, Virginia, to Samuel W. and Mary
WEST, ROBERT NELSON (1929… )
€511
UUAhad accumulated tremendous debts and was beginning to use
512€
WEST, ROBERT NELSON (1929… )
ior consultant to the Arthur D. Little Corporation, and from 1981 to
WESTERN UNITARIAN CONFERENCE (WUC).
ian churches in the Midwest began to organize after 1849 when a
conference of ministers was held in Chicago in May. The organizers
included Augustus Hammond Conant, an early Unitarian missionary
in the area, William Adams, minister in Chicago, and Mordecai De-
Lange, minister in Quincy, Illinois. This group advocated for pro-
ing happened for a couple of years, but plans were revived at the ded-
William Greenleaf
WESTERN UNITARIAN CONFERENCE (WUC)
€513
For a number of years they were divided by theological strife over
514€
WHITTEMORE, THOMAS (1800…1861)
Beginning in 1822 Whittemore became one of three editors of the
Universalist Magazine
per to Cincinnati, but then in 1828 he approached Russell Streeter
WHITTEMORE, THOMAS (1800…1861)
€515
ular basis was that over Restorationism. For years Whittemore fought
. Near the end of his life Whittemore admitted that
516€
WIEMAN, HENRY NELSON (1884…1975)
former student of his. Thereafter he joined the church in Eugene and
became fellowshipped as a minister in 1950. He emerged from this
€517
grand remaking of a West Coast version of Harvard Divinity School.
ganize the school and prepared a prospectus for ANew School of
Liberal Theology.Ž Wilbur worked hard to build up a library, which
518€
bondage to creeds or confessions), reason (use of reason in relation
Freedom,Reason,Tol-
eration:Our Distinctive Vocation
. Wilbur also saw the liberal reli-
gious tradition as one largely continuous stream of connected phases
in Poland, Transylvania, England, and America, rather than as sepa-
rate movements. Wilbur received the denominations Distinguished
Service Award in 1953.
WILLIAMS, GEORGE HUNSTON(1914…2000).
one of the great church historians of the 20th century, George
Williams was once called An Historian for All Seasons.Ž He was
born in 1914 in Huntsburg, Ohio, the son of David Rhys Williams, a
St. Lawrence University
1939), Williams also studied at the University of Munich and con-
ducted special studies in Paris and Strasbourg. He was ordained in
ters in the family. He served that church as assistant minister from
1939 to 1941. After that he taught at the
StarrKing School forthe
received his Th.D. from Union Theological Seminary in 1946. There-
Hollis Professorof Divinity
Emeritus. Williams also
served as acting dean of the Divinity School in 1953…1955. Williams
was married to Marjorie Derr, and they had four children. Over the
lished some 15 books and nearly 200 articles. He was also active as
an editor and translator. He served on several editorial boards of ma-
dialects, translating what seemed like the most obscure works. His
to modern. Early in his career, Williams adopted the perspective that
WILLIAMS, GEORGE HUNSTON (1914…2000)
€519
church history would not be subsumed by secular history, as seemed
within the context of a historic community of faith. This meant that
church history, in his view, should be understood as a theological dis-
Williamss greatest work was
term first coined by Williams in his
Spiritual and Anabaptist Writers
distinct groups: Anabaptists, Spiritualists, and Evangelical Rational-
ists. Although he developed the standard study for this field, his di-
versalism:A Bicentennial Historical Essay
in Historical Perspective
. These particular examples show his life-
tion of ministry, and particularly those who were preparing for the
liberal ministry. Williams was never one to be confined by denomi-
national affiliations though. As a historian he had a true ecumenical
temperament, trying to tie Unitarian Universalist history to a broader
context in Christian history. He was also a major player in Protestant-
The Mind of John Paul II:Origins of His Thought
the Vatican. Not confining himself to publishing and teaching,
Williams was also an effective voice for social action. He had a life-
ogy movement in its infancy. He gave the sermon at the Arlington
520€
WILLIS, ANNIE BIZZELL JORDAN (1893…1977)
vention and the most successful of three Negro missions. When her
father died in 1929, Willis took on the role of superintendent at the
family tradition continued with Williss own daughter Dorothy, who
WINCHESTER, ELHANAN (1751…1797)
€521
along with seven out of eight children stillborn, leaving Winchester
within the year he was convinced of the truth of Universalism. On his
way back to South Carolina, Winchester happened to stop in
Philadelphia. While he was there, he received an invitation to preach
at a Baptist church with no minister. He won wide acclaim, but his
parishioners began to notice that it appeared that in his preaching,
salvation through Christ was available to all. His faith in Universal-
Restitution of All Things
George Stonehouse. In January 1781 he was called before a group
who asked him if he believed in Universal Restoration, and Win-
chester said he did. He agreed to leave that congregation, but many
522€
WINCHESTER, ELHANAN (1751…1797)
The Universal Restoration,Exhibited in Four Dialogues
WINCHESTER PROFESSION OF FAITH
€523
was Walter Ferriss of Charlotte, Vermont. He made the original mo-
tion in 1802 to formulate such a statement and wrote the final state-
Belief and Plan of General Association.Ž Because of the Universalist
belief in freedom, passing the profession was not easy. Some opposed
adopting any common statement because they believed it violated the
Universalist belief in private judgment. Those who favored the reso-
lution said that it would help the Universalists be recognized as a le-
that it could not be altered in the future. The primary opponents of the
Winchester Profession were Edward Turner and Noah Murray. Mur-
ray, a newcomer from Pennsylvania, said, It is harmless now„it is
524€
WOLLSTONECRAFT, MARY (1759…1797)
. Wollstonecraft began to attend the
Newington Green chapel to hear Prices sermons. She gained much
as the fountainhead for individual rights. Their views on human
WOLLSTONECRAFT, MARY (1759…1797)
€525
self-restraint, but she had the most difficult task of creating how
women could independently fashion who they would be in the world.
