THE ARTICLE


THE ARTICLE
I. The indefinite article A /AN
The indefinite article a / an is most often used:
a) with a countable noun mentioned for the first time She wants a bicycle.
A man is at the door.
b) with singular countable nouns after the verb to be to classify things or people, to say what they are ~~
He is a doctor.
But: no article is used after the verbs to turn, to choose, to commence, to appoint, to_ jelect: ' 'He was chosen^Captain.
c) with the verb to have/to have got He has a car.
d) before certain numbers in certain number expressions
They drove at 60 miles an hour. л/4 / //■/*/> —
He gets 150 dollars a week. >
П. The definite article THE
The definite article the is most often used:
a) when we refer to something that has been mentioned already
I received an e-mail message in the morning. The e-mail message was from my friend.
b) when we4refe'if' to something that both speakers know about Where is the baby?
Let's go to the post-office.
c) When a noun has a modifying phrase or clause that identifies it as specific The information that I got from this book was helpful.
d) when there is only one/unique thing the moon, the sun, the earth, the sky, But: Saturn, Mars (possible usage)
e) with superlatives, ranking adjecSves and ЬгашаГ numbers He is definitely the most exciting musician.
The main street is over there.
The first person to come was my friend.
f) with musical instruments and dances to play the piano, to dance the tango
^ g) when we use an adjective (as a noun) to classify or describe a group of people or
some abstract notions •J the poor, the reach, the blind, the deaf etc.
h) with the names of certain state organizations of the country \T The Conservative Party, The United Nations Organization, The European Union
41 i) with the names of nationalities
v the English, the French
^ j) With the names of cinemas, theatres, museums
> the Apollo (theatre), the Prado (museum)
s k) with the names of hotels, ships
The Minsk Hotel, the Titanic 1) with the names of newspapers, magazines 4
"The Times, the Guardian, the Independent m) with the names of historical references / events
the Renaissance, the Middle Ages, the 1st World War But: World War I n) with the words station, shop, cinema, pub, library, city, village, jungle, seaside etc.
Ш. No article is used:
a) with a countable noun in plural to talk about something in general
b) with an uncountable noun to talk about something in general
c) with an abstract noun to talk about something in general
d) when another determiner is used
I need this new car. *
We need another new car.
e) with the names of sports, games, activities, celebrations, colours, drinks, meals
f) with the words home / father / mother, when we talk about our own home / father / mother
Mother was at home all day yesterday.
g) with the names of illnesses f; p But: flu/the flu, measles / the measles, mums/the munish) with the names of languages I speak English.
But: I know the English language. What is the English for ' собака'?
Артикль с именами собственными
1. the - фамилии во мн. ч.
The Petrovs arrived from Kiev yesterday. The Browns have left London.
2. -- страны и названия штатов
_France, _Japan, _Texas ...
But: the - страны, включающие слова republic tiaiaci. kingdom, states, emirate;
The Soviet Union
The United Kingdom
The United States
The United .Arab Emirates
The Republic of Ireland
Note: the Netherlands
the Philippines
the Vatican
the Congo
the Ukraine
3. - - континенты
_Africa, _Asia. _South America, _Europe ...4. - - города
_Ne\v York. _Madrid, _Paris ... Note: the Hague £ TQ 1
5. The"-'"рёпГоныthe Middle East, the Far East, the Crimea, the Caucasus ... But: _Siberia
the North of England, the South of Spain ... But: Northern England, _Southern Spain
6. the - некоторые географические названия
the North Pole the South Pole the .Arctic the .Antarctic
* 7. the - пустыни
the Sahara. Gobi ...8. the - горные иепн (во мн.ч.)
the Aides, the Alps, the Urals ...
But: - - отдельные горные вершины
IEverest, _Ben Nevis ...9. the - группы островов (во мн.ч.) j *
the Bahamas, the Canaries ... But: - - отдельные острова _Sici!y. _Corfu. JBermuda ...10. the - океаны, моря, каналы, реки, озера
the Atlantic iOcean), the Mediterranean (Sea), the Раг.агг.г Car.il. the English Char.r.el. theVolga,
the Naroch ... Bui: Lake Naroch11. - - улицы, дороги, площади, мосты, партии
_Red Square, _Brest Road,_Zhakharov Street, _London Bridge,_Hyoe Park ... But: the Severn Bridge, the Golden Gate Bridge, the High Street, the Strand, the }. Main Street, the Gorky Park
12. - - аэропорты
_Heathrow, _Kennedy Airport ...13. the-университеты
the Economic University, the Linguistic University ...
