шпора на англ anglia


1 Old English Literature.
Anglo-Saxon Period
Anglo-Saxon or Old English was the earliest form of the English language. It is difficult to give definite dates for the rise and development of languages as it does not change suddenly. During the first 5 centuries of our era Britain was inhabited by people called celts. The celts migrated to Britain from central and western Europe In the middle of the 5th century England was invaded by the Germanic tribes of Angles (conquered the north), Saxons (the south) and Jutes (southeast). At the very end of the 5th century they settled in Britain and began to call themselves English. The Anglo-Saxons were comparatively well-developed. They were brave, poetic, artistic people and had a highly developed feeling for beauty.
The first masterpiece of English literature is the epic poem “The Song of Beowulf”. It is a story of 3183 lines, which describes the historical past of the land from which the Angles, Saxons and Jutes came. There is general agreement that the West –Saxon dialect in which “Beowulf” now exists is not that in which it was originally composed. ”Beowulf” was made into a poem somewhere about the 7th century. The author is unknown. The poem is about Hrothgar-King of Danes and about a brave young man Beowulf from southern Sweden. The king is in trouble and Beowulf goes to help him. The great hall called Heorot is visited at night by terrible creature Grendel, which lives in a lake and comes to kill and eat Hrothgar`s men. One night Beowulf waits for this thing , attacks him and in a fierce fight puts his arm off. Grendel manages to escape in the lake and dies there. Then its mother comes to the castle in search of revenge and the attacks begin again, but Beowulf kills her. In later days Beowulf, now the king of his people, has to defend his country against the fire-breathing creature. He kills the monster, but is badly wounded in the fight and dies. The poem ends with thorough description of Beowulf`s funeral fire. This work gives us an interesting picture of life in those days. It tells us of fiers fights and brave deeds, of the speeches of the leader and the suffering of his men. It describes their life in the castle, the terrible creatures they had to fight, their ships and their travels. They had a hard life and on sea and on land. They didn`t enjoy it much, but they bore it.
Each half line has 2 main beats. There is no rhyme, instead each half line is joined to the other by alliteration (2 or more words beginning with the same sound). Alliteration makes poetry musical and gives it rhyme In “Beowulf” things are described indirectly and in combinations of words.Although “Beowulf” mentions real historical events, names some concrete nationalities (Danes, Swiss) some kings, that really ruled, those people in former times, all that is nevertheless mythological understanding of history. It doesn`t separate real facts from fairy tales. The image of Beowulf who has miraculous characteristics, who defends his people, who subdues hostile forces of Nature stands for a moral ideal of a heroic person of the early middle ages.
Caedmon Bede Cynewulf
In the 3rd century Christianity penetrated into the British Isles. The Anglo-Saxons were also converted into Christianity. Monks set up monasteries, which became the centers of learning and education. The clergy wrote the verses and chronicles in Latin. The Vulnerable Bede, the greatest of this writers, described the country and the people of the time in his work “The History of English Church”. His work was a fusion of historical truth and fantastic stories. It was the first history of England and Bede is regarded to be the father of English history. He was the first chronicler to give the date from Christ`s birth in addition to the year of the world.
There are also 2 English poets Caedmon and Cynewulf. Also nothing now remains which is exactly Caedmon`s work. He was a poor countryman who used to stay apart when his fellows sang songs to God, because Caedmon was uneducated man and could not sing. All the old religious poems that were not assigned to Caedmon were invariably given to Cynewulf. Cynewulf almost certainly wrote 4 poems: “Juliana”, Elena”, “Christ” (the most notable), and “The Fate of the Apostles”. His work represents an advance in culture upon the more primitive Caedmonian poems. Much of it shows acquaintance with Latin originals and seems to exhibit a more conscious effort to attain artistic form.
Old English lyrics includes “Deor`s Complaint”, “The Husband`s Message”, “The Wanderer”, “The Wife`s Complaint”. Deor is a singer who has lost his Lord`s favour. So, he complains, but tries to comfort himself by remembering other sufferings of the world. +
Anglo-Saxon chronicles
Alfred the Great was the King of Wessex. He was an outstanding figure in English literature and a writer. He brought back learning and improved the education of his people. He founded the first public schools for young men. He learned Latin in order to translate into his own language books “Needful for all men to know”. So, he translated Bede`s work “The History of the English Church”, and in his time Anglo-Saxon chronicles were began. It was the first prose work in British literature.
