Flightpath Glossary of Aviation Terms


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© Cambridge University Press 2011.
Professional English
VIATION
AVIATION
AT
Word
an adjective referring to the back part of a plane.
is also used with the same meaning. It
forward
before
Alternating Current: the type of electrical power generated by the engine generators and characterised
by frequency oscillation as opposed to D.C. (DirectCurrent).
abbreviation for
aircraft
abeam the runway
indicating that the runway is to the side of the aircraft, at a bearing of approximately 90° or 270°
relative to the aircraft, i.e. to the right or the left
abort (v)
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a desirable condition meaning that the ight crew can anticipate what the aircraft will do and what
they should plan for in advance:
the crew must stay ahead of the aircraft at all times.
aileron power
a hydraulically powered servo-control which moves the ailerons on the outer wings
a large unit comprising an air cycle machine and pre-cooler which regulates bleed air from the engine
ADC: a digital computer serving as a central source of information on the surrounding atmosphere
and the aircraft ight through it. It provides the pressure altitude, outside air temperature, airspeed,
Mach number and angle of attack data to the automatic ight control system, the ight instruments
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Antonov
Russian aircraft manufacturer. The Antonov 124 and 225 are currently among the world’s largest
cargo aircraft; the Antonov 225 has a maximum take-off weight of approximately 600 tonnes
approach charts
instrument approach charts show holding procedures, instrument approach procedures and missed
approach procedures. In addition to the plan and prole views of various instrument procedures, the
charts provide a wealth of other information: obstacle location and clearance height (OCH); ground
speeds versus rates of descent; VOR-DME, LOC, G/S, IAF identiers and frequencies; transition
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autobrake
a computer-assisted system which controls and monitors landing gear brake applications in order to
achieve maximum braking efciency:
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the bird ingestion caused some minor damage to the
stage LP compressor blades
to stop displaying data, to become dark:
the power failure caused the First Ofcer screens to blank
long barrier which diverts efux behind parked or taxiing aircraft:
blast fences are often installed
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loss of cabin pressurisation and an increase in cabin altitude; the cabin altitude, normally maintained
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1) CLR: no cloud cover:
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converge (v)
to move towards each other
converging
ight paths which are heading towards each other
conveyor belt
rotating rubber
copy (v)
phraseology for to hear and understand
correction
phraseology which indicates that an error has been made by the person making the transmission and
that correct information will follow:
climb to reach Flight Level 290 at time 58. Correction at time 55.
part of the engine cowling, the fairing which surrounds and protects the engine and provides an
the panels (cowls) surrounding the engine; it is the main part of the engine nacelle.
cracked
the outer pane of the left hand windshield appears to be slightly cracked
crew minibus
small bus to take crew to and from aircraft:
we are still waiting for the crew minibus to pick us up
crew resource
CRM: a branch of human factors which analyses the ways in which team work and good
communication can reduce the effects of human error. CRM training has become part of mainstream
pilot training. See James Reason’s seminal works in this eld:
Human Error
risks of organisational accidents
crucial, decisive, essential. This word often refers to the turning point in a series of events:
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ice removal performed by the airport services in cold weather either by aircraft passing under a gantry
or by special tankers with hydraulic platforms which spray de-icing uid onto the wings, ight control
surfaces, empennage and fuselage.
