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DE 3522
18) Total Time: 59:28
22) Total Time: 67:36
, the Duke’s jester:
Dmitri Hvorostovsky
, baritone
, his daughter:
Francesco Demuro
, tenor
Andrea Mastroni
, his sister:
Oksana Volkova
, contralto
, Gilda’s nurse:
Eglė Šidlauskaitė
Tadas Girininkas
, bass
Eglė Šidlauskaitė,
, a courtier:
Tomas Pavilionis
, tenor
Kostas Smoriginas
, baritone
Andrius Apšega
, baritone
, bass
Eglė Šidlauskaitė
: The Duke’s courtiers and guests
Constantine Orbelian, conductor
Kaunas City Symphony Orchestra
Men of the Kaunas State Choir
Special thanks go to Algimantas Treikauskas, General Director of the Kaunas City Symphony Orchestra—
as well as his staff—for their invaluable help in producing this recording.
Also much appreciated are the invaluable contributions of Artistic Consultant John Fisher and pianist/
vocal coach Svetlana E�mova.
Recorded at Kaunas Philharmonic July 1–9, 2016
Producers: Vilius Keras and Aleksandra Kerienė
Recording Engineer: Vytautas Kederys
Editing/mastering: Vilius Keras and Aleksandra Kerienė
Program notes and synopsis: Lindsay Koob
Roberto Focosi’s illustration from the variant �rst edition of Giuseppe Verdi’s vocal score for
Scene 1
Della mia bella incognita Borghese
(Duke, Borsa)
Parmi veder le lagrime
(Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Duke, Chorus) p. 41
Possento amor mi chiama
(Duke, Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Chorus) p. 42
Giuseppe Verdi may have written his most glamorous
and heroic roles for tenors, but he often assigned his
more psychologically complex and con�icted male
roles to baritones,
Un ballo in maschera
and the title characters
Still, when Verdi chanced upon Victor Hugo’s drama
Le roi s’amuse
(The King Is Amused), he was captivat
ed by the story, and was determined to adapt it for
the operatic stage, even though he knew that his new
opera—initially entitled
La maledizione
(The Curse)—
was likely to meet with strong of�cial censure. As he
wrote in a letter to Piave,
“I have in mind a subject that would be one of the
greatest creations of the modern theater if the police
would only allow it. Who knows? At least there are no
conspiracies in it. . . . The subject is grand, immense
and there’s a character in it who is one of the greatest
creations that the theaters of all countries and all times
can boast. . . . The character I speak of is Triboulet”
(Triboulet’s name was soon changed to Rigoletto).
The original play, which had been banned by French
censors twenty years earlier, was deemed scandalous
and politically in�ammatory, and was emphatically
rejected as an operatic subject by Austrian censors.
After all, much of northern Italy was then controlled
by Austria—and its rulers were doing everything they
could to suppress the ongoing movement to unify Italy.
Most Austrian of�cials were fearful of Verdi—who was
a vital cultural symbol of the uni�cation movement—
and thought of him as a rabble-rousing revolution
ary. But Verdi and Piave dug in their heels, bracing
for a �ght with the Austrian authorities, one of whom
condemned the �rst edition of the work as a tale of
“repugnant immorality and obscene triviality.”
Rather than alter the essential story beyond recogni
tion, the pair resolved to negotiate the dispute directly
with the censors, pleading their case in nit-picking de
tail. After some modi�cation of the libretto, they en
listed the support of La Fenice’s secretary,
Brenna, who proceeded to help mediate the quarrel
by (among other means) submitting correspondence
and published articles pointing out Verdi’s unassailable
value as a great Italian artist, despite his reputation as
a pugnacious anti-establishment �gure.
After much bickering, the matter was �nally resolved
in January of 1851, provided
Verdi and Piave
prevailing bel canto conventions of earlier times. The
more stylized musical formulas of Rossini, Bellini, and
Donizetti—with their staid choral introductions, fol
lowed by recitatives leading into arias—were now
behind him, and there was no turning back. His style
was now more graphically direct and realistic, with a
new sense of headlong impetus leading into devas
tating conclusions. He now sought to project a much
greater sense of dramatic immediacy and power. And
not all of Verdi’s characters would sing truly beautiful
music or show-stopping arias. In
future possibilities open. After Sparafucile leaves him,
Rigoletto muses about what they have in common:
the assassin kills with his sword, whereas he “stabs” his
Upon arriving in the courtyard of his house, Rigoletto
and his daughter greet each other with great affec
tion, revealing a different side of the deformed and
bitter old jester’s psyche: that of a tender and doting
father. He has kept Gilda ignorant of both his profes
sion and even his actual name. Fearing for her safety
and honor, he has kept her hidden from the Duke, and
forbidden her to appear anywhere in public—except
for church.
After Rigoletto leaves, Gilda con�des to her nurse
Giovanna that she feels ashamed that she hadn’t told
her father about the young man (actually the Duke
in commoner’s garb) whom she had met at church.
She had immediately fallen in love with him and tells
Giovanna that her love for him would grow, even if
he were a poor student. The nurse then exits into the
house. Hiding in the courtyard, the disguised Duke
has joyfully overheard Gilda’s declaration of love for
him, and approaches her. She calls out for Giovan
na, but he has bribed her to stay away. He proceeds
to sing passionately, convincing her of his love. She
asks his name, and he tells her he is Gualtier Maldè, a
poor student. Upon hearing suspicious sounds, they
exchange hurried vows of love before she sends him
away, then ecstatically sings her melting aria “Caro
Rigoletto and Gilda arrive outside the assassin Spara
fucile’s house, with parts of two inside rooms visible.
Rigoletto asks Gilda if she still loves the Duke, and she
replies that he loves her, and that she will love him for
ever. Rigoletto leads her to a crack in the wall and tells
her to look inside. The assassin’s pretty sister, Madd
alena, has lured the Duke to the house, and Gilda
watches as he asks Sparafucile for a room and some
wine, after which the Duke sings the opera’s most
famous aria “La donna è mobile” (Woman Is Fickle).