Another important writer of prose was Aelfric. He wrote “Homilies” (short moral essays), “Lives of Saints the Mostly Religious” .He wrote in Old English the first 7 books of the Bible. His prose style is the best in OE and he uses alliteration to joint his sentences together.
Anglo-Norman Period
OE was spoken in very different dialects until 1066, when England was invaded by William the Conqueror and the Normans from France, who were descended from Scandinavian adventurers. So, they brought with them the culture of their country and the French language. Thus three languages were spoken in England: French-of the nobility, Latin was used by the churchmen and the common people spoke Anglo-Saxon.
The three social classes of the country had their own literature. The Normans brought the romance with to England. Unlike the epic, the romance told of the life of the men who was no longer connected with his people. The romance told of love and adventure and expresses the ideas of knighthood in feudal society.
Among the best known romances are the legends of “King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table”.
The literature of the church was scholastic, moralizing, and supported the feudal system. The books written in Latin by monks, taught the common people that they should be poor and obey their masters. Their sufferings on earth, the Church said, would bring them happiness in heaven.
The Anglo-Saxons composed their own popular poetry. The main genres were the fabliaux-funny stories about townspeople and the bestiaries-stories in which the characters were animals.
2 Literature of the Middle Ages
Anglo-Saxon Period
Anglo-Saxon or Old English was the earliest form of the English language. It is difficult to give definite dates for the rise and development of languages as it does not change suddenly. During the first 5 centuries of our era Britain was inhabited by people called celts. The celts migrated to Britain from central and western Europe In the middle of the 5th century England was invaded by the Germanic tribes of Angles (conquered the north), Saxons (the south) and Jutes (southeast). At the very end of the 5th century they settled in Britain and began to call themselves English. The Anglo-Saxons were comparatively well-developed. They were brave, poetic, artistic people and had a highly developed feeling for beauty.
The first masterpiece of English literature is the epic poem “The Song of Beowulf”. It is a story of 3183 lines, which describes the historical past of the land from which the Angles, Saxons and Jutes came. There is general agreement that the West –Saxon dialect in which “Beowulf” now exists is not that in which it was originally composed. ”Beowulf” was made into a poem somewhere about the 7th century. The author is unknown. The poem is about Hrothgar-King of Danes and about a brave young man Beowulf from southern Sweden. The king is in trouble and Beowulf goes to help him. The great hall called Heorot is visited at night by terrible creature Grendel, which lives in a lake and comes to kill and eat Hrothgar`s men. One night Beowulf waits for this thing , attacks him and in a fierce fight puts his arm off. Grendel manages to escape in the lake and dies there. Then its mother comes to the castle in search of revenge and the attacks begin again, but Beowulf kills her. In later days Beowulf, now the king of his people, has to defend his country against the fire-breathing creature. He kills the monster, but is badly wounded in the fight and dies. The poem ends with thorough description of Beowulf`s funeral fire. This work gives us an interesting picture of life in those days. It tells us of fiers fights and brave deeds, of the speeches of the leader and the suffering of his men. It describes their life in the castle, the terrible creatures they had to fight, their ships and their travels. They had a hard life and on sea and on land. They didn`t enjoy it much, but they bore it.
Each half line has 2 main beats. There is no rhyme, instead each half line is joined to the other by alliteration (2 or more words beginning with the same sound). Alliteration makes poetry musical and gives it rhyme In “Beowulf” things are described indirectly and in combinations of words.Although “Beowulf” mentions real historical events, names some concrete nationalities (Danes, Swiss) some kings, that really ruled, those people in former times, all that is nevertheless mythological understanding of history. It doesn`t separate real facts from fairy tales. The image of Beowulf who has miraculous characteristics, who defends his people, who subdues hostile forces of Nature stands for a moral ideal of a heroic person of the early middle ages. At the same time in this epic some biblical personages are mentioned, f.e. Cain, Avel, and some legends: the creation of the world, the Flood. In this epic we can also find a lot of perceptions in the spirit of Christianity
Caedmon Bede Cynewulf
In the 3rd century Christianity penetrated into the British Isles. The Anglo-Saxons were also converted into Christianity. Monks set up monasteries, which became the centers of learning and education. The clergy wrote the verses and chronicles in Latin. The Vulnerable Bede, the greatest of this writers, described the country and the people of the time in his work “The History of English Church”. His work was a fusion of historical truth and fantastic stories. It was the first history of England and Bede is regarded to be the father of English history. He was the first chronicler to give the date from Christ`s birth in addition to the year of the world.
