concrete – бетон
continuous – непрерывный, сплошной
curve – 1) n – кривая, 2) v – сгибать, изгибаться, 3) a – кривой, изогнутый
flank to flank – бок о бок, рядом
i.e. = that is – т.е.
intersect – пересекаться, intersecting - пересекающийся
lintel – перемычка окна или двери
load – нагрузка
masonry – каменная или кирпичная кладка
opening – проем
point – n – точка, pointed – a - остроконечный
semicircular - полукруглый
span – 1) n – пролет, 2) v – перекрывать (об арке, крыше)
spring, springing line – линия пят (линия начала изгиба арки)
support – 1) n – опора, 2) v - поддерживать
vault – свод
voussoir – клинчатый кирпич или камень
wedge – клин .
The Romans needed large buildings. They used stone, brick and concrete as building materials.
Their architecture had the round arch as its basis. The arch is curved member that is used to span an opening and to support loads from above. The arch formed the basis for the evolution of the vault. The Roman arch is a round arch drawn from a single centre, formed in a continuous curve. The arch can be called a curved lintel. Its construction depends essentially on the wedges. In the Figure a series of wedge-shaped blocks – i.e. ones in which the upper is wider than the lower edge – are set flank to flank. These blocks are called voussoir. The central voussoir is called the keystone. The point from which the arch rises from its vertical supports is known as the spring, or springing line. The curve in an arch may be semicircular, segmental, (consisting of less than one-half of a circle), or pointed (two intersecting arcs of a circle), and noncircular curves can also be used successfully.
In masonry construction, arches have several great advantages over horizontal beams, or lintels. They can span much wider openings, and this can be achieved using small, easily carried blocks of brick or stone rather than by a massive, monolithic stone lintel. An arch can also carry a much greater load than a horizontal beam can.
Words to be remembered:
Brick, beam, concrete, round, curved member, masonry, span (n, v), support (n, v), rather than, vault, openings, continuous, wedge, semicircular, circle, advantage, achieve, carry, load, upper.
Arches were known in ancient Egypt and Greece but were considered unsuitable for monumental architecture and were little exploited. The Romans, by contrast, used the semicircular arch in bridges, aqueducts, and large-scale architecture. In most cases they did not use mortar, relying simply on the precision of their stone dressing. The Arabs popularized the pointed arch in their mosques. Medieval Europe made great use of the pointed arch, which constituted a basic element in Gothic architecture. In the late Middle Ages the segmental arch was introduced. This form and the elliptical arch had great value in bridge engineering: One of the most ancient kinds of arch is a corbel arch or false arch: it is masonry built over a wall opening by uniformly advancing courses from each side until they meet at midpoints.
It is sometimes said that the arch originated with the Romans. But the arch itself they did not originate, they applied it with great skill and success to various structures.
The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch. It was erected to commemorate Constantine I’s victory over Maxentius on October 28, 312. It is the latest of the existing triumphal arches in Rome. The arch is 21 m high, 25,7 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one is 11.5 m high and 6.5 m wide, the lateral archways are 7.4 by 3.4. The lower part of the monument is built of marble blocks, the top (called attic) is brickwork clad with marble. A staircase formed in the thickness of the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, in the end towards the Palantine Hill.
сonsider – считать
suitable – подходящий, соответствующий
scale – масштаб, размер
mortar – строительный раствор
dressing – отделка
mosque – мечеть
advancing course – выдвигающийся вперед горизонтальный ряд кладки
originate – давать начало, создавать
Constantine I – Константин I, римский император (ок. 260-337)
Maxentius – Максентий, римский император (306-312), проиграл в 312 г. битву за власть в Риме.
Palantine Hill – Палатинский холм. It is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome.
erect – воздвигать, сооружать
commemorate – отмечать (годовщину)
lateral – боковой, поперечный
Упражнение 1. Найдите синонимы
Apply, brickwork, carry a load, clad, faced, lateral, lined, masonry, side, support a load, use.