Outside, Sparafucile approaches Rigoletto to con�rm
that this man is the one who must die—and Rigoletto
Meanwhile, Gilda is devastated as she witnesses the
Duke �irting with Maddalena, using the same words of
love that he had used with her before. Rigoletto orders
Gilda to go home to fetch money and a strong horse,
dress in men’s clothing that he has laid out for her, and
ride off to Verona, where he will meet her later. When
she leaves, Rigoletto �nds Sparafucile and pays him
half of the blood money.
With a violent storm about to break, Maddalena and
the Duke continue to �irt. Aside, Sparafucile shows her
the money, offering to give shelter to the Duke for the
night. Aware of the plan to murder their “guest,” Madd
alena urges him to leave—but he declines and soon falls
asleep. Gilda appears, dressed as a man, and overhears
Maddalena—now enamored of the Duke—trying tearful
ly to convince her brother to spare the Duke, and instead
kill Rigoletto when he returns with the rest of the money.
Sparafucile refuses to betray a paying customer, but reluc
tantly says that he will kill in the Duke’s stead anyone who
Porte nel fondo mettono ad altre sale, pure splendi
vengono. La festa è nel suo pieno. Musica interna da
ontano. Il Duca e Borsa vengono da una porta
2. Della mia bella incognita borghese
toccare il �n dell’avventura io voglio.
Da tre mesi ogni festa.
In un remoto calle;
misterioso un uom v’entra ogni notte.
E sa colei chi sia l’amante suo?
(Un gruppo di dame e cavalieri attraversano la sala.)
Mantua: Magni�cent hall of the Duke’s palace, with doors in
the background leading to other rooms, also splendidly lit.
Crowds of ladies and noblemen strolling in the rooms
in the background. Pages coming and going. Dancing
can be seen in the rooms in the background. The
Duke and Borsa come out from one of the rooms,
speaking to one another.
I’m off to town to win that unknown bourgeois
The young girl you see at church?
Every feast day for the past three months.
Where does she live?
On some dead-end street;
Every night a mysterious man goes inside.
(A group of ladies and noblemen cross the room.)
Non v’oda il conte, o Duca...
A me che importa?
Nè sventura per me certo saria.
3. Questa o quella per me pari sono
a quant’altre d’intorno, d’intorno mi vedo;
del mio core l’impero non cedo
La costoro avvenenza è qual dono
s’oggi questa mi torna gradita,
forse un’altra, forse un’altra doman lo sarà,
un’altra, forse un’altra doman lo sarà.
La costanza, tiranna del core,
non v’ha amor, se non v’è libertà.
De’mariti il geloso furore,
anco d’Argo i cent’occhi dis�do
They are no match for Ceprano’s wife.
I couldn’t care less.
Should he tell a certain woman...
This woman or that one, and as many others
the room, they’re the same to me;
No beauty has more sway over my heart than
Women’s charms are the spice fate gives to life;
may not be my choice tomorrow.
Tomorrow another may take her place.
Constancy oppresses the heart—
Let us scorn this plague, this cruel pestilence;
there can be no love without freedom.
And when lovers pine and sigh;
To hell with Argus’s hundred eyes,
stricken by some new beauty,
If I’m stricken by some new beauty.
(va ad incontrare la Contessa di Ceprano e le
4. Partite?... crudele!...
Contessa di Ceprano
Seguire lo sposo
m’è forza a Ceprano.
in Corte tal astro qual sole brillare.
Per voi qui ciascuno dovrà palpitare.
Per voi già possente la �amma d’amore
inebria, conquide, distrugge il mio core.
Contessa di Ceprano
La �amma d’amore
inebria, conquide, distrugge il mio core.
Per voi già possente
Contessa di Ceprano
la �amma d’amore
distrugge il mio core.
(Ladies and noblemen enter, while in the room in the
background people are dancing the minuet.)
(approaches the Countess of Ceprano, saying
with great gallantry:)
Are you leaving? … Don’t be so cruel! …
Countess of Ceprano
But it is here in this court
It’s here you set each heart a�utter.
Already the blazing �ame of my love for you
enraptures, conquers, melts my heart.
Countess of Ceprano
enraptures, conquers, shatters my heart.
Already the blazing �ame
Countess di Ceprano
of my love for you
enraptures, conquers,
(gives his arm to the Countess and goes out with her)
melts my heart
In armi chi ha core
Borsa, Marullo, Coro
Borsa, Marullo, Coro
7. Ch’io gli parli.
Non più, arrestatelo.
Tu l’hai provocata, più speme von v’è,
un’ora fatale fu questa per te.
(Monterone parte fra due alabardieri; tutti gli altri
L’estremità d’una via cieca.
A sinistra, una casa di discreta apparenza con una
piccola corte circondata da mura. Nella corte un
ed alto albero ed un sedile di marmo; nel muro,
porta che mette alla strada; sopra il muro, un terrazzo
sostenuto da arcate. La porta del primo piano
dà sul
A destra della via è il muro altissimo del
giardino e un
Soglio in cittade uccidere,
oppure nel mio tetto.
L’uomo di sera aspetto;
una stoccata e muor.
Questo padrone mio, giovin, giocondo, sì possente, bello,
Fa ch’io rida, buffone!
Forzarmi deggio e farlo! Oh dannazione!
Odio a voi, cortigiani schernitori!
Quanta in mordervi ho gioia!
Ma in altr’uomo qui mi cangio!...
Quel vecchio maledivami!...Tal pensiero
perché conturba ognor la mente mia?
(Apre con chiave ed entra nel cortile. Gilda esce dalla
Mio padre!
Oh quanto dolor! che spremere
sì amaro pianto può?
Padre, non più, calmatevi...
11. Già da tre lune son qui venuta
se il concedete, farlo or potrei...
nasconde dietro l’albero; gettando a Giovanna una
borsa la fa tacere.)
Sempre novel sospetto!
Mio padre, addio!
(S’abbracciano e Rigoletto parte chiudendosi dietro la
porta. Gilda, Giovanna e il Duca restano
nella corte.)
13. Giovanna, ho dei rimorsi...
E perché mai?
Tacqui che un giovin
Perché ciò dirgli? L’odiate dunque
No, no, ché troppo è bello
e spira amore.
E magnanimo sembra e gran signore.
Signor né principe io lo vorrei;
sento che povero più l’amerei.
Sognando o vigile sempre lo chiamo,
e l’alma in estasi gli dice: t’a...