There are also 2 English poets Caedmon and Cynewulf. Also nothing now remains which is exactly Caedmon`s work. He was a poor countryman who used to stay apart when his fellows sang songs to God, because Caedmon was uneducated man and could not sing. All the old religious poems that were not assigned to Caedmon were invariably given to Cynewulf. Cynewulf almost certainly wrote 4 poems: “Juliana”, Elena”, “Christ” (the most notable), and “The Fate of the Apostles”. His work represents an advance in culture upon the more primitive Caedmonian poems. Much of it shows acquaintance with Latin originals and seems to exhibit a more conscious effort to attain artistic form.
Old English lyrics includes “Deor`s Complaint”, “The Husband`s Message”, “The Wanderer”, “The Wife`s Complaint”. Deor is a singer who has lost his Lord`s favour. So, he complains, but tries to comfort himself by remembering other sufferings of the world. +
Anglo-Saxon chronicles
Alfred the Great was the King of Wessex. He was an outstanding figure in English literature and a writer. He brought back learning and improved the education of his people. He founded the first public schools for young men. He learned Latin in order to translate into his own language books “Needful for all men to know”. So, he translated Bede`s work “The History of the English Church”, and in his time Anglo-Saxon chronicles were began. It was the first prose work in British literature.
Another important writer of prose was Aelfric. He wrote “Homilies” (short moral essays), “Lives of Saints the Mostly Religious” .He wrote in Old English the first 7 books of the Bible. His prose style is the best in OE and he uses alliteration to joint his sentences together.
Anglo-Norman Period
OE was spoken in very different dialects until 1066, when England was invaded by William the Conqueror and the Normans from France, who were descended from Scandinavian adventurers. So, they brought with them the culture of their country and the French language. Thus three languages were spoken in England: French-of the nobility, Latin was used by the churchmen and the common people spoke Anglo-Saxon.
The three social classes of the country had their own literature. The Normans brought the romance with to England. Unlike the epic, the romance told of the life of the men who was no longer connected with his people. The romance told of love and adventure and expresses the ideas of knighthood in feudal society.
Among the best known romances are the legends of “King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table”.
The literature of the church was scholastic, moralizing, and supported the feudal system. The books written in Latin by monks, taught the common people that they should be poor and obey their masters. Their sufferings on earth, the Church said, would bring them happiness in heaven.
The Anglo-Saxons composed their own popular poetry. The main genres were the fabliaux-funny stories about townspeople and the bestiaries-stories in which the characters were animals.
The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. The tales are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. In a long list of works, including "Troilus and Criseyde", "House of Fame", "Parliament of Fowls", the Canterbury Tales is Chaucer's magnum opus, and a towering achievement of Western culture. By casting a bumbling, credulous version of himself as tour guide, Chaucer created literature's first unreliable narrator. Structurally, the poem bears the influence of The Decameron, which Chaucer is said to have come across during his first diplomatic mission to Italy in 1372. However, Chaucer peoples his tales with 'sondry folk' rather than Boccaccio's fleeing nobles.