a designated location where aircraft are de-iced in cold weather before departure
de-icing truck
vehicle with tank and hydraulic platform for spraying aircraft
delaying action
phraseology for holding or orbiting to slow down the progress of a ight:
Air China 473, delaying action:
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point on the localizer and glideslope scales which indicates the degree of deviation left or right /
above or below during approach
a downward movement of air caused by a descending body of cool air
in a direction away from the source of the wind, 180° from the landing direction:
downwind leg and is about to make the base turn
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engine run-up
operating the engine on the ground over its full power range for testing purposes after an engine
engine run-up area
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a temperature sensor failure;
2) an omission or the inability to perform an action:
there was a failure by the crew to use the Standard
Operating Procedures
The end of a runway at the opposite end from where the aircraft touches down or starts its take-off
run
a landing made above the usual landing speed of the aircraft either because of adverse wind
conditions or because the aps are not fully extended. This will probably result in a
hard landing
Fixed Base Operator: an American term for an airport operator
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FCU: a control panel on the glareshield which, on an Airbus aircraft, fulls the same function as a
Mode Control Panel (MCP)
on a Boeing aircraft, i.e. entering altitude, heading, speed, vertical speed
(rate of climb / descent) values into the autopilot and autothrust / autothrottle
ight crew
captain, rst ofcer, and occasionally ight engineer working as a team
compartment from which the crew y the aircraft;
cockpit, ight compartment, control cabin
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fuel hydrant
fuel tanker
a normal landing which ends with the aircraft stopping and exiting the runway rather than doing a
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Warning System
GPWS: an airborne system which alerts the ight crew that they are approaching terrain or that there
political statement using threats, or to deliberately crash the plane:
used in the event of a hijacker on board
High Intensity Runway Lighting. The brightness of runway lighting can be adjusted by the Tower
according to the atmospheric conditions and time of day
1) the holding pattern followed by aircraft typically while waiting to descend and land. It is also
compartments in an aircraft:
bulk cargo and animals are loaded into hold 5
hold short of (v)
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a place indicated by painted ground markings, illuminated signage and (often) stop bars where aircraft
stop until they are authorised to enter the runway:
taxi holding point Lima 1 Runway 08 via taxiways
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not good enough, not of a sufcient quantity:
there was inadequate warning of the trench being dug
along the side of the taxiway
inadvertently
unintentionally, without being aware:
the crew inadvertently strayed onto the active runway
spoilers
the spoilers on the upper surface of the wing; there are several surfaces and they are commonly
identied as inboard or inner and outboard or outer spoilers.
used to describe an aircraft which is ying towards a point, towards a x, arriving, approaching:
are
ying inbound heading 22; track inbound to the Norfolk VOR on the 193° radial.
unconscious or too ill to function properly:
the Captain was incapacitated as the result of a stroke
(obstruction of an artery to the brain)
to become or make greater or more:
increase speed by 20 knots
indicated airspeed
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intersection
crossing of taxiways, runways or taxiways and runways
under the effects of drugs or alcohol, drunk:
there is a very intoxicated and belligerent passenger in the
rear
to shut off the electrical, hydraulic, fuel or pneumatic supply to a failed component:
we have isolated
a point, a piece of information or an action:
blocked in position, especially used about the aps, slats and servocontrols:
the trailing edge aps
seem to be jammed in the 15-degree position
Jeppesen charts
charts used by pilots worldwide; they represent a very high quality of cartography. The chart used as a
model in Unit 8 Exercise 19a is an arrival chart for an ILS or LOC approach to Runway 16C at Seattle
International Airport, Washington State, USA. Different charts exist for each arrival and type of arrival.
Other Jeppesen charts include Standard Instrument Departures (SID), airport charts, approach charts,
route plotting charts, VFR charts and high level en-route charts for larger regions. Many charts have
a validity of only two weeks and must be constantly updated. Electronic charts are becoming more
and more common. In addition to the cartographic and ight path information in the middle of the
page, the chart contains a wealth of information about the airport and its facilities: radio frequencies,
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evel 160
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MLG: the main landing gear which is located under the inner wing and, in very large aircraft, under
the centre fuselage. It consists of wheels mounted on axles connected by a boggie which is attached
MEL. The MMEL (Master Minimum Equipment List) provides a list of equipment which are allowed to
be inoperative under certain conditions when the aircraft is dispatched
microburst
a dangerous vertical gust of wind
millibars
unit of atmospheric pressure measurement which refers to the same unit value as hectoPascal
the lower limits of visibility for a given aircraft at a given approach depending on its onboard
The aircraft landed at Perth Airport in weather conditions that were below the prescribed
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when a aircraft approaches an airport in order to land, but does not actually land, typically because of
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overy (v)
to y over:
aircraft overy waypoints and beacons
overhead
immediately above
: we are overhead the eld
overhead panel
an instrument panel above the pilots’ heads in the cockpit which contains most of the system control
panels on aircraft with a two-man crew
over-reliance
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RO
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Passenger Service Unit: component located on the lower side of the overhead baggage racks above
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Ram Air Turbine: a small electrical generator driven by a propeller, which is lowered into the airstream
below the wing to provide essential electrical (and hydraulic) power in the event of multiple engine
to arrive at a given point:
the aircraft levelled off on reaching its top of climb
to hear and understand:
how do you read me?
