Anti-crisis PR (crisis PR, crisis management, management in crisis situations) – the special technology of communication management directed on preservation of the publicity capital of the organization or the personality which collapses owing to crisis.Crisis – an event because of which the organization gets to the center not always benevolent(доброжелательный)attention of mass media and other target audiences which for any of several reasons are interested in organization actions.
Basic characteristics of crisis in PR:
Situation aggravation(обострение). The company doesn't manage to react on all "fronts" of crisis.
Loss of regulation of information
Close attention of external audiences – mass media, target audience, legislature
loss of ability to work freely – the company feels the threat and excessive(чрезмерное) attention to the problems; the organization starts perceiving all as ill-wishers.недоброжелатель
Panic3 components of crisis:
- risk factor of existence of the organization
- lack of time: all actions have to be carried out quickly
- condition of tension at the people who are responsible for management of crisis and looking for ways of an exit from this situation.
It is characteristic: incomplete definiteness of the reasons, cut-tov, permission ways, need of fast decision-making.
There are many classifications of crises.
- known unknown as which it is understood: it is known that accident can happen, but it isn't known, whether there will be it, and if yes, that when;
- unknown unknown, it is accidents and accidents which nobody can prevent.
- sudden crisis - an air crash, an earthquake; in case of which there is no time for research and planning.
- continuous crises which can proceed for years and months irrespective of efforts on their permission. Пр: hearings.
- crises of malicious behavior like placement by terrorists of bombs in residential quarters;
- management crises when groups in the organization work insufficiently effectively.
In general, the company has to prepare in advance not only for the forthcoming crisis (if its approach is obvious), but also as a whole for possible crisis situations
Preliminary preparation for possible crisis:
1) Definition of possible crises - to find the weakest places in the company, which more уязвмы for crisis;
2) Formation of anti-recessionary team of managers;
3) In advance to develop approximate anti-recessionary programs - to make a set of possible questions and probable answers to them on all possible crisis situations;
4) To define two main tasks which will need to be solved during the first hours crisis.
From ability of the organization to leave crisis, the reputation and image of the company for the next years depend. The crisis situation is very indicative and for the general public - very often people estimate the company, proceeding from its actions during crisis.
That PR in crisis situations was capable to solve the tasks set for it, it is possible to allocate three main conditions:
First, the success of PR in crisis situations depends on time factor. If the problem arose, it is necessary to report about it in the shortest terms.
Secondly, PR in crisis situations assumes information openness. It is extremely important to give irrefragable answers for all audiences, beginning from representatives of mass media and finishing the usual population for which it is possible to organize the round-the-clock hot lines, press conferences and even access to production and other processes in the fact-finding purposes.
At last, PR in crisis situations assumes honesty. Concealment of the truth, reliable events, documents and the other moments most often comes to light, than journalists and third-party persons will surely use.