526€
WOMEN AND RELIGION RESOLUTION
women ministers called the Ministerial Sisterhood (MsUU). The
number of women clergy increased dramatically, until by the turn of
the century, women were the majority. All of the moderators of the
UUAsince 1985 have been women, and there have also been three
women presidential candidates since 1985. Second, the UUAbecame
committed to moving beyond gender in liturgies and celebrations of
worship. The UUAestablished a goal of an inclusive, nonsexist lan-
firming the worth and equality of all. The 1980 General Assembly re-
solved to urge all congregations to provide opportunities to
understand the sexist nature of our religious heritage and urged the
UUAto develop materials to understand this heritage and change it
materials were developed including the popular Cakes for the Queen
the UUApublished
Readings for Common Worship
nated sexist references in responsive readings. AUUACommission
on Common Worship developed changes in hymns as well and in
Hymns in New Form for Common Worship
WOMENS RIGHTS
€527
publication supporting the womens movement was written by
right to vote. Many times women were given more opportunities in
women began to try to secure pulpits. The Universalists were the first
Olympia Brown
achieved this position in 1863 after a difficult
preacher of universal salvation. By 1882 there were 30 women who
were Universalist preachers, but they frequently encountered preju-
dice, as did Brown when she was forced out of her pulpit in Bridge-
port, Connecticut. Brown became active in the fight for suffrage and
528€
WOMENS RIGHTS
was one of the few activists from the 19th century who lived to see
the day when women could vote. The most important Universalist
Mary Livermore
the campaign for womens rights. Nevertheless, she joined the in-
creasingly powerful suffrage movement after the Civil War. She
came to believe that the right to vote alone would make women the
legal equal of men. She delivered her lecture ŽWhat Shall We Do
support equal professional and moral educational opportunities for
women. The Unitarians ordained their first woman minister,
, which was organized out of the
Womens Ministerial Conference formed by Julia Ward Howe. Uni-
tarians and Universalists alike played active roles in the great cam-
paigns for equality. From Murray and Adams to
Susan B. Anthony
planning the Seneca Falls Womens Rights Convention in 1848 to the
present, a strong feminist tradition has played an important part in the
MARYWOLLSTONECRAFT; WOMAN AND
WOOD N WARE DEBATE.
WOOD N WARE DEBATE
€529
would degrade peoples sense of their own character and lead to de-
spair. People would be repelled to believe that they had a moral ten-
dency toward evil. Ware also warned that those who were likely to
could not help themselves. In the long run the Unitarian moral argu-
WOOLLEY, CELIAPARKER(1848…1918).
Aleading citizen and
reformer in Chicago, Woolley was born on June 14, 1848, in Toledo,
530€
WOOLLEY, CELIA PARKER (1848…1918)
WORSHIP
€531
spoken. In the Roman Catholic tradition, the altar, where the sacri-
ration of freedom from established forms and patterns of ritual and
liturgy. Architecturally this was also symbolized by replacing stain
glass windows with clear glass, the removal of all icons so that there
were no visual representations of Jesus/God, and free forms of wor-
532€
WRIGHT, (CHARLES) CONRAD (1917… )
environment. Wright received all of his education at Harvard Uni-
versity, including the Ph.D. in 1947. After service in World War II, he
WRIGHT, FRANK LLOYD (1867…1959)
€533
engineering there. He assisted the architect Joseph Silsbee on the
Unity Chapel project, a Lloyd Jones family chapel. In 1887 Wright
moved to Chicago, despite his mothers opposition, and worked for
Silsbee as a blueprint tracer at first and then took a drafting job when
he worked with the architect Louis Sullivan for six years. Here he ab-
sorbed Sullivans style of using natural themes and a purely Ameri-
can approach to architecture. In 1893 Wright had to leave this job
534€
WRIGHT, FRANK LLOYD (1867…1959)
YEARBOOK CONTROVERSY
€535
Religious Association (FRA)
536€
YOUNG PEOPLES CHRISTIAN UNION (YPCU)
YOUNG PEOPLES CHRISTIAN UNION (YPCU)
€537
The Young
Peoples Religious Union was organized on May 28, 1896, in Boston.