How loving you are, but how troubled!
behind him. Gilda, Giovanna and Duke remain in the
Giovanna, I feel so guilty...
followed us to church.
There is no reason to tell him. So do you dislike
No, no, he’s too handsome
He seems bighearted and a noble gentleman.
I feel I’d love him more if he were poor.
(esce improvviso, fa cenno a Giovanna d’andarsene,
inginocchiandosi ai piedi di Gilda termina
T’amo; ripetilo sì caro accento:
un puro schiudimi ciel di contento!
Son io coll’anima che ti rispondo.
Ah, due che s’amano son tutto un mondo!
Chi mai, chi giungere vi fece a me?
Se angelo o demone, che importa a te?
Io t’amo.
Ah, inseparabile d’amore il dio
stringeva, o vergine, tuo fato al mio!
14. È il sol dell’anima, la vita è amore,
sua voce è il palpito del nostro core.
E fama e gloria, potenza e trono,
(suddenly exits and beckons Giovanna away from
the courtyard; kneeling at Gilda’s feet, he completes
her words)
I love you; say these dear words again
to unlock the doors of blissful paradise!
Giovanna? Ah, poor me! No one is there to answer
me? Oh, God! Is no one there?
I am here, to answer with my soul.
Ah, two lovers make a world apart!
Whoever was it who brought you to me?
Angel or demon, why should you care?
Now that we burn with the same �re?
Ah, my dear girl, we are both
caught up tight in Cupid’s bonds!
For us, love is the sun, and our whole life,
its voice marks the beating of our hearts.
Fame and glory, power and thrones,
These are all too frail and mortal.
è amor che agl’angeli più ne avvicina!
d’invidia agli uomini sarò per te.
Ah, de’ miei vergini sogni son queste
le voci tenere sì care a me!
d’invidia agl’uomini sarò per te,
Studente sono, e povero...
(tornando spaventata)
Forse mio padre...
Ah, cogliere potessi il traditore
Di’, m’amerai tu?!
L’intera vita...poi...
Non più, non più...partite.
Tutte Due
l’affetto mio per te.
Walter Maldè.
(returning, worried)
It could be my father...
Take him out of here
to the ramparts ..Go, now...
But �rst—do you really love me?
For the rest of my life... and now...
No more, no more... Go!
(Il Duca esce scortato da Giovanna. Gilda resta
�ssando la porta ond’è partito.)
16. Gualtier Maldè...nome di lui sì amato,
ti scolpisci nel core innamorato!
Caro nome che il mio cor
festi primo palpitar,
le delizie dell’amor
mi dêi sempre rammentar!
a te sempre volerà,
e �n l’ultimo mio sospir,
caro nome, tuo sarà.
Col pensier,
(Sale al terrazzo con una lanterna.)
(Marullo, Ceprano, Borsa, cortigiani, armati e
Caro nome,
Par fata od angiol.
looking at the gate through which he has left.)
Walter Maldè I cherish his name,
be engraved upon my lovesick heart!
Cherished name, the �rst
to stir my heart,
to love’s delights!
In my thoughts my desire
and even my last breath,
cherished name, will be yours.
(Going out onto the terrace with a lantern.)
Walter Maldè!
(Marullo, Ceprano, Borsa and courtiers, armed and
masked, come in from the street. Gilda goes quickly
Just look at her.
You might say a fairy, or an angel.
L’amante è quella
bocca chiusa da un fazzoletto; nel traversare la
scenaella perde una sciarpa.)
Soccorso, padre mio!
Vi sono due porte laterali, una maggiore nel fondo
un seggiolone presso una tavola coperta di velluto e
E quando, o ciel?... ne’ brevi
istanti, prima che il mio presagio interno
sull’orma corsa ancora mi spingesse!
Schiuso era l’uscio! E la magion deserta!
E dove ora sarà quell’angiol caro?
Colei che prima potè in questo core
Colei sì pura, al cui modesto sguardo
quasi spinto a virtù talor mi credo!
E chi l’ardiva? ne avrò vendetta.
2. Parmi veder le lagrime
scorrenti da quel ciglio,
quando fra il dubbio e l’ansia
dell’amor nostro memore
Ned ei potea soccorrerti,
ei che vorria coll’anima
farti quaggiù beata;
ei che le sfere agli angeli
Ei che le sfere,
A drawing room of the Duke’s palace.
A door on either side. In the background there is a
larger one, closed and �anked by two full-length por
traits: to the left, one of the Duke, and his wife to the
right. Among other furniture, there is a a high-backed
chair next to a table with a velvet cover.
(enters, upset)
They stole her away from me!
And when, in God’s name?
Just before that nagging thought
turned me around in my tracks!
The gate was shut! And the hovel deserted!
And what has become of that dear angel?
The �rst woman ever for whom this heart
burned with the �ame of faithful affection?
So pure she was, whose shy face
nearly made an honest man of me!
They stole her away from me!
And who dared it?…I’ll have my revenge.
My dear one’s tears cry out for it.
wet from those �owing tears,
when stricken by doubt and worry
she faced the sudden threat.
The thought of our love consoled her
and she called out for her Walter.
But he could not help you, you dear,
wished to give you bliss on earth;
(Marullo, Ceprano, Borsa ed altri cortigiani entrano
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Coro
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Coro
Come? E d’onde?
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Coro
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Coro
Scorrendo uniti remota via,
brev’ora dopo caduto il dì,
come previsto ben s’era in pria,
Era l’amante di Rigoletto,
Già di rapirla s’avea il progetto,
rapir volessimo, stolto, credè;
bendato ei stesso ferma tenè.
a noi riusciva quindi asportar.
(Marullo, Ceprano, Borsa and other courtiers enter
from the upstage door.)
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Chorus
Duke, Duke!
What is it?
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Chorus
They’ve just carried off
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Coro
Quand’ei s’accorse della vendetta
restò scornato ad imprecar.
Ma dove or trovasi la poveretta?
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Coro
4. Possente amor mi chiama,
Il serto mio darei
Per consolarquel cor.
Ah! Sappia al�n chi l’ama,
Apprenda ch’anco in trono
Ha degli schiavi Amor.
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Coro
Oh qual pensier or l’agita?
