The Body in Professional Practice, Learning and Education Body Practice


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Professional and Practice-based Learning
BillGreen
NickHopwood
Editors

The Body in
Professional
Practice, Learning
and Education
Body/Practice
ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning
Volume11
SeriesEditors:
Professionalandpractice-basedlearning
BillGreenNickHopwood
Editors
TheBodyinProfessional
Practice,Learning
andEducation
Editors
BillGreen
SchoolofTeacherEducation
CharlesSturtUniversity
Bathurst,NSW,Australia
NickHopwood
SchoolofEducation
UniversityofTechnologySydney
Sydney,NSW,Australia
ISSN2210-5549ISSN2210-5557(electronic)
ISBN978-3-319-00139-5ISBN978-3-319-00140-1(eBook)
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1
SpringerChamHeidelbergNewYorkDordrechtLondon
LibraryofCongressControlNumber:2014956217
SpringerInternationalP
ublishingSwitzerland2015
Thisworkissubjecttocopyright.Allrightsarerese
Permissionsforusemaybeobtaine
dthroughRightsLinkattheCopyrightClearanceCenter.Violations
areliabletoprosecutionundertherespectiveCopyrightLaw.
Thisbookisdedicatedtothememoryof
AlisonLeefriend,colleague,mentor;
alwaysmissed,alwaysaninspiration.
SeriesEditorsForeword
viiiSeriesEditorsForeword
Thisbookprovidesasystematicapproachofconsideringthebodyandits
roleforprofessionalandpractice-basedlearningbyclarifyingwhatcanbemeant
bythetermsbodyandpractice.Thecontributionsanalysetheprofessionalself
asembodiedsubject,andtheyreectonworkenvironmentsascorporatebody.
Acknowledgements
Therearemanypeopletowhomwewishto
saythankyouinacknowledgementof
theirsupportforthisbook.First,wethankallthecontributingauthors,notonlyfor
theirworkinproducingtheirrespectivechapters,butalsofortheirengagementin
readingeachotherswork,providingcriti
que,andmakingclos
erconnectionsand
PartIIntroducingtheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
1Introduction:Body/Practice?
.............................................3
BillGreenandNickHopwood
2TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,Learning
andEducation:AQuestionofCorporeality
.............................15
BillGreenandNickHopwood
PartIIThinkingwiththeBodyinProfessionalPractice
3SustainingtheChangeAgent:BringingtheBodyinto
LanguageinProfessionalPractice
........................................37
xii
Contents
PartIIITheBodyinQuestioninHealthProfessional
EducationandPractice
9EmbodimentinthePracticeandEducationofHealth
Professionals
................................................................139
StephenLoftus
10EmbodiedReexivity:KnowledgeandtheBody
inProfessionalPractice
....................................................157
ErikaR.Katzman
11EmbodiedPracticesinDialysisCare:
On(Para)ProfessionalWork
..............................................173
LauraL.Ellingson
12(Per)formingthePracti
ce(d)Body:Gynecological
TeachingAssociatesinMedicalEducation
..............................191
JodiHall
13The(De)fragmentedBodyinNursingEducation
.......................209
AbouttheAuthors
xivAbouttheAuthors
healthcareorganizations.Sheisauthorof
CommunicatingintheClinic:Negotiating
FrontstageandBackstageTeamwork
(2005,Hampton)and
EngagingCrystalliza-
tioninQualitativeResearch
(2009,Sage),andco-authorwithDr.PattySotirinof
Aunting:CulturalPracticesthatSustainFamilyandCommunityLife
(2010,Baylor
UniversityPress)and
WheretheAuntsAre:Family,Feminism,andKinshipin
PopularCulture
(2013,BaylorUniversityPress).Sheteachescoursesinqualitative
AbouttheAuthorsxv
doctoralthesischallengedentitativeviewsofcollectivelearningusingrelational
philosophiesanddrewuponher20yearsofp
ractitionerexperienceinfacilitating
organisationallearningandchange.Hercurrentresearchintereststheorisepractice
dynamicsandtheirimplicationsforworkplacelearningandrelationalwaysof
working.Herpublicationsinclude16journalarticlesandconferencepapersand
5bookchapters.
ErikaR.Katzman
isadoctoralcandidateintheFacultyofHealthSciences,
HealthProfessionalEducationstreamatWesternUniversity,London,Ontario,
Canada.Herdissertationresearchaimsto
improvethedeliveryofhealthservices
topeoplelivingwithdisabilitiesbyexaminingdifferencesbetweenconstructionsof
disabilityinhealthpolicyandlivedexperiencesofdisability.
xviAbouttheAuthors
DianneMulcahy
isaSeniorLecturerintheMelbourneGraduateSchoolof
EducationattheUniversityofMelbourne,Melbourne,Australia.Herpublished
workinEducationconcernsthepolicyandpracticeofeducatorsprofessional
formationanddevelopment.Herrecentr
esearchactivityhascentredoncapturing
thecomplexityofeducatorsprofessionallearning,withparticularattentiontothe
materialityofthislearning,including
itsembodiedandaffectivedimensions.Her
publicationsincludeover40refereedjournalarticlesandconferencepapers,3
monographsand3bookchapters.
Jo-AnneReid
isProfessorofEducationintheFacultyofEducationatCharles
SturtUniversity,NewSouthWales,Australia.Herresearchfocionliteracyedu-
cation,Indigenouseducation,andrural
educationhaveco-alignedintermsof
PartI
IntroducingtheBodyinProfessional
Practice,LearningandEducation
Chapter1
Introduction:Body/Practice?
BillGreenandNickHopwood
Inpractice,doesthebodymatter?Inwhatwaysdoesthebodygurein
(professional)practice?Whatcanbesaidabouttheroleandthesignicanceof
thebodyinunderstandingandresearchingprofessionalpractice,learningand
education?Howarewetothinkaboutthebodyinourworkinandonprofessional
practice,professionallearningandprofessionaleducationmoregenerally?What
valueisthereinbetterrealisingandarticulatingthenotionoftheprofessional
practitionerascrucially
embodied
,andperhapsevenbeyondthat,conceivingofthe
professionalpracticeelditselfasacorporate
?Howisthebodyimplicated,
andnecessarilyso,inunderstandingandresearchingprofessionalpractice,learning
andeducation?
Thesemattersallgureheavilyinthisbook,whichisaddressedmoregenerally
tothecomplexissueofthebodyintheworkofprofessionalsandindeedofthe
professionalpracticeelds.Questionsofwhatitmeansto
,to
practise
,andto
learn
asaprofessionalarehugelysignicant,relevantaliketoprofessionalsand
theirassociations,topolicy-makers,andtouniversitiesassitesofresearchand
professionaleducation.Whatmakesthisbookdifferentanddistinctivefromexisting
workonprofessionalpracticeisitsquiteparticularfocusonwhatwewanttocall
corporeality
(seeChap.
)onprofessionalpracticeasembodied,performedby
materialandcorporealbeings,inspecicspace-time.Yettodatethishasrarely
B.Green(
SchoolofTeacherEducation,CharlesSturtUniversity,Bathurst,NSW,Australia
e-mail:
[email protected]
N.Hopwood
SchoolofEducation,UniversityofTechnologySydney,Sydney,NSW,Australia
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__1
4B.GreenandN.Hopwood
Lackofattentiontoprofessionalsbodiesinaccountsoftheirpracticeconstitutes
amajorshortcoming.Dise
mbodiedaccountscanbecha
llengedonepistemological
andontologicalgrounds,andonthebasisthattheysimplyfailtodojusticeto
thelivedexperienceofpractice(Jackson
).Furthermore,critical,feministand
poststructuralistliteraturemakesaclearcaseforthepoliticsof(dis)embodieddis-
courses:theorising,researchingandwritin
g(about)bodiesinprofessionalpractice
presentsaprofoundchallenge,therefore,todominantdiscoursesthatremainwithin
aclassicCartesianmould,separatingmindfrombody,andpromotingpracticeas
aboveallelserationalandcognitive(Colebrook
Whilethebookseekstochartsignicantnewterritoryintheaccountsitoffers,
1Introduction:Body/Practice?5
theinstitutionalcontextofwhathasbeencalledtheprofessionalpracticeelds
(Schwandt
),withaparticularinterestinHealthandEducation,inso-called
newandemergingareassuchasteachingornursing,andinrelatedeldssuchas
socialwork.Anargumenthasbeenmadeel
sewherethatpracticeassuch(thatis,
)isalltoooftenunder-thematised,andconsequentlylargelyuntheorised
).Itisatermmoreoftenthannotquitetakenforgranted,andin
itscommonusageitistypicallyimprecise,andevenratherconfusing.Thisraises
6B.GreenandN.Hopwood
project.Forus,theresearchreportedinthisbookdemonstratesitsoverallframing
withinabroadlyconceivedphilosophical-empiricalinquiry.
ility,whileothersaremoreopentothe
possibilitythatdiscourse,properly
understood,canembracevariousformsof
materiality.Thereisconsiderablepoten
1Introduction:Body/Practice?7
Elsewhere,referencehasbeenmadetodistincttraditions(ormeta-traditions)in
practicetheoryandphilosophy(Green
,pp.56).Oneistheneo-Aristotelian
tradition,rangingfromAristotlethrough
toMcIntyreandbeyond,andmorerecently
exempliedbyKemmis(
).Theotherispost-Cartesianism,alineofthinking
thattraces(critically)backtoDescarte
s,orratherthatembracesthecritiqueof
CartesianisminWesternphilosophyandculture(Green
,p.5).Thisis
workthat,amongotherthings,takesseriouslytheproblemofsubjectivity,and
moreparticularlytheconstitutionofsubjectivityindiscourseand(morerecently)
practice.Itincludesattentiontowhat,followingMerleau-Ponty,iscalledthe
subject
,linkingsubjectivitytothebodyinwaysthatemphaticallychallengethe
Cartesianlegacyinthisregard.Moreparticularly,workinthistraditionallowsbetter
apprehensionofthesignicanceofthe
8B.GreenandN.Hopwood
chapter,forinstanceisdebatable.Progr
ammatically,however,itseemsimperative,
andmoreovereminentlydo-able.Ourhopeisthatthisbookspeakstosucha
possibility.
TheBook
Thebookhasitsoriginsinaresearchprogramdevelopedoverthepastdecadeat
CharlesSturtUniversity(CSU).AgroupofresearchersintheResearchInstitute
forProfessionalPractice,LearningandEducation(RIPPLE)soughttobring
1Introduction:Body/Practice?9
replacethemwithotherswhichwereextremelycongruentwiththebooksoverall
concept.Oneplannedcontributionwassi
mplyirreplaceable,however.Thiswasdue
totheuntimelydeathofourcolleaguean
dclosefriendAlisonLee.Shewasmore
thanjustacontributorrather,shehadworkedcloselyontheresearchprogram
itself,asamajorscholarintheeld,andindeedwasakeygureinitsarticulation
anddevelopment.Itisforthisreason,aboveallelse,thatthisbookisdedicated
toher.
Thebookisdividedintofourparts.PartI(IntroducingtheBodyinProfessional
Practice,LearningandEducation)introducesthevolumeasawhole.Chapter
providescontextualinformationofhowtheideaofthebookemergedandlays
10B.GreenandN.Hopwood
1Introduction:Body/Practice?11
theworkofDeleuzetomakeanargumenta
boutthecriticalcontributionofaffects,
associo-materialpractices,toteachinga
ndlearning.Thishi
ghlightsthevalue
ofinvestigatingaffectivityinawaythatbreakswithsubject-centrednessandits
privilegingofthehuman/individual.Mulcahyshowsushowanexplorationof
teachingandlearningaspractiseda
ffordsastrongsenseoftheembodiedand
affectiveterrainofteachingasaprofessi
on.Thisapproachinvitesattentiontothe
rolethataffectivity,asanunrulypractice,canplayinchallenginginstitutional
normsinclassroomsaswellasourcurrentlyestablishedsystemicconcernsin
12B.GreenandN.Hopwood
AsenseofvulnerabilityandintensitycontinuesintoLauraEllingsonsdiscussion
ofdialysiscare(Chap.
).Drawingonrichethnographicdatafromeldworkin
anoutpatientdialysistreatmentunit,Ellingsonelucidatesbodiesinprofessional
practicewithastrongemphasisoncommunicativeaspects.Shedemonstrateshow
dialysiscare-givingpracticesareacco
1Introduction:Body/Practice?13
14B.GreenandN.Hopwood
Chapter2
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,Learning
andEducation:AQuestionofCorporeality
BillGreenandNickHopwood
Introduction
Lyotardfamouslyasked:
Canthoughtgoonwithoutabody
Thisquestioncan
becomplemented,here,withothers:
Canpracticegoonwithoutabody?Without
bodies?
Thisisperhapsespeciallyimportantandindeedchallengingforprofessional
education,whichhasexperiencedwhat
seemsanever-increasingemphasison
mindattheexpenseofbody.Thishasbeenclearlysointhecaseofelds
suchasteachingandnursing.Aldrich(
)proposesinthisregardthatthere
isanoticeableshiftinthehistoricalrecordofteachereducation,fromaninitial
focusonapprenticeshiptocollege-based
traininginthelate-nineteenthand
B.Green(
SchoolofTeacherEducation,CharlesSturtUniversity,Bathurst,NSW,Australia
e-mail:
[email protected]
N.Hopwood
SchoolofEducation,UniversityofTechnologySydney,Sydney,NSW,Australia
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__2
16B.GreenandN.Hopwood
suchquestionsasitsorganizingimperative.Ourfocusherewillbeonwhatiscalled
simply
corporeality
.ThisfollowsonfromtheintroductoryworkofSchatzkiand
Natter(
,p.2)intheiraccountoftheinterplayofsocioculturatedbodies
andbodiessociopolitical.Forthem,cor
porealityreferstothewayinwhichthe
worldisprofoundlyorganisedbythem
ultidimensionalbodyabodywhichis
notsimplyphysicalitybutactivity,experien
ceandsurfacepresentationaswell.As
theywrite:socialbodiesaremaintainedt
hroughthesocialmoldingofcorporeality
(SchatzkiandNatter
,pp.56).Forus,thisistoberealizedintermsspecically
ofprofessionallife.
2TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,LearningandEducation:AQuestion
TheBodyinPracticeTheoryandPhilosophy
Recentworkinprofessionaleducationdrawsexplicitlyonwhathasbeencalled
practicetheoryandphilosophy(e.g.Green
18B.GreenandN.Hopwood
performanceof(human)bodies.Thisholdsformodesofhandlingcertainobjectsaswell
asforintellectualactivitiessuchastalki
ng,readingorwriting.
Thebodyisthusnota
mereinstrumentwhichtheagentmustuseinordertoact,buttheroutinizedactions
arethemselvesbodilyperformances(whichdoesnotmeanthatapracticeconsistsonlyof
thesemovementsandofnothingmore,ofcourse).Thesebodilyactivitiesthenincludealso
routinizedmentalandemotionalactivitiesw
hichareonacertainlevelbodily,aswell
(Reckwitz
,p.251).
Importantly,practicethusunderstood
embracesbothbodyandmind:Aprac-
2TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,LearningandEducation:AQuestion
Professionalpracticeinthislightconsistsof
speech
(whatpeoplesay)plustheactivityof
the
20B.GreenandN.Hopwood
Morebroadly,SchatzkiidentiesWittgensteinandHeideggerastheprimary
inuencesonhispracticetheory.Wittgensteinprovidedabasisforhisearlierworks
onsocialpractices,whileHeideggerfeatur
esmoreprominentlyinhislaterfocuson
spatiality,temporality,andactivity.Schatzkisrelationwiththesethinkersperhaps
providesatemplateforhowresearchersmightengagewithhiswork.Hepresents
2TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,LearningandEducation:AQuestion
ThesephenomenaareunderstoodbySchatzkitobepropertiesofhumanco-
22B.GreenandN.Hopwood
2TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,LearningandEducation:AQuestion
Schatzki(
)explainsthat,inhisreferencetobodilydoingsandsayings,the
termbodilyemphasisesthingsthatpeopledowiththeirbodies,
includingwhatever
24B.GreenandN.Hopwood
accountofrhythmsandbodiesinprofessionalpracticesinhealth,whileJohnsson
)developsasubtlydifferentaccountoftempo-rhythm(seealsoJohnsson,
Chap.
,thisvolume).
Representation,PracticeandtheBody
Amatterwarrantingattentionatthispointistheissueof
representation
.Practice
theoryingeneraldenesitselfagainstwhatisbestdescribedasrepresentational-
ism,akeyfeatureoftheCartesianlegacy.AsGreen(
,p.50)notes:
Representationalismisthatviewoftheworldpredicatedonaspectatorviewofknowledge
forwhichtheprimaryreference-pointistheauthorialsubjectofrationalityandrealism,a
stanceburdenedbylingering,ifnotovertly,neo-Cartesianconceptionsofrepresentation
(Schatzki
,p.295).
Thisistheworldasdenedintermsofknowledge,theory,experience,reason
(rationalism),mind,etc,privilegingcognitivismoritscognatementalism:
2TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,LearningandEducation:AQuestion
accounts(e.g.Somerville
,p.40),asasymptomaticfeatureofpoststructuralist
and/orpostmodernexplorations(Somerville
).JudithButlerisoftencited
asexemplifyingthechallengesandvicissitudesinsuchastance,withSchatzki
,p.64)forinstancearguingthatsheworkswithanoverlylinguisticnotion
ofpractice,andonethatisattheveryl
eastunder-theorized.Thepossibility
exists,then,thatdifferentconceptionsandconstructionsoflanguageareatissue
here,aswellasofpracticeitself.Otherscontinuetodrawmoresympathetically
onpoststructuralisttheoryandphilosophy
toexplore,forexample,teachingas
emphaticallyembodiedpractice(VickandMartinez
,p.10)orthework
ofaged-carenurses(Somerville
).Stillothers,operatingmorespecically
withinapractice-theoryperspective,notethepoweroflanguageanddiscourseto
redenethepossibilitiesofself,subjectivityandagency(Caldwell
,p.285),
26B.GreenandN.Hopwood
Practisingthe(Professional)Body
Whatdoesitinvolvetoputthefocusemphaticallyonactuallypractisingthe
professionalbody?Thistakesusbacktotheveryquestionofpracticeasadistinctive
concept.Todothat,ofcourse,issomewhatironic,giventhatthereseemsalmost
inevitablyadisjuncturebetweenconceptualisingand,asitwere,livingpractice,
orexperiencingit
practice.Itisimportanttobearinmind,then,theviewthat
representationascommentaryisoftenattheexpenseofthelivedexperience
ofpracticeandthebody,asBourdieuhasargued,amongothers(Green
p.45).Whenprofessionalsareengagedinpr
actice,inperformingtheirprofessional
work,theirbodiesarealways-alreadyactiveparticipants,aswehaveindicated.
Thesebodiesarenotatallsupplementarytowhatishappening;indeed,toa
signicantifvaryingdegree,theyareenergisingandorchestratingthepracticein
question,anchoringitandorganisingit.Knowinghowtogoon,whattodonext,
2TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,LearningandEducation:AQuestion
Inreferringtotheartofthenecessaryimprovisationthatdenesexcel-
lence,Bourdieu(
,p.8)pointstotheimportanceofunderstandingpractice
asinvolvingadistinctive,acquiredf
eelforthegame,anaffective-corporeal
knowledgein-and-throughaction.Thishasbeendescribedelsewhereasamatter
ofinvention(withinlimits)andimprovisation,aswellasrepetitionandindeed
reproduction:Improvisationasacharacteristicfeatureof(artful)practiceis
alwaysknowledgeable,thoughneverfullyortotallysonever,thatis,wholly
rational(Green
,p.46).Thefocushereisonintuition,tacitknowledge,feel,
asenseofcontextwhatFlyvbjerg(
)callsarationality,ortherealisationand
exerciseofexpertise.ForFlyvbjerg(
,p.18):Expertsoperatefromamature,
holisticwell-triedunderstanding,intuitivelyandwithoutconsciousdeliberation.
Intuitiveunderstandingcomesprimarilyfromexperiencesononesownbodyand
isinthiswayatonewiththeperformer.Crucialaspectsofpractice-as-performance
thenaremovement,timingandrhythm(HockeyandAllen-Collinson
),along
withbothtactandtacticsafeltsenseofwhatisappropriateandwhentoact,for
besteffect.Allthisisfundamentaltothepraxisoftheembodiedprofessional.
Butnotionsofhabitandhabituationare
equallyfundamental,asistraining,
or,inSchatzkistermsabove,learninghoworimprovingonesabilitytodo
28B.GreenandN.Hopwood
consciousness.Thislatterpointiscrucial,albeitcomplex.Itallowsforreexivity
andaformofmindfulnessinprofessionalpractice,includinghowwedrawupon
theoryandworkwithmemoryandrepresent
ation.Itisalsowhathelpsustomore
2TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,LearningandEducation:AQuestion
productivelybeyondtheanthropomorphicbody?Istherevaluehereinbringing
30B.GreenandN.Hopwood
meaningfullyinandthroughourworld,ourpractice,drawingonwhateverwecan
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tise,practisingtolearn:Doctorstransitions
tonewlevelsofrespons
ibility.InP.Hager,A.Lee,&A.Reich(Eds.),
Practice,learning
andchange:Practice-theoryperspectivesonprofessionallearning
(pp.199123).Dordrecht:
Springer.
PartII
ThinkingwiththeBodyin
ProfessionalPractice
Chapter3
SustainingtheChangeAgent:BringingtheBody
intoLanguageinProfessionalPractice
M.Somerville(
CentreforSustainableFutures,UniversityofWesternSydney,Sydney,Australia
e-mail:
[email protected]
K.Vella
MonashUniversity,Melbourne,Australia
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__3
38M.SomervilleandK.Vella
poststructuralapproachestoeducationalr
esearch.Aspecicinterestinalternative
3SustainingtheChangeAgent:BringingtheBodyintoLanguage
40M.SomervilleandK.Vella
furtherperfectiontobesoughtreleasingtheslightlypuckeredseam,raisingthe
lineoftheshoulder,analstraighteningofthehemline.Theco-creatorswanttosee
thenishedgarment.Mymotherwantst
ohearaboutanyreactiontothegarment
onceitisworn.
Thisinterest,thispassionofmine,isseparatefrommyworkasaseriouschange
manager,butIwouldstillspendmanyalunchbreakwanderinginthefabricstores
inMelbournescentralbusinessdistrict.Feelingthetextures,lookingattheplay
ofcolour,observingthefallanddrape,lookingforinspiration.Withmyenergy
3SustainingtheChangeAgent:BringingtheBodyintoLanguage
capsleeve.
overtheyearsthroughheractualsewingpracticesmymothertaughtmethe
texture,colour,cut,tandnishofclothing.
Thejacketintriguedmewithitshaute
combinationoftworoughandtumblefabrics.ItstrikesmethatImayhavewornthepiece
asasubliminalin-your-facegesturetoEverybank,awayofcarryingmydisadvantaged
colleaguesbeyondthetellerswindowwheretheytrytocashtheirwelfarecheques(Church
42M.SomervilleandK.Vella
thisisdatathatglows,datathatdeestranslationintocodesandsignication,
challenginghertothinkthrough
theunrepresent
abilityof
thebody:
Again,theschoolstaff,andweourselves,attemptedtobringthevomiting,andthe
3SustainingtheChangeAgent:BringingtheBodyintoLanguage
...
43
Irationalisedthat,throughthisresearch
,Icouldcutoutthethread-barepiecesofmy
changeworkerlife,andexaminethem.Iwouldthenunderstandmyexperiences.I
wouldstoptheshredding.Iwouldstrengthentheweaveofmyorganisationallife
byplacingareinforcing,academicback
ingpieceontheexperience,andinthe
processrestorethefabricofmystrongchangemanagerself.
Iexitedfromongoingpositionsinorganiza
tions.Isilencedmyorganisational
voiceforatime.Ibecameastrangertomys
strange,unpredictableand,
forme,totallycompelling
.