3 Literature of the Renaissance
end of the 15th –beg of the 17th century
The classical R. implied both knowledge of the classical writers and ability to use the Greek and Latin languages, as there was a revival of interests in the ancient culture of Greece and Rome. Italy gave it birth, --spread into Germany, France and England. The study of the works of the ancient philosophers, artists and writers helped people to widen their outlook, to know the world and man`s nature. On the bases of both the ancient culture and the most progressive elements of the culture of the Middle Ages, the fine arts, literature and science of the Renaissance began to develop. The culture of the Renaissance was the 1st stage of bourgeois culture and the bourgeoisie as a class was being born. Humanism was the main idea of the R. The creators of this new outlook called themselves humanists. The word “humanist” was first used by Italian scholars to refer to a teacher of the language and literature of Ancient Rome and Greece. The aim of such teachers was to bridge the gap between the “classical” period and their own. The greatest of the European humanists were the Dutchman Erasmus and his English friend Sir Thomas More. Their activity was characterized by denial of the Christian church philosophy and criticism of the whole feudal system, which did not correspond to the human interests. The works of humanists proclaimed the equality of people, regardless of their social origin, race and religion. The humanists` ideal is an all-round developed man, whose physical beauty and spiritual wealth are in harmony with each other. They are sure that the main aim of humanity is happiness all over the world. The R. was the greatest progressive revolution that mankind had ever experienced. The Renaissance gave mankind such great men as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, Petrarch, Cervantes and Shakespeare.
The Renaissance period in England is divided into 3 periods: 1st-the rise of the Renaissance under the Early Tudor monarchs (1500-1557); 2nd-the height of the Renaissance under Elizabeth I (1558-1603); 3rd –the decline of the Renaissance under the Stuart monarchs (1603-1649).
Early Tudor Age (1500-1557)
Under the reign of Henry VIII the reformation of the English Church took place. England became Protestant.
In literature it was a time of experimentation and of extensive formal borrowings from French and Italian writings by scholars. The first major English impact of the R. on English literature is observed in the poetry of Wyatt and the Earl of Surrey. They are often mentioned together, but there are many differences in their work. Both wrote sonnets which they learnt to do from Italians, but it was Wyatt who first brought the sonnet to England. Surrey`s work is also important, as he wrote the first blank verse (without rhyme) in England. His black verse is very good. He keeps it alive by changing the positions of the main beats in the lines. The native drama continued to develop and gain popularity. Miracle and morality plays reminded a favourite form of entertainment, while a new dramatic form, the interlude, developed. It was a short play designed to be presented between the courses of a banquet.
Elizabethan Age (1558-1603)
Under El. I England entered upon the most glorious age. An age of great nationalistic expansion, commercial growth and religious controversy , it saw the development of English drama to the highest level, a great outburst of English songs and a new interest in literary criticism. Poetry in the reign of El.I was strongly influenced by popular song collections. The greatest nondramatic poet of the period, Edmund Spencer (1552-1599), began his career with the “Shepherd`s Calender” (1579), and wrote 89 sonnets which were published in 1595 under the title “Amoretti”. The “Calender” is a poem of 12 pastoral ”eclogues” (short poem about country life written as dialogues between shepherds), one for each month of the year. on.
Spencer`s greatest work “The Faerie Queen” was planned in12 books. But he wrote a little more than the first 6. The queen is either Queen Elizabeth or glory as a person. There are 12 knights representing different virtues. The knights` adventures are the basis for an allegory (extended metaphor). The greatness of the work is in the magic feeling in the air, the wonderful music of the verse, the beauty of the sound.
The chief literary glory of the age was drama. But even before it began, several plays appeared, which showed that a great development had taken place. They were not very good plays, but in general the comedies were better than tragedies. Drama was developed by many writers including Thomas Kyd. His “Spanish Tragedy” (1588) was very popular; it set a fashion for “revenge-plays”. But it was Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), master of blank verse and creator of characters obsessed by the desire of power, knowledge, or wealth, who prepared the way to Shakespeare. He wrote “The Tragic History of Doctor Faustus”, “Tamburline the Great”.
The Elizabethan age produced a surprising flow of lyrics. Lyric poetry gives expression to the poet`s own thoughts and feelings and for this reason we tend to picture the lyric poet as a dreamy unpractical person with his thoughts turned inside.
Sir Philip Sydney was true Elizabethan gentleman, statesman and soldier. “Apostrophel and Stella” was printed in 1591 after his death. Some of the best lyrics of the time were in the dramatic verse.
The most outstanding dramatist of the period was W.Shakespeare .
4. 17 c. English Drama.
Renaissance - 1500-1660 - flowering of the drama and the arts.