an instruction to make the interlocutor acknowledge specic instructions or information:
The readback
request departure
we require 117 tonnes of fuel for our next leg
to save, to recover, to free from danger:
search and rescue; all the passengers and crew were rescued
from the icy water
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Advisory
RA: a message delivered by the TCAS instructing the crew to climb or descend. An RA requires the
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runway incursion
when an aircraft, vehicle, pedestrian or animal inadvertently enters an active runway
rupture (n)
rushed
in a hurry, in haste, too fast to do things properly:
rushed decisions and actions often lead to errors
Runway Visual Range: a value representing the horizontal distance a pilot will see centreline or edge
lights or runway markings down the runway from the approach end measured from three points on the
runway: threshold, mid point and stop end:
R12/1200,
its identity and altitude by means of a transponder onboard the aircraft:
Mode S is a Secondary
Surveillance Radar (SSR) with a selective
interrogation of aircraft and a unique 24-bit worldwide address
which removes the risk of confusion due to overlapping signals.
dened area of airspace controlled by specic controllers
to fasten, to attach, to hold in position, to make safe:
Have you made sure that the load is secured?
protection against crime, theft, terrorism:
the security services are standing by at the ramp in case they
need to board the aircraft
a very slow uid leak
1) to block, lock or jam:
the ap linkage appears to be seized up
2) to grab or take hold of:
sensory memory
memory of visual, auditory or tactile (touch) impressions
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to disconnect certain heavy non-essential electrical loads such as the galley
there has been a shift in the wind which is now blowing from the north-
2) a period of working time:
the next shift is ready to take over
shift handover
the moment one group of controllers is replaced by another or one control centre passes control to
short circuit
an inadvertent electrical connection which can cause an electrical failure, a circuit breaker to open or
short nal
the last part of the approach before touchdown, typically from the inner marker, or some 2 nautical
miles, to the threshold
shortly
soon, in a short time:
we will be landing shortly
Short
erm Conict
Alert
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squawk (n and v)
a transponder identier code which enables an ATC to identify each aircraft on radar screens.
Squawk 6422
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blocked in one position, unable to move:
appropriate, convenient:
we need to divert to a suitable alternate
unexpected, rapid:
there has been a sudden change in wind velocity
hydraulic, fuel or pneumatic piping or electrical wiring which gives a source of energy
support
providing information and services. In an unexpected situation caused by a technical failure, the
crew will need additional information about alternate airports, weather conditions, runway surface
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CAS Advisory
a message given by the Trafc Collision Avoidance System warning the crew of the presence of
another aircraft with which there may be conict; there are two levels of message:
1) Trafc Advisory (TA), which does not require immediate crew action, and
2) Resolution Advisory (RA) which does, and supersedes any ATC instruction
Advisory
TCAS RA: an automatically-generated warning such as ‘
descend, descend
’ requiring immediate crew
a record of all technical incidents and maintenance action carried out on a given aircraft, signed by
the crew and technicians and kept on the ight deck; also referred to as the
log book
terrain
any rising ground, north, south, east or west. Its height and direction are important. Terrain
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1) the path of the aircraft over the Earth’s surface from take-off to touchdown
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being without awareness
controlled, not out of hand:
Following the engine ame-out, the captain announced that the situation
was under control
undershoot
windshear characterized by a decrease in aircraft airspeed
unlawful
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‘Communication is difcult. Please send every word twice’ or ‘Since communication is difcult, every
working memory
a model to describe how we use short-term memory to manipulate information
workload
the quantity of work to be performed in a particular time frame:
Climb, approach and landing are
periods of high crew workload
worn
Weaker, damaged or thinner because of continual use:
The painted taxiway markings appear to be very
yaw control
the control of the aircraft about the vertical axis managed mainly by the rudder
yaw damper
a ight control system which sends inputs to the rudder in order to counter the effects of turbulence
and avoid the aircraft oscillating from side to side, which is called
. If the yaw damper fails
the aircraft may suffer from Dutch roll
one of the three hydraulic systems (green, blue, yellow) on Airbus aircraft. Boeing identify their
hydraulic systems numerically
yoke
another word for the control wheel which controls the ailerons on a conventional aircraft
Zulu: Coordinated Universal Time:
zero deviation
a signal which indicates that the aircraft is correctly aligned on the ILS; this should not be confused
no deviation signal
, which means that no information is displayed

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