Theresearchwasdifcult
todiscuss.However,Iwasdetermined,compelledandallowedmyselftostaywith
thepracticeoffabricassemblage,often
alongsideweeksofsilence,andnowriting.
therewerenowords.Neitherdidthefabricpiecesmakesense.Theywerentmade
toexhibitordisplayinanyway,theyweresilentbodywork.Igotafriendtotake
black-and-whitephotographsofthem.
Vertigoandnauseaabated.Thefabricpracticewaslikeasalvetothebody
comfortable,butgoingwithitregardless.Therewerenowords,noacademicwriting
totranslatethisbodyknowingintotheconventionallanguageofresearch,onlya
proliferationoffabricassemblages(Fig.
3.1
).
Theliminalspaceofthefabricmak
inghasnowords,nonarrative.
Theliminalspaceisaboutbecoming,becoming-other-to-oneselfthroughresearch
engagement(Somerville
2007
).VictorTurner(
1982
)coinedthetermliminalfrom
Fig.3.1
Fabricassemblage:White
44M.SomervilleandK.Vella
VanGennepslimenorthreshold,referringtothespaceofbecomingfortheinitiand
ininitiationrituals:Theliminalperiodisthattimeandspacebetwixtandbetween
onecontextofmeaningandactionandanother.Itiswhentheinitiandisneitherwhat
hehasbeennorwhathewillbe(Turner
,p.113).WhileTurnerfocuseson
thespaceoftheliminalinperformance,theliminalisanon-stage,atimeandspace
withoutnarrative.Althoughatimewithoutnarrativeisaradicalideainrelationto
theproductionofresearchthroughwriting,I
understandtheliminalasacriticaltime
andspacefortheemergenceofnewknowledgethroughresearch(Somerville
Intheliminal,newsubjectivitiesemergesimultaneouslywithnewforms.
Formanyotherqualitativeresearchers,theliminalspaceofundoing,redoing
andmodifyingofthisverylimitisfunda
mentaltothepracticeofwriting-as-
research.
TrinhMinhHa,forexample,writesthatratherthantalkingaboutdeath,Iwould
prefertotalkaboutthreshold,frontier,limit,exhaustion,andsuspension:aboutvoid
astheveryspaceforaninnitenumberofpossibilities(Trinh
3SustainingtheChangeAgent:BringingtheBodyintoLanguage
IsaidtoKaren:Ithinkyoushouldstopm
akingnewfabricpiecesandre-visit
theoldones.Ifyoukeepmakingfabricpiecesyourbodywillneverndthewords
toarticulateitsstory.Thiswillbeahar
dthingtodobecausethefabricmakinghas
replacedthesomaticsymptomsofoverwhelmingnausea,dizzinessandvomiting.
Itisaperilousandriskybusinesstobringthebodyintovisibilityinprofessional
practice.Tobegin,Iwouldlikeyoutore-visitthefabricassemblagesmaterially,not
inyourmind,donttrytogivethemmeaning,butrespondtotheirmaterialitywith
yourbody.Iwantyoutolistenwithyoureyesandwritedownwhatyouhearthem
sayingtoyou.Givethemvoice.
Karen
Thisfabricassemblageisinmyworkroom
lyingontheoor
ithasbeenkeptaway
fromdaytodaydomesticthings
46M.SomervilleandK.Vella
3SustainingtheChangeAgent:BringingtheBodyintoLanguage
Thefabricassemblageswerealwaysallaroundme.Icouldgothroughthatportal
intoaliminalspace,knowingIhadthese
48M.SomervilleandK.Vella
vomitingbeforemyrationalselfcouldacceptit,couldknowthecircumstancesof
mymaking.Atthesametime,someotherformofexpression,acirclingaround,
anemergence(Somerville
),wereatplay.
3SustainingtheChangeAgent:BringingtheBodyintoLanguage
Ibecamedeeplyattachedtoth
emakingoffabricassemblage,andinthatmaking,
cametoknow/notknowandtondwaystowritefromtheexperiencingbody.
Iamawoman.Iwasemployedtoworkonchangingaprofoundlypatriarchal
institution.Iwastryingtodothisasawomanratherthanasaninstrumentof
patriarchy.Itwasperilouswork.Ittookaprofoundtollonmybody.Fabric
assemblageprovidedatransitionalobjecttohangonto,intheliminalspace.I
begantounderstandideasofmultiplesubjectivities.Otherpartsofmyselfgained
expressionandallofthesecouldbepartofourconversationsintheSpace,Place
andBodygroup.
CollectiveConversations:Space,PlaceandBody
50M.SomervilleandK.Vella
signicantlyforourgenealogicaltracing,summarisedthecollectivethrustoftheir
ideasas:
afundamentalantihumanismandmaterialis
m,arecognitio
nofthepowers
ofprev
ailing
(patriarchal)modesofrepresentationandknowledge,arecognitionoftheculturaldebt
owedtowomenandmaternity,[and]aconcernwiththesocial,institutionalanddiscursive
constructionofsexualidentity(Grosz
,p.viii).
Eachofthesefourelementshasbeentakenupinherlaterworktointerrogate
philosophyfromafemaleembodiedperspective.Thefocusonantihumanismand
materialismisthemeansthroughwhichtheprimacyoftheEnlightenmentmale
subjectasasingular,rational,autonomoushumanbeingintheworldisfunda-
mentallydeconstructed.Itisthechallengetotherelatedmodesofrepresentation
throughwhichthissubjectisconstituted,
thatisofmostenduringrelevanceto
thegenealogyofourcurrentthinking.Antihumanismchallengesthedominanceof
humanbeingsinbothdiscursiveformationsandpracticalactions-in-the-world,and
materialismfocusesonthepossibilityofalternativerelationswiththeeshofthe
worldthroughdifferentwaysofbeingandknowing.Groszsoriginalworkisto
selectandltertheirideasthroughthelensofthebodytodevelopalooselyheld
theoryofcorporealitythatwastoextendinotherlinesofightinherownworkand
theinuenceofotherfeministscholarsinamultitudeofdirections.
Thebodyisalreadyachallengeforunderstandingpractice,andthisisdoubly
3SustainingtheChangeAgent:BringingtheBodyintoLanguage
ofnotknowing,aplacewithoutlanguagewherenewunderstandingscouldbe
experienced.Theprocessgaverise,eventually,toanunderstandingoftheresistance,
thestruggles,thecoercioninvestedinbothacceptingandrefusingtheimage
ofselfinapatriarchalinstitution.Fe
ministbodytheorytaughtKarenthattime
awayfrompatriarchalworkplaces,inwhichawomancanlistentoherbodyin
anon-medicalisedway,wasarichsourceofdataandexperience.Tofocuson
thesensationsandthereactionsthroughth
etransitionalobjectsenabledKarento
holdanydiscomfort,toremainaware,andtostaywiththeexperiencewithout
eitherspokenorwrittenwords.Alternativeformsofrepresentationwerekeytothis
52M.SomervilleandK.Vella
Somerville,M.(
2007).Postmodernemergence.
InternationalJournalof
QualitativeStudiesin
Education,20
(2),225243.doi:
10.1080/09518390601159750
Somerville,M.(
2008).Wa
itinginthechaoticpl
aceofunknowing:Articulatingpostmodern
emergence.
InternationalJournal
ofQualitativeStudi
esinEducation,21
(3),209220.
doi:
10.1080/09518390801998353
Somerville
,M.(2013).
Waterinadryland:Placelearningthroughartworkandstory
NewYork/London:Routledge.
Somerville,M.,&Lloyd,A.(
2006).Codiedknowledgeande
mbodiedlearni
ng:Theprob-
lemofsafetytraining.
StudiesinContinuingEducation,28
(3),279289.doi:
10.1080/
StPierre,E.(2000).Nomadicinquiryinthesmoothspacesoftheeld:Apreface.InE.A.St
Pierre&W.S.Pillow(Eds.),
Chapter4
N.Hopwood(
SchoolofEducation,UniversityofTechnologySydney,Sydney,NSW,Australia
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__4
N.Hopwood
Schatzki(
)holdsthatpracticesarecollectionsofactivities
spreadoutovertimeandspace.Schatzki(
)referstopracticesasspacesof
multiplicityratherthanunifo
4RelationalGeometriesoftheBody:DoingEthnographicFieldwork55
eldworkpracticeswereperformed.Thi
sisdescribedbelow.Howeverinmy
discussionsIamalsoconstructingmyowneldworkpracticesasakindofsite
inSchmidtandVolberssenseofalocalasse
mblageoftranslocalobjects,agencies,
structures,forcesandculturalformations(
,p.419).Inthisrespect,Iexplore
N.Hopwood
4RelationalGeometriesoftheBody:DoingEthnographicFieldwork57
thinks;therelationshipslowlychangesthepatientisincludedinthediscussionandthe
mannerinwhichthesurgeonspeaksandlistenstothepatientchanges.(p.94)
InHorfalletal.s(
)discussion,thepositioningofbodiesishighlighted,
N.Hopwood
Gherardi(
)brieymentionsthenotionofgeometryinawayconsistent
4RelationalGeometriesoftheBody:DoingEthnographicFieldwork59
beyondthis.Invasionsofpersonalspace,
aggressivepositioningthroughproximity
andtoweringoverothers,hidingonesbodyincovertresearch,unwelcometouch,
N.Hopwood
Theconceptofbodilydoingslaysoutthebasicconceptualterrainformyfocus
4RelationalGeometriesoftheBody:DoingEthnographicFieldwork61
eldworkasanembodiedenterprise.Nairn(
)writesofethnographyas
involvingembodiedeldwork,donewithandthroughthebody,ininteractionwith
otherpeopleandtheenvironment.Therelationshipisreciprocal:thebodyisinserted
intoeldwork,andeldworkisinsertedintobodywork.
Muchofthisrelatingoccursthroughthesenses(Stoller
)asethnographers
openthemselvesuptoothers,andallowthemselvestobeconsumedbythesensual
world.Pink(
)expandsonthisideathroughheraccountofsensory
N.Hopwood
Habibatosleep,andtheyaretryingtoenc
ouragehertofallasleepinherowncot.
ThisisabigchangeforbothNeemaandHabiba:
Emilyhasturnedthepipedmusicontoalowvolume,andclosedthedoorstothecorridor
andtothemainbedroomsothatthenurseryisdark.NeemacuddlesHabiba,whoiscalm,
andthenputsherdowninthecot.Habibascreamsinstantly,kickingandpushing.Emily
4RelationalGeometriesoftheBody:DoingEthnographicFieldwork63
Monday.Theynormallytakeplaceinclientsbedrooms,allofwhichhaveadouble-
bed,eithersofaorarmchair,andmirror.Admissioninvolvesthenursediscussing
anumberofcrucialissueswithparents.Attimestheseinvolvehighlyintimate
andsensitivediscussionsaboutpregnanc
y,childbirth,feelingsaboutparenting,
goalsfortheweek.
Isoughttoexplorebodilydimensionsoftheadmissioninterview,paying
attentiontopostures,gesturesandfacialexpressionsofbothnurseandparent(s),
weenthese.Iwishedtoachieveabalance
alsomakingmypresenceobvious,rat
herthanmeltingintothebackground.
Giventheunpredictabilityoftheadmission
process,particularlyintermsofstrong
emotions,Iwantedallparticipantstobefrequentlyremindedofmypresence,so
thattheymightreconsidertheirconsenta
ndaskmetoleaveiftheywished(which
happenedonseveraloccasions).Herewese
Figure
4.1
showsthelayoutofatypicalclientbedroom,andidentieshow
anurseandmotherwouldoftenbepositionedinanadmissioninterview.The
numerals14indicatepot
entiallocationsformyownbody.Iwillconsidereach
inturn,illustratinghowquestions
ofhowethnographerscanobtainthe
meilleure
prise
Position1wouldinvolvemesittingont
hebedalongsidethemother,giving
adirectlineofsighttowardsthenurse,allowingclosemonitoringofherfacial
Fig.4.1
N.Hopwood
makemypresenceimpossibletoignore,butalsointrusive.Thenursemightbe
4RelationalGeometriesoftheBody:DoingEthnographicFieldwork65
N.Hopwood
4RelationalGeometriesoftheBody:DoingEthnographicFieldwork67
meilleureprise
ontheworld,andhowtheirbodiesworkinthebackgroundtomake
N.Hopwood
Gherardi,S.(2006).
Organizationalknowledge:Thetextureofworkplacelearning
.Oxford:
Blackwell.
Grosz,E.(1994).
Volatilebodi
es:Towardacorporealfeminism
.Bloomington:IndianaUniversity
Hockey,J.,&AllenCollinson,
J.(2009).Thesensoriumatwork:Thesensoryphenomenologyof
theworkingbody.
TheSociologicalReview,57
(2),217239.doi:
10.1111/j.1467-954X.2009.
01827.x
4RelationalGeometriesoftheBody:DoingEthnographicFieldwork69
Schatzki,T.R.(2000).Thesocialbearingofnature.
Inquiry,43
(1),2138.doi:
10.1080/
Schatzki,T.R.(2002).
Thesiteofthesocial:Aphilosophica
laccountofthecons
titutionofsocial
lifeandc
hange
.UniversityPark:PennsylvaniaStateUniversityPress.
Schatzki,T.R.(2003).Anewsocietistsocialontology.
PhilosophyoftheSocialSciences,33
174202.doi:
10.1177/0048393103033002002
Schatzki,T.R.(2005).Peripheralvision:Thesitesoforganizations.
OrganizationStudies,26
465484.doi:
10.1177/0170840605050876
Schatzki,T.R.(2010).
Chapter5
Terroir
andTimespace:BodyRhythms
inWinemaking
MaryC.Johnsson
RhythmicPractisingBodiesatWork
Inthischapter,Itakeupthequestionofthebodyasresource(s)forpractice:how
thebodyperformsandisusedinpracticeandforwork,isanembodiedsignier
ofpracticeandwhatthismeansforourunderstandingsofchangingpractices.
Iamparticularlyinterestedinpracticedynamicsandthekindsofconceptual
andanalyticalresourcesthathelpresear
chersmodelandrepresentthecollective
interactivityofpractisingbodies.Thisdynamicalfocusexaminesthenuancesof
movingbodiesembeddedinpurposefulspatiotemporalpatternscalledrhythmsthat
Iclaimstructureworkpractices,thepracticeofwork,andthediscoveryofnovelty
fromwithinroutinisedpatternsthatcanleadtochangingpractices.
Mydiscussionsillustratethedimensionofbody-nessthatSchatzki(
,pp.
116117)characterisesastheinstrumentalbody,orhowbodilyactionsaffectand
areaffectedbytheperformanceofotheractions.Myclaimisthatsuchactionsdo
notoccurinahaphazardorcoincidenta
lway(althoughtheycan)butthatthere
areparticular
enactedandembodied
rhythmstopractice,generatingaperiodicity
thatenablespractitionerstorecogniseandc
M.C.Johnsson(
SchoolofEducationintheFacultyofArtsandSocialSciences,
UniversityofTechnologySydney,Sydney,NSW,Australia
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__5
M.C.Johnsson
practitionerswho,inandthroughtheirbodily
actionsandunderstandings,instantiate
theirprofessionalpracticeinwaysthatco
llectivelyshapefuturetrajectoriesof
Inlayingoutmyanalyticalinterestinrhythmic,practisingandworkingbodies,
understandingsof
timespace
arecentraltotheissuesdiscussedinthischapter.
Iprefertousethetermtimespacetoacknowledgetheinseparabilityofquestions
oftimewithquestionsofspace,ascriticalgeographers(e.g.Massey
;Mayand
Thrift
;Soja
)havelongrecognisedandsocialphilosophers(e.g.Schatzki
)havefurtherunpackedmorerecently.Linkingtheinterrelatednessof
timeandspacewithmaterialconcernsofpractisingbodiesprovidesanopportunity
tochallenge(again)Cartesianmind/bodydualism;toshiftthegazeontothe
contemporarytaskofsynthesisingembodi
ment,movementandrelationalityinto
Terroir
andTimespace:BodyRhythmsinWinemaking73
InextuseLefebvres(
)rhythmanalysisconcepts,specicallyhisuseof
oppositions(andoppositionalconceptsfromoth
M.C.Johnsson
habits)shapingtechniques
ofcollectiveandindividualpracticalreason
thatvaryacrosssocieties,educations,proprietiesandfashions,prestiges(Mauss
,p.73).ForMauss,humanshaveauniquecapacityfortechnicaltransmission
throughthenaturalinstrumentofourbodiesthatleadtoconstantadaptationof
actionsthroughourphysiological(e.g.raisingoureyebrowsasarecognisedform
ofcommunicativequery),psychological(e.g.attributinglazinesstoanemployee
absence)andsociological(e.g.adoptingthesocialprotocolofwalkingtotheleftor
rightonfootpaths)apparatuses.
AsMauss(
,p.76)putsit,
[thereis]aseriesofassembledactions,andassembledfortheindividualnotbyhimself
[sic]alonebutbyallhiseducation,bythewholesocietytowhichhebelongs,intheplace
heoccupiesinit
[suchtechniquesarearrangedin]asystemofsymbolicassemblages.
Thus,Maussmakesusawarethataspurposivehumanbeings,weperforma
seriesofassembledactionsthatmaybei
mitatedandrepeatedactionsbasedon
educativetraditionbutinconstantpositi
onaladaptationrelativetoonesbodily
placeinthecurrentcontext.Routinenessandperiodicityprovidesabasisforpractice
recognitionthatsymbolicallyveriescollectiveworkinginthesamepractice(as
Wittgenstein(
)mightobserve:afamilyresemblance).Suchregulationinvites
responsesbyotherpractitionerstocoordi
natemovements,byimitating,repeating
oradjustingbodilyactionsinrelationtootherpractitionerstimespacepositions.
Pirani(
,p.241)elaboratesontheseMaussianconceptsbyobserving
thatthetechniqueofthebodysynchr
onizeshumanswithsurroundingconditions
throughlearningandactionpracticesthat
structuretheorganizationalidentityofa
Terroir
andTimespace:BodyRhythmsinWinemaking75
RhythmanalysisandRhythms:AttendingtoRepetitions
andOppositionsinMovingBodies
comingfromothers
ourrhythmicsensibilityconsistsofidentifyingourselveswith
M.C.Johnsson
HeretheroleofrhythmgoesbeyondPiranis(
)orderingoftopographic
actionshapedbyMaussianeducativetraditions,recognisingtheuncreativelimita-
tionsofonlyfollowingpastrules.Rhythmbecomesarelationalexpressivedevice
thatacknowledges
co-created
Terroir
andTimespace:BodyRhythmsinWinemaking77
InextdiscusstheempiricalresearchcontextwithinwhichIillustratealternative
waysofrepresentingworkpractices,includingapplyingthisrhythmicvocabulary.
PractisingtheBodyRhythmsofWinemaking
TheResearchSite:WinemakingPracticesinaWinemaking
Wineryisamedium-sized(approximately50employees)boutiquewinerylocated
intheHunterValleyregion,approximately2hnorthofSydney,Australia.Winerys
productrangeispositionedasupmarketa
ndniche(inAustralia,commandingan
M.C.Johnsson
APlaceofMeaning:TerroirasCulturalPlace-Making
Terroir
isaFrenchconceptwellunderstoodbyproducersofwineandotherproducts
grownfromtheearththatremainsdifculttoexplaininwords.Itrecognises
theuniquenessthatarisesfromasenseofplaceinscribedbylocalgeography,
geology,soilandclimateconditions,butisusedmoretocapturetheethosand
culturaljourneysoflivedspaces(Soja
;Schatzki
;Trubek
).Such
livedspacesareconstantlyremadeinmeaningfulwayssothatrespectfor
terroir
meansmorethanageographiclocationorasourceoflivelihood.Itissimilarto
5
Terroir
andTimespace:BodyRhythmsinWinemaking79
participantinwine-clubdinnersandvineyardtoursratherthantraditionallyhidden
withincooldungeonsoverseeingwinevatsandoakbarrelsorinthelaboratory
testingchemicalcompositionsandreactions.
Suchcraftworkrequirescloseinterweavingofvariousphenomenatoproduce
qualitywine:
Naturalrhythmsofcorematerialsandnon-humanactorsforexample,the
biologicalgrowthcycleofgrapesandthefavourableseasonalityofclimate.
Manufacturedprocessesandmaterialsinvolvingperiodichumanintervention
forexample,theprogressivestagesofwinemakingfromviticulturalscience
throughharvesting,sorting,crushing,ex
tracting,fermenting,aging,bottlingto
cellardooroperations.
Feedbackcyclesofhumansensoryexperi
encescertainlyolfactoryacumen,
butalsorecognisingthechangesinfood/winecuisinetrendsthatinuence
customisewineproductionprocesses.
RepresentingPracticeDynamics:DescriptiveLimitations
ramcannotcapturethematerialityand
humaninteractionsofwhathappensineverydayWinerypractice.Yetsuchdiagrams
arecommoninbusinessstudies,oftenusin
gtheconceptofavaluechainstarting
withrawmaterialsandshowingthestagesof(human)value-addedactivitiesthat
buildupontheserawmaterialstoproduceanddistributenishedproducts.For
example,Fig.
5.1
showsthevaluechainIcreatedforWinerysoperationsthat
Fig.5.1
Winerysvaluechain(Source:CharacterisationofvaluechainbasedonCarlsoncitedin
2008
,p,139)anddirectresearcherobservationsattheresearchsite)
M.C.Johnsson
allowedustodocumentwhere(functionally)andhow(processually)practitioner
rolesandpractitionerworktintothisenterprisetogenerateitsbusinessoutcomes.
WhileFig.
providesaskeletaleducativeunderstandingofcorewinemaking
processesand,atbest,asimplistictaxonomyofwinemaking,mostaspectsof
bodilyinteractionsremaininvisibleusingthisformofdocumentationofpractice.In
Terroir
andTimespace:BodyRhythmsinWinemaking81
Thewoodenpalletattheendoftheassemblylinestartstopileupwithlled,sealedsix-
packcartonsofwine.Whentherearetworowsacrossbytwowidebytwohighsix-packs,
makingasymmetricaltoweronthepallet,suddenlythereisadifferenturryofmovement
beyondtheassemblyline.John,theshippinghand,whisksthefullpalletawaywithhis
82
M.C.Johnsson
Fig.5.2
BodyrhythmsofWinerypractices
Duringwinemaking,the
olfactory(smell)sense
andthe
gustatory(taste)
senses
predominatetoassistthewinemakers
cognitiveassessmentofhowthefermen-
tationprocessisprogressingandwhatphysicalandchemicalstepsmustbeadded
tothenaturalresourceofgrapejuicetoproducequalitywine.
Onceinthemechanicalbottlingstage,the
tactile(touch)
senseofthepackers
predominatessupportedby
auditory(hearing)
sensestosynchronisetheirhuman
bodieswiththemechanicalconveyor-beltoperationandwiththecoordinated
actionsoftheirco-workers.
Duringcellardoorsales,combinationsof
olfactory(smell),gustatory(taste)
and
visual(sight)
sensesrelationallyconnectwinerystafftocustomers.Winery
staffandwinecustomersengageinarelationally-expressive,shared,experiential
practicethatinvolvesthemutualappreciationofbodilysensesmediatedthrough
theliquidmaterialityofwinethat
mayresultinwineproductsales.
IhadtheopportunitytointerviewNathanaftermyobservationofWinerys
bottlingoperationanddiscoveredduringtheinterviewthatthepackingpracticethat
Iobservedhadactuallychangedrecently.Theprevailingpracticeatthetimewas
topack12bottle(dozen)caseswheret
ypicallyonepackermadeupthebox,putin
thedividersandtapedthebox.ButWineryhadenteredintoacontractwithamajor
supermarketthatneededwinesoldinsma
llersix-packcartons.AsNathanreected:
Nowwereintosixpacksandwehadtoaddonemorepersonontothelinewhenwedo
themcartonsbecauseitsalotfasterandyoucantkeepupsowehavetheextrapersonand
itkeepstheproductiongoingwhichisgood.