But: - , если в название входит имя человека или название местности _Cambridge University, _Oxford University ...14. the-уникальные здания и памятники
the Whitehouse, the Royal Palace, the Hermitage, the Louvre, the Sphinx ...
15. the - отели, рестораны, театры, кинотеатры, музеи, галереи
the Hilton (hotel), the Bombay restaurant, the Odeon (cinema), the National Theair British Museum ...
16. -- названии no имени основателя на—s,-;s
_Harrods (shop), _McDonald's (restaurant), _Claridge's (hotel), JLioyds Bank. _S:. Cathedra]
17. the - названия с of
the Bank of England, the Tower of London, the Great Wail of Chuii, the Houses :
pHTliame*?.'
18. the - названия газет
the Times, the Washing'.or- Post ... But: - - названия журналов
_T:me Magazine ...
19. the - названия кораблей
the "Titanic", the "'Queen Elisabeth" ...
«
20. the - астрономические названия
the Milky Way, the Great Bear, the Lesser Bear...
21. общественные праздники
_Easter, _Christmas, _Victory Day ...22. the - национальности
the British, the English, the Japanese, the Chinese, the Romans But: no общим правилам, если есть слова "people", "man" или "men" Are _English people friendly? .Are the English people you know friendly?
23. the - выдающиеся исторические события
the Renaissance, the First World War
But: World War 1
1. We do not use a /an and one in the same way. We use a /an to mean 'any one': I'd like a coffee, please. We use one when we are counting: It was one coffee I ordered and not two. We use one with day, morning, evening when we are telling a story: One day, when I was working as a salesman, I received a strange telephone call. Compare: / had to stay in bed for a day. (= any day, it doesn't matter which) I had to stay in bed for one day. (= one day and not two or more) We use a /an or one with:
• whole numbers: a I one hundred, thousand;
• fractions: a /one quarter, half;
• money: a I one pound, dollar;
• weights, measures: a I one kilo, foot.
2. We use a/an for price, distance and frequency:
price / weight: 80p a kilo distance / speed: 40 km an hour distance / fuel: 30 miles a frequency / time: twice a day (to the) gallon
PLACE OF ARTICLES
1. a) When premodifying adjectives are preceded by as, so, how and too, the indefinite article (if necessary) comes after the adjective: so stout a woman, how small a beast, too good a job, as inspirational a figure as... . With such and what ordinary word order is used: such a stout woman, what a small beast. b) The article can have a determiner in front of it and after it: all theother things.
2- Determiners which can come in front of the definite article (predeterminers) are: all, both, half, multipliers like twice, double, three times and so on, and fractions like two-thirds: all the information, both the establishments, half the size, three times the price, one-third the usual amount.
AH, both and half have alternatives with of, with little or no difference in meaning: conforming to all of the rules (all the rules). Don't forget that all and both can be used in front of a noun without the definite article: all people, both girls. A number of determiners can come after the definite article: few, ••'ff'e, many, one, other, several: the few letters, the other hand, the one day. _
lUm-IIUIHAL щ\ъ I
3. Determiners which can occur before the indefinite article are half, many, quite, rather, such and what (with an idea of exclama tion): half a cup of coffee, many a moonlit night, such a choice whata horrible idea. The indefinite article can also occur in front of half{...cutting a halfhour from prime time), but it is more com. mon to put the indefinite article after half, especially in British English: For half an hour the room was empty.
The only determiner which can follow the indefinite article as part of a noun group is other; the combination is always written as one word: another.
GENERIC REFERENCE
The generic indefinite article is common in explanations of meaning ing and in some dictionary definitions: A mountain is bigger and higher than a hill. The same meaning can be expressed by a nounj the plural without an article: Mountains are bigger and higher than hills. Any sometimes has a similar but more emphatic meaning.
When talking about the location or existence of a type of animal, thing or person, you cannot use a noun in the singular with the indefinite article in the generic function. It would be wrong to say, for example:A ring-tailed lemur lives in Madagascar. You would have to say: Ring-tailed lemurs live in Madagascar, or The ring tailed lemur lives in Madagascar.