(Il Duca esce frettoloso dal mezzo. Rigoletto
entra canterellantocon represso dolore.)
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Chorus
When he realized that he’d been tricked,
the cuckhold could only curse.
They’re talking about my beloved!
But where’s the poor girl now?
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Chorus
We’ve brought her here just now ourselves.
Ah, heaven has not yet taken all from me!
(joyfully, rising)
Love’s power calls me,
and I must hurry to her:
I would give up my crown
to comfort her heart.
and discover who I really am:
She shall learn that love
counts even those on thrones among its slaves.
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Chorus
(The Duke hurries o� through the center door.
Rigoletto enters, singing to himself and trying to
disguise his grief.)
Borsa, Marullo, Ceprano, Coro
(fra loro)
Guardate com’è inquieto!
Sì, dorme ancora.
Senza paggi! senz’armi!
che per ora vedere non può alcuno?
Se l’amante perdesti,
la ricerca altrove.
Marullo, signore, dimmi tu dove l’hanno nascosta?
È là...non è vero?...È là?...
non è vero?...è là?...non è vero?
Tu taci!...ohimè!
Miei signori, perdono, pietate!
Al vegliardo la �glia ridate!
Signori, perdono,
paterne braccia.)
7. Mio padre!
(fermandosi verso il ritratto)
Poiché fosti invano da me maledetto,
né un fulmine o un ferro
(Esce fra le guardie dal mezzo.)
chi a lei s’af�da,
who dares to trust her,
(Sparafucile rientra con una bottiglia di vino e due
bicchieri che depone sulla tavola: quindi batte col
pomo della sua lunga spada due colpi al so�tto. A
quel segnale una ridente giovane, in costume di
ra, scende a salti la scala. Il Duca corre per
la, ma ella gli sfugge. Frattanto Sparafucile,
uscito sulla
via, dice a parte a Rigoletto:)
È là il vostr’uomo. Viver dee o morire?
Ah! Ah!...e vent’altre appresso
le scorda forse adesso?
Ha un’aria il signorino da vero libertino.
Sì, un mostro son.
Ah, padre!
Lasciatemi, stordito!
non farmi tanto, chiasso.
nel gaudio e nell’amore.
(Le prende la mano.)
Scherzate voi, signore.
Have you forgotten them already?
My boyfriend seems quite the libertine.
Yes, I’m a beast.
Behave yourself!
Why can’t we behave ourselves
You jest, sir.
D’amore ardente.
Signor l’indifferente,
No, no, ti vo’ sposar...
Ne voglio la parola.
16. Bella �glia dell’amore,
le mie pene consolar.
Vieni e senti del mio core
il frequente palpitar.
Ah! Ah! rido ben di core,
Ah, così parlar d’amore...
...quanto valga il vostro gioco, mel credete,
so apprezzar.
le mie pene consolar.
per angoscia non scoppiar,
Ah! Ah! Rido ben di core!
Bella �glia dell’amore,
(per prenderla)
Che importa?
Tanto meglio.
Tu dormirai in scuderia...
all’inferno...ove vorrai.
Ah no!...partite.
Son venti scudi d’oro.
Ben felice d’offrirvi la mia stanza.
(Prende un lume e s’avvia per la scala.)
(groping to catch her)
Wait… my brother is coming.
I don’t care.
And rain very soon.
Ebben, sono con te...presto, vediamo.
(Dice una parola all’orecchio di Maddalena e
Povero giovin!...grazioso tanto!
Si dorme all’aria aperta? Bene, bene.
Signor, vi guardi Iddio.
Breve sonno dormiam; stanco son io.
Maddalena frattanto siede presso la tavola.
Rimangono ambedue taciturni per qualche istante, e
preoccupati da gravi pensieri.)
muta d’accento
e di pensiero...
muta d’accento
(Whispers to Maddalena and
Poor young man!... and so handsome!
(up in the loft, seeing the shutterless balcony.)
You sleep in the open air? Well, well.
May God keep you, sir.
We won’t be sleeping for long; I’m too tired for that.
(He takes o� his hat and sword and stretches out
Sparafucile drinks from the bottle that the Duke has
left behind. Both sit silently for a few moments, deep
A woman is �ighty,
and when she’s thinking.
and when she’s think…
A woman… is �ighty…
19. È amabile invero
ne dà di prodotto.
La spada, s’ei dorme,
va, portami giù.
(Maddalena sale al granaio e contempla il dormente,
poi ripara alla meglio il balcone e scende portando
della via in costume virile, con stivali e speroni,
lentamente si avanza verso l’osteria, mentre
fucile continua a bere. Spessi lampi e tuoni.)
mio padre, perdono!
Qual notte d’orrore!
I really do like
are nothing to sneeze at.
He was worth more than that.
His sword. Bring it down to me,
if he’s asleep.
(Maddalena goes up to the loft and looks at the sleep
ing man, then does her best to secure the balcony. She
goes down, bringing the sword with her. Meanwhile,
Gilda appears at the end of the street in man’s dress,
with boots and spurs, and comes up to the tavern,
as Sparafucile keeps drinking. Heavy lightning and
Ah, I must be out of my mind!
Love has drawn me back here...
Father, forgive me!
Great God, what is about to happen?
(having placed the Duke’s sword on the table)
(osservando per la fessura)
(frugando in un credenzone)
quel giovane, io l’amo,
ei m’ama...riposi...
Entr’esso il tuo Apollo, sgozzato da me,
gettar dovrò al �ume.
L’inferno qui vedo!
Eppure il denaro salvarti scommetto
Dif�cile il credo.
(looking through the crack)
(rummaging through a sideboard)
Let’s ditch our plans to kill him.
Patch up this sack!
I’ll use it to throw your Apollo into the river,
after I’ve slit his throat.
That won’t be easy.
M’ascolta...anzi facil ti svelo un progetto.
venire cogli altri più tardi il vedrai...
Mio padre!
...così tutto il prezzo goder si potrà.
Un ladro son forse? Son forse un bandito?
Qual altro cliente da me fu tradito?
Mi paga quest’uomo, fedele m’avrà.
È d’uopo ch’ei muoia.
Fuggire il fo adesso.
(Va per salire.)
Just hear me out... My plan’s simple enough.