5
Terroir
andTimespace:BodyRhythmsinWinemaking83
WhenIaskedNathantoidentifyhowan
dwhythewayworkerspackedthese
cartonshadchanged,hetoldthestorythisway:
Actuallyitwasoneofthevineyardstaff,theycomeinandtheywerehelpingmeoutone
dayandshesaid,howaboutwedoitthiswa
y?Thenonepersonwa
sputtingsixbottles
in,onewaspu
ttingadi
viderinandtheotheronewasjustpushingthemthroughthetaper
anditwasowingsobeautif
ulandnotonebo
ttlewasleftbehindw
hichwasgood.Itwas
thevineyardstaffwhoshowedmetheway[chuckles].
[Researcher]:Didthatpersonjustcomeupwiththatidea?
Yeah,shewasonthelinepackingformeandshesaidletsdoitthisway,thisisgoing
tobeeasier.
[Researcher]:Soshewas
:::
experiencingthebottlingline?
Yeah,andlikedifferenteyes,theypickoutdifferentthings.
[Researcher]:Whywasthevineyardpersononthebottlingline?
IthinkIwasshortacoupleofpeoplethatday
:::
differentperspectiveoffdifferentpeoplethenitsareallybighelp.
Thisprogressionofactionsleadingtoapermanentchangeinthisparticular
cartonbottlingpractic
eiscapturedanalyticallythroughFig.
5.3
.
Usingmyrhythmicvocabulary,Nathanan
dhisco-workerswereexecutingtheir
regulartopographicitinerary,
theircasepackingpractices(Fig.
5.3
).Thesmallercartonswithhalfasmanybottles
meanttherateofpackingactivityaccelerated,changingtherhythmofthebottling
line(e.g.adjustingrelati
ttlingline,shorterpacking
intervalofsixwinebottlesratherthantwelve)thatchangedhowthebottlingline
operated(Fig.
5.3
).ButinanotherunplannedworkdaywhenNathanwasshort
Fig.5.3
Anatomyofachangingpractice.(
a
)packingdozencases.(
b
)Packingnewcartonswith
extraresource.(
c
)Guestpackerchallengesexistingpractice.(
d
)Re-synchronisingpractice(Key:
R
repetitive,
P
progressive,
E
emphasis,
O
oppositional)
M.C.Johnsson
ofresources,avineyardstaffercametoassistandwithdifferenteyescould
seeanalternativewaytoperformanopera
tionaltask,raisingoppositionaleffects
thatadaptedandadjustedbodilyactions,materialitiesandoperationalprocesses
(Fig.
).Asaresultofothersseeingthebenetofthisnewwayofdoing,the
bottlinglinere-synchronisestheirmoveme
ntstoaccommodatethecartonpractice
thatIobserved(Fig.
Terroir
andTimespace:BodyRhythmsinWinemaking85
Bodypedagogics
maybedenedasreferringtothecentralpedagogic
through
whichacultureseekstotransmititsmaincorporealtechniques,skillsanddispositions,the
embodied
experiences
associatingwithacquiringorfailingtoacquiretheseattributes,and
theactualembodied
changes
resultingfromthisprocess(Shilling
,p.13,emphasisin
original).
Crossley(
M.C.Johnsson
howorchestrationamongmultipleotherspracticallyworks.
Terroir
andTimespace:BodyRhythmsinWinemaking87
Charters,S.,Clark-Murphy,M.,Davis,N.,B
rown,A.,&Walker,E.(2008).Anexplorationof
managerialexpertiseintheWesternAustralianwineindustry.
InternationalJournalofWine
BusinessResearch,20
(2),138152.doi:
10.1108/17511060810883768
Coover,R.(2004).Workingwithimages,imagesofwork:Usingdigitalinterface,photographyand
hypertextinethnography.InS.Pink,L.Krti,&A.I.Afonso(Eds.),
Workingimages:Visual
researchandrepresentationinethnography
(pp.185204).London:Routledge.
Crossley,N.(2007).Researchingembodimentbywayofbodytechniques.
TheSociological
Review,
Specialissue:Embodyingsociology,
(s1),8094.doi:
10.1111/j.1467-954X.2007.
00694.x
Csepregi,G.(2006).
Thecleverbody
.Alberta:UniversityofCalgaryPress.
Cunliffe,A.L.(2008).Orientationstosocialconstructionism:Relationallyresponsivesocial
constructionismanditsimplicationsforknowledgeandlearning.
ManagementLearning,39
123139.doi:
10.1177/1350507607087578
Dreyfus,H.L.(2001).
M.C.Johnsson
May,J.,&Thrift,N.(Eds.).(2001).
Timespace:Geogr
aphiesofte
mporality
.London:Routledge.
Merleau-Ponty,M.(1989).
Phenomenologyofperception
(C.Smith,Trans.).London:Routledge.
Orlikowski,W.J.(2002).Knowing
inpractice:Enactingacollectivecapabilityindistributed
organizing.
OrganizationScience,13
(3),249273.doi:
10.1287/orsc.13.3.249.2776
Page,D.(2011,January28).CrushingblowforHunterwinemakers.
NewcastleHerald
http://www.theherald.com.au/story/465774/crushing-blow-for-hunter-winemakers/
Accessed
15Apr2013.
Parr,C.V.,White,G.,&Heatherbell,D.(2003).Thenoseknows:Inuenceofcolour
onperceptionofwinearoma.
JournalofWineResearch,14
(2/3),79101.doi:
10.1080/
Pine,B.J.,II,&Gilmore,J.H.(1999).
Theexperienceeconomy:Workistheatreandeverybusiness
astage
.Boston:HarvardBusinessSchoolPublishing.
Pirani,B.M.(2005).Bodyrhythms,socialrhythmsindigitalsocieties.
CurrentSociology,53
237273.doi:
10.1177/0011392105049539
Sachs,C.(1988).
Rhythmandtempo:Astudyinmusichistory
.NewYork:ColumbiaUniversity
Schatzki,T.R.(2001).Subject,body,place.
AnnalsoftheAssociationofAmericanGeographers,
(4),698702.doi:
10.1111/0004-5608.00268
Schatzki,T.(2002).
Thesiteofthesocial:Aphilosophica
laccountofth
econstitutionofsociallife
andchange
.UniversityPark:UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress.
Schatzki,T.(2009).Timespaceandtheorganizationofsociallife.InE.Shove,F.Trentmann,&
R.Wilds(Eds.),
Time,consumptionandeverydaylife:Practice,materialityandculture
3548).Oxford:Berg.
Schatzki,T.R.(2010a).
Chapter6
InhabitingaTeachingBody:Portraits
ofTeaching
Jo-AnneReidandDonnaMathewsonMitchell
Introduction
Referencestothebodyinresearchaboutt
eachers,teachingand
teachereducation
areremarkablyuncommon.WhiletheworkoffeministssuchasGallop(
)and
McWilliam(
)providedearlyremindersoftheneedtoforegroundquestionsof
thebodyinpedagogy,teachereducationasa
eldhasgivenlittleattentiontoways
inwhichnoviceteacherslearntobecomesomebodywhoteachessomebodies
(Ungar,inMcWilliam
).Howdoessomeonewhohasnotpreviouslytaught
inaformalandprofessionalsensebecomesomebodyasateacher?Howdothey
acquireateachinghabitusabodyinwhicht
heattitudes,gestures,vocalizations
andpredispositionsithasarerecognizable
tootherbodiesasteacherly?Working
inaBourdieuiantradition,wearguethatitisthisbodilyrecognitionthatmeans
thattheyarereadyandpreparedfort
eaching,abletoaccumulateandlearn
fromexperiencetodevelopteachinge
xpertise(DreyfusandDreyfus
)through
situatedpractice(Kennedy
).Weareinterestedinhowteachersusetheirbodies
asresourcesintheirwork,inthecraftknowledgeinscribedintheirbodiesashabitus,
andinthediscoursesandpracticesthatframeandsupporttheproductionofawell-
preparedteachingbody(bothindividuallyandasthesumofitsparts).
J.Reid(
FacultyofEducation,CharlesSturtUniversity,NewSouthWales,Australia
e-mail:
[email protected]
D.M.Mitchell
SchoolofTeacherEducation,CharlesSturtUniversity,NewSouthWales,Australia
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__6
90J.ReidandD.M.Mitchell
Inthischapterweworkfromthepremis
ethatteachereducationisapractice
producingsubjectscruciallyconcernedw
iththeinitialandcontinuingformation
ofteachingsubjects,orofteachersaskno
wledgeableandcap
ableeducational
agents(GreenandReid
).Wearguethateffectivepre-serviceteacheredu-
cationbuildsuprep
ertoiresofpractice,workingonthebody,andtheteaching
selfasasocialsubjectthatbecomesincreasinglyexpertovertime(Foucault
Bourdieu
;Schatzki
;Burkitt
;Watkins
).Asteacher
6InhabitingaT
eachingBody:PortraitsofTeaching91
herprofessionthroughengagedinterac
tionwithherstudentsastheyco-producea
productivelearningrelations
hip.Instarkcontrasttothis,wethenpresentanaccount
ofayoungmansinexperiencedteaching
body,engagedinpracticeteaching,
failingtoperformasasuccessfulteachin
gbodyinthespaceofaclassroomteach-
ingpracticum.Wearguethathisfailure
isespeciallysignicantwhenconsidered
alongsidethefactthattheofcialnotiono
fteacherisconstructedforstudentswithin
aperformativestandardsframeworkas
aknowledgeableandcapablesubject
without
abody.Althoughweseetheseillustrationsas
representationsoftwostagesonacon-
tinuumofprofessionalexpertise,weareawarethatinmanywaystheyalsofunction
asbinaryoppositesteacher/student,fem
ale/male,expert/novice,andexperi-
ence/youth.Whilenotwantingtopromoteadualisticnotionofpracticeinanyof
thesebinaries,wedoseetheseillustrationsasusefulinexplaininghowattentionto
thebodyistoooftenabsentintheprepara
tionofnewteachers,andwhyitdeserves
muchgreaterplaceinteachereducationc
urriculum,inboththeoryandpractice.
TeachingPractice:APortraitofExpertise
Thisisaportraitofanexperiencedteacher.Itisdrawnfromaseriesofwritten
memoriesofpracticeandartefactsofpracticeintheformofjournalnotes,lesson
92J.ReidandD.M.Mitchell
IamstandinginfrontofYear8.Itishot,veryhot.Sweatisrunningdownmyface.Inthe
previouslesson,welookedatselfportraits,deningwhataportraitisandlookingatarange
ofexamples.InthislessonIamleadingtheclassthroughadrawingexercisetoshowthem
howtodrawaface.Iaskallofthestudentstolookatmyfaceastheexample.Istartwith
shapeoftheface,askingthestudentstoobserveandtotellmewhattheysee.Onceweare
agreedwealldrawtheshape.Idrawitlargeontheblackboard.Istandbacktonditsa
wonkyoval,soIrubitoutanddoitagain.ThenIaskthemtolookatmyfaceagainand
imagineitwaschoppedinhalfacrossways.Wherewouldthecutbe?Theyanswer:the
middleofthenose.Ilookatthem,shakemyhead.
Welookagain.Imovearoundtheroomaskingeveryonetolookagain.Someonesays
itisthenose.Someonedisagrees.Theclassroombecomesnoisyasdisagreementsare
voiced.TosolvetheproblemIasksomeonetocomeupwitharulertomeasuremyfaceand
Iencourageallthestudentstodothesameontheirownfaceorafriends.Thereissurprise
whentheyndIamcorrect.Onceallareconvincedwemoveon.
Idrawthenosebridgerst,thentheeyebrows,thentheeyes,thenthebottomofthe
nose,thelips,theears,theneachindividualhairaspartofthehairstyle.Thestudentsfollow
me,drawingtheirownversiononthepaperinfrontofthem,agreeinganddisagreeing.With
eachfeatureIpointoutthegeneralisationsaswellasthecharacteristicsthatareunique,the
6InhabitingaT
eachingBody:PortraitsofTeaching93
althoughnotalwaysknowingly.Knowledgeofthebodyinrelationtoteaching
wasinthemaking.Initsmatureform
ofdevelopment,theteachersapproach
tothisactivityembracedthec
94J.ReidandD.M.Mitchell
butthisbecamelessimportantthanthepurposeofthelesson.Afterteachingthis
wayforaperiodoftime,andhavingmovedthroughthestudyofthebody,this
teacherremembersthatshewasabletom
oreeffectivelybe
thebodyandexploit
itsteachingopportunities.Inmanywaysthis
reectedthedevelopmentofateaching
habitus,asshemovedfromfeelinglikeashoutofwatertofeelingcomfortable
intheuseofthebody.
Thedevelopingandadaptinghabitusisevidentinthebodybeingusedasthe
objectofstudyandasanintuitive,responsiveparticipantintheinter-subjective
actofteaching.Thisseemedtooccurthr
oughadialogicalshapingofaction.As
abodilyperformance,humanagencywasrealisedthroughaexibleresponsiveness
thatwentbeyondingrainedhabittoprociencyandthenexpertise(Dreyfusand
Dreyfus
).Itissignicantthatthisdevelopedovertime,andinrelationto
theparticulartoolsandenvironmentoftheart-room.AsDeweystates,aexible
sensitivehabitgrowsmorevaried,moreadaptabletopracticeanduse(citedin
Burkitt
,p.228).Theadaptationwasevidentintheteachersbodilyhexis,
herbearingasateacher.Bourdieu(
,pp.9394)explainedhexisaspolitical
mythologyrealised,embodied,turnedi
ntoapermanentdisposition,adurable
mannerofstanding,speakingandtherebyoffeelingandthinking.Assuch,hexisis
thehabitusembodied,physicallyevidentasapublicobjectbutsociallyconstructed.
Thebodyisthereforehistoricalanddynamic:ithasbeenactedon,isbeingacted
uponandisacting.Thisteachernotedthat,overtime,asshetaughtthislessonagain
andagain,shedevelopedcondence,lackofself-consciousmovement,andaow
toherworkandtothebearingofherbody.Sheisawareofherexpertiseinthis
ow,andknowsthatitwillbemaintainedinherhabituatedpracticeandislikely
tostillfurtherdevelopovertime.
Thedevelopmentofherembodiedexpertisealsoimpactedonthelearning
experienceofstudents.Shenotesthathe
rpracticeplacedherincloseproximity
tostudents.Makingherfaceavailableforopenscrutinyinastudioartclass
createdwhatcanbeseenasasafeintimacy,inwhichstudentsarepositioned
muchmoresecurelyaslearnersandrisktakers.AsweseeintheworkofVick
)andMulcahy(Chap.
,thisvolume),thisisbynomeansrelevantonlyto
practicalsubjects.Heretheinter-subject
iveactofteachingrequiredbothopenness
toandamindfulnessofpersonalspace.It
particularlyrequiredrecognitionthat
students,notusedtothiskindofinteractionwithintheclassroom,oftenneedtime
tofeelcomfortableandtoeffectivelyadapttheirstudenthabits.Thisexpertpractice
producesatransitionalteachingspace(Ellsworth
,p.64)involvingthecapacity
toknowthroughthebody,wheretheexperienceofthebodyisprivilegedandthe
teacherdemonstratesthatthebodymatters
asmorethanrepresentation.Bylooking
anddiscussingandthinkingaboutvariati
onsofthebody,students(andtheteacher)
weregivenpermissiontotalkabouttheirfaces,toquestionperceptionsand,most
importantly,tobeimperfect.Thesensa
tionoffeelingtheface,ofputtingsmudges
onthesurface,wasalsosignicanttothi
sprocess.Ultimatelythesmudge-covered
facereferencedintheteachersmemoryisevidenceofherunconscioususeofthe
bodyinthedrawinglesson,withthesmudgesappearingasshetouchedherfaceand
drew.Iwasunawareofthemarks,andstudentsfeltlittleneedtodrawattentionto
6InhabitingaT
eachingBody:PortraitsofTeaching95
Fig.6.1
Teachingresource
them,untiltheendofthelesson.Thelackofconsciousnesssuggeststhatthebody,
whileforegroundedinconcept,actuallyb
ecamebackgroundinreality(Greenand
Hopwood,Chap.
2
,thisvolume).
Thedrawingproducedbytheteacheronthewhite-board(Fig.
6.1
)hadbecome
aco-constructedbody,theoutcomeofthediscursiveandaffectiveprocessesthat
connectedbodiesintheclassroom(Bourdieu
2000
;Zembylas
2007
).Itwasapor-
traitconstructedbytheteachersdrawin
gaction,butinformedthroughdiscussion
andexperiencewithstudents.Likewise,thedrawingsproducedbystudents(asin
Fig.
6.2
abouttheface,embodiedinstruction,thepre-e
xistingrelationshipwiththesitter,and
thebodilyexperienceofdrawing.
Theotherimportantaspectofthisexam
pleistherelationshipoftheteaching
bodytothepracticesofart-making.Art-makinginparticular,realisticdrawing
suffersfromacharismaticnotion,anaturalisationofknowledgeandskillthat
suggeststhatabilityinartissomekindofmagicalqualitybestoweduponindividuals
96J.ReidandD.M.Mitchell
Fig.6.2
Studentdrawing
atbirth.Indrawingwithherstudents,th
isteachermadeexplicitherownpractice
asanartist.Byusingherbodyinapublicway,shewasillustratingtheuseofthe
body,theknowledgethebodyhasaboutart-makingitshabits,andtheskillsthat
arecentraltoherpracticeofmakingart.
Ratherthanassumingthatthesewouldbedevelopedbystudentsovertime,
simplythroughmoreexperienceofdrawing,theywereforegroundedinher
teaching.Herpracticeexempliedthemoni
smofpractice,theintertwiningofthe
corporealwiththecognitive(Watkins
2005
),asshetriedtointroducestudentstoa
wayofapproachingdrawingthatemphasizedthebodycapacitatingtheminthe
developmentofanartistichabitusinrelationtoart-makingpractice.Theirlearning
occurredinmind
and
bodythroughexplicitattentiontoandforegroundingofthe
bodyinpractice.
Instarkcontrasttothisillustrationofa
rtistryinembodiedpractice,wherethe
teachersbodyservedastool,resour
ce,modelandguide,wemovenowtoour
secondaccount.Thisportraysanincidentwheretheteachersbodygotinthe
6InhabitingaT
eachingBody:PortraitsofTeaching97
wayofhis(practice)teachingproducingh
isprofessionalfailuretomeasureup
totherequiredstandard.Thisisaportraitreconstructednotfrommemorybut
98J.ReidandD.M.Mitchell
SupervisingTeachertoUniversity
6InhabitingaT
eachingBody:PortraitsofTeaching99
havepropositionalknowledgeatthislevel.
Theymustdemonstrateknowledgeor
demonstratebroadknowledgeandunders
tandingofimportantaspectsofteaching.
ForinstanceinStandard2.1,thegraduateteacherisexpectedto:
Demonstrateknowledgeandunderstandingoftheconcepts,substanceandstructureofthe
contentandteachingstrategiesoftheteachingarea(AITSLProfessionalStandardsfor
Teachers
AtGraduatelevel,thereareonlyfourof37AITSLstandarddescriptorsthateven
implicitlyreferenceembodiedactionora
pplicationofpropositionalknowledgeor
attitude:
2.6InformationandCommunicationTechnology(ICT)
Implement
teachingstrategiesforusingICTtoexpandcurriculumlearningopportun
ities
forstudents.
3.5Useeffectiveclassroomcommunication
Demonstrate
arangeofverbalandnon-verbalcommunicationstrategiestosupportstudent
engagement.
6.3Engagewithcolleaguesandimprovepractice
Seekandapply
constructivefeedbackfromsupervisorsandteacherstoimproveteaching
practices.
7.1Meetprofessionalethicsandresponsibilities
Understandand
apply
thekeyprinciplesdescribedincodesofethicsandconductforthe
teachingprofession.(AITSLProfessionalStandardsforTeachers2011,ouremphasis)
Thesupervisingteacherhasplacedticks
100J.ReidandD.M.Mitchell
6InhabitingaT
eachingBody:PortraitsofTeaching101
1.UniversityLiaisonOfcer[ULO]endorsedwhattheschoolhadsaidabout[student]and
wasconcernedabouthiscapacitytotakeonboardwhatissuggested.
2.[Students]generalbehaviourisofconcern:putspeopleoffbymannerinthestaffroom;
alwayshasanexcuse,hasbeenbad-mouthing[supervisor]tootherstaff;genitaltouching
whennervous(schoolhasspokentohimaboutthisnervoushabit).
3.Lessonnoteswereonscrapsofpaperhadtobeaskedtowriteinadaybook.
4.[Student]isnotallowedtomarkstudentworkashisspellingistoobadandhisown
contentknowledgenotgoode.g.notsurewhichwordswereverbs.(UniversityPracticum
Directorssummaryreport)
Thisreport,terselytransactionalasitis,stillprovidesamuchfulleraccountof
theproblemsthatthisparticularpre-se
rviceteacherhadinperforminganormal
teachersbodyduringhisplacement.Ther
easonsforhisfailurearenowsayable,
safelyawayfromtheschool,atthedistanceoftheUniversityLiaisonOfcer
[ULO]reportingtotheUniversity.Intheschooldomain,whereteachersbodies
aretypicallyabsentfromdiscussi
on,theyremainunspeakable.
Herewediscoverthatthepre-serviceteacherwas:notrespondingtofeedback
fromtheUniversityLiaisonOfcer[ULO];failingtoplanhislessonsfully,or
keephisplansinasuitableformat;failingtodemonstratetherequisiteknowledge
ofEnglishforteaching;andfailingtobehaveinanappropriatemanner.His
inappropriatemannerputspeopleoff;hespeaksdisrespectfullyabouthis
supervisor;andlefttilllastonthelistbutnamingthemostpowerfulfailingof
allhetoucheshisgenitalswhennervous.Itisherethatwereadintothisreporta
connectiontohissupervisorsnalcondemnatoryjudgementofToilethabits!!and
starttoseeamorecomplexpictureemergingoftherelationsofpowerthatproduce
anormalteachersbody.Thisyoungmanisportrayedassomeonewhoclearly
doesnotinhabitarecogni
sableteachingbody,andwhoseidentityasateacheris
thereforesuspect.Theinformationthattheschoolhasspokentohimaboutthis
nervoushabitseemsinthetexttobeareferencetothenalreportdocument,rather
102J.ReidandD.M.Mitchell
asateachingtool,thisyoungmansbodyistransgressiveofthenormativeorderin
theclassroom.Hissupervisingteacherrec
ognisesthisandattemptstodisciplineher
student,pointingoutthoseaspectsofhisbodilycomportmentandbehaviourthat
areoutofplace.Thecomplexityofthisrela
tionshipissuchthatshecertainlydoes
notseemtohavebeentoldabouttheeffectofherdisapprovalonthehealthofthe
pre-serviceteacher.Shedoesnotindicatet
his,butshecertainlynoticedtheeffects
oftheillnessinhisbody.
Fallingasleepinthestaffroomfourdaysinarow(Mon-Thurs)mightwell
suggestillness,inhindsight.Butwithoutthis
informationshestrainstoarticulate
whatitisthatanormalteachingbodyactua
llydoes,apartfromhelpchildren,
ormarktheirworkaftertheteachingdayisdone.Herownbody
thathis
bodyiswrong,buttheabsenceofthebodyinthediscourseof(teacher)education
meansshemustusecodetoexpressthesefeelings.Namingthefactthathewould
unconsciouslytouchhisgenitalareawhenanxiousandpressuredisunsayablein
thenormativeteacher-studentrelationshi
p.Thestudentteachersgenitalsarenotan
appropriatetopicofconversationforth
eclassroom,orforteachereducation,and
becauseofthissheisunabletoteachhimhowtobehavenormally,orgivehim
achancetopracticethisbehaviourmindfullyandallowhimtograduallycome
toembodythegrouphabitusoftheteachingprofessionoverrepeatedsuccessful
approximationsinpractice.