During the interregnum 1649-1660 - Eng. theatres were kept closed by the Puritans for relig. and ideological reasons. When the London theatres opened again with the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, they flourished under the personal interest and support of Charles 2. Wide and socially mixed
audiences were attracted by topical writing and by introduction of the 1st prof. actresses. New genres appeared: heroic drama, pathetic drama (she-tragedy), Restoration comedy.
heroic tragedy: John Dryden (1631-1700) - "All for love” (1677)
path. drama: Thomas Otway (1652-1685) - "The Orphan, or the unhappy marriage" (1680)
restor. plays: William Congreve (1670-1729) - "The way of the world" (1700)
restor. comedy - seual explicitness encouraged by Charles 2.
Aphra Benn (1600-1689) - one of the 1st prof. female writers/ dramatist - play "The Rover" (1677-1681)
5. W. Shakespeare.
(1564-1616) - was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His surviving works consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, 2 long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.
Periodization:
1) the brillian apprentice (подмастерье, новичок) (1590-1594): the comedy of errors, richard 3.
2) the successful master (1594-1600): the merchant of venice, romeo and juliette, 12th night.
3) the accomplished master (since 1600): famous trag-s: Hamlet, Otello, King Lear, Mackbeth.
4) the ease of genius (1607-1613): Anthony and Cleopatra.
6. Late Renaissance poetry.
Elizabeth death - the Stuarts - the relig. balance between Anglicans and Puritans was lost.
1642 - King Charles was defeated, 1649 - executed. - England became commonwealth under the jurisdiction of Parliament. - appeared a group of metaphysical poets:
John Donne (1572-1631) - metaphys. poetry (philosoph. poetry): witty images/ interest in science, math, geography/ interest in soul/ intense feeling combined with ingenious thoughts/ use of conceits (outrageous metaphor).
John Milton (1608-1674) - epic poem "Paradise Lost" (Christian story about the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the garden of Eden).
Cavalier poets - school of Eng. poets of 17th cent. - came from classes that supported King Charles 1 during the Eng. Civil war. Features: light in style, secular in subject.
Ben Jonson (1572-1637) - best known for satirical plays. Comedy "Volpone" - merciless satire of greed and lust.
John Dryden (1631-1700) - influential Eng. poet, lit. critic, playwright. "A song to St. Cecilia's Day". In his style there are no intellectual complexities of metaphys. poets, subject-matter - factual, expresses thoughts in the most precise and concentrated way.
7. The literature of Eng. bourgeois revolution. John Milton. John Dryden.
Eng. civil war 1642-1651 - caused by unpopular pol. decisions of Charles 1. 1660 - Ch. 2 established monarchy in England. Royalists against Puritans (Roundheads). Appeared political literature: leaflets and pamphlets.
Richard Lovelace (1618-1658) - staunch supporter of Ch.1, successor of Ben Jonson.
John Lillburne - publicist/ fought for equal rights of people - pamphlet "the agreement of the people".
But the greatest - John Milton (1608-1674) - puritan poet. His works, pamphlets - theor. foundation to the struggle of the bourg. against the monarchy. Became ideologist of that time. epic poem "Paradise Lost" (Christian story about the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the garden of Eden). "Paradise Regained" (1671) - more severe: description of Christ's temptations in the desert. He was against restoration of monarchy.
Andrew Marvell - played a great role in Milton's life. Had influence in Parliament (protected Milton).
1660 - monarchy restored by Ch.2 - changes in government - either in lit-re - theatres opened again - appeared new dramatists. Plays - heroic couplets/ public - mainly of the court and the wealthy/ women allowed to play/ apron stage replaced by picture-frame stage/ plots - love and money.
John Dryden (1631-1700) - infl. Eng. poet, lit. critic, translator, playwright. "A song to St. Cecilia's Day". In his style there is no intellectual complexities of metaphys. poets, subject-matter - factual, expresses thoughts in the most precise and concentrated way. 1660 - he celebrated restoration of monarchy of Ch.2 - "Astraea Redux" (panegyric). Before - "Heroique Stanzas" - for Oliver Cromwell's death.
8.Restoration comedy.
Restoration - 1660-1700.
Buidings: before-taverns, inns/ now - special buildings
audience: before-mix-back/ now - arist., then middle classes
stage: before-apron stage/ now - picture-frame stage
actors: before-only men/ now - +women
themes: before-every theme/ now-intrigues, games of love, marriage
!sexual explicitness
Comedy of manners - kind of comedy in which manners and morals of high society are criticised.