You’ve already gotten ten scudi from the hunchback.
...all twenty...
Kill that hunchback! What the devil are you talking about?
Do you take me for a thief? A bandit? Have I ever be
trayed another patron? If this man pays, I’m his man.
There’s no way out—he will die.
(She begins to go upstairs.)
Oh, you kindhearted girl!
Gli scudi perdiamo.
Lascia fare.
Se pria ch’abbia il mezzo la notte toccato
È buia la notte, il ciel troppo irato,
nessuno a quest’ora da qui passerà.
Morire!...e mio padre!...
Se pria ch’abbia,
We’ll lose those scudi.
We must save him.
Anyone who comes here before midnight sounds
The night is dark, the sky is threatening.
No one will come this way at this hour.
Oh, what a temptation! To die for that ingrate?
To die!...and my father!...
Anyone who comes here,
Oh heaven, have pity,
Ancor c’è mezz’ora.
Attendi, fratello...
Che! piange tal donna! né a lui darò aita!
Ah, s’egli al mio amore divenne rubello,
io vo’ per la sua gettar
(Picchia alla porta.)
(Gilda torna a bussare.)
Wait, brother...
What? Can a woman like her weep,
while I stand here helpless?
Ah, even if he spurned my love,
(She knocks at the door.)
That’s strange!... Who is it?
Have pity on a beggar;
(Va a cercare nel credenzone.)
Su, spicciati, presto, fa l’opra compita:
anelo una vita con altra salvar.
Ebbene, son pronto; quell’uscio dischiudi,
più ch’altro gli scudi mi preme salvar.
Ah! presso alla morte, sì giovine sono!
Oh ciel, per quegl’empi ti chieggo perdono!
Perdona tu, O padre, a quest’infelice!
Sia l’uomo felice ch’or vado a salvar.
Spicciati, presto,
Bene, son pronto,
Dio! Loro perdonate!
He looks into the sideboard.)
Go, just do it, quickly, do the deed:
Very well, I’m ready; open the door.
Oh heaven, I ask forgiveness for these sinners!
And you, father, forgive this unhappy daughter!
May the man I save be happy.
Go, just do it, quickly,
Very well, I’m ready,
(to herself)
God! Forgive them!
(Sparafucile va a postarsi con un pugnale dietro alla
porta; Maddalena apre e poi corre a chiudere la
arcata di fronte, mentre entra Gilda, dietro a
Sparafucile chiude la porta, e tutto resta sepolto
(Rientra e torna trascinando un sacco.)
È qua spento il vostro’uomo.
(Fa per trascinare il sacco verso la sponda, quando è
sorpreso dalla lontana voce del Duca, che nel fondo
attraversa la scena.)
Ah, padre mio!
Internationally acclaimed Russian baritone
leading to invitations from some of the most im
portant Italian and foreign opera houses. Between
2007 and 2009, he sang
Luisa Miller
again in Sassa
ri, before his debut in Turin with
in Verona;
with the Metropolitan Opera, La Scala,
the Paris
Opera, and the Berlin State Opera, she is quickly
on her way to bec
oming a regular performer at
many of the world’s top houses.
Nadine Sierra made her professional debut as a
teenager with the Palm Beach Opera and received
her �rst national exposure at age 15, when she
performed on NPR’s young artist showcase
the Top
. After graduating from New York’s Mannes
College of Music, she entered the Adler Fellowship
Program at the San Francisco Opera, where she
continues to return frequently in leading roles. She
is the youngest winner to date both of the Marilyn
Horne Foundation Vocal Competition and the Met
ropolitan Opera National Council Auditions.
Sierra returned to the Paris Opera in 2016–2017 to
open its season at the
Palais Garnier as Flavia in a
new production of Cavalli’s
, and was lat
er seen at the Opéra Bastille as Pamina in
Die Zau
and Gilda in
with the San Francisco Symphony, has performed at
the Arena di Verona and Vienna’s Musikverein, and
has been featured in televised concerts from Lincoln
Center and Venice’s Teatro la Fenice. In recital, she
has appeared at venues ranging from Carnegie’s
Weill Hall to the U.S. Supreme Court.
Andrea Mastroni
projects a
uniquely dark-toned and velvety deep sound; but with
its broad tessitura and great agility, he has also scored
triumphs in the Verdi baritone roles that he has begun
to add to his repertoire, including
Subsequently he has expanded his repertoire to
include roles such as Lord Sidney in
Il Viaggio a
, Oroveso in
, Frère Laurent in
et Juliette
, Osmin in
Die Entführung aus dem Se
, Pirro in
I Lombardi
, Banquo in
Don Carlo
, Oroe in
and Caronte in
Andrea Mastroni has performed in the main op
era houses and festivals in Italy, Spain, Germany,
and Austria, and his recordings include the operas
I Vespri Siciliani
(Naxos, DVD and CD), Gounod’s
Roméo et Juliette
Grammy winner 2012) and
sics), presenting Henri Duparc´s songs for voice and
Art songs make up a very important facet
of his career, with a focus on song cycles such as
Die Schöne Müllerin
Die Winterreise
as well as Schumann´s
. His concert rep
ertoire features pieces such as Mozart´s
Litaniae Lauretanae
; Rossini´s
Petite Messe Solennelle;
and Verdi´s
He performed in the world premieres of
by Lavagnino, Hazon´s
, Arn
Dante Raccontal’Inferno
, and
La Signora di
by Belisario. After opening the
season at La Fenice in Venice with the premiere
performance of Filippo Perocco’s
made his debut at New York’s Metropolitan Opera
as Sparafucile in
Belarusian mezzo-soprano
Oksana Volkova
was born in Minsk and studied at
the Belarusian State Academy of Music. Her many
awards include �rst prizes at the Glinka and An
In 2002 she was invited to join the opera company
of the National Academic Bolshoi Opera and Bal
let Theatre of the Republic of Belarus, where she
performed the roles of Carmen, Amneris in
Boris Godunov
, Konchakovna in
, Marfa in
and others.