Conclusion
Thissecondportraithasdemonstratedhowtheconstructionofthegood(or
bad)teacherisframedintermsof
ateachingbodythatisrarelyexplicitly
6InhabitingaT
eachingBody:PortraitsofTeaching103
teacherswhocouldhaveprovidedhimw
ithmodelsofmalebodilycomportment
inprimaryclassrooms.Andtheysimplydonothaveaccesstoregularandhabit-
formingopportunitiestotryonthefeelof
ateacherlybodywithoutbeingsubjectto
theregulatorypowerofassessment.Itisduringthepracticumthatstudentteachers
mustfashiona
teachingbody
forthemselves,onethatperformsinaccordancewith
theparticularnormativediscourseofthestandardisedgoodteacher.
Asadiptych,thetwoportraitsdrawninthischapterdemonstratetheimportance
104J.ReidandD.M.Mitchell
Britzman,D.(2006).Foreword.InJ.Alsup(Ed.),
Teacheridentitydiscourses:Negotiating
personalandprofessionalspaces
(pp.ixxii).Mahwah:LawrenceErlbaumAssociates.
Burkitt,I.(
2002).Technologiesofthesel
f:Habitusandcapacities.
JournalfortheTheoryofSocial
Behaviour,32
(2),219237.doi:
10.1111/1468-5914.00184
Davies,B.,&Gannon,S.(2006).
Doingcollectivebiography
.Berkshire:OpenUniversity
Press/McGraw-Hill.
Dreyfus,H.L.,&Dreyfus,S.E.(2004).Theethical
implicationsoftheve-stageskillacquisition
model.
BulletinofScienceTechnologyandSociety,24
Chapter7
BodyMatters:TheCriticalContribution
ofAffectinSchoolClassroomsandBeyond
DianneMulcahy
Introduction
D.Mulcahy(
MelbourneGraduateSchoolofEducation,TheUniversityofMelbourne,Melbourne,
VIC,Australia
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__7
D.Mulcahy
andacademicprocessesandtheaff
ectivedimension(seeagainLovat
p.491),Ihighlighttheintri
cateentanglementofaff
ectandcognition.AsThrift
,p.175,originalemphasis)hasit,
affectisunderstoodasaformofthinking
Idrawattentiontoaspectsofclassroomandprofessionalpracticethatareoccluded
inofcial
accountsofthispractice,giventhesystemicconcernsineducation
currentlywithmetrics,measuresandout
comes,andconsiderthecircumstancesof
thisneglect.Iask:doesitoccurbecausethes
easpectsareinvisibleorremainbelow
thethresholdofthekindofknowingwearefamiliarwithorpayattentionto?(Venn
,p.134).And,what/whomightcarrythecostoftheseocclusions?
Theconceptofthe
assemblage
forwardedbyDeleuzeandGuattari(
)isakin
tothenotionof
Byofcialaccounts,Imeanaccountsmadebygovernmentsandpolicyadvisorsthatappear
tobeundertheinuenceofthekindofpolicyempiricismthatfocusesonmeasuresratherthan
meaninginitsappraisalofeducationalactivities(Smithetal.
,p.3).Neo-liberaldiscourses
andagendasupholdsuchempiricism.
Withineducation,sociomaterialstudiesderivelargelyfrom,andindialoguewith,scholarly-
7BodyMatters:TheCriticalContributionofAffectinSchoolClassrooms
attentiontothem,alongwithbodieshumanandotherwiseIseektoextend
currentconceptualisationsofteachingasa
siteofprofessionalpracticeaswellas
contributetotheeldofpracticetheoryandphilosophy(Green
Spanning20072010,thisLinkageProjectwasconductedinassociationwiththeAustralian
GeographyTeachersAssociationwithafliatesinvemajorAustralianstates,includingPartner
InvestigatorstatusfortheGeographyTeachersAssociationofVictoriaandtheteacherregistration
authorityinVictoria(VictorianInstituteofT
eaching).
D.Mulcahy
trainers)
objects(odourkits)doingtherendering.Inthisschema,affectis
outsidetheconnesofabounded,singularanddistinctlyhumanbody(Blackman
andVenn
,pp.2123).Thefocusonenactment,Whatcanabody
?,shifts
attentionawayfromtheideaofsingularpr
e-existingentitiesorobjectstotheways
inwhichpracticesalter,transform,in
terveneandshapeobjects(Blackman
p.170).Learningtobeaffectedisembodiedlearning,withboththelearnerandthe
learningbeinginaprocessofbecoming.
Thelearnerbecomesotherwise;asLatour
,p.225)tellsit,thetraineelearnttohaveanose,tobeanose,havinglearnt
tobeaffectedbybodiesofdifferentkinds(eg.humanbodies,odourkits).
Theterm
affect
,writesThrift(
,p.116),isnotsimplyemotion,norisit
reducibletotheaffectionsorperceptionsofanindividualsubject.InvokingDeleuze
,p.137),Thrift(ibid.)continues:affectsarenotfeelings,theyarebecomings
thatgobeyondthosewholivethroughthem(theybecomeother).Inotherwords,
theygobeyondtheinnerworldorinteriorityofthehumansubject,coinedsub-
jectivity(Navaro-Yashin
,p.12).Theyareintensities,sensationsorenergies
thatcanbedischargedthroughobjectsand
spaces,makingitpossibletoreadmany
otherthings,suchasspaceandtheenvironment,asaffective(ibid.).Theyare
encounterswithotherbodies(semiotically)thatinfectallofexperiencesothatone
affects
andis
affected
byotherbodies(Zembylas
,p.xxx,originalemphasis).
Astheempiricalmaterialthatisworkedlaterinthechapterattemptstoshow,
thesebodiescomprisenotonlyindividualhumanbodiesbutalsobodiesofwater
andbodiesofknowledge.Here,bodiesandaffectare
relational
termsratherthan
predominantlycontained,individualandprivate:
Bodiesofallsortsareinconstantrelationwithotherbodies.Someoftheserelationsare
compatibleandgiverisetojoyfulaffectsthatmayinturnincreasetheintensivecapacityof
abody;othersareincompatiblerelationsthat
giverisetosadordebilitatingaffects,which
attheirworstmayentirelydestroyabodysintegrity(Gatens
,p.64).
AsMacLure(
,p.284)explains,followingMassumi(
),affectinthe
Deleuziansense:
isnotfeelingoremotion.Itisakindofprepersonalintensitywhichmaybecaptured
andqualied(i.e.,givenqualities)asemotion(Massumi
).Itdoesnotresidewithin
individualsubjects,norinanintersubjectivecomminglingofmeaningsorconscious-
nesses.Itprecedes,andexceeds,language,biographyandcogn
ition.Affectregistersonthe
body.Itiscarriedbyfacialexpressions,toneofvoice,breathandsounds,whichdonot
7BodyMatters:TheCriticalContributionofAffectinSchoolClassrooms
ofafocusonaffectandembodimentliesinthinkingaboutissuesofpower,and
possibilitiesf
orunderstandingsocial
andsubjectivechange.
DrawingprimarilyonSpinoza,Massumi(
)framesaffectasbothaforce
andacapacity(Spinozas
affectus
affectio
);assuch,itcanbeharnessed
D.Mulcahy
practices.[I]ttellsstoriesabouthowrelationsassembleordont(ibid.,p.141).
7BodyMatters:TheCriticalContributionofAffectinSchoolClassrooms
accomplishedteaching,with
identicationof
accomplishedteachersbeingmade
bywayofpurposefulsampling.Thus,membersoftheAustralianGeography
TeachersAssociationanditsafliates,thepeakprofessionalassociationsforschool
GeographyinAustralia,wereinvitedtonom
inateteacherswhoarewidelyregarded
professionally,usingvariouscriteriai
ncludingreputationforaccomplishment
withintheeldofgeographiceducati
on,yearsofexperienceteachingschool
geography,teachingqualications,etc.Inanefforttocapturethespecicitiesof
practice,includingtheowofteacherac
tionandembodiedjudgement,theapproach
ForeachofelevenclassroomsineightschoolsandthreemajorAustralianstates,twolessons,
eachlastingaround50min,werevideo-recordedusingthreecameras.Onecamerafocusedonthe
teacher,asecondonindividualstudentsaspartofaworkinggroup,andathirdonthewholeclass.
Usingascatalystthevideo-recordfromthewhole-classcamera,withtheteachercameraimage
insertedasapicture-in-pictureimageinonecornerofthedisplay,teacherswereinvitedtomakea
reconstructiveaccountofthelessoneventsdeemed
criticaltostudentlearni
ng.Similarly,students
wereinvitedtomakeanaccountoflessonevents,usingasstimulusthevideo-recordfromthe
teachercamera,withtheindividualstudentscameraimageinsertedasapicture-in-pictureimage
inonecornerofthedisplay.
D.Mulcahy
Iexplaininclass,Iworkfromtheirpers
onalgeographies.Thus,whenconducting
thelessonpriortotheeldworktrip,Simonencouragesthestudentstothinkabout
yourroutefromhometoschool,andgiveshisownexample:Formyroute,from
Ashburtontohere,itsresidential,leafyavenues,cosIdrivethroughthemallthe
time,relativelywelloff,Immakingajudgement,well-caredfor,yeah,theylook
aftertheirgarden,theymowit,Iseethemoutthereeachtime
.Heappearsto
wellunderstandthatpeoplethinkthroughembodiedexperiencesandpracticesin
suchawaythatthebodyssignicancein
teaching,andforl
earningapractice,
madeplain.
ThebodilybasisofSimonsteachingisevidentinthesereportsgivenat
interview:
ThatswhyI,everyonceinawhile,Isaid[inthelesson]:areyouwithit?Youknow,
andyoulookaround,yourenotlookingforallthosewhoaresayingyes,yourelooking
forthosewhoaregoinghangon,no,notquite,youknow,andthatsanunwrittenthing.
Iveneverthoughtaboutit[before]butyeah,youignorealltheonesthatsayyes.Youare
lookingforthetwoorthreewhosaynoandyousay:Illwaitforthem.
Isupposewhatsunwr
ittenintheeldwork
tooisthatyouvegottohavedoneit
AspartoflearningschoolGeography,Simonsstudentsarelearningtobebodiesinacertainway,
forexample,observingbodies,eldsketchingbodies,trainedbodies.AsSimoncomments:This
isreallytherstyearwherewestarttrainingthemasgeographers.
7BodyMatters:TheCriticalContributionofAffectinSchoolClassrooms
Fig.7.1
Year9Geographystudentsonaeldworktrip:learningtobeaffected
carryitoutandfeelingsoilforitstype.Itcanbeinferredthatbothseaandsoilare
bodieswithaffectivecapacitiesbeyondthet
ransmissionofinformation:Thisis
whatit
like.Soitsrea
llygood.Inputtingbodiesbackintolearning,
amore-
than-representationalexperienceoflearning,anexperienceoutsideoflanguage,can
bevalorizedineducation(Ellsworth
,p.29;seealsoGreen
,p.50).
D.Mulcahy
Fig.7.2
CycloneNargus:anaffectiveencounter
Usinghisbodyasapedagogicresource,Simonenactsaprocesswhichheexpects
hisstudentstoenactinturn,towardsthembeingaffectedbywhattheywillsee
astheytakethebustothecoast.Simonis
teachinglearnerstobeaffectedbythe
forthcomingeldtripbydirectingattentiontohowtheymightmovetheirbodies,
undertakeembodiedtasks(tunnelvision),andengageinembodiedencounterswith
placesandprocesses(eg.beingbussed),all
ofwhichhavethepotential,perhaps,to
catchthemunawaresandtransformtheirlearning.
SimonesStory:IJustCouldntComeTodayandNotTalk
AboutThis
7BodyMatters:TheCriticalContributionofAffectinSchoolClassrooms
Student:Disease.
Teacher:Why?
Student:Ahcauseofsewage.Deadbodies.
Teacher:Sewage,deadbodies.
Student:Causeallthedeadbodiesandstuffwouldbringdiseaseandtheresno
immunisation.
Theshiftingspeedsandintensitiesofengagementwiththiseventdonotjust
promptthought,butalsogeneratesensationsresonatinginthebodyaswellasthe
brain(MacLure
D.Mulcahy
control,ratherthanofape
dagogicassemblagewhereallentities(teachers,students,
worldevents,digitalimages,desires
)are
emerging
parts.FollowingDeleuze,
the
immanent
featuresofpedagogicprocessesaredis-privileged.Instrugglingto
talkaboutthecyclone,IsuggestthatSimoneistakingasteptowardschallengingthe
powerofcurriculumnormalisationandexperimentingwithnewwaysofbecoming
aGeographyteacher-subject.Theaffectiv
echargeoftheeventthatshejustcant
ignoremightbethoughtanunrulyteachingrel
ationthatcanbeusedtoreassemble,
atleastmomentarily,theestablished,re
presentationalapproachtoteachingschool
Geography.
BodyMatters:AffectinClassroomsandBeyond
Analysingaffectiveencountersasdatainrelationtobodiesandothermaterial
processesopensaspaceformaterialityineducationalresearchandinvitesbreaking
withtheultimatelydisenfranchisingideasofthecentralimportanceoftheteacher
(Larsen
)andoftheteacheras
cogito
.Theteachercanbethoughtwithregard
tohis/herbody,ratherthanasaclassicalsubject,apersonwithanattached
identity/mind?Researchingfromthebody,t
hematerialhasamorecentralpartin
ourresearchdataasdoingsinpractice(Rossholt
,p.332).Itaffordstracing
7BodyMatters:TheCriticalContributionofAffectinSchoolClassrooms
thatemphasisenotionssuchasquality,acc
ountabilityandperform
ance.Reecting
atechnical-rationalapproachtopolicy-making,thisdiscoursedirectsattentionto
teachersassingularitiesanddownplaysthe
variousotherassemblagesinwhichthey
arecaughtup.Contemporaryteacherpolicyreformsarepartofabroaderneo-
liberalbusinessmodeleducationalreformagenda,whichincludesthedevelopment
ofschoolmanagementsystems,theprivatis
ationofschools,cutbackstoeducational
funding,theintroductionofnationallyprescribedcurricula,standardisedstudent
testingandtheestablishmentofschoolleaguetables(ibid.,p.215).
Whileacknowledgingthatotherreadingsoftheempiricalmaterialmightbe
made,andothercase-storiestold,theempir
icalanalysesherestressagency,process
D.Mulcahy
References
Albrecht-Crane,C.,&Slack,J.D.(2007).Towardapedagogyofaffect.InA.Hickey-Moody&
P.Malins(Eds.),
Deleuzianencounters:Studiesincontemporarysocialissues
(pp.99110).
Basingstoke/NewYork:PalgraveMacMillan.
Anderson,B.,&McFarlane,C.(2011).Assemblageandgeography.
Area,43
(2),124127.doi:
1111/j.1475-4762.2011.01004.x
Barry,A.,&Thrift,N.(2007).GabrielTarde:Imitation,inventionandeconomy.
Economyand
Society,36
(4),509525.doi:
10.1080/03085140701589497
7BodyMatters:TheCriticalContributionofAffectinSchoolClassrooms
Latour,B.(2002).GabrielTardeandtheendofthesocial.InP.Joyce(Ed.),
Thesocialinquestion:
Newbearingsinhistoryandthesocialsciences
(pp.117132).London:Routledge.
Latour,B.(2004).Howtotalkaboutthebody?Thenormativedimensionofsciencestudies.
&Society,10
(23),205229.doi:
10.1177/1357034X04042943
Latour,B.(2005).
D.Mulcahy
Schatzki,T.(2002).
Thesiteofthesocial:Aphilosophica
laccountofth
econstitutionofsociallife
andchange
.UniversityPark:PennsylvaniaStateUniversityPress.
Schatzki,T.(2010).Mater
ialityandsociallife.
NatureandCulture,5
(2),123149.doi:
10.3167/
nc.2010.050202
Schatzki,T.(2013).Theedgeofchange:Ontheemergence,persistence,anddissolutionof
practices.InE.Shove&N.Spurling(Eds.),
Sustainablepractice:Socialtheoryandclimate
change
(pp.3146).London:Routledge.
Chapter8
ThinkingBodies:PracticeTheory,Deleuze,
andProfessionalEducation
BillGreen
Thebodyisnotsimplyasigntoberead,asymptomtobedeciphered,butalsoaforcetobe
reckonedwith(Grosz
,p.120).
Introduction
Imagineaclassroomateacherandherclass.Theclassroomislocatedina
primaryschool,somewhere,anywhere.Theworldisturningapace,andeducation
isgoingon,isbeingpractised,here,now
Voices,bodies,spaces.Lookatme,
everyone.
Whatdotheysee,thisEarlyYearsclassofchildren,allengaged(still)in
learningthegameofschool?Whataretheylookingat?Firstandforemost,they
seesomebody,abody-subject,aTeacher.T
hisislikelytobeagenderedbody,in
suchclassroomsawoman,asasignicant(m)other,althoughthatwasntalways
thecase(Vick
;VickandMartinez
)exemplarybutabject,allthesame,
oralltoooften.S/helookslikeateacher
Whatdotheyhear,thesechildren?
avoice,inextricablefromthebody,embodi
edspeech,ateachersvoice,speaking
B.Green(
SchoolofTeacherEducation,CharlesSturtUniversity,Bathurst,NSW,Australia
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__8
B.Green
practice.Itexploreswhatitmeanstothinkthebodyinsuchcircumstances,tothink
aboutthebody,todrawthebodyintoThought.Thisinvolvesseekingrstofalla
wayof
thinkingthebody
thatis,ofrenderingthebodyasanobjectofThought,or
ratherasaspecicconcept.ThismeansamongotherthingsworkingwithDeleuzian
notionssuchasaffect,virtuality,multiplicity,etc.,toreconsiderhowpracticeandthe
8ThinkingBodies:PracticeTheory,Deleuze,andProfessionalEducation123
dialogicallyanddialectically.HermansenandNerland(
B.Green
pragmatism)actingasasoundingboardandamplier(Thrift
,p.302).
Further,andmorespecically,hedescr
ibesnon-representationaltheoryasthe
theoryofpractices(p.304),andastyleofthinkingandaformoftheorisingwhich
isapracticalmeansofgoingonratherth
ansomethingconcernedwithenablingus
8ThinkingBodies:PracticeTheory,Deleuze,andProfessionalEducation125
(i.e.asindividuals),sotoodotheypro
ceedwithoutorperhapsexceedvolitiononthe
practitionerspart.Thisisnottosaythatp
ractitionersdonthaveagencyrather,
withinthepracticeasitplaysout,theyaretosomesignicantextentproducedin
andthroughit:itinformsandshapeswhattheycandoandsay,andhowtheyrelate
B.Green
focusonprofessionalpractice,learningandeducation.WhenIthinkofmybody
andaskwhatitdoestoearnthatname,twothingsstandout,hewrites:itmoves,
anditfeelsInfact,itdoesbothoftheseatthesametime.Hecontinuesthus:
8ThinkingBodies:PracticeTheory,Deleuze,andProfessionalEducation127
HenceDeleuzesuseofSpinozainthisregard,andinparticularthequestion:
Whatisabodycapableof?
Or,asBuchanan(
,p.74)writes,regarding
thephilosophicalproblemfromwhichtheir[ieDeleuze/Guattaris]constructivist
accountofthebodyactuallyderives,namelytheSpinozistquestion:Whatcana
bodydo?.Thefocusgoesthenontheenerge
ticsofthebody,itsactivity,orwhat
mightbecalleditsdoing-ness
energeia
(Green
,p.43),itspractice:the
bodyinmotion,ormovement,becoming-body.
ThisisconsistentwithMassumis(
)accountofincorporealmaterialism,
andhisemphasisontheprimacyofchangeasqualitativetransformation,emer-
gence,invention,continuity,difference,affect.Ashewrites:
ForSpinoza,thebodyisonewithits
transitions.Each
transitionis
accompaniedbya
variationincapacity:achangeinwhichpowerstoaffectandbeaffectedareaddressable
byanexteventandhowreadilyaddressabletheyareortowhatdegreetheyarepresentas
futurities(Massumi
,p.15).
Thistakeonthebody,adoptedandadaptedbyDeleuze,isthereforearare,
afrmativeunderstandingofthebody,withitbeingseennotasan(id)entity,or
some-thing,butrathermoreintermsofwhatitcando,thethingsitcanperform,
thelinkagesitestablishes,thetransformationsandbecomingsitundergoes,andthe
machinicconnectionsitformswithotherbodies,whatitcanlinkwith,howitcan
proliferateitscapacities(Grosz
,p.165inthisregardseeMulcahy,Chap.
thisvolume).Thisisregisteredcruciallyintermsof,orintheformof,therelations
iteffects,itscapacitytoaffectandbeaffected,itsforce.Thisproductivityisnicely
evokedbyBuchanan(
),inreferringtoagivenbodyshealth,oritspositivity,
thoserelationswhichensureanopenfuture,whichistosay,thosewhichpromotethe
formationofnewcompounds,areconsideredhealthy;whilethoserelationswhichleadto
thedecompositio
nofoldcompoundsandarenot
accompaniedbytheelaborationofnew
onesareconsideredunhealthy(Buchanan
,p.82).
B.Green
Similarly,toseethebodyasvirtuality,ortospeakofthevirtualbody,isto
8ThinkingBodies:PracticeTheory,Deleuze,andProfessionalEducation129
initsproject.Buchanan(
,p.75)writes:Bymakingthequestionofwhatthe
bodycandoconstitutive,whatDeleuzeandG
uattarieffectivelydoisrecongure
thebodyasthesumofitscapacities[
].Whatmightthismeanthenforthinking
aboutaprofessionalpracticeliketeachingr
eading,intheearlyyearsofschooling?
Iturnnowtothat.
Teaching/Reading:Or,ThinkingBodies?
Teachingandcaringforyoungchildrenisc
learlyaprofessionalpracticeeld.
Oneofthemostsignicantactivitiesinthiscontextisteachingthemtoread,
whichrangesfromorientingandpredisposingthemtobooksandreading,textand
language,storyandimage,toguidingth
B.Green
pedagogy,andindeedtherehasbeensomeworkdoneinthisregard,from
differentperspectives(e.g.Luke
;Grumet
Evenso,readingremains
overwhelminglyregardedasamatterofmind(s),inanemphaticassertionof
8ThinkingBodies:PracticeTheory,Deleuze,andProfessionalEducation131
andMcDonald
,p.286),andclearlyinvolveslearninghowtouseonesbody
tobesteffectnotjustvoice,butalsogesture,gaze,movement,etc.(Reid
Suchexpertisedoesntcomenaturallyto
noviceteachers;itrequirespractice,
training,performance.Performingreading,orreadingaloud,asacorepractice
ofEarlyYearsteaching,arguablycutsacrosswhathasbeencalledtheliteracy
wars(Roy
),too,pertainingnotjusttomeaning-orientedapproaches(whole
language)butalsothoseemphasizingsound-lettercorrespondence(phonics)and
explicit,focusedinstructionandmicro-leveldrill-and-skill.Whereastheformer
iscommonlyandcharacteristicallyassoci
atedwithpleasureandplayandthelatter
morewithworkandlearning,astrainingandskill-development,bothareamenable
B.Green
ofknowledge,whichhefurtherdescribesasthesubordinationoflearningto
8ThinkingBodies:PracticeTheory,Deleuze,andProfessionalEducation133
B.Green
Workingwithyoungchildrenisalwaysanembodiedactivity,crossingthe
8ThinkingBodies:PracticeTheory,Deleuze,andProfessionalEducation135
Deleuze,G.,&Guattari,F.(2009).
Whatisphilosophy?
London/NewYork:Verso(Orig.pub.
1994.)
Green,B.(2009).Theprimacyofpracticeandtheproblemofrepresentation.InB.Green(Ed.),
Understandingandresearchingprofessionalpractice
(pp.3954).Rotterdam:Sense.
Green,B.,Cormack,P.,&Patterson,A.(2013).Re-readingthereadinglesson:Episodesinthe
historyofreadingpedagogy.