William Congreve (1670-1729) - "The Way of the world" (1700)
Oliver Goldsmith (1730-1774) - "She stoops to conquer"
R.B. Sheridan (1751-1816) - "The School for scandal" (1777)
9. Poetry and publiciam of the Age of Reason.
Enlightment (1660-1800) - approach led by philosophers, inspired by discoveries of previous century (Newton), and writings of Locke and Bacon.
-interest of common people
-against social inequality, relig. hypocrisy, immorality of aristocr.
-reasons over emotions
1) early Enlightment (1660-1740) - rise of journalism. D. Defoe/ J. Swift
2) mature Enlightment (1740-1760 - social moralizing novels. S. Richardson/ H. Fielding
3) late Enlightment (1760-1780) - sentimentalism - expression of democr. bourg. tendencies of that time. Considered feelings more important. O. Goldsmith/ L. Stern/ R. Sheridan
10. Satir novel (Defoe, Swift)
D. Defoe (1660-1731) – Rob Crusoe – 1719
Один из первых сторонников романа как жанра – популяризовал!
Interpretations: Rob – symbol of Brit. conquest – true prototype of Brit. colonist (the manly independence, persistence, efficient intelligence) / religious: notion of Providence: Crusoe feels guided by fate, that’s why his optimism in the face of apparent hopelessness / moral: confronted with cannibals, retains his belief in abs. standard of morality / economic: theory of production and choice.
J. Swift (1667-1745) – Gul’s Travels – 1726
Satirical view of state of Eng government/ corrupted men
Liliputians: humankind’s wildly excessive pride in its own puny existence, small minds who imagine themselves to be grand.
Brobdingnagians: private, pers. and phys. side of humans when examined close and in great detail.
Laputans: the folly of theor. knowledge – has no relation to human life.
Houyhnhnms: an ideal of rational existence, a life governed by sense and moderation.
11.18 c. novel.
18 c. – Age of Sensibility.
S. Richardson (1689-1761) – epistolary novels – Clarissa, or the history of a young lady – 1748.
H. Fielding (1707-1754) – rich humour, satirical skills – The history of Tom Jones, a Foundling – 1749 – themes: virtue and vice.
Gothic novel – combined both horror and romance – fiction characterize by the use of desolate setting and myst. or violent incident.
Ann Radcliffe (1764-1822) – pioneering gothic novelist – her fiction is char-ed by supernat. events being explained through reason. The romance of the forest – 1791
Horace Walpole (1717-1797) – The Castle of Otranto – 1764
12. История английской литературы в XVIII столетии тесно связана с теми политическими тенденциями, которые возникали в духовной жизни страны и были обусловлены последствиями революционных событий предшествующего века. Итак, появился новый жанр - драма, но комедия не хотела уступать своих позиций. Наибольший след в истории английской драматургии этого периода оставил Ричард Бринсли Шеридан (1751-1816). Писал он недолго. Все лучшие его пьесы были созданы в течение пяти лет (1775-1779) - «Соперники», комическая опера «Дуэнья», «Поездка в Скарборо», «Критик» и наиболее известная «Школа злословия».
During the Interregnum 1649—1660, English theatres were kept closed by the Puritans for religious and ideological reasons. When the London theatres opened again with the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, they flourished under the personal interest and support of Charles II. Wide and socially mixed audiences were attracted by topical writing and by the introduction of the first professional actresses (in Shakespeare's time, all female roles had been played by boys). New genres of the Restoration were heroic drama, pathetic drama, and Restoration comedy. Notable heroic tragedies of this period include John Dryden's All for Love (1677) and Aureng-zebe (1675), and Thomas Otway's Venice Preserved (1682). In the 18th century, the highbrow and provocative Restoration comedy lost favour, to be replaced by sentimental comedy, domestic tragedy such as George Lillo's The London Merchant (1731), and by an overwhelming interest in Italian opera. Popular entertainment became more dominant in this period than ever before. Fair-booth burlesque and musical entertainment, the ancestors of the English music hall, flourished at the expense of legitimate English drama. By the early 19th century, few English dramas were being written, except for closet drama, plays intended to be presented privately rather than on stage.
The Begin of Drama in England 1500—1660 English Renaissance - the flowering of the drama. For these years, few substantial English authors bothered with the drama.