She made her �rst appearance as a guest soloist at
the Bolshoi Theater in 2010; her roles there since
include Carmen, Lyubasha in
The Tsar’s Bride
Eugene Onegin
, Laura in
Stone Guest,
and Boy in
The Legend of the Invisible
City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevroniya
Her international engagements include Olga in
for Madrid’s Teatro Real and the Met
ropolitan Opera; Carmen for Teatro Colon, Latvian
National Opera, Salzburg Landestheater, Savona,
Tallin, Tokyo, and Beijing; Olga and Maddalena in
Volkova’s concert appearances include a tour with
the Moscow Virtuosos;
La Damnation de Faust
May Night
in concert with the Russian National
Orchestra; Tchaikovsky’s
Moscow Cantata
penhagen; the Moscow Cantata and
Alexander Nevsky
with the Dublin Symphony Or
chestra; Tchaikovsky’s
The Queen of Spades
cert at the Munich Gasteig; Verdi’s
Opéra de Nice; and Mussorgsky’s
Boris Godunov
with the Russian State Academic Symphony Or
Tadas Girininkas
born in Lithuania, and earned his master’s degree
at the Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theater.
season highlights include his de
in Gounod’s
at Vilnius
City Opera. He also performed the roles of Cad
mus and
in H
In previous seasons, Mr. Girininkas sang prominent
bass roles in
La bohème
Le nozze di Figaro
and in
el’s ode
Alexander’s Feast
at the Lith
uanian National Opera
At the Vilnius City Opera
he performed in
Pelléas et Mélisande
Notable earlier appearances include sig
ni�cant roles in
Tsar’s Bride
s repertoire further includes
major bass roles in
an oratorio
singer, he has sung in Haydn’s
Missa Brevis
Mozart, Verdi’s
, Puccini’s
Messa di gloria
Faust cantate
and Britten’s
War Requiem
among others.
Art Song recitals are an important part of
’s artistic life. In recent years he has collab
orated with pianist Justas Šervenikas on the song
cycles of Shostakovich, Kabalevsky, Mussorgsky,
and Wolf.
Girininkas was named the
Lithuanian Opera Soloist
of the Year in 2013
and recently received the
Stage Cross
Award for the roles of Heinrich in
Lithuanian singer
Tomas Pavilionis (Borsa)
leading tenor at the Lithuanian Opera and Ballet
music school of Kaunas, where he studied choral
conducting. Since then, he has won top prizes at
multiple local vocal competitions, including the
Dainųdainelė National Children’s Song Compe
tition and the Stasys Baras vocal competition
Pavilionis earned a master’s degree in vo
cal studies from the Lithuanian Academy of Music
and Theater. He made his debut as a professional
artist in 2009 at the Klaipeda State Music Theater,
where he worked until 2014. Pavilionis regularly
participates in classical music projects and im
proves his professional skills at international mas
ter classes. He has worked with prominent vocal
coaches, most recently with the distinguished tenor
Roman Sadnik. Mr. Pavilionis is in demand as a reg
uest vocalist with Lithuania’s primary orches
tras and music theaters. He has also performed in
countries throughout Europe as well as in the Unit
ed States, South Korea, Rus
Pavilionis’s opera repertoire includes Aeneas in
Dido and Aeneas
, Alfredo in
La traviata,
Don Giovanni
, Faust in Gounod’s
, Jaqui
, Lensky in
Eugene Onegin
, Nemorino
L’elisir d’amore
, and Rodolfo in
La bohème
. His
concert repertoire includes the solo tenor parts
in Mozart’s
, Franck’s
Les beatitudes
Messe solennelle de sainte Cecile
Kostas Smoriginas (Monterone),
one of the
Baltic region’s leading baritones, studied at the
Lithuanian Music and Theatre Academy, the Royal
College of Music in London and was a member of
the Jette Parker young artist program at the Royal
Opera House (ROH). He represented his country at
the BBC Cardiff Singer of the World in 2005.
His regular roles include Escamillo in
lin Staatsoper, Beijing’s National Centre for the Per
forming Arts, Semperoper Dresden, ROH, Santa
Fe Opera, and Salzburg Easter Festival’s
with the Berlin Philharmonic under Simon Rattle,
recorded for EMI); the title role in
Le nozze di Figa
(San Francisco Opera, Washington National Op
era); Colline in
La bohème
(ROH); Masetto in
(Teatro alla Scala; Aix-en-Provence Fes
tival); Leporello in
Don Giovanni
(Opéra National
de Bordeaux); the title role in
Don Giovanni
Municipal de Santiago, Chile; Toulouse); as well as
the title role in
Eugene Onegin
, Guglielmo in
fan tutte
, and Count Almaviva in
Le nozze di Figaro
His concert repertoire includes the Requiems of
Verdi, Mozart and Fauré; Handel’s
, Janáček’s
Glagolitic Mass
, Dvořák’s
Te Deum
and Szymanowski’s
, which
he sang with Ed Gardner and the City of Birming
ham Symphony Orchestra and with the London
Symphony Orchestra under Valery Gergiev. Kostas
won rave reviews for his BBC Proms debut in Stra
Les Noces
under the baton of Ed Gardner
at the Royal Albert Hall. He has won acclaim for his
interpretations of Dvořak’s
Te Deum
with the Or
chestre de Paris and Rachmaninoff’s
The Bells
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, conducted by
Andris Nelsons. A native Russian speaker, his song
repertoire features a great variety of Russian Song.
Kostas’s current engagements include his return to
the BBC Proms in 2015, concerts with the Pacif
ic Symphony Orchestra and the Latvian National
Symphony Orchestra; the title role in
Le nozze di
at New Orleans Opera,
with La Mon
naie Brussels; as well as his return to Santa Fe and
Toulouse plus several further appearances at Cov
ent Garden.
Eglė Šidlauskaitė (Giovanna,
Countess, Page)
was born was born in Kaunas and
studied at the Lithuanian Academy of Theater and
Music in her home town as well as the Conservatorio
di Musica Giuseppe Verdi in Milan. She has competed
successfully in several international singing competi
tions, including winning �rst prizes at the Capriolo
Franciacorta and G. Cobelli competitions and being
a �nalist and special prizewinner in the Competizione
dell’Opera 2011. Ms. Eglė won scholarships to join
the 2013 Verbier Festival Academy for young singers
and in 2010 the Solti Te Kanawa Academy to work
intensively on vocal technique and performance.