OxfordReviewofEducation,39
(3),329344.doi:
10.1080/
03054985.2013.808617
Grossman,P.,Hammerness,K.,&McDonald,M.(2009).Redeningteaching,re-imagining
teachereducation.
TeachersandTeaching:TheoryandPractice,15
(2),273289.doi:
10.1080/
Grosz,E.(1994).
Volatilebodi
es:Towardsacorporealfeminism
.Bloomington/Indianapolis:
IndianaUniversityPress.
B.Green
Schatzki,T.R.(1999).Practicedbodies:Subjects,genders,andminds.InT.R.Schatzki&
W.Natter(Eds.),
Thesocial
andpo
litical
(pp.4777).NewYork/London:TheGuildford
PartIII
TheBodyinQuestioninHealth
ProfessionalEducationandPractice
Chapter9
EmbodimentinthePracticeandEducation
ofHealthProfessionals
StephenLoftus
Introduction
Asaresidentinoralandmaxillofacialsurgery,oneofmydutieswastoadmit
patientswhowouldnotonlybeundergoingsurgerybutwouldbestayingthenight
inthehospital.AsIwalkedontothewardonemorningtobeginassessingthenew
patientsIwasinterceptedbytheseniornurse,whotookmetoonesideandsaid,
Stephen,Ineedtowarnyouaboutoneofyournewpatients,MrsX.Shesinabad
mood.Shehatesalldoctorsanddentists.Shesbeenrudetoallthenursesandshes
readytobiteyourheadoff!Thuswarned
,IeventuallycametoMrsX,alittleold
ladyinhermid-70s.Icautiouslyintroducedmyselfandbegantheassessment.After
afewmomentsIsensedthatMrsXneededtodomorethanprovidethestandard
answerstothestandardquestionsintheprotocolIwasfollowing.Sheneededto
unburdenherself.So,castingmypenandfoldertooneside,Ilookedherstraight
intheeyeandsaid,OK,MrsX,tellmeeverything,fromthebeginning.Dont
leaveanythingout.Whatemergedwasaveritableood.PoorMrsXhadapoorly
understoodchronicoro
facialpaincondition.
Apparently,shehadbeentomany
doctorsanddentistsovertheyears,allofwhomhadpromisedtocureherpain.
Whentheyhadfailed,manyofthemhadputtheblameonher,tellingherthatthe
Shehadacond
ition
knownasBurningMouthSyndrome.Today,thisisrecognisedasa
neuropathicpaincondition,meaningitispainarisingfromdamagetothenervesthemselvesrather
thanmoreconventionaltissuedamage.Now,wehavemedicationstotreatsuchconditions.Then,
theconditio
nwaspoorlyunderstood.Wehadtreatmentst
hatworkedintheshorttermonlywhich
waswhatshewastoreceive.
S.Loftus(
OaklandUniversity,Willia
mBeaumontSchoolofMedicine,Rochester,MI,USA
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__9
S.Loftus
painmustbeimaginaryandinherhead.Thiswaswhyshewassoangry.Sheknew
thepainwasreal.
9EmbodimentinthePracticeandEducationofHealthProfessionals141
efcientlyandeffectivelycoordinateth
eiractivitiestobringaboutaspeedyendto
aclinicalproblem.Itseemsthatpatientsandtheirfamiliesaretobeco-optedon
tosuchteamsinordertomaketheteamseve
nmoreefcientandeffective.There
isan(impoverished)attemptheretocapturesomeofthecomplexityoftheclinical
encounter,buttheattemptisatandtwo-dimensional.Thereismuchthatismissing
fromsuchanaccount.Whatismissing,aboveallelse,isanysenseofthecomplexity
thatunderliestheclinicalencountersuchassensitivitytotheemotionalorembodied
dimensionsofhealingrelationships.Weneedtoturntootherdiscoursesandother
vocabulariesifwearetoarticulatethesedimensions.Thesediscoursesarecertainly
available,andastarthasbeenmadetoarticulatetheembodiednatureoftheclinical
encounter.
EmbodiedRelationalUnderstanding
Todres(
)hascoinedthetermembodiedrelationalunderstanding,and
Svenaeus(
)hasreferredtotheembodiedattunementthatnecessarilyoccurs
intheclinicalencounter.Bothauthorswritefromthestanceofhermeneutics
andphenomenologybutwithdifferentemphases.Todreshasdrawnmuchofhis
inspirationfromtheworkofHeidegger(
1927/1996
)andGendlin(
),while
SvenaeushasbeenmostlyinspiredbyGadamer(
).Theembodiedrelational
understandingofTodresassumestheprimacyofthebodyinmeaning-making.From
thisviewpoint,ourbodilyexperienceoftheworldprovidesthefoundationfrom
whichwecanstarttomakemeaninganditisthisbodilyexperiencethatprovidesthe
bedrockthatgiveslanguageitstractioninstartingtomakesenseofthisexperience.
AsWittgensteinsaid:
IfIhaveexhaustedthejusticationsIhavereachedbedrock,andmyspadeisturned.ThenI
aminclinedtosay:ThisissimplywhatIdo.(Wittgenstein
,no.217)
WhatIdoistobodilyexperienceandengagewiththeworld.Professional
practiceisoneformofexperiencingandengagingwiththeworld.Onthisview,our
experienceallowsustohaveasenseofbodilyknowingthatispriortolanguage
butwhichlanguageseekstoarticulate.Thereisaprimacyofthebodyinsuch
aviewpoint.Shotter(
)recognisedthedominanceoftechnicalrationalityas
aproblembecauseithasapoorvocabular
yforexpressingembodiedrelational
understanding.Itbecomeseffectivelyinvisible.Shottersresponseistocallformore
S.Loftus
ParallelChart,cliniciansandstudentshavepermissiontoexpresstheirpersonal
feelingsandtheiremotionalreactionstothepatientstheyencounter.
CharlesTaylor(
),buildingonWittgensteinswork,reafrmsthepointthata
greatdealofourunderstandingofwhatwedoisneverarticulatedbutissimplypart
ofourpractice.Whentryingtoteach,orexpl
aintoothers,wecanoftenarticulate
whatwedointheformofrulesandprinciplesthatweuse,butthetrapistothen
thinkthattheserulesmustcomerstand
cause
ustodothepractice.Taylors
pointisthatthepracticecomesrstandarticulatingaruleisaposthocattempt
torationalisethepractice.Healsopointsoutthatsomeaspectsofourpracticemay
notonlybeunarticulatedbutcanbeinarticulable.However,thisdoesnotprevent
usfromlearninganddoingthepractice.Thereisagreatdealaboutmanypractices
thatinvolvesanembodiedknowing.Anexampleistoothextraction.Therearebasic
principlesthatcanbetaughtbutthereality
isthatdentalstudentsmustexperience
thepracticeanddeveloptheembodiedexpertise.Onehastodevelopafeelfor
howatoothcanmoveandberemovedinonepiece,withaminimumoftrauma.Itis
difculttoarticulatefurtherwhatsuchafeelislikeforthosewhohaveneverexpe-
riencedit.Therearelimitstowhatourlanguagecanallowustosay.Dentalstudents
quicklylearnthattheyneedregularbodilyexperienceoftoothextractioninorderto
developthisparticularformofbodily-participative-knowing(Todres
,p.34).
LanguageandtheBody
OurbodilyexperiencegivesuswhatHusserl(
)referredtoastheplenitude
ofthelifeworld,whichisalwaysmore
thanwordscansay.AccordingtoTodres
),thereisanexcessofthelifeworldgiventousthroughourexperience.But,
ashegoesontopointout,languageandbodilyexperiencecannotbereducedoneto
another.Togeneratemeaning,eachrequi
restheotherinan
ongoingpart
nership.
TherearestrongreminiscenceshereoftheworkofBakhtin(
),withhis
recognitionoftheimportanceofdialogicalrelationshipsandintertextualityforthe
generationofmeaning.
ForBakhtin,afocusondialogicalrelationshipsemphasisedtheintimateinter-
penetrationofentitiesonewithinanotherandeachdependentontheother.This
intimateinterpenetrationimpliesthatmeaningisnotinherentinanyentitybutarises
9EmbodimentinthePracticeandEducationofHealthProfessionals143
Todres(
S.Loftus
9EmbodimentinthePracticeandEducationofHealthProfessionals145
beyondargument.Fortunately,thereisagrowingrecognitionthatthepracticeof
medicineisindeedhermeneutic,andthatinrealitymanyexpertsdotendtomaintain
S.Loftus
DifferentEmbodiedPerspectives
Thereareanumberofstoriesthatcanbe
toldaboutclinicalconditionsdepending
ontheembodiedperspectiveofthoseinvolved.Mol(
)usedtheexample
ofatherosclerosis.Shepointedoutthatpatientsarecompelledtoliveoutthe
experienceofsufferingthesignsandsymptomsofatherosclerosis.Thiscanbeseen
intermsofthestorythatpatientsliveout.Itisastorythatmightincludeintermittent
claudication,i.e.paininthelegsonexertion.Thedoctorsinvolved,however,
willliveoutandbodilyenactdifferentversionsofatherosclerosis.Thesurgeonwill
enactwhatisseenanddoneontheoperatingtable.Thepathologistwillenactwhat
isseenanddonethroughthemicroscopeinthelaboratory.Allthesepeoplemust
enactandcoordinatetheirversionsofatherosclerosistoproducethephenomenonof
9EmbodimentinthePracticeandEducationofHealthProfessionals147
S.Loftus
together.Inthenineteenthcentury,biome
dicalsciencesstartedtojoinforceswith
medicinetoproducethemodernprofessionofscienticmedicine.Nowitcanbe
arguedthatmodernscienticmedicineispoisedtojoinforceswiththemedical
humanities.Themedicalhumanitieshavethepotentialtodealwithsomeofthe
contemporaryproblemsofmodernmedicine.
Amajorproblemwithmodernscienticmedicineisthatthevoiceofbiomedical
sciencehasnowbecomedominant.InBakhtinianterms,thereisamonologuerather
thanadialogueofdifferentvoices.Thiscanbeseeninthecallbythepioneersof
Evidence-BasedMedicinewhentheypointedoutthatthebestavailableevidence
9EmbodimentinthePracticeandEducationofHealthProfessionals149
DialogicalEmbodiment
TherecurrentemphasisonrelationsrecallstheworkofBakhtin(
)aboutthe
provisionalandopennatureofdialogicalrelationships.Ifweadoptadialogical
view,thentherelationshipsarenotsimply
aboutrationalagentspassinginformation
backwardsandforwards.Therelationshipsinvolvethebodilyexperienceand
languageofpatientandclinician.Itcanbearguedthattherelationshipsgo
further,eventhoughbodilyexperienceandlanguagemayprovidethefoundation.
S.Loftus
reallythinkingtoomuch;butbytheendofitwhenyoure
intheEmergencydepartment
atnight
youretryingtoworkoutwhatsgoingonhere?Youreactuallyforcedinto
thatthinkingmodeandyoudoapplythoseprocesses
itsnotuntilyoureinthatplace
ofres
ponsib
thatyoureallystartgettingit(Loftus
,p.122).
ThisreectsSchns(
)insightthatbeginnersmustpersonallyandbodily
immersethemselvesintherealityofpracticebeforetheycanreallyappreciatewhat
isinvolved.Oneaspectofbodilyinvolvem
entintheworldofmedicalpracticethat
hasattractedlittleattentionistheritualisticelement.
RitualandEmbodiment
Ritualcanbeseenasoneoftheembodiedaspectsofprofessionalpractice.Ritualis
especiallyimportantinmedicalpracticeandeducation.Medicalpracticerequires
clinicianstodealwithagreatdealofcomplexityanduncertainty.Onewayof
managingsuchcomplexityistoadopthighlyritualisedwaysofconductingsome
aspectsofpractice.Forexample,assessm
entsfollowprotocolsthatareusually
followedinasetformat.MyassessmentofMrsXwassupposedtobeginwitha
formalandritualisedconversationinwhichIgatheredinformationaboutherpresent
complaintandthenwentontoestablishamedicalhistory,asocialhistory,afamily
history,andsoon.Thisisfollowedbyaphysicalexamination,againconductedina
9EmbodimentinthePracticeandEducationofHealthProfessionals151
awhitecoatwithastethoscopehalfinapocket).Thereportermayalsobestanding
closetoalightbox,prominentlydisplayingradiographs,andisoftenholdingthe
patientslewithallthelaboratoryresults.Theseartefactslendmaterialsupport
tothereportandtheirscienticbasiscarri
educationintheWesternworlddevotesagreatdealoftimeandeffortinensuring
thatmedicalstudentslearntoperformsuch
rituals,andtoperformthemwell.When
seniorclinicianscanhearmedicalstudentsandjuniordoctorspresentingclinical
narrativesinthesestylisedformats,theseniorsarereassuredthatthejuniorscan
berelieduponandknowwhattheyaredoing.ThisisbecauseinmanyWestern
s,forexample,allowustovisualise
thepatientsbodyasneverbefore.Thegreatandgrowingrangeofdiagnostictests
S.Loftus
availableenableustoknowthepatientsbodyasabiomedicalobjectinintimate
Technology,then,canbecomepartofacliniciansembodiedpractice.Ontheother
9EmbodimentinthePracticeandEducationofHealthProfessionals153
TimespaceandEmbodiedPractice
Thesignicanceofnotionssuchastimespaceorthechronotopeisthatevery
bodilypracticeoccursintimeandspaceandi
sconnectedwitheveryotherpractice.
Bakhtinusedthenotionofthechronotopetoconsiderhowcommunicationworksin
literature,buttheideacanbeappliedreadilytoprofessionalpractice.Toparaphrase
Bakhtinintermsofembodiment,everybodilypracticenecessarilyelicitsaresponse
inoneformoranother.Bodilypracticesare
notindifferenttoeachotherandtheyare
notself-sufcient.Theyareawareofand
mutuallyreecteachother.Everyclinical
encounterthenbecomesalinkinachain,connectedtoallclinicalencounters.The
changehereandnow,inthistimeandspace,inorderfortheproceduretosucceed.
Thisbodilyexperience,overtime,becomespartofacliniciansexpertise.Itwas
S.Loftus
asclinicians,occupy.Beingsensitivetothedifferenttimespacesatworkispartof
thedialogicalnatureoftheclinicalencounter.Thereisalsoaneedforcliniciansto
besensitivetothedifferentlevelsofe
ngagementrequiredinsuchencounters.As
Taylor(
)remindsus,thereareatleasttwotypesofepistemologicaloperation
goingon.Theclinicianmustcometoknowthepatientsbodyasabiomedical
object,wherethetechnical-rationalapproachcomesintoitsown.Thereisalsothe
needtocometoanunderstandingwithaninterlocutor,whereembodiedrelational
understandingallowsapersonalrelationshiptobeestablished.Bothapproachesare
needed,nowmorethanever.
Conclusion
InthischapterIhavedrawnattentiontosomeoftheissuessurroundingthe
bodyinmedicalandsurgicalpracticeandtheireducation.Thereisagrowing
numberofvoicesthatarebeginningtorecognisetheimportanceofembodiment
forallconcernedintheclinicalencount
er.Thelimitationsoftechnicalrationality
areslowlybeingaccepted,andtherearemovestointroduceotherdiscourses
andothervocabulariesintoanongoingdialogicalconversationthatcanopen
upourunderstandingofthepatient/doctorrelationship.Thereisamoveaway
fromsimplisticepistemologicalviewsofmedicalpracticeandeducationtothe
realisationthatpracticeisprimary,andthatourbodilyenactmentofpracticebrings
withitmultipleontologiesandepistemologies.Wewillprobablyneverbeable
9EmbodimentinthePracticeandEducationofHealthProfessionals155
Charon,R.(2006).
Narrativemedicine:Honor
ingthestoriesofillness
.Oxford:OxfordUniversity
S.Loftus
Todres,L.(2007).
Embodiedenquiry:Phenomenologicaltouchstonesforresearch,psychotherapy
andspirituality
.NewYork:PalgraveMacmillan.
Verghese,A.(2008).CultureshockPatientasicon,iconaspatient.
NewEnglandJournalof
Medicine,359
(26),27482750.doi:
10.1056/NEJMp0807461
Wenger,E.(1998).
Communitiesofpractice:Learning,meaningandidentity
.Cambridge:
CambridgeUniversityPress.
Wittgenstei
n,L.(1958).
Philosophicalinvestigations
.UpperSaddleRiver:PrenticeHall.
Chapter10
EmbodiedReexivity:KnowledgeandtheBody
inProfessionalPractice
ErikaR.Katzman
Sincethethemeofincarnationthequestionofthebody-subjectformsthepoint
ofintersectionofcriticaldiscoursephenomenological,hermeneutic,psychoanalytic,
poststructuralist,andfeministitisanappropriate
topos
todeepenourinvestigationof
reexivity.(Sandywell
,p.277)
Introduction
Embodimentandreexivitybothareconcep
tsfamiliartocontemporaryprofessional
practiceandeducationscholarship.Theaimofthischapteristoexplorethefusion
oftheseconcepts,consideringembodiedreexivityasanapproachtoknowledge
generationinthecontextofprofessionalpractice.InthispaperIpresentreexive
writingaboutmyownpersonalandprofessionalexperiencesandobservationsover
severalyearsofemploymentasanattendantserviceworker.Iaimtoshowhowan
embodiednarrativeaboutembodiedexperiencecanrevealembodiedreexivity,as
aformofreexivitythatisfeltwithinthebody.Ifurthersuggestthatattending
toembodiedreexivitypotentiallyoffersanimportantavenueforknowledge
generation:apathofaccesstotheuniqueknowledgesofindividualpractitioners,
developedthroughembodiedprofessionalexperience.Asaprefacetothereexive
accountintroducedlaterinthechapter,Ibeginbyexaminingconceptualwork
onreexivityandembodiment,toconsiderhowanotionofembodiedreexivity
maybeasalientconceptwithrespecttomakingtacitorinvisibleembodied
knowledgesmorevisible.Itismyintenttodemonstrate,bywayofreexivewriting,
E.R.Katzman(
FacultyofHealthSciences,HealthProfessionalEducationStream,WesternUniversity,London,
ON,Canada
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__10
E.R.Katzman
howacknowledgingandattendingtoembodiedreexivityoffersauniquecontribu-
tiontohowwethinkaboutwhatcountsasknowledge,specicallyinthecontextof
professionalpractice.
Reexivity:ThinkingCriticallyAbouttheGeneration
ofKnowledge
Theconceptofreexivityisrelativelynewtoconversationssurroundingprofes-
sionalpractice.Someexamplescanbefound
intheliteratureonhealthandwelfare
(TaylorandWhite
),socialwork(DCruzetal.
),education(Cunliffe
),occupationaltherapy(Phelan
;KinsellaandWhiteford
)and
nursing(Bellot
;Cheek
).Reexivityisoftendescribedintermsofits
thoughtisanemphasisonreexivity.Lather(
10EmbodiedReexivity:KnowledgeandtheBodyinProfessionalPractice159
E.R.Katzman
Thenotionthatmindandbodyconstitutedi
stinctivelyseparateentitiesstems
fromtheEnlightenmentera,andwasfamous
lyandmostclearlyarticulatedinthe
writingofDescartes(Matthews
).Descartessuggestedthattruthintheformof
objectiveknowledgecouldonlybeachievedbythinking,viathecognitivefunction
ofthemind.Whilethephilosophicalbifurcationofbodyandmindhadappeared
elsewhereinhistory,Descartes
succeededinlinkingthemind/bodyopposition
tothefoundationsofknowledgeitself,a
linkwhichplacesthemindinapositionof
hierarchicalsuperiorityoverandabovenature,includingthenatureofthebody
(Grosz
,p.6).Descartesdoubtedthereliabilityofthebodilysensesasa
meansofcapturingthesupposedessenceo
freality,expressinganepistemological
orientationthatcametorepresentthephilosophicalfoundationofmodernscience;
inparticular,modernsciencesrejectionofthebodyasapotentialsourceforthe
generationofknowledge(Matthews
).InthewordsofGrosz(
,p.6),
Descartesinstitutedadualismwhichthre
ecenturiesofphilosophicalthoughthave
attemptedtoovercomeorreconcile.
Embodimentisanemergingconceptthati
sbeginningtobetakenupasacritique
oftheprioritizationorlegitimationofthemindattheexpenseofthebody.An
embodiedperspectivebeginswiththeassumptionthatourbodiesaremediums
throughwhichweexperiencetheworld(ParkLalaandKinsella
,p.78).
OfferinganalternativetoDescartesframingofthebodyasdistinctfromthemind,
phenomenologistMerleau-Ponty(
)suggestsamoreintegratedunderstanding
ofbodyandmindwhenhesaysthat[t]hebodyisthevehicleofbeinginthe
world
Iamconsciousoftheworldthroughthemediumofmybody(p.9495).
ForMerleau-Ponty,consciousness,perceptionandthemindareembodiedphenom-
ena:Thebodyandthemodesofsensualperceptionwhichtakeplacethroughit
afrmthenecessaryconnectednessofconsciousnessasitisincarnated;mindfor
himisalwaysembodied,alwaysbasedoncorporealandsensoryrelations(Grosz
,p.86).Theoriesofembodimentaimtorecoverandlegitimizealternative
accountsinformedbyandgeneratedfromwithinsensoryexperience.
Grosz(
)linksMerleau-Pontysemphasisontheprimacyoflivedexperience
toasimilarveininfeministcontributionstothephilosophyofknowledge.Harding
)suggeststhatdifferentknowledgesari
sefromdifferentperspectivesonand
experiencesofreality,pointingtothecapacityofthinkingfromtheperspectives
ofwomenslivestomakestrangewhathadpreviouslyappearedfamiliar.Grosz
ndsinMerleau-Pontythreekeyinsight
srelevanttofeministperspectiveson
10EmbodiedReexivity:KnowledgeandtheBodyinProfessionalPractice161
Whilesomephenomenologicalandfeminis
tapproachestothegenerationof
knowledgearguethatweneedtobeginwiththebody,Foucaultspoststructuralist
critiqueofrationalismintentionally
centresthesubject,preferringinsteadto
approachanalysesbyfocusingonlanguageanddiscourses(ScheurichandBell
McKenzie
).Whilethebodyandlivedexperiencetendtobedownplayedin
postmodern/poststructuralanalyses,Grosz(
,p.125)locatescritiquesofthe
absenceofthebodyintheworkofNietzsche:
ForNietzsche,consciousnessisabelief,anillusion
aconvenientction.
Knowl-
edge,mind,philosophy,asthatactivitysupposedlyconcernedwithreason,isthediscipline
mostimplicatedinawilltoignorance
philosophyisbasedonadisavowalofits
corporealoriginsanditsstatusascorporealproduct.Thebodyistheintimateandinternal
conditionofallknowledges
Groszshowsthat,inturningareexivegazebackuponknowledgeitself,
E.R.Katzman
asanimportantsourceofknowledgeamongstcaregivers,Somerville(
)ismore
explicitlyreexive,notingthatthehigheststatusisreservedforthemostabstract
andimmateriallearning
10EmbodiedReexivity:KnowledgeandtheBodyinProfessionalPractice163
thepostmodernprojectofdeconstruction,andasimplicatedinparticularinthe
generationofknowledge.Theaimofreexivity,inSandywellsconception,isto
recognizealternativeknowledgesandwa
ysofknowingorofgeneratingknowledge.
Indeed,forSandywell(
,p.282),
consciousnessisnotadisembodiedfacultyorstreamofideas;butneitherisexistencean
unformedmassofsensoryimpressionsorunmediatedmatter;bothmomentsareimbricated
E.R.Katzman
experienceisovertakenbytechnicalexper
tise(p.5).Frankcallsthisscenario,in
whichindividualvoicesaresilencedbyadominantmedicaldiscourseanddenied
theopportunitytospeakfororrepresentthemselves,medicalcolonization(p.10).