It grew out of a prior movement to organize Unitarian youth for so-
538€
YOUNG PEOPLES RELIGIOUS UNION (YPRU)
tween youth and adults, and behavioral problems. As a result of these
conferences the new organization, YRUU, was formed on January 1,
1983. YRUU was meant to have closer ties to the UUAand provide
for greater participation by adults on all levels. The YRUU publica-
fostering spiritual depth, creating a peaceful community on earth
and peace within us, and clarifying both individual and universal re-
ligious values as part of our growth process.Ž As a result of neglect
of post-high school youth, the UUAsupported the formation of a UU
Young Adults conference in 1986, which was followed by the cre-
YOUNG, WHITNEY M. JR. (1921…1971)
€539
agenda with political leaders and corporate heads. He became an ad-
540€
YOUNG, WHITNEY M. JR. (1921…1971)
SOME OTHER FAMOUS UNITARIAN UNIVERSALISTS WHO DO
NOT RECEIVE FULL BIOGRAPHICAL TREATMENT IN THIS BOOK
Hannah Adams (1755…1831)„historian of religion, first woman to earn
Washington Allston (1779…1843)„artist, brother-in-law of William
George Bancroft (1800…1891)„historian
Emily Howard Jennings Stowe (1831…1903)„Canadas first woman
Charles Sumner (1811…1874)„U.S. Senator, abolitionist
542€
George Silsbee Hale, 1887…1895
Carroll Davidson Wright, 1897…1900
Samuel Atkins Eliot, 1900…1927
Dana McLean Greeley, 1958…1961
Presidents and Moderators Unitarian
Universalist Association
Dana McLean Greeley, 1961…1968
Robert N. West, 1969…1977
€543
We believe in one God, infinite in all his perfections, and that these
544€
Article III. We believe that holiness and true happiness are inseparably
connected, and that believers ought to be careful to maintain order and
practise good works, for these things are good and profitable unto men.
Unitarian„Article 2 of the Constitution of the American
Unitarian Association, 1825
The objects of this Association shall be to diffuse the knowledge and
promote the interests of pure Christianity throughout our country.
Unitarian„Preamble and Article I, National Conference of
Unitarian Churches, 1865
Whereas, The great opportunities and demands for Christian labor
bled unite themselves in a common body, to be known as the National
Conference of Unitarian Churches, to the end of reorganizing and stim-
ulating the denomination with which they are connected to the largest
Unitarian„The Ames Covenant, 1880 (Written by Charles Gordon
€545
Universalist„The Boston Declaration, 1899 (Five Principles
Adopted by the Universalist General Convention in 1899 to Be
Appended to the Winchester Profession).
The essential principles of the Universalist faith: The Universal Fa-
Christ; the trustworthiness of the Bible as containing a revelation from
546€
1.To strengthen one another in a free and disciplined search for truth
2.To cherish and spread the universal truths taught by the great
€547
548€
€to serve the Infinite Spirit of Life and the human community by
€549
Bibliography
There are rich resources for the study of Unitarian Universalist history.
years by Earle More Wilbur, the former president of the Starr King
School. Wilbur wrote the two-volume
1952), which concentrated on Poland, Transylvania, and England with a
brief section on America. This book has been the standard bearer for all
European studies of the roots of rational religion. George H. Williams of
Canadian, European, and Asian sections below. There is no good com-
The Unitarian Heritage
and decline of the movement. An insightful recent work is
Unitarian Per-
spectives on Contemporary Religious Thought
(1999), edited by George
Chryssides. Anumber of works about Joseph Priestley, the great chemist
and Unitarian minister, have been published, including a brilliant new
by Russell Miller, which superseded an earlier study by Richard Eddy,
Universalism in America:A History
(1884…1886). Millers work pro-
552€
The Beginnings of Unitarianism in America
lished Unitarian development in the context of emerging liberal doc-
Churches. Wright was the editor of the only recent comprehensive his-
A Stream of Light
€553
554€
Universalist site and also has Earle Morse Wilburs book
ian Heritage
Journal of Liberal Religion
. Finally, the First
€555
Unitarian Universalism:Selected Essays
The Unitarian Universalist Christian
Unitarian Universalist World
Universalist Herald
Zygon:Journal of Religion and Science
II. PUBLISHED PRIMARY SOURCES
Adams, Henry.