She toured in Germany, Austria and France in
2010 as Azucena in
Il trovatore
with Opera Itali
ana di Milano. In the 2011/2012 season, she was
a member of the newly established Opera Studio
at the State Theater in Kassel, where her roles in
cluded Third Lady in Mozart’s
Die Zauber�öte
Third Flowermaiden in Wagner’s
and Son
in 2013. He has won �rst places and grand prizes in a
number of international competitions, and has sung
in festivals and concerts in Lithuania and abroad,
including the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Estonia,
Ukraine, Germany, Russia, Poland, and Belarus. He
has also performed with the Kaunas City Symphony,
the Kaunas State Musical Theatre, and the Moscow
State Academic National Orchestra. Among his many
operatic roles are Don Alfonso in Mozart’s
Così fan
Tobias Mill in Rossini’s
La cambiale di matrimo
Rambaldo in Puccini’s
La Rondine,
Betto di Sinja
in Puccini’s
Gianni Schicchi,
and Raich in Nicolai’s
lustigen Weiber von Windsor.
In addition, he has sung
the roles of Homonai in Johann Strauss’s operetta
and Falke in Strauss’s
Die Fledermaus,
as well as Tasilo in Kalman’s operetta
Gra�n Mariza.
For this recording, he is heard in the aria “A te, o cara”
from Bellini’s
Liudas Mikalauskas (Usher)
is a soloist with
the Lithuanian National Opera and Ballet Theatre
and teaches at Vytautas Magnus University Mu
sic Academy. In 2011 he completed his studies at
the Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre in
Kaunas as well as at Vytautas Magnus University
Music Academy, where he studied with professor
Sabina Martinaitytė. Liudas has won Grand Prix
and �rst prizes at twelve international singing com
petitions and received the Lithuanian Ministry of
Culture Prize for the Best Professional Arts Debut
in 2006. In 2007 he was granted an internship at
the United Kingdom’s Royal Welsh College of Mu
sic and Drama. Liudas’ current repertoire includes
roles in twenty-�ve operatic productions, most no
tably Figaro in Mozart’s
Le nozze di Figaro
, Raimondo
in Donizetti’s
Lucia di Lammermoor
, Mephistophe
les in Gounod’s
Don Basilio and Don Bartolo
in Rossini’s
Il barbiere di Siviglia
, and Dulcamara in
L’elisir d’amore
. He has also participated
in international festivals in Lithuania, Poland, Esto
nia, Ukraine, Russia, Germany, Great Britain, Israel,
Slovakia, Sweden and the United States. In this re
cording, he is heard in the aria “A te, o cara” from
I Puritani
as well as in the sequence linking
sections of the aria “Ah! mes amis” from Donizetti’s
La �lle du régiment.
Grammy-nominated conductor
“stands astride two great societies, and
�nds and promotes synergistic harmony from the
best of each.”
) For over 20 years the bril
liant American pianist /conductor has been a cen
tral �gure in Russia’s musical life — �rst as Music
Director of the Moscow Chamber Orchestra and
the Philharmonia of Russia, and more recently as
guest conductor with a number of illustrious Rus
sian orchestras. Currently Chief Conductor of the
Kaunas City Symphony Orchestra in Lithuania,
Orbelian leads concerts and recordings there with
some of the world’s greatest singers, in projects
such as a recording of
Simon Boccanegra,
Dmitri Hvorostovsky in the title role. In 2016 he be
came Artistic Director of the State Academic Opera
and Ballet Theater in Yerevan, Armenia.
Opera News
calls Orbelian “the singer’s dream col
and commented that he conducts vocal
repertoire “with the sensitivity of a lieder pianist.”
The California-based conductor tours and records
with American stars such as Sondra Radvanovsky
and Lawrence Brownlee, and with Hvorostovsky and
other renowned Russian singers in European, North
American, Russian and Asian music centers. He is
the founder and Music Director of the annual Pal
Orbelian’s appointment in 1991 as Music Director of
the Moscow Chamber Orchestra was a breakthrough
event: he is the �rst American ever to become music
director of an ensemble in Russia. A tireless champion
of Russian-American cultural exchange and interna
tional ambassadorship through his worldwide tours,
he was awarded the coveted title “Honored Artist of
Russia” in 2004, a title never before bestowed on a
non-Russian citizen. In May 2010, Orbelian led the
opening Ceremonial Concert for the Cultural Olym
pics in Sochi — the �rst event setting the stage for
Russia’s hosting of the Olympic Games in 2014. In
2012 the Consulate in San Francisco awarded him
the Russian Order of Friendship Medal, whose illustri
ous ranks include pianist Van Cliburn and conductor
Riccardo Muti, and which singles out non-Russians
whose work contributes to improving of international
relations with the Russian Federation and its people.
From his 1995 performance at the 50th Anniversa
ry Celebrations of the United Nations in San Fran
cisco, to his 2004 performance at the U.S. State
Department commemorating 70 years of diplo
matic relations between Washington and Moscow,
and a repeat State Department appearance in
2007, all with the Moscow Chamber Orchestra, Or
belian continues to use his artistic eminence in the
cause of international goodwill. He and his orches
tras have also participated in cultural enrichment
programs for young people, both in Russia and the
U.S. In 2001 Orbelian was awarded the Ellis Island
Medal of Honor, an award given to immigrants, or
children of immigrants, who have made outstand
John Fisher’s
multifaceted international career
encompasses distinguished accomplishments as
an opera director, opera manager, conductor, vocal
coach and record producer.
A native of Glasgow, he is a graduate of Glasgow
University, the Royal Academy of Music and the
London Opera Centre.
His operatic career began in 1972, when he be
came the Music Director of the Welsh National
Opera’s “Opera For All” project, designed to en
hance modern audiences’ appreciation of the
genre. From 1973-1975 he was a repetiteur and
vocal coach as well as Music Director of the Opera
In 1975, Fisher joined the Music Staff at De Ned
erlandse Opera in Amsterdam, working there until
1977, when he was appointed Head of Music Staff
at La Scala, Milan, and served as the company’s
Artistic Administrator from 1981 until 1988. He
further served Pesaro’s Rossini Opera Festival as
an artistic/musical consultant from 1983 to 1988.
In 1989, he became Artistic Director at La Fenice,
Venice: the �rst non-Italian to hold that position.