Inpostmoderntimes,however,peoplestruggletoidentifywithdominantmedico-
discursiverepresentationsoftheirexpe
rience,feelinganeedforavoicetheycan
recognizeastheirown(p.7).Tellingsto
riesofillnessistheattempt,instigated
bythebodysdisease,togiveavoicetoanexperiencethatmedicinecannot
describe(p.18);asembodiedstoriesoflo
caltruths,illnessnarrativesrepresent
animportantsiteofresistancetothedominantvoiceofmodernscience.
Inasmuchastheystandtochallengethestabilityofconcretizeddominant
knowledges,illnessnarrativesmightbe
thoughtofasformsofreexivity.Frank
)describesthevoicethatstorytellin
ggivestobodiesasofferinganimportant
contributiontothegenerationofknowle
dge.Atapersonallevel,Frankcontends,
embodiedstoriesvalidateandattesttotheuniquenessofindividualexperience.
Atasociallevel,storiesatoncereproduc
eoldtruthsandcreatenewpossibilities,
drawingonandcontributingtothesoci
alvocabularyofexperience,whatGeertz
,p.30)referstoastheconsultablerecordofwhatman[woman]hassaid.
Storytelling,inFranksaccount,contributesmeaningfullytothegenerationof
10EmbodiedReexivity:KnowledgeandtheBodyinProfessionalPractice165
ThePressureSore
Sixyearsago,oneofthelastthingsIevercouldhaveimaginedmyselfdoing,
inlifeandeveninmyjobasanattendant,wascaringforawound.WhenIwas
rsttrainedasanattendantIlearnedaboutpreventativeskincare,andabouthow
totreatminorskinbreakdownstopreventthemfromworsening.Ilearnedabout
importantmedicaltechnologies,andwithnopriorknowledgeofskinoutsideof
myownpersonalexperience,wasfascinatedtoseehowquicklytherightmedical
suppliescanfacilitatethehealingofsom
eminorskindegradation.Throughdaily
embodiedexperiencewithskinandbasicmedicalsuppliesIgainedafairlythorough
understandingofskin;enoughtoknow,oneSeptemberaboutayearafterIstarted
thejob,thattheusualmeasuresforclear
ingupaminorblemishwerenotworking:
thehydrocolloiddressingwasntdisapp
earingthelittleredspotintheskinfoldasit
usuallydid.Inmyopinion,theredspotwasgrowing,deepening.Itscharacteristics
werechanging.Theredwasjoinedbysomestreaksofyellowish-white.Itbegan
tolookmoisterthanithad.Itfrightenedmetowatchtheskinchangeinthisway.
IsoonbegantorealizethatthiswasntevenskinIwasdealingwithanymore,but
esh.Thisiswheremyexperiencewithwoundcarebegan.
Tounderstandthisstoryfully,itisimportanttounderstandmyprofessional
position,inparticular,mypositionofpowerrelativetothesituation.Asapersonal
attendant,myjobdescription(asitwasexplainedtomewhenIwashiredbythe
womantowhomIwouldbeservingasanattendant)wastoperformthevarious
tasksthatherparalyzedbodycouldnotperformwithoutassistance.Inessence,I
washiredtoprovidesubstitutehandsandlegs,toactasherbodymight.Giventhis
jobdescription,Ididmybest,asIhadbeeninstructed,tocheckmyselfatthedoor;
tobringtoworkmyhands,armsandlegs,andleavemyselfathome.Onone
hand,thistaskmakesagreatdealofsense.Myemployerwaslookingtohirea
E.R.Katzman
role.Asthedaysandweekspassed,Iobservedanddescribedasthespotbecame
deeper,andredder,andscaredmemoreandmore.
Idontrememberwhenexactlythebr
eakingpointwasreached.Myemployer
wasverybusythatSeptember,astoo,Imsure,weretheclinicsshewouldneed
tomakeappointmentswith.WhatIdorememberclearlyaretheensuing4years
ofappointmentsatthreedifferentwoundcareclinics;theinteractionswithwhat
seemedanendlesslyrevolvingdoorofh
ealthpractitioners;thewaymyjob(and
life)changeddramaticallywhenmyempl
oyerwassentencedtobedrest,acourse
ofactionwhoseperniciousandextensiveimplicationstheprescribingmediccould
nothavepossiblyevenbeguntocomprehend.Nor,Isuspect,didtheyhaveany
realsenseofthetotalizingnatureofthatpressuresoreinmyemployerslife;for
itbecameaguidingforce,aprimaryconsid
erationimpactingtheplanningofevery
activity,everyday.
ManytimesovertheyearssincethatfatefulSeptemberIhavereecteduponthe
circumstancesunderwhichthatwounddeve
loped,initially,andasitcontinually
worsened,evenafteritbegantoreceivethepropermedicalattention.Itisa
strangethingtoconsider,possessionofawound.Ofcourse,itismyemployers
wound;itislocatedonherbody.Butsheneversawit,hardlyacknowledgeditfor
therstmonthofitsexistence.DuringthattimeIwasdeeplyconcernedaboutit
andintimatelyinvolvedwithit.Icleaned
anddressedit,observed,measuredand
describediteverysingleday.Inasense,thatwoundwasalsomine.Aconstant
presenceplayingasignicantroleinmyd
ailyexperience,Ihadcometoknowthat
woundinanembodiedway.
Untilwetookittothehospital,careforthepressuresorewasinformedbythe
embodiedknowledgesofmyemployerandmyself.Inthehospitalwoundclinic,
10EmbodiedReexivity:KnowledgeandtheBodyinProfessionalPractice167
insteadofsomeonewelltrainedinwoundcare,perhapssomeonewhoseauthority
orexpertisemighthavemoreforciblyinsistedsheseekmedicalattentionforthe
skinblemishbeforeitdevelopedintoachronicwound.Withtimeitbecameclearto
methatmyemployerrecognizedthatIhadbecometheexpertofher(specicand
context-bound)wound.Icouldseethatshetookmyknowledgeofitveryseriously.
Butstillthemedicalprofessionalsshowedlittle(ifany)regardformyknowledge
(orhers,forthatmatter).
Onewoundclinicinsistedthatnurses,trainedinthegeneralitiesofwoundcare,
ratherthantheparticularitiesofthecontext,cometomyemployershousetoattend
tothewound.Thisassertiononthepartofth
emedicalinstitutio
nwasparticularly
interesting:sendingprofessionalstraine
dbyrecognizededucationalstandardsinto
myemployershometodothejobofthepractitionershehadtrainedherself(i.e.
me).Myemployerhad,afterall,purposefullyelectedamodelofattendantservices
thatallowedhertocustomizeherattenda
ntservicesbytrainingandmanagingher
ownattendants,ratherthanacceptingapre-
packagedsupportserviceprovidedby
anagency.Ihavereectedalotonthecontes
ted/contestablenatureofthisscenario,
questioningwhatpreciselyfallsunderthejurisdictionofindividualswithregard
totheirownhealthcareandatwhatpointweshouldreasonablybeexpectedto
concedecontrolandmanagementtoprofe
ssionals.Ofcourse,myemployerdoes
notrequiresomeonetrainedinastandardizedwaytoassistherinthecompletion
ofvariousactivitiesofdailyliving,butwoulditbetoheradvantage,tothebenet
ofthecollective,tohavesomeoneprofessionallytrainedinteractingwithherbody?
Orwouldthereinlayanassumptionaboutherdisabledbody,assickandtherefore
necessarilyrequiringconstantmedicalsupervision?Surelythesameadvantages
wouldstandtrueweremyablebodyconstantlysubjectedtoamedicalgaze
(which,ofcourse,itisnot).Why,then,shouldthatgazebeimposeduponsomeone
withadisability?
seehowattendingtoknowledgethatisgeneratedexperientiallythroughthebody,
suchasmyembodiedknowledgeofmyemployerswound,hasthepotentialto
E.R.Katzman
EmbodiedReexivityan
dKnowledgeGeneration
intheContextofProfessionalPractice
Ihavepresentedthisnarrativeinanattempttoshowembodiedreexivityinthe
contextofprofessionalpractice,asaprocessthatoffersanimportantavenuefor
knowledgegenerationinprofessionalpractic
eandinvitescriticalconsiderationof
howwethinkaboutwhatcountsaslegitimat
eknowledge.Embodi
mentandreexiv-
itybothareconceptsfamiliartocontemporaryprofessionalpracticeandeducation
scholarship,whereanemergentliteratureon
phronesis
advocatesforrecognition
andlegitimationofpracticalwisdomalongs
ideconventionalformsofscientic
knowledgeandtechnicalrationality(KinsellaandPitman
;Polkinghorne
).Inthisliterature,reexiveconsiderationofthegenerationofknowledge
callsforattentiontointelligentaction,activelydemonstratedinpracticecontexts,
throughwhichembodiedortacitknowledgesarerevealed.Kinsella(
)situates
embodiedreectionandcriticalreexivity
alongacontinuumofre
ectionthatshe
suggestsisimplicatedinthedevelopmentofprofessionalknowledgecharacterised
asphronesis(p.35).Thefusionofembodimentandreexivityisforeshadowedin
KinsellasworkbyBillGreensconceptionofKinsellascontinuumasapulsating
quadrantinwhichanypiecemightoverlapwithanotheratanytime(Kinsella
p.38).ThenarrativeIhavepresentedheremakesexplicitthissuggestedconnection
10EmbodiedReexivity:KnowledgeandtheBodyinProfessionalPractice169
espousedbythemedicalinstitution,asser
tingitsauthoritysostrongly,overpowered
myembodiedexperientialknowledge.IfeltsocertainoftheobservationsIhad
E.R.Katzman
reexivityinprofessionalpractice,whichcallsforreexiveconsiderationofthe
typesofknowledgethatareallowedtoinformprofessionalpractice,aswellas
acknowledgementofthevalueswhichpermitlegitimationofcertainknowledges,
potentiallyattheexpenseofcertainothers(Phelan
;KinsellaandWhiteford
;TaylorandWhite
).Theparticularexampletakenupinthischapteris
thelegitimationoftechnical-rationalknowledgeattheexpenseofacknowledging
orconsideringoftenmoretacitorembodiedexperientialknowledges.
InmuchthesamewaythatFrankdescribesillnessnarrativesassymptomatic
ofandarisingasaformofresistancetotheoppressivedominanceofmedico-
discursiveconstructionsofillness,Is
uggestitispossibletothinkaboutthe
emergenceofconsiderationsofreexivityandembodimentindiscussionssurround-
ingprofessionalpracticeinasimilarway.Historically,emotionalresponsesof
practitionerstothesituationstheyfacehavebeencastasproblematicandrequiring
control(DCruzetal.
,p.80),apositionwhichreectsvaluesofcognitivism
andobjectivity.AsIhaveattemptedtodemonstratebywayofreexivewriting
aboutmyownpracticeexperience,reexivity,ascriticalawarenessofthefactors
thatinuenceknowledgecreation,demandsacknowledgementofthedynamic
10EmbodiedReexivity:KnowledgeandtheBodyinProfessionalPractice171
Bolton,G.(2010).Reectivepractice:Anintroduction.In
Reectivepractice:Writingand
professionaldevelopment
(pp.324).ThousandOaks:Sage.
Burns,M.L.(2006).Bodiesthatspeak:Examiningthedialoguesinresearchinteractions.
QualitativeResearchinPsychology,3
,318.doi:
10.1191/1478088706qp050oa
Butler,J.(1993).
Bodiesthatmatter:Onthediscursivelimitsofsex
.NewYork:Routledge.
Cheek,J.(2000).
Postmodernandpoststructuralapproachestonursingresearch
.ThousandOaks:
Cunliffe,A.(2002).Reexivedialogicalpracticeinmanagementlearning.
ManagementLearning,
(1),3561.doi:
10.1177/1350507602331002
Cunliffe,A.(2004).Onbecomingac
riticallyreexivepractitioner.
JournalofManagement
Education,28
(4),407426.doi:
10.1177/1052562904264440
DCruz,H.,Gilingham,P.,&Melendez,S.(2007).Reexivity,itsmeaningsandrelevancefor
socialwork:Acriticalreviewoftheliterature.
BritishJournalofSocialWork,37
,7390.
doi:
10.1093/bjsw/bcl001
Finlay,L.(2005).Reexiveembodiedempathy:Aphenomenologyofparticipant-
researcherintersubjectivity.
TheHumanisticPsychologist,33
(4),271292.doi:
10.1207/
s15473333thp3304_4
Foucault,M.(1973).
Theorderofthings:Anarchaeologyofthehumansciences
.NewYork:
VintageBooks.
Foucault,M.(1988).
Madnessandciv
ilization:Ahistoryofins
anityintheageofreason
(R.Howard,Trans.).NewYork:VintageBooks.
Frank,A.(1995).Whenbodiesneedvoices.In
Thewoundedstoryteller:B
ody,illn
essandethics
(pp.125).Chicago:TheUniversityofChicagoPress.
E.R.Katzman
Phelan,S.K.(2011).Constructionsofdisa
bility:Acallforcriticalreexivityin
occupationaltherapy.
CanadianJournalofOccupationalTherapy,78
(3),16472.doi:
10.2182/
cjot.2011.78.3.4
Polkinghorne,D.(2004).
Practiceandthehumansciences:Thecaseforajudgement-based
practiceofcare
(pp.129150).NewYork:StateUniversityofNewYork.
Richardson,L.(1994).W
riting:Amethodofinquiry.InN
.Denzin&Y.Lincoln(Eds.),
ofqualitativeresearch
(pp.516529).ThousandOaks:Sage.
Sandywell,B.(1996).
Reexivityandthecrisisofwesternreason:Logologicalinvestigations
(Vol.1).London:Routledge.
Sauer,B.(1998).Embodiedknowledge:Thetextualrepresentationofembodiedsensoryinforma-
tioninadynamicanduncertainmaterialenvironment.
WrittenCommunication,18,
Chapter11
EmbodiedPracticesinDialysisCare:
On(Para)ProfessionalWork
LauraL.Ellingson
Staffshroudedinwhitelabcoatsandrowsofcomputerizedequipmentglowinginstark
uorescentlightgavethedialysistreatmentroomacold,mechanisticair.Incontrasttothis
sterility,twodozenthintubesofbrightcrimson,circulatingbloodbespokethevulnerable
bodiesthatreclinednexttoeachmachine.Avividarrayofpatientscolorfulm
ittens,knit
hats,sheets,blankets,pillows,andsleepingbagsprovidedsomecheerthetreatmentroom
lookedlikeabizarrewinterslumberpartyforseniorcitizens.Patientsusedouter-wearand
bedclothestocopewiththech
illingeffectof
bloodcirculatingoutsi
detheirwarmbodiesin
coolmachines.Mostofthetwenty-vetreatmentstationswerefull,andIwatchedasstaff
membersbusilypreparedtheremainingstationsforthenextshiftofpatients.Technical
L.L.Ellingson(
CommunicationandWomensandGenderStudies,SantaClaraUniversity,SantaClara,CA,USA
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__11
174L.L.Ellingson
Basedonextensiveeldworkinalocaloutpatientdialysistreatmentunit,Iexam-
ineconnectionsamongcommunication,embodiment,andprofessionalpractice.
Specically,Ianalyzehowtensionsamongcaringforpatientsandexhibiting
professionalismarenegotiatedbynursesandpatientcaretechniciansthroughtheir
embodiedworkplacepracticesandhowthesepracticescollectivelycometomake
updialysiscaregiving.Thisstudyis
writtenasalayeredaccount(Ronai
inwhichtheresultsarerepresentedbyalternatingethnographicnarrativesand
academicanalysisinformedbyfeminist
theorizingofembodiment(e.g.,Trinh
andpracticetheory(e.g.,Hopwood
,thisvolume(Chap.
);Schatzki
AfterdescribingthedialysistreatmentunitinwhichIconductedeldwork,Ithen
brieyexplainkeyconceptsincommunication,embodiment,andpracticetheory
beforeexaminingtheprofessionalpracticesofdialysiscare.
SettingtheScene
Myexplorationofembodiedpracticesinadialysisunitcomesinresponseto
Schatzkis(
)callforpracticetheorizingtobeappliedtoempiricalcontexts.A
11EmbodiedPracticesinDialysisCare:On(Para)ProfessionalWork175
patients(Ellingson
).Forthepurposesofthepresentanalysis,Isetasidethe
complexrelationshipsthatariseinhealthcaresystemsasworkis(re)distributed
amonghealthcareprofessionalsandpar
aprofessionals,andfocusontheteam
ofhealth-careproviderswhocarefordialysispatientsbothprofessionalsand
paraprofessionalsasengagedinprofessionalpractice.
Similartomanyinfusioncentersthatprovidechemotherapyandotherintra-
venoustherapies,dialysisgenerallyisadministeredinalargeopenroomwitha
nursesstationinthecenter.Allmachines
andtreatmentchairsfacethecenter
oftheroom,providingreadyvisualacces
stoallpatientsforcareproviders,in
aformreminiscentofFoucaults(
)efcientprisonpanopticon,albeitwith
morebenevolentintent.Ofcourse,sucha
narrangementalsorenderedvisualaccess
ofpatientstootherpatientsandvisitorsanddeniedanymeaningfulsemblanceof
176L.L.Ellingson
inextricablyboundtothemat
erial.Practicesandmater
11EmbodiedPracticesinDialysisCare:On(Para)ProfessionalWork177
ideasonwhatistobedone.MygoalthenistoproblematizetherepresentationsI
constructed,acknowledgingthesituatednessandinherentpartialityofthese(andall)
accountsandtheembodiednatureofthefeministethnographicapproachtostudying
practicethatIemployed.Myprimarygoalforunderstandingispragmaticthat
is,howdoweunderstandembodiedpracticesindialysiscareinordertoimprove
themtothebenetofpatients,dialysiscar
eproviders,and(ideally)thehealthcare
systemsintheU.S.andinternationally.
Myunrulybodydemandscontinualattentionandmakesitimpossibletoignore
thewaysinwhichembodimentnecessarilyaffectsandreectsmyresearchpro-
cesses,relationshipswithparticipants,andperspectivesonknowledgeconstruction
(Ellingson
).Iamalong-termsurvivorofosteosarcomoa(bonecancer).
Atthistimeofthiseldwork,Ihadundergoneelevenreconstructivesurgerieson
myrightlegduringandaftercancertreat
mentthatleftmewithchronicpain,a
noticeablelimp,andoftenalegbrace,allofwhichmarkedmeasamemberof
thecommunityofpain(Frank
)andelicitedregularquestionsandcomments
frompatients,theircompanions,anddialysiscareproviders.Mybodilyexperience
oftheclinicwasmediatedbymyempathywithpatients,intimatefamiliaritywith
thepatientrole(albeitnotwithdialysis),andvisualevidenceofmymobilityimpair-
ment.
Myfemalegender,whiteprivilege,andstatusasascholar/nonemployeeof
thedialysisunitalsoimpactedthemeaningsIco-constructedwithparticipants(see
Denshire,Chap.
178L.L.Ellingson
Eduardofoldedherblanketandstuffeditintoherblackduffelbag.Whenthepatientstood
11EmbodiedPracticesinDialysisCare:On(Para)ProfessionalWork179
180L.L.Ellingson
Whatdoyouneed?RenaaskedMrDuttagently,makingeyecontactwithhim.
Iwanttogo,hesaidwearily.
Youstillhave20minutesleft,shereplied,pattinghisarmandmovingtoassistanother
patient.
Lessthanaminutelater,MrDuttabegantofollowEfrenwithhiseyesagain.CanI
leave?heaskedEfrenwhenthepatientcaretechnicianpassednearhischair.
Youstillhavenineteenminutesleft,repliedEfrenblandly,notslowingdownandnot
makingeyecontact.MrDuttatriedtopushthefoot-restofhisreclinerdownsohecould
standup,butfoundhecouldnot.Perplexed,heleanedforward,pressingagainandagain
11EmbodiedPracticesinDialysisCare:On(Para)ProfessionalWork181
andcareproviderssincehecouldnotunderstandthenecessityforhimtostaystill
whilehisbloodwascirculatingthrough
182L.L.Ellingson
himonlyinpassingasRenadid.Iwitnessedanddialysiscareprovidersreported
ininterviewsanacceptanceofthepracticesforhandlingMrDuttaasconstitutinga
workableresponsetoanonresolvabledilemma.Physicalobstructionandrepeatedly
11EmbodiedPracticesinDialysisCare:On(Para)ProfessionalWork183
Themortalityrateofdialysispatientsisquitehigh(e.g.,USRDS
),and
copingwithpatientsdeathsinvolvedintenseemotionallaborfordialysiscaregivers
184L.L.Ellingson
DiscussionandImplications
Dialysiscareprovidersprofessionalpracticeswereconstitutedwithinawebof
complexverbalandnonverbalcommunication,materialobjects,embodiedpersons,
andbiotechnologytoaccomplishdialysistr
eatmentforpatient
s.Theethnographic
narrativesandanalysesincludedhereinilluminatedpracticesofdialysiscarethat
haveimplicationsforhealthcaredeliveryandforfurthertheorizingofthelinkages
amongembodimentandpracticetheory.
First,thejuxtapositionofethnographicn
arrativesandanalyticwritinginthis
chapterproductivelyhighlightstheembodiednatureofprofessionalpractice.
Thepresenceofbodiesinthenarrative
spointstotheconspicuousabsenceof
bodieswithinacademicdiscourse(Barnacle
).Standardresearchreporting
conventionslimitdescriptionsofparticipantsactionsandwordstoverybrief,
decontextualizedfragmentsofdata(Richardson
).Evenscholarlywriting
aboutprofessionalpracticeandabouthealthcaretwotopicsthatcenteronbodily
experiencesandencounterstendsitselftobewritteninbodilessprose,withno
11EmbodiedPracticesinDialysisCare:On(Para)ProfessionalWork185
ofthemultitudeofembodiedprofessiona
lpracticesthatmakeupthecomplex
186L.L.Ellingson
toimplementprogramsforhelpingcareproviderstocopewithpainfulemotionsand
acknowledgejoyfulorsatisfyingmomentsofbeingacareprovideraswell,suchas
fosteringsocialsupportamongcolleaguesandencourageprocessingofemotions
throughprovidingsupportgroups,workshopsonjournaling,orotherstrategiesthat
havebeenshowntobeeffectiveformediatingworkplacestressforhealthcare
providers(LeBlancetal.
).Moreover,IunderstandKatesexperienceoflossas
acallforcompassionamongdialysiscareproviders,aswellformorecompassionate
discernmentfromscholars,administrators,andotherswhopassjudgmentfrom
outsidedialysiscaresites.Perhapsitistimetoquestionthestrictemotionaldisplay
rulesofprofessionalpractices.Ofcoursetherearetimesinwhichcontrolofdialysis
careprovidersemotionsisanecessity.Buttheremaybeotherinstances,suchas
cryingwhenreceivingnewsofapatients
death,thatanembodieddisplayofgrief
andlossmaybethemosthumaneandappropriateresponsefromaprofessional,and
lackofsuchadisplaymaybeperceivedasareectionofanabsenceofcaring.Is
11EmbodiedPracticesinDialysisCare:On(Para)ProfessionalWork187
ofprofessionalpracticepriortomyamputation.Asmybodilydifferencesas
188L.L.Ellingson
Flynn,L.,Thomas-Hawkins,C.,&Clarke,S.P.(2009).Organizationaltraits,careprocesses,
andburnoutamongchronichemodialysisnurses.
WesternJournalofNursingResearch,31
569582.doi:
10.1177/0193945909331430
Foucault,M.(1977).
Disciplineandpunish:Thebirthoftheprison
.NewYork:Vintage.
Frank,A.(1995).
Thewoundedstoryteller:B
ody,illn
ess,andethics
.Chicago:Universityof
ChicagoPress.
Fukunishi,I.,Kitaoka,T.,Shirai,T.,Kino,K.,Kanematsu,E.,&Sato,Y.(2002).Psychi-
atricdisordersamongpatientsundergoinghemodialysistherapy.
Nephron,91
,344347.
doi:
10.1159/00005841
Geertz,C.(1973).
11EmbodiedPracticesinDialysisCare:On(Para)ProfessionalWork189
Ronai,C.R.(1995).M
ultiplereections
ofchildhoodsexabuse:Anargumentfora
layeredaccount.