We use the in front of nationality nouns to refer to the people of that country. We can divide nationality nouns into four groups:
• the + -ese or -ss: the Chinese, the Japanese, the Portuguese, the Sudanese, the Swiss;
• the + plural ending in -s: the Austrians, the Belgians, the Brazilians, the Egyptians, the Russians, the Americans, the Koreans, the Mexicans, the Venezuelans, the Zimbabweans, the Arabs, the Germans, the Greeks, the Poles, the Scots, the Turks;
• two forms: the Danes I the Danish, the Spaniards I the Spanish, the Swedes I the Swedish;
• the + -ch or -sh: the British, the Dutch, the English, the French, the Irish, the Welsh.
Note that the French, the English, etc. are plural in meaning. You cannot say 'a French', 'an English'. You have to say: a Frenchman, an Englishwoman. The nationality words ending in -ese, -ss (the Chinese, the Japanese, the Swiss) can also be singular (a Japanese, a Sudanese, a Swiss). With other nationalities, the plural noun ends ir> -s: an Italian, (the) Italians; a Mexican, (the) Mexicans; a Scot, (the) Scots; a Turk, (the) Turks.
SPECIFIC REFERENCE
When we use the, the listener or reader knows or can understand what we are referring to. We can make a reference 'specific' or 'definite' by means of:
• back reference: We stopped at a small village. The village was very pretty.
• the + noun + of. The life of Napoleon was very stormy.
• a clause (= part of a sentence): The Jones I'm referring to is a colleague of mine.
• context: The listener knows exactly what we are referring to from the context. That's why we say: Its the postman, (not 'a postman') She's gone to the butcher's, (not 'a butcher's') Running is good for the heart, (not 'a heart')
We often say the cinema, the theatre, the supermarket, the bank, the country, the mountains, the seaside etc. even if we don't know exactly which or where: He's gone to the cinema. We're spending the weekend at the seaside.
We use the to refer to 'one of a kind': the earth, the sea, the sky, the sun, the moon, the solar system, the planets, the galaxy, the universe: The earth doesn't belong to us.
Sometimes names of parts of the body are thought of not as separate organs or limbs but as locations on the body. In such cases the definite article is used and not the possessive pronoun: They stabbed him on the back. She beat him over the head. He shook me by the hand. It bit her on the leg.
The definite article (instead of the possessive pronoun) is used when the noun referring to the body part is included in a prepositional phrase (in the back, by the arm) after a verb of touching or injuring (shake, bite), and the person whose body is referred to has just been mentioned (him, me, her).
Adjectives in the superlative degree can be used on their own, without a noun following: Old tunes are the best. The definite article is sometimes left out after the link verb to be: It's the butter fat that is hardest to digest. However, it is not possible to leave out the definite article when the superlative is followed by a phrase or clause specifying the group or place involved: The envelope was the largest I could find.
Adjectives in the superlative degree can be used on their own, without a noun following: Old tunes are the best. The definite article is sometimes left out after the link verb to be: It's the butter fat that is hardest to digest. However, it is not possible to leave out the definite article when the superlative is followed by a phrase or clause specifying the group or place involved: The envelope was the largest I could find.
There are two cases when an of-phrase after a noun is limiting and so normally requires the definite article:
• where the noun involved refers to an action, event, or state and the of-phrase indicates the performer of the action or the thing affected: the closure of a factory, the arrival of the inspector, the elimination of low pay. Here the modified nouns are related to verbs: a factory was closed, the inspector arrived, low pay was or will be eliminated.
• certain nouns which refer to a part or characteristic of something are followed by a limiting of-phrase very frequently: back, beginning, bottom, edge, end, front, height, length, middle, price, size, title, top, weight {a thing can have only one back, beginning, bottom, end, etc.).
USE OF ARTICLES WITH UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
1. Use of articles with material nouns
Some nouns are countable when they refer to single items, but they are uncountable when they refer to substances: He ate a whole chicken! Would you like some chicken? Some nouns are uncountable when they refer to a material, but they are countable when they refer to an object made from that material: / broke a glass this morning. v.
Words for drinks are normally uncountable, but when we- are ordering coffee, etc., we usually treat them as countable: I'd like a coffee, please.

Приложенные файлы

  • docx 24025122
    Размер файла: 28 kB Загрузок: 0

Добавить комментарий