From there, Fisher moved on in 1994 to the staff of
Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft in Hamburg,
where he was Director of Opera and Vocal Produc
tions and Executive Producer. In 1997 he became
Director of Music Administration at New York’s Met
ropolitan Opera, moving on in 2006 to the position
of General Director with the Welsh National Opera.
In addition, John has been closely associated with
the BBC’s Cardiff Singer of the World competition,
the Lisa Gasteen Opera Summer School, and the
Juilliard School, among many others worldwide.
He has worked extensively with Decca records and
with Unitel �lms, collaborating with Jean-Pierre
Ponnelle on several opera �lms.
In August 2014, in the �nal concert of the 2014
Pažaislis Music Festival, Fisher conducted the
Kaunas City Symphony Orchestra and Kaunas State
Choir (heard here) in a performance of Verdi’s
, in commemoration of the 70th anniversary
of the liquidation of the Jewish ghetto in Kaunas.
Kaunas City Symphony Orchestra
from the Kaunas Chamber Orchestra, which was
founded in 1988 and since 2000 has been managed
by Algimantas Treikauskas. Its previous principal
conductors were Pavel Berman, Modestas Pitrenas,
and Imants Resnis; the position now belongs to
American maestro Constantine Orbelian.
The Kaunas City Symphony Orchestra gives
concerts at home in Lithuania and abroad—
including Latvia, Estonia, Norway, Switzerland,
Germany, Finland, and Italy. It appears regularly
at various international festivals, presents special
concert projects, and gives theme-oriented
concerts. Many famous Lithuanian as well as
foreign soloists and conductors have collaborated
with the orchestra, which organizes and appears
in around 50 concerts per year. A highly versatile
ensemble, the orchestra specializes in various
genres of classical and contemporary music,
including cross-over projects with such groups
as The Scorpions, Smokie, and the Electric Light
Orchestra, to name a few.
The orchestra also appeared at the opera
contest show
Arc of Triumph
for two years on
Lithuanian National Television. Among the group’s
prominent highlights in the 2012/2013 season
were its collaboration with famous baritone Dmitri
Hvorostovsky and Maestro Orbelian, as well as
its appearance at the Murten Classics festival in
Switzerland under the baton of Kaspar Zehnder.
A number of recent projects were recorded for
Delos with several of today’s most notable voices,
conducted by Maestro Orbelian. The complete
Simon Boccanegra
, with Dmitri Hvorostovsky in the
title role (DE 3457), was released by Delos in 2015.
Tenor Lawrence Brownlee stars in a Delos 2014
release showcasing Rossini arias (DE 3455), which
received a Grammy nomination.
Founded in Kaunas, Lithuania, in 1969,
State Choir
has been led ever since by its founder,
Petras Bingelis, a professor at the Lithuanian Acade
my of Music and Theatre and winner of the Lithua
nian National Prize. Under his direction, the chorus
has developed an extensive repertoire ranging from
medieval to modern music
and including more than
150 large-scale compositions: oratorios, cantatas,
Masses and
Passions, as well as staged and concert
versions of operas.
After Lithuania regained its independence in 1990,
the choir’s concert life became extremely active
and eventful, especially when it began collaborat
ing with the legendary violinist and conductor Ye
hudi Menuhin. In 1992, with Menuhin on the con
ductor’s podium, the chorus took part in theatrical
Gilbert Duprez as Fernand and Rosina Stoltz
La favorite
performances of Handel’s
during the New
and Old Ways to India Festival (Spain), dedicated
to the 500th anniversary of the discovery of Amer
ica, and began extensive concert tours to France,
Italy, Spain, Germany, Egypt, and Russia, among
other countries. Collaborating with the renowned
German pianist and conductor Justus Frantz, cellist
and conductor Mstislav Rostropovich, and Krzysz
tof Penderecki, the chorus also performed a con
cert version of
The Messiah
in Buenos Aires(Argen
Over the many years since its founding, The Kaunas
State Choir has given more than three thousand
concerts in Lithuania and abroad and has been led
by such maestri as Dmitri Kitaenko, Yan Pascal Tor
telier, John Axelrod, Vladimir Spivakov, and Valery
Gergiev. While performing most of its concerts with
the Lithuanian National Symphony Orchestra, the
choir has also collaborated with a number of other
orchestras from London, Paris, Bordeaux, Dresden,
Leipzig, Moscow and St. Petersburg, among many
Left to right: Dmitri Hvorostovsky, Aleksandra Kerienė, Constantine Orbelian, Vilius Keras
Dmitri Hvorostovsky as Rigoletto at
Covent Garden.
Dmitri Hvorostovsky as Rigoletto in the
Metropolitan Opera production
Left to right: Svetlana E�mova, Constantine Orbelian, Nadine Sierra, Dmitri Hvorostovsky
, the Duke’s jester:
Dmitri Hvorostovsky
, baritone
, his daughter:
Francesco Demuro
, tenor
Andrea Mastroni
, his sister:
Oksana Volkova
, contralto
, Gilda’s nurse:
Eglė Šidlauskaitė
Tadas Girininkas
, bass
Eglė Šidlauskaitė,
, a courtier:
Tomas Pavilionis
, tenor
Kostas Smoriginas
, baritone
Andrius Apšega
, baritone
, bass
Eglė Šidlauskaitė
: The Duke’s courtiers and guests
Constantine Orbelian, conductor
Kaunas City Symphony Orchestra
Men of the Kaunas State Choir
Special thanks go to Algimantas Treikauskas, General Director of the Kaunas City Symphony Orchestra—
as well as his staff—for their invaluable help in producing this recording.
Also much appreciated are the invaluable contributions of Artistic Consultant John Fisher and pianist/
vocal coach Svetlana E�mova.
Recorded at Kaunas Philharmonic July 1–9, 2016
Producers: Vilius Keras and Aleksandra Kerienė
Recording Engineer: Vytautas Kederys
Editing/mastering: Vilius Keras and Aleksandra Kerienė
Program notes and synopsis: Lindsay Koob
© 2017 Delos Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 343, Sonoma, CA 95476-9998
(707) 996-3844 • Fax (707) 320-0600 • (800) 364-0645
[email protected] •

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