JournalofContemporaryEthnography,23
(4),395426.doi:
10.1177/
Chapter12
(Per)formingthePractice(d)Body:
GynecologicalTeachingAssociates
inMedicalEducation
JodiHall
Nowyouwillnoticeoneofthethingstheyemphasizedinthe
pelvicteachingvideowastheuseoflanguage.Thisisa
J.Hall(
AdjunctAssistantProfessor,ArthurLabattFamilySchoolofNursing,FanshaweCollege,
WesternUniversity,London,ON,Canada
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__12
J.Hall
discourses),andhowtheperformancesofGTAs,medicalstudentsandprogram
administratorsreiedlargersocial-politicalandbiomedicaldiscourses.
Isituatemyresearchwithinthegrowi
ngbodyofworkthatcriticallyexamines
theprocessesimplicatedinthe(re)shapingofwomensbodiesthroughbiomedical
practice(s)andeducation(seeGrosz
;Lippman
;Sawicki
;Shildrick
).AcriticalexaminationoftheprofessionalpracticeofGTAsinpelvic
teachingcontributestoon-
goingdiscussionsrelate
dtothe(re)productionand
reicationofnormativediscoursesintheeducationandpracticeofbiomedical
healthprofessionals.Whilepracticehasbeensummarizedas
purposive,
embodied,situated(emplaced),anddial
ogical,orco-produced,aswellasbeing
emergentandnecessarilysociomaterial(GreenandHopwood,Chap.
,this
volume),thereisarichbodyoffeminist
literaturequestioninghowwhatwetake
asembodimentandco-production(s)mayinfactbeperformancesbasedon
gendered/classed/racializedpowerrelations.Suchworkaddressesthehistoryof
biomedicinesroleinconstructingandrepresentingthefemalebodyinverypar-
ticular,objectied,(dis)embodiedwaysthathavenormalizedhowwecollectively
makemeaningof,andexperience,thefemalebody(Grosz
;Shildrick
Suchliteratureinvitesustore-considerwhatelementsofpracticearepurposive
(andwhy),embodied,anddialogical,whatis
andwhatexactlyis
produced
Inthischapter,I(re)presentaselectio
noftheperformancepractice(s)ofGTAs,
whooperateasbothmodelandteacher/text,toshowhowprofessionalpractice
asenactedin,andoutsideof,thepelvic
teachingspacebyGTAsrequiredthem
to(re)performstylizationsof(supposed)disembodiment.Furthermore,GTAswere
expectedtodrawupontheirownembodimentasasiteandproducer/productionof
knowingwhiletheirbodieswereengagedintimatelywithandbybodiesofothers
intheteachingcontext.
Throughoutthischapter,Idrawuponmyownstoriedreectionsofworkingasa
GTAtogiveadistinctive,often-unarticul
atedvoicetothepractice/performanceof
aGTA(
initalics
)avoicethatquestionsthe(re)positioningofwomenthrougha
languagethatspeaksusintobeing,drawingattentiontohowwecometobe
known
inparticularwaysasaconsequence.IraiseuptoquestionWhatdoesitmean
tobe/becomeapractice(d)bodyinpelvic
teachingfromtheperspectiveofGTAs?
Furthermore,whatarethepossibleconsequencesfor(thepracticeof)GTAswhose
bodiesoperateassiteswheremedicalstudentspracticeispracticedupon,andfrom
wherepractice(d)knowledgeis(re)generatedthrough(not)talkingthebody.Such
questioninginvitesustoconsiderhownotionsofprofessional(ization),astakenup
withinmedicaleducation,existandparticipateinthecreationofotherbodies
caught-upinanormativefeedbackloopwhereonespractices(re)createthevery
bodyonesetsouttond.
TheTourPictureyourtypicalhospitalclinicroom.Youknowtheoneswith
12(Per)formingthePractice(d)Body:GynecologicalTeachingAssociates
Onestoolplacedatthefootofthetableforthemedicalstudent,andasidetray
J.Hall
arousingfuckthatsweird,isntit?Nowtheotherstudentispeeringoverhis
12(Per)formingthePractice(d)Body:GynecologicalTeachingAssociates
J.Hall
12(Per)formingthePractice(d)Body:GynecologicalTeachingAssociates
shame,fearofdiscoveringapathologicalcondition,worriesaboutvaginalodour,
andphysicaland/oremotionaldiscomfortanddistressallofwhicharesaid
tocontributetotherelativelylowratesofwomenobtainingpelvicexamination
J.Hall
Thecollectiveresponsetolowratesofroutinepelvicexaminationsinparticular,
andnegativeexaminationexperiencesin
general,hasbeentoimplementpelvic
teachingprogramsutilizingGTAsasaninterventioninmedicaleducation
attemptingto(re)scriptthepelvicexaminationspaceasonethatisnothostile
12(Per)formingthePractice(d)Body:GynecologicalTeachingAssociates
itisbelievedthatusingGTAsresultsinimprovedskillacquisitionandgreater
communicationefciencyinpractice,an
J.Hall
Asmyabovereectiondescribes,carryin
goutthepurposeofthepelvicteaching
moduleinvolvedbodiestobethoughtof,ornotthoughtof,inparticularnormative
ways.Accordingly,anintegralaspectoftheworkoftheGTAbodywasthework
thebodybefore,during,andaftertheteachingsession(s).Thepreparatory
activitiesofGTAswereinvisibleaspectsoftheworkofbeing/becomingaGTA
shaping,reducingand(re)inscribingpossibilitiesforinteractionsamongparticipants
withintheteachingspace.
Themannerinwhichthebodywasutilizedasresource
(GreenandHopwood,Chap.
,thisvolume)isexempliedinthisreection.
Workingonthebodybroughtaboutthechangesnecessarytoperformones
(professional)practice.GTAsbody-work,asbothresourceandbackground,were
routinizedbyGTAs,totheextentthattheenactmentoftheseaspectsoftheir
professionalroleremainednon-problematizednorquestioned(Shotter
Priortoenactingtheroleofmodelwithstudentspresent,processeswere
undertakenthatseepedintoveryintimateaspectsoftheGTAslives.Participants
sharedwithmeaspectsoftheirpreparatory/self-surveillanceworkthatassisted
withtheemotionalandphysicaldimensionsofthemodelrolefromavoiding
12(Per)formingthePractice(d)Body:GynecologicalTeachingAssociates
formedicalpractice(s)andexaminatio
nwasthematic.Astheprecedingquotes
illustrate,ritualswereundertakentoprep
areonephysically,inordertobeprepared
emotionally,forthepracticeofaGTA.Thesetechniquesinvolvedtransforminginto
anidealizedimageoffemininitythatincl
udesbeingcleanandshaven,healthy,and
chaste,allofwhichareachievedthroughvariousgroomingbehaviors.
Thesedisciplinarypracticesreecttheembodimentofideasabouttheidealbody,
andthesanctionedprocessesofbecoming(orbeingandhaving)theidealfemale
body(Heyes
),andinviteustoconsiderhowthefemalebodyasaresource,is
establishedassuch.Normsaboutwhatconstitutedacleanbodyarerootedwithin
deeplyentrenchedr
acialandclassistdiscourse,whereinthenotionofcleanis
positionedasthebinaryofdirty,lighttodark,blacktowhite.Thisparticular
imageoffemininitywasconsistentacros
sthepelvicteachingspace.Trimmed
(orshaved)femalegenitaliaweretheima
gesportrayedinth
eteachingvideothat
studentsandGTAswereshownaspartoftheirorientationtotheexam.Inthe
textbookchapterprovidedtoGTAsandmedicalstudents,thewomensexternal
genitaliawerealsohairlessortrimmed.Pubichairwaspositionedasanobstacle
totheexam;thereforeitwaseithereliminatedviashaving,waxingortrimming,
J.Hall
Powercirculatedthroughthedisciplinarypracticesenactedto(pre)formtheide-
alizedGTA,(re)producingparticularindi
viduals,institutionsandculturalarrange-
ments.However,discipliningthebodywasnotjustaboutdisciplinarypracticeson
thematerialbody,e.g.,groomingbehaviours,butalsoinvolvedemotionaldiscipline
achievedthroughanactivere-framingandr
12(Per)formingthePractice(d)Body:GynecologicalTeachingAssociates
Rosemary:Weregoingtoaskhertojust
Corey:Socanyoupleaseopenyour
Rosemary:Couldyoujustmoveyourlegsto
Corey:Canyoumoveyourlegsuntiltheytouchthebackofmyhand?
Rosemary:Ok,andjustkeepherpostedasyouaregoingandyoullbene.
J.Hall
GTAscouldbeexcludedfromparticipatingasthebodyiftheirbodydiverted
fromthenorm.Thatis,ifitwasmissingbothovaries,oneovarywasacceptable;
howeverauterusandcervixwererequired,eventhoughtheemphasiswasonthe
properapproachtoconductingthepelvicexamination.EvenwhenaGTApossessed
abodywithalltherightbits,thereweresomebodiesthatweremoreproductive
thanothers.WhenaGTAsbodyfailedtoproducethegoodsandastudentwas
unabletovisualizethecervix,reassurancesfromtheGTAstostudentswerealways
offered;unfortunately,modelsbodiescouldbeproblematizedintheprocess.For
instance,whenastudentcouldnotvisualizeDrews(anoviceGTA)cervix,she
apologizedfor,andproblematized,herownanatomy:
Imsorry.Imbroken
DroppingtheDrape
Thepracticeofteachingmedicalstudent
12(Per)formingthePractice(d)Body:GynecologicalTeachingAssociates
Thenormalizingdiscourseofmotheringandthedutytocareinscribedinthe
ideologyoffamilialismthatinformsth
eperformancesofwomanhoodconstitutes
womenasloving,dutiful(inrelationtoparents),uncritical(inrelationtochildren),
andcaringaboutourappearance,inparticularbytryingtostaythin(Coates
p.295).Forwomen,performinggenderal
ongnormativelinesoftenmeansfullling
J.Hall
Theactsoflearn[ing]tobebodiesinacertainway
(Reckwitz,asquotedby
GreenandHopwood,Chap.
,thisvolume)didnotbeginorendwithGTAtraining
(oranyothereducationalcontext).WhatIhavearguedthroughoutthischapteris
forconsiderationofthemultipleotherpossible(normative)practicesthatmayhave
informedtheprofessionalizationofbodypractices.Intakingupthechallengeof
askingthequestionofWhatisthebodyinprofessionalpractice,learningand
education?,Imeantochallengeconcepti
onsofpracticeasopen-ended,spatially-
temporallydispersednexusofdoingsandsayings(Schatzki
,p.14).Instead,I
ask:
Whose
sayingsanddoings?Andwhy
these
sayingsanddoings,andnotothers?
Whobenetsatthisparticularmomentfromsuchsayingsanddoings?Whose
practiceisonereallypractising?And(just)whatpracticeisbeingpractised?I
believegrapplingwiththeanswerstosuchquestionsiscrucialifwearetothink
criticallyabouttheplaceofthebodyinprofessionallearning,education,and
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Chapter13
The(De)fragmentedBodyinNursingEducation
S.DeLuca(
)P.Bethune-Dav
iesJ.Elliott
SchoolofNursing,FanshaweCollegeandHealth&RehabSciences,UniversityofWestern
Ontario,London,ON,Canada
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__13
13The(De)fragmentedBodyinNursingEducation211
involvingdrasticcutsinnursingstaff,andstruggleswithvoiceandpowerthat
originateinahistoryofprofessionalandgender-specicoppression(seeBenner
13The(De)fragmentedBodyinNursingEducation213
TheCorporateBodiesofNursing
Justwhoarethecorporatebodies
13The(De)fragmentedBodyinNursingEducation215
workwiththeirpatients.Yetaswellwealsobegantoquestionthenotionofthe
embodiednurseandthesignicanceofbodilyexperienceandwaysofknowingand
beingintheworld.Perhapsnotsocoincidentlywewerealsodeeplyentrenchedin
curriculumredesignandwerefacingcha
llengesofsimulationversusrealworld
/realbodyteaching/learningexperienceforourstudents.
Webegantoquestion:
Whatisthesignicanceofthebodyinnursingeducation?
Havewelostsightofthebodyoftheperson/patientaslivedexperience?
Havewelostsightofthebodyofthenursingstudentaslivedexperience?
Havewelostsightofthebodyofthenurseeducatoraslivedexperience?
Inreectinguponthesequestions,webegantondsomestartlingcoincidences
insciencectionliterature.Althoughsciencectionwritersdonotmakeclaims
thattheirdescriptionswillbeaboutactualeventsorstates,theseauthorsexplore
systematicallyalteringtechnological,soc
ialandbiologicalconditionsinanattempt
tounderstandthepossibleconsequences.
AstrikingexampleofthisistobefoundintheshortstoryTheMachineStops,
writtenbyE.M.Forster(
).Thestorydescribesaworldinwhichmostofthe
humanpopulationhaslosttheabilitytoliv
eonthesurfaceoftheEarth.Each
individualnowlivesinisol
ationbelowgroundinastandardcell,asanitized,
mechanicalworldwhereallbodilyandspiritualneedsaremetbytheomnipotent,
globalMachine.Anydisenchantmentwiththismechanizedworldisdismissedas
dangerousmadness.Humaninteractionandrst-handexperienceisunwelcome
andfeared.Akindofreligionisestablished,inwhichtheMachineistheobjectof
worship.PeopleforgetthathumanscreatedtheMachine,andtreatitasamystical
entitywhoseneedssupersedetheirown.
thenursebythecorporateandbiomedicalculturalmoresofparticularlyhospital-
basednursingpractice.AsGrosz(
,p.23)notes,thebodymustberegarded
asasiteofsocial,political,cultural,andg
eographicalinscrip
tions,production,or
constitution.
PatandJanicecontinue
ThosewhodonotacceptthedeityoftheMachineareviewedasunmechanical
andthreatenedwithHomelessness.TheMendingApparatusthesystemcharged
withrepairingdefectsthatappearintheMachineproperbeginstofailbut
13The(De)fragmentedBodyinNursingEducation217
Alexanderetal.(
),p.413)makethepointthatthefundamentallearning
situationisoneinwhichthepersonlearnsbyhelpingsomeonewhoreallyknows
whattheyaredoing,orwhatmightbereferredtoasbody-to-bodylearning.They
advocatethatitisthesimplestwayofacquiringknowledgeandispowerfully
effective.Asearlyas1977,Alexanderetal.arguedthatuniversitieshavetaken
overandabstractedmanywaysoflearning.Inotherwords,theartofbodylearning
hasbeeneroded,andreplacedbybooks,andi
ndeedhigh-delitysi
mulatorsthatare
cleanandcomewitha
controlroom.
Itseemsthatwemayhaveunknowinglycreatedcyborgknowledgethatis
transmittedtothenursingstudentasreal
.Thecommunicativebody,alongwith
body-to-bodylearning,issimulatedwithout
painandgore.Thestudentreceives
knowledgethroughacontrolroom
exemplifyingtheshiftfromembodied
learningtocodiedknowledgepractices,changingthemeaningofwhatcountsas
knowledgeandintheprocesschallengingestablishedworkersubjectivities(Farrell
&Holkner,citedinSomerville
,p.41).Howfarmightthesepracticesgobefore
13The(De)fragmentedBodyinNursingEducation219
theoriesofnursing,andbyturningawayfromtraditionalbodyworkandtoward
technologyinpractice.Inthisway,Sandelowski(
)contendsthatnursingwas
abletoofferalessvisceral,lessdirty,moreintellectualandmorescienticform
ofnursingpractice.Emphasizingtheinterpersonalandpsychosocialasopposedto
thephysicalaspectsofcare,nursetheoristscalledattentiontothemindsofnurses,
ratherthantheirbodies,especiallytheirhands.Bydelegatingbodyworkofbathing
13The(De)fragmentedBodyinNursingEducation221
icalaction,theessentialpartofthe
modusoperandi
thatdenespracticalmasteryistrans-
mittedthroughpractice,inthepr
acticalstate,withoutrisingto
thelevelofdiscourse.(p.90)
Thatis,thestudentofnursingpracticelearns,asdoesthechildinBourdieus
thinking,throughbeingimmersedinandaspartofthatpractice,asitispractised,
andthereforealwayssituated,dialogical,andembodied(Green&Hopwood,
Chap.
,thisvolume).
TheVigilant(Embodied)SubjectiveAct
Iunderstandthe
vigilantsubjectiveact
asanalertandreexiveexaminationofembodied
13The(De)fragmentedBodyinNursingEducation223
13The(De)fragmentedBodyinNursingEducation225
Kinsella,E.A.,&Pitman,A.(Eds.).(2012).
Phronesisasprofessionalknowledge:Practical
wisdomintheprofessions
.Rotterdam:Sense.
Krall,F.(1988).Fromtheinsideout:Personalhistoryaseducationalresearch.
EducationalTheory,
,467479.
Kneebone,R.(2009).Perspective:Simulationandtransformationalchange:Theparadoxof
expertise.
AcademicMedicine,84
(7),954957.
Lawlor,J.(1991).
Behindthescreens:Nursingsomologyandtheproblemofthebody
.Mel-
bourne/Australia:ChurchillLivingstone.
Martin,J.R.(1994).
Changingtheeducationallandscape:Philosophy,women,andcurriculum
NewYork:Routledge.
Chapter14
LookingLikeanOccupationalTherapist:
(Re)presentationsofHerComportmentwithin
S.Denshire(
SchoolofCommunityHealth/Res
earchInstituteforProfessionalPractice,Learningand
Education(RIPPLE),CharlesSturtUniversity(CSU),Albury,Australia
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__14
S.Denshire
Table14.1
Selectedarticlesindialoguewithcorrespondingtales
Selectedarticles
representingpractice
Talesofsexuality,foodanddeath
Thetellingsofeachtale
DenshireS.(1985).Normal
spacesinabnormalplaces:
Thesignicanceof
environmentinoccupational
therapywithhospitalised
teenagers,
Australian
OccupationalTherapy
Journal
,32(4)142149
Denshire,S.,(2011).Lemoment
1sttelling:Sally
recallsherrstcontact
withMeli
2ndtelling:Through
Meliseyes
DenshireS.(1996).Adecade
ofcreativeoccupation:The
productionofayoutharts
archiveinahospitalsite.
JournalofOccupational
ScienceAustralia
,3,9398
Denshire,S.,(2012).Orchestrating
asurprisepartyAtwice-toldtale
ofderidedinterventionsinthe
heartlandofmedicine.Paper
presentedattheProPEL
InternationalConference
ProfessionalPracticeinTroubling
Times:EmergentPracticesand
TransgressiveKnowledges,
Stirling,Scotland.911May2012
1sttelling:Working
behindthescenes
2ndtelling:Made
somedeadlyfriends
thistime
Denshire,S.(2005).Thisisa
hospital,notacircus!
Reectingongenerative
metaphorsforadeeper
understandingofprofessional
practice.
International
JournalofCritical
Psychology
,13,158178
Denshire,S.(underreview).
AssemblingSofyaskeepsake.A
twice-toldtaleofatherapistsrst
experienceofadeathinhospital.In
1sttelling:Working
withritualand
memorial
2ndtelling:Myanne
andbabafeelme
slippingaway
Vicks(
,p.247)deceptivelysimplequestion,Whatdoesateacherlook
like?,interrogatesconstructionsofv
erbalandvisualimagesofteachersand
teachingsince1850.Herhistoricalinte
restinpedagogyasfullycorporealand
performativemakesmewonderaboutprac
titionersandpracticeasobjectsof
representation.Inwritingpracticedifferentlyinaneraofregulatedevidence
(seeTable
),myinterestsextendtowhatmightbecalled(forwantofan
incorporatingterm)theexternalandinternalrepresentationsoflivedbodiesin
practice(Merleau-Ponty1945/
).Representationsmaybeunderstoodas:
textual
constructions
[italicsadded]thatarisefromhabitualwaysofthinkingaboutor
actingintheworld.Althoughtheyseemtorefertotherealworld,theyactuallyreferto
theculturalworldwhichmembersofasociety[or,inthischapter,ofaprofession]inhabit.
(Moon
,p.138)
14LookingLikeanOccupationalTherapist229
philosopherIrisMarionYoung(
,p.17)describesawomanslivedbodyas
enculturated:
bytheclothesthepersonwearsthatmarkhernation,herage,heroccupationalstatus
andinwhatisculturallyexpectedorrequiredofwomen
byhabitsof[femininebody]
Forexample,laterinthechapter,thehandsarerepresentedinataleofsexualityandthetherapist
characterslimit-settingeyebrowsfeatureinataleoffood.
S.Denshire
and40yearscomparedtootherprofessions.Thereareveryfewmaleoccupational
therapists,whichisincontrastwithanincreasingnumberofmenineldssuch
Notionsofoccupationaltherapistastransporterandherfolkloricpotentialasagypsynomad
aretakenuplaterinthechapter.
14LookingLikeanOccupationalTherapist231
machine,whilealsodisplayinganthr
opologicalconcernwithillnessexperience
(Mattingly
.p.64)inotherwords,thebroadermeaningsofthedisruptionto
apersonslife.Typically,thistwo-bodypractice(Mattingly
,p.37)applies
toboththebiomechanicalbodyandthephenomenological,livedbodyandthelived
Examplesfromthefood-relatedpracticeofthetherapistcharacterSallyssensorypreferences
forsmellandtasteoccurlaterinthechapter.
S.Denshire
asscholarlyanddisguisingordinaryepisodesofpracticeinanongoingbidto
legitimiseboththeprofessionandthepracticeofoccupationaltherapy.Inthisway,
atraditionalgenderorderismaintained.Whenawomanspractisedbodyisnot
countedasapartofpractice,sheiseffectivelywrittenoutofthemainstream
record,andsobecomesunrecordedandforgotten.
AttimesIusethetermactorstorefercollectivelytoeveryoneinvolvedin
practicesituations:clients,staffandsignicantothers,thusre-workingtheusual
clinicalbinariessuchaspatient-therapistandclient-practitioner.Thediscourses
circulatinginoccupationaltherapyaren
earlyalwaysfocusedontheexperiences,
problemsandabilitiesofclients.Itisstilluncommonforpractitionerstobereexive
andturnthespotlightbackonourlivedbodies.However,someofusreacha
careerturningpoint,oftenaroundmid-life,wherewearereadytotellexpanded
narrativesofcare-giving,writingourexperiencesofcaringforothersinourpersonal
livesandofgivingandreceivingcareourse
lves.Occupationaltherapyscholarsin
NorthAmericapublishembodiedaccounts,fo
rexample,ofafathersdementiaas
adaughterandoccupationaltherapist(Thibeault
),ofcaringforamotherin
herlastyears(Hasselkus
),andonanexperienceoflingeringdiscomfortas
anoccupationaltherapist,reectingonhowtheobjectivityexpectedofhersilenced
heremotions(Kinsella
,p.40).Insimilarfashion,Iwantnowtoturntomy
ownworkinthisregard(Denshire
(Re)presentingPractice:AutoethnographicApproaches
Integraltotheapproachtoembodiedwritingtak
enduringmyautoethnogr
aphicdoctoratewas
thatmytalesofpracticewereindialoguewithselectedpublishedarticlesfroma
ofwork.I
referto
inthesenseofa
ofwriting,anassemblageof25yearsofpublishedwritingsthat
coheresasawhole,abodyofwr
iting.Boththeinstitutional
bodyofthehosp
italandmybodyof
publishedwork
gureasmetaphor,literallyas
trope(GreenandHopwood,Chap.
,thisvolume)
inthischapter.
First,asanexperiencedtherapistanticipatingmotherhood;second,becominganacademicatan
inlanduniversity;and,third,becomingadoctoralstudent.