The Education of Henry Adams:An Autobiography
. Vol. 1
Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1946.
Ahlstrom, Sidney E. and Jonathan S. Carey, eds.
An American Reformation:A
Documentary History of Unitarian Christianity.
556€
Suffrage and Religious Principle:Speeches and Writings of
Olympia Brown.
€557
Stacy, Nathaniel.
Memoirs of the Life of Nathaniel Stacy:Preacher of the
Gospel of Universal Grace.
Columbus, Pa.: Abner Vedder, 1850.
Stiernotte, Alfred P., ed.
Frederick May Eliot:An Anthology
Voss, Carl Herman, ed.
A Summons unto Men:An Anthology of the Writings of
John Haynes Holme
s. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971.
Ware, Henry Jr. On the Formation of the Christian CharacterŽ (orig. pub.
The Unitarian Universalist Christian
, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Summer,
Willis, Gwendolen B., ed. Olympia Brown, An AutobiographyŽ in
Journal of
558€
€559
Eliot, Samuel Atkins, ed.
Heralds of a Liberal Faith
. 4 volumes. Boston: Amer-
ican Unitarian Association, 1910…52.
Freeberg, Ernest.
The Education of Laura Bridgman
560€
Hoyt, Edwin P.
Horatios Boys:The Life and Works of Horatio Alger,Jr
York: Stein and Day, 1974.
€561
Horace Mann:A Biography
. New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
Miller, Edwin Haviland.
Salem Is My Dwelling Place:A Life of Nathaniel
Thomas Starr King:Eminent Californian,Civil War
Statesman,Unitarian Minister
Owen-Towle, Thomas.
562€
Sears, Stanley F. The Contribution of John Haynes Holmes to Unitarian Uni-
Selected Essays:Unitarian Universalist Ministers Association
Frank Lloyd Wright
. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.
Horace Greeley:Founder of the
New York Tribune. Indianapo-
Skinner, Clarence R. and Alfred S. Cole.
Hells Ramparts Fell:The Life of John
Murray
€563
„„„. Wilburs Vision: Freedom, Reason and Tolerance ReglimpsedŽ in
Unitarian Universalist Christian
Willis, Gwendolen B., ed. Olympia Brown: An AutobiographyŽ in
Journal of
564€
€565
B. Canadian, European, and Asian
566€
Blasphemous and WickedŽ
The Unitarian Struggle for
Seaburg, Carl.
DojinMeans All People:The Universalist Mission to Japan,
€567
Howe, Daniel Walker.
The Unitarian Conscience:Harvard Moral Philosophy
Koch, G. Adolf.
Religion of the American Enlightenment
. New York: Thomas
Y. Crowell Co., 1968. First published in 1933 as
Kring, Walter Donald
. Liberals among the Orthodox. Unitarian Beginnings in
New York City,1819…1839
McLoughlin, William G.
New England Dissent,1630-1833. The Baptists and
the Separation of Church and State.
Marini, Stephen A.
Radical Sects of Revolutionary New England
Patterns of Antislavery among American Unitarians,
. Cranbury, N.J.: Associated University Presses, Inc., 1977.
Sykes, Richard Eddy.
568€
Gura, Philip F.
The Wisdom of Words:Langu
Theology,and Literature in
the New England Renaissance
€569
Unitarianism on the Pacific Coast:The First Sixty Years
Excluded:The Story of the Federal Council of Churches and
the Universalists
. Boston: Unitarian Universalist Association, 1966.
Roots and Visions:The First Fifty Years of the Unitarian
Universalist Service Committee
Free Church in a Changing World
. Boston: Unitarian Universalist Association,
570€
F. Philosophy and Theology
Adams, James Luther.
„„„.
Taking Time Seriously
„„„.
€571
Marshall, George.
Challenge of a Liberal Faith
Being Liberal in an Illiberal Age:Why I Am a Unitarian
Universalist
Morgan, John C.
572€
Seaburg, Carl, ed.
Celebrating Christmas
isters Association, 1983.
„„„.
Great Occasions:Readings for the Celebration of Birth,Coming-of-
Age,Marriage,and Death
„„„.
. Boston: Unitarian Universalist Ministers Asso-
Seaburg, Carl and Mark Harris, eds.
Celebrating Easter and Spring
bridge, Mass.: Anne Miniver, 2000.
Schulz, William F., ed.
Transforming Words:Six Essays on Preaching.
Unitarian Universalist Association.
Hymns for the Celebration of Life
Unitarian Universalist Association, 1964.
„„„.
Singing the Living Tradition
. Boston: Unitarian Universalist Associa-
Vogt, Von Ogden.
Weston, Robert T.
Worship for a Free Church
€573
About the Author
Mark W. Harris

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