14LookingLikeanOccupationalTherapist233
enterthecorrespondingtalesofpracticeIwascraftingtodialoguewithmyearlier
articles.Thesetalesofsexuality,foodanddeathdramatisedparadigmaticscenes
fromarememberedworldofoccupationaltherapy,recallingmomentsfrompractice
withyoungpeoplelivinganddyingatCamperdownChildrensHospital,intheearly
1980s(Table
Eachtalewastoldtwice;arsttellinginthethird-personbythetherapist
character;asecondtellingintherst-personbythegirlcharacter.Whentoldfrom
theperspectiveofthesetwodifferentparticipantsinthemoment,specicsocio-
materialenactments(Fenwicketal.
)thenbecamevisibleandsignicant.
S.Denshire
Acorrespondingtaleofembodiedse
xuality,Lemomentdelalune
(Denshire
),articulateslocalcomplexpracticeandtheparticularityofindividualwork
todowithmenstruationinself-care.Thet
herapistcharacterisbearingwitnessto
howMeli,aFrench-speakinggirlfromNoumealivingwithadisability,learnsto
FrenchisthecoloniallanguagespokeninNoumea.InFrench,menstruationcanbetranslated
literallyasthemomentofthemoon,sointhetalethemoonisemblematicofmenstrualtime.
Themoonisalsoconsideredasacelestialbody.
PagenumbersforthisandsubsequentexcerptsarefromDenshire(
14LookingLikeanOccupationalTherapist235
S.Denshire
Theunappabledemeanourattributedtothetherapistinresponsetoheryoung
chargesinhospitaljokingaboutdrinkingandpubertyinOrchestratingasurprise
partyrecallstraitsofctionalEdwardianchildrensgovernessMaryPoppinsin
thetherapistcharacterasinnovativeandanimated,composedunderpressure,
Recently,Iaskedasecond-yearclassofoccupationaltherapystudentswhatthetermgypsy
nomadmeanttothem.Aforthcomingstudentreplied:Ohthatsanoldpersonwhotravelsaround
(i.e.,whatthemediarefertoasagreynomad).Perhapsasa60-year-oldacademic(feelingyoung,
lookingolder)Iseemedasoon-to-begreynomadinhereyes?Isuggestedthatanomadcould
actuallybesomeoneofanyagewhomovedaround,andthatagypsyisapersonkeptoutside
14LookingLikeanOccupationalTherapist237
EverydayIvebeeninhospitalthistime,theoneIcallthegypsynomadhasvisitedme
onhermagiccarpet.WeusedtoyacrosstotheyellowbuildingonitwithJulie,Katand
Meli.Mygypsynomadispartofatravellingcir
cus.Aswellasspendingtimewithmeshe
spendstimewithmymumanddad,listeningandsuggestingthings.Shewearspantaloons
andhervestisembroideredwithshes.Shehasbootslikeapiratebutakindpirate.
telling:Myanneandbaba
feelmeslippingaway
:150
TheTurkishwordsformotherandfather.
S.Denshire
Thetaleshowsthedraineddemeanouroftheoccupationaltherapistcharacter
aroundthetimeoflosingSofyaandcopingwithhospitalregulations.Thistalefea-
turesthenotionsofthecarnivalesquebeguninthecorrespondingarticlesubverting
protocolandturningthingsupside-down.ThegypsynomadinAssemblingSofyas
Thissectioniswritteninthepasttense(looked,felt)toconveythetimethathaselapsed
14LookingLikeanOccupationalTherapist239
andKinsella
S.Denshire
References
Anderson,B.,&Bell,J.(1988).
Occupationaltherapy:ItsplaceinAustraliashistory
.Sydney:
NSWAssociationofOccupationalTherapists.
Barnitt,R.(
1998).Thevirtuoustherapist.InJ.Creek(Ed.),
Occupationaltherapy:Newperspec-
tives
(pp.7798).London:Whurr.
Behar,R.(1996).
Thevulnerableobserver:Anthropologythatbreaksyourheart
.Boston:Beacon.
Borthwick,F.(2006).
14LookingLikeanOccupationalTherapist241
Fenwick,T.,Richards.,etal.(2011).Introduc
tion:Whysociomaterialityineducation?In
Emerging
approachesineducationalresearch:Tracingthesociomaterial
(pp.117).Abingdon/Oxon:
MiltonPark:Routledge.
Fleming,M.H.(1994).Acommonsensepracticei
nanuncommonworld.InC.Mattingly&M.H.
Fleming(Eds.),
Clinicalreasoning:Formsofinquiryinatherapeuticpractice
(pp.94115).
Philadelphia:F.A.Davis.
Fortune,T.(2000).Occupationaltherapists:Isourtherapytrulyoccupationalorarewemerely
llinggaps?
BritishJour
nalofOccupationalTherapy,63
(5),225230.
Foucault,M.(1975).
Thebirthoftheclinic:Anarchaeologyofmedicalperception
.NewYork:
RandomHouse.
Foucault,M.(1979).
Disciplineandpunish:Thebirthoftheprison
.NewYork:VintageBooks.
Foucault,M.(1980).
Power/knowledge:Selectedinterviewsandotherwritings19721977
.New
York:Pantheon.
Foucault,M.(1992).
Thehistoryofsexuality.Volume3:Thecareoftheself
.London:Penguin.
Frank,A.(2004).
Therenewalofgenerosity:Illness,medicine,andhowtolive
.Chicago:The
UniversityofChicagoPress.
Green,B.(2009).Theprimacyofpracticeandtheproblemofrepresentation.InB.Green(Ed.),
Understandingandresearchingprofessionalpractice
(pp.3954).Rotterdam:Sense.
Grilli,G.
(2007).
Myth,symbolandmeaninginMaryPoppins:Thegovernessasprovocateur
.New
York:Routledge.
Hacking,I.(1983).
Representingandintervening:Introductorytopicsinthephilosophyofnatural
science
.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress.
Hammell,K.W.(2009).Sacredtexts:Askepticalexplorationoftheassumptionsunderpinning
theoriesofoccupation.
CanadianJournalofOccupationalTherapy,76
(1),613.
Hasselkus,B.(1993).Deathinveryoldage:Apersonaljourneyofcare-giving.
AmericanJournal
ofOccupationalTherapy,47
,717723.doi:
10.5014/ajot.47.8.717
Hasselkus,B.R.(2006).Theworldofeverydayoccupation:Realpeoplereallives.
American
JournalofOccupationalTherapy,60
(6),627641.doi:
10.5014/ajot.60.6.627
Kamler,B.(2001).
Relocatingthepersonal:A
criticalwritingpedagogy
.Albany:StateUniversity
ofNewYorkPress.
S.Denshire
ParkLala,A.,&Kinsella,E.A
.(2011).Embodimentinresearch
practices:Thebodyinqualitative
research.InA.Titchen,J.Higgs,D.Horsfall,&D.Bridges(Eds.),
Creativespacesfor
qualitativeresearching:Livingresearch
(pp.110).Rotterdam:Sense.
Polatjako,H.,Davis,J.,etal.(2007).Specifyingthedomainofconcern:Occupationascore.
InE.Townsend&H.Polatajko(Eds.),
EnablingoccupationII:Advancinganoccupational
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(pp.936).Ottawa:CAOT
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Pratt,M.L.(1991).Artsofthecontactzone.
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(pp.3340).
Reed-Danahay,D.E.(Ed.).(1997).
Auto/ethnography:R
ewritingthe
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gthesocial
Oxford:Berg.
Reilly,M.(
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AmericanJournalofOccupationalTherapy,XVI
(1),19.
Schatzki,T.(2002).
Thesiteofthesocial:Aphilosophica
laccountofth
econstitutionofsociallife
andchange
.UniversityPark:ThePennsylvaniaStateUniversityPress.
PartIV
ConcludingReections
Chapter15
EmbodiedKnowledge:TowardaCorporeal
TurninProfessionalPractice,Research
andEducation
E.A.Kinsella(
HealthSciencesandWomensStudies,WesternUniversity,London,ON,Canada
e-mail:
[email protected]
SpringerInternationalPublishingSwitzerland2015
B.Green,N.Hopwood(eds.),
TheBodyinProfessionalPractice,
LearningandEducation
,ProfessionalandPractice-basedLearning11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-00140-1__15
E.A.Kinsella
Readingthisbookhasbeenavisceralexperience,andextendedmythinking.
Ihavenotedmyownembodiedresponsetotheworkpresentedhere,andthe
hauntingnatureoftheembodied(often
15EmbodiedKnowledgeinProfessionalPractice,ResearchandEducation247
E.A.Kinsella
Thepotentialofattentiontothebodytorevealpreviouslyhiddendomainsof
knowledge,andthereforetochallengethedominanceofaCartesianperspective
inconsideringwhatcountsasknowledge
arecontinuousthemes.Somervilleand
Vella(Chap.
)pointtoGrosz(
15EmbodiedKnowledgeinProfessionalPractice,ResearchandEducation249
Iseeparallelsherewithdimensionsoftheepistemologyofpracticeputforward
byDonaldSchn(Kinsella
;Schn
),particularlywhatmightbe
seenasaformofembodiedreectionembeddedinhisworkonreectivepractice
(Kinsella
).AsIhavearguedelsewhere,embodiedreectionisanunder-
recognizeddimensionofSchnswork,andifoneexamineshistheoryclosely,
attentiontoanembodiedmodeofreectionthatarisesthroughthebodily,lived
experienceofthepractitionerandisrevealedinactioncanbediscerned(Kinsella
,p.396).DrawingontheworkoftwoseminalphilosophersGilbertRyle
(knowing-how)andMichaelPolanyi(tacitknowledge)Schnpointedtotheways
inwhichknowledgeisrevealedthrough
thebodyoftheprofessionalpractitioner,
throughskillfulpracticeandin
telligentaction(Kinsella
Schnpointsoutthatalthoughwesometimesthinkbeforeacting,itisalsotruethatinmuch
ofthespontaneousbehaviourof
skillfulpracticewerevealak
indofknowingwhichdoes
notstemfromapriorintellectualoperation(Schn
,p.51).Henotesthatoncewe
putasidethemodelofTechnicalRationality,whichleadsustothinkofintelligentpractice
asanapplicationofknowledgetoinstrumentaldecisions,thereisnothingstrangeaboutthe
ideathatakindofknowingisinherentinintelligentaction(p.50)(Kinsella
,p.400).
Theearlierexampleofatoothextractionmaybeseenasaformofembodied
knowledge,andtheonlineexperiments,an
dnuancedchangestoactionsinpractice
thatthepractitionermakes,mightbe
seenasembodiedreection.Inshort,
knowledgemaybeviewedbeyondpurelycognitiverealms;knowledgemayalso
begeneratedthroughembodiedreectioninpractice.
Attentiontothewaysinwhichtheplaceofthebodyinknowledgegeneration
hasbeensilencedasaresultofthedominan
ceoftechnical-rationalisticperspectives
intheprofessionsisalsoanimportantthemethatemergesinthisvolume.Thiswas
acentraltopicofconcerntoSchn(
,p.3),whodenedtechnicalrationalityas
anepistemologyofpracticederivedfrompositivistphilosophy(Kinsella
Fromhisperspective:
Technicalrationalityholdsthatpractitionersareinstrumentalproblemsolverswhoselect
technicalmeansbestsuitedtoparticularpurposes.Rigorousprofessionalpractitioners
solvewell-formedinstrumentalproblemsbyapplyingtheoryandtechniquederivedfrom
systematicpreferablyscienticknowledge(Schn
,pp.34).
E.A.Kinsella
agent,KarenVellawritesofrecognizingthatshewasfundamentallyunableto
changethepatriarchalstructuresoftheo
rganizationinwhichsheworked,butthat
sittingwiththeresponsesemerginginherbodyhelpedhertocometothispainful
insight.Asshewrote:
mybodybegantoreact,tomakemyongoingparticipationinorganizationallifedifcult
mybodyspeaks,shouts,screams
wavesofnauseatakeover
Iamreelingwith
dizziness,acoldclammysweatbreaksoutontheskinofmyforehead
soonIhaveto
leaveandvomit
thishappensoverandoveragain
dizzinessandnauseatakeovermy
corporatebody
anexitofthatbodyfromorganizationallifeisinevitable(Somerville
andVella,Chap.
Vellashowshowknowledgeemergedthroughherbodilyresponses,beforeher
rationalselfcouldacceptit.Somerville
andVellaalsopointtohowthebodymay
contributetoun-knowing.AsVellaputsit:Mymakingoffabricassemblagesand
sittingwiththeorganizationalchangeworkinthatwayallowedthearticulationof
unknowingandundoingtoemerge.Ithasb
eenanuncomfortableandvolatilebodily
experienceforme.
Embodiedaccountspotentiallyhavesigni
cantimplicationforprocessesof
epistemicreexivityandknowledgeproduction.Epistemicreexivitycarefully
interrogatestheveryconditionsunderw
hichknowledgeclaimsareacceptedand
constructed(KinsellaandWhiteford
).ForBourdieu,epistemicreexivity
denotescriticalreectiononthesocialconditionsunderwhichdisciplinary
knowledgecomesintobeingandgai
nscredence(BourdieuandWacquant
Katzman(Chap.
15EmbodiedKnowledgeinProfessionalPractice,ResearchandEducation251
well.Further,whataretheimplicationsofconsideringthatknowledgeenacted
bypractitionerswhoexhibit
phron
mightbeinscribedandproducedthrough
habitus,andwhatmightthatmeanforeducationandpractice?Therelationship
ofembodimenttotheenactmentof
phron
(practicalwisdom)asaformof
knowledgeinprofessionalpracticeisatopicworthyoffurtherattention.
MakingBodiesVisible
Manyoftheessaysinthisbookshowhowthinkingwithandthroughthebodyhas
thepotentialtobringawarenesstodimensionsofpracticethatwevebeenatalossto
ndwaystospeakabout,orthatwevechosennottoattendto,perhapsbecausethey
falloutsideoftraditionalrealmsofepistemiclegitimation,dominantdiscourses,
normativepractices,andintellectualpractices.Boyer(
)callsforattention
toinvisible,silenced,orde-legitimateddimensionsthatarealiveinpractitioners
individualandcollectivebodies,buthaveremainedsuppressed,subordinatedor
beyondourattentionandgrasp.Thinkingaboutbodiesinacollectivemanner
bringsattentiontohowbodiesinteractinwaysthatmaybeunseen,forinstance
E.A.Kinsella
Embodiedperspectiveshavethepotentialtobringtopicsofataboo(Denshire)
15EmbodiedKnowledgeinProfessionalPractice,ResearchandEducation253
resistance.Thewayinwhichlanguageshapesexperienceisaprominenttheme:
Thisisa
drape
E.A.Kinsella
thepotentialtoliberateusandallowustos
eeaspectsofourprofessionalpractice
thatareeffectivelyhiddenwhenwerestrictourselvestotechnicalrationality(p.3).
Yet,representationisalsoproblematized.Green(Chap.
)remindsreaders
15EmbodiedKnowledgeinProfessionalPractice,ResearchandEducation255
Theissueofhowtorepresentembodiedknowledgeremainsachallengingone
(Ellingson
,p.7),giventhe(im)possib
ilityofwritingthebody(Somerville
andVella),theunmappedterrainthatitencompasses,thesituatednatureofknowl-
edgegeneration(Ellingson,Chap.
),thepartialnatureofourrepresentations,
andtheCartesianlegacyembeddedinpr
E.A.Kinsella
professionalpracticeneedstogobeyondi
15EmbodiedKnowledgeinProfessionalPractice,ResearchandEducation257
environments.EducatorsandpolicymakersmightalsofollowReidandMitchells
(Chap.
)lead,inthinkingabouttheaimsoft
eacherpreparatio
nasbuildingup
repertoiresofpractices,andoffermore
attentiontothematerialpracticesand
arrangementsthatsupportorcons
trainthepreparationofteachers,andtheiractions.
TheBodyinResearch
Theresearchersbody,andembodiedpresence,isanimportantconsiderationin
researchpracticethattakestheplaceofthebodyseriously.AsEllingson(Chap.
elaborates,myunrulybodydemandscontinualattentionandmakesitimpossible
toignorethewaysinwhichembodimentnecessarilyaffectsandreectsmy
researchprocesses,relationshipswithparticipants,andperspectivesonknowledge
construction.Ratherthanconcentratingonourbodilybiases,Ellingsonurgesall
researcherstoreectonthewaysinwhichouruniquebody/selvesshapeourunder-
standingsandtherepresentationsweconstruct.Takingthebodyseriouslywould
extendconceptionsofreexivitytowardtheembodiedreexivityarticulatedby
Katzman(Chap.
Thedisembodiednatureofmuchresearchdata,anditsrepresentation,isatopic
worthyofattention.Standardresearchreportslimitrepresentationsofparticipants
actionsandaccountstobrief,decontextualizedfragmentsofdata(Richardson
).Ellingson(Chap.
)problematizessuchaccounts,whichtendtobewritten
E.A.Kinsella
inprofessionalpracticescholarshiphasarrived!
References
Anderson,B.,&Harrison,P.(2012).Thepromiseof
non-representationaltheories.InB.Anderson
&P.Harrison(Eds.),
Taking-place:Non-representationaltheoriesandgeography
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Shildrick,M.(1997).
Action,10,19,20,2227,44,60,62,7174,
76,9395,99,103,111,117,124,161,
165,166,168,185,212,216,221223,
238,245,249,254
Activity,5,6,16,17,1921,23,24,26,40,
50,83,93,103,106,110,115,117,
123,127,132,134,161,166,175,176,
235,239
Index
Communicationaswork,153,175,185
Communitiesofpractice,147
Comportment,102,103,132,151,175,
Conversations,5,9,3750,101,102,134,150,
154,158,169,203,223,234,246,258
Corporatebody(ies),3,29,41,130,209,210,
213,214,216,218,220222,250
Corporeality,3,4
,6,1530,50,72,125,221,
229,246,258
Culturalhistoricalactivitytheory(CHAT),6,
Cyborg,23,58,152,214,217,220,222,256
Deleuze,G.,11,105109,116,121134,246,
Derrida,J.,4,28,49
Descartes,R.,7,22,28,131,143,160
Dialogicalembodiment,149150
Dialysis,12,173187,252
Difference,48,73,75,117,127,131,132,161,
186,187
Discourse,4,6,7,10,12,25,26,57,58,66,
8991,98,100,102,103,105,106,
109,116,117,123,140,141,145,148,
154,161,162,164,167,169,184,
191,192,196,197,199202,204,205,
221,227,228,230,232,251,253255,
Discourseanalysis,6
Discursive,22,25,50,90,95,100,159,162,
164,170,203,218
Distance,53,5659,64,101,143,148,152,
169,193,212,247,251,254
Doctoralresearch,37,38,42,191
Doings,18,2023,26,29,53,54,57,5961,
66,67,85,116,125,199,206
Dualism,4,28,58,160,223,247,257
Embodiedexperience,84,85,112,157,161,
165,169,170,181,256
Embodiednarrative,11,157
Embodiedrelationalunderstanding,11,
141142,153,154,249
Embodiedritual,235
Embodiedtechnology,15,149,151,152
Embodiment,4,1012,27,48,53,58,61,
65,67,72,73,81,105107,109,126,
139154,157,159163,168170,
174177,184,186,192,194,201,214,
222,246,250,251,256,257
Emergence,9,38,44,48,49,117,124,170
Emergent,18,123,147,168,169,192,228,
246,258
Emotionallabour,183
Index
Index
Performativity,110,197
Personhood,20
Philosophical-empiricalinquiry,5,6,16,255,
sis,8,13,168,231,250,251
Physicality,16,53,100
Pirani,B.M.,10,72,74,76
Place(s),6,37,41,42,44,4951,54,59,63,
74,75,7881,86,91,92,102,110,
113,114,129,133,148150,160,163,
180,185,193,202,203,206,209,210,
212,213,216,218,221223,228,233,
245,248,249,251,252,257,258
Polaschek,N.,174,179
Postmodern,25,57,158,161,163,164,169
Poststructural,38,49,161,169
Poststructuralism,12,66
Poststructuralist,4,10,11,25,123,159,161
Posture,57,6365
Practicalunderstanding,18,22,175
Practice
body,209
dynamics,10,71,7981
theory,48,11,12,1620,24,25,29,30,
53,57,60,66,107,109,110,121134,
174176,184,254
theoryandphilosophy,4,6,7,1619,24,
25,107,122125
Practice-arrangementbundle,59,110
Qualitativeresearch,7,59,60,65,162
Rationality/arationa
lity,12,
24,27,124,131,
140,141,143,148,154,168,176,184,
211,249,251,254
Reading,18,20,23,40,50,65,75,99,115,
117,122,129133,246
Readingpedagogy,1,122,129134
Reckwitz,A.,5,1719,60,107,110,123,125,
Reection,12,13,18,24,28,29,162,168,
177,186,192,194,196,200,214,234,
249,250,255,258
Relating,4,18,29,47,55,58,61,85,100,
158,162,165,232
Relational,11,18,49,5860,6466,75,
76,80,81,84,85,100,108,109,
141143,153,154,175,227,247,249,
253,256
Relationalgeometry,10,5367,72,81,83
Representation(s),12,16,2428,39,42,44,
4648,50,51,53,57,58,80,9095,
124,125,142,144,151,164,169,
176177,184,186,187,200,202,
227229,232,233,239,253255,257
Representationalism,24,124,125,176,184,
Responsiveorder,143145,149
Rhythm,27,7173,75,76,8386,130,143,
Rhythmanalysis,10,23,73,7577
Sandywell,B.,11,158,162,163,250,255
Sayings,18,2023,26,29,53,54,59,61,66,
67,85,125,199,206,247
Schatzki,T.,46,12,1627,53,54,5662,66,
71,72,78,85,90,107,110,122125,
129,147,152,174,175,206,239,254
Schn,D.,90,150,211,249
Sensations,10,20,21,51,61,62,67,94,108,
115,126,128,162,164,168
Senses,19,20,26,61,65,76,8082,160,161,
176,177,238
Sensorial,61,72,76,84
Sensual,61,160
Shilling,C.,4,25,84,85
Shotter,J.,7,8,18,29,30,141,143,200,249,
Simulatedbody(simulation),222
Site,3,9,23,41,44,48,51,5355,59,66,
67,7375,77,79,85,92,97,102,107,
112,123,126,161,164,176178,180,
184,186,192,198,205,213,215,217,
220,221,223,228,241,246,247,258
Siteontology,53,54,66,123
Socialpractices,17,2022,54,60,72,78,
100,123,129
Sociocultural,19
Sociomaterial,18,66,106,107,109110,112,
176,192,229,247,255
Sociomaterialstudies,6,106
Somatic,9,25,45,49,60
Somaticturn,4,61,245
Somerville,M.,
8,9,25,3751,161,162,
216218,220,232,234,238,248,
Space,4,19,37,4950,54,72,91,105,121,
152,159,176,192,209,228,247
Spatiality,17,20,23
Speech,19,20,22,47,59,121,131,175,179,
219,238,239
Standardizedpatients,191,198,213
Index
Standards,90,91,98100,102,103,107,167,
Storytelling,163164
Subject,4,7,19,24,47,48,50,75,9094,
100,102,103,105,106,108,115,116,
124,129,143,161,196,199,204,205,
210,218,254
Subjectivity,7,9,25,26,37,38,44,4850,97,
126,162,196,212,217,221,223,252
Sustaining,9,3751,74,252
Symmetry,59
Synchronicity,74
Taylor,C.,29,142,146,154,158,170
Teachereducation,9,10,15,8991,97,102,
103,116
Teaching,5,912,15,25,29,89103,105,
107,110114,116,117,122,129133,
191206,210,214,215,217,228,248,
252,256
Temporality,20,23,85
Terroir
,7186
Thrift,N.,24,26,72,105,106,108110,123,
124,216,254
Time,4,17,39,54,72,90,112,123,140,159,
174,193,210,227,246
Timespace/chronotope,10,7186,152154
Turner,B.,4,25
Vigilantembodiedsubjectivity,221222
Virtuality
,11,122,124,127,128,133
Winemaking,9,10,7186,248
Wittgenstein,L.,4
,6,11,19,20,24,74,123,
141,142,146,162
Young,I.M.,75,227,229
Youth,91,228,235

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