13. Pre-Romanticism, cultural movement in Europe from about the 1740s onward that preceded and presaged the artistic movement known as Romanticism. Romanticism (or the Romantic era/Period) was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe and strengthened in reaction to the Industrial Revolution.
Before the Romantic movement burst into full expression there were beginners, or experimenters. Some of them are great names in English literature. Robert Burns, a Scot whose love of nature and of freedom has seldom been surpassed, scorned the false pretensions of wealth and birth (“A man's a man for a' that.”).
Pre-romanticism appears in the second half of the 18th century. Oliver Goldsmith, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Thomas Gray and the Scottish poet Robert Burns are well known. The first one is as a novelist and dramatist, the second one as a dramatist and the last two for their poems.
Pre-romantic period is represented by William Blake with his simple but beautiful poems. His best poems are Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience. All of his poems were recognized only in the 20th century with the development of modern poetry.
Toward the end of the 18th century and during the first third of the 19th century romanticism appears in the literature with its emphasis upon emotions and passions rather than on an intellectual attitude.
The romantic period is known especially for its poetry and can be divided into two parts. The first one was dominated by the poets like William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge with his Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner and Robert Southey. Wordsworth and Coleridge lived for a year close together and published Lyrical Ballads.
Percy Bysshe Shelley, John Keats and mainly George Gordon Byron represent the second part of the romantic period. Byron, the author of Childe Harold?s Pilgrimage, Don Juan and others, and Shelley with his Prometheus Unbound represent revolutionary romanticism. Lord Byron was the son of a nobleman. He was physically disabled from birth and this physical blemish made him bitter and cynical. His life was full of revolt against the English society, religion and monarchy.
14 Romanticism, a philosophical, literary, artistic and cultural reaction against the prevailing Enlightenment ideals of the day (Romantics favoured more natural, emotional and personal artistic themes), Romanticism also influenced poetry. Inevitably, the characterization of a broad range of contemporaneous poets and poetry under the single unifying name can be viewed more as an exercise in historical compartmentalization than an attempt to capture the essence of the actual movement'.
Poets such as William Wordsworth were actively engaged in trying to create a new kind of poetry that emphasized intuition over reason and the pastoral over the urban, often eschewing consciously poetic language in an effort to use more colloquial language. Wordsworth himself in the Preface to his and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads defined good poetry as ?the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings,? though in the same sentence he goes on to clarify this statement by asserting that nonetheless any poem of value must still be composed by a man ?possessed of more than usual organic sensibility has also thought long and deeply;? he also emphasises the importance of the use of meter in poetry (which he views as one of the key features that differentiates poetry from prose).Wordsworth, William. The Poetical Works of Wordsworth. Oxford University Press. London, 1960. Although many people stress the notion of spontaneity in Romantic Poetry, one must realize that the movement was still greatly concerned with the pain of composition, of translating these emotive responses into poetic form. Indeed, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, another prominent Romantic poet and critic in his On Poesy or Art sees art as ?the mediatress between, and reconciler of nature and man?.Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. On Poesy or Art. Harvard Classics, 1914. Such an attitude reflects what might be called the dominant theme of Romantic Poetry: the filtering of natural emotion through the human mind in order to create art, coupled with an awareness of the duality created by such a process.
For some critics, the term establishes an artificial context for disparate work and removing that work from its real historical context" at the expense of equally valid themes (particularly those related to politics.)Hume
The six most well-known English authors are, in order of birth and with an example of their work:
* William Blake - The Marriage of Heaven and Hell
* William Wordsworth - The Prelude
* Samuel Taylor Coleridge - Rime of the Ancient Mariner
* George Gordon, Lord Byron - Don Juan "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
* Percy Bysshe Shelley - Prometheus Unbound "Adonais" "Ode to the West Wind" "Ozymandias"
* John Keats - Great Odes "Hyperion" "Endymion"
15 The Reform Bill of 1832 gave the middle class the political power it needed to consolidate—and to hold—the economic position it had already achieved. Industry and commerce burgeoned. While the affluence of the middle class increased, the lower classes, thrown off their land and into the cities to form the great urban working class, lived ever more wretchedly. The social changes were so swift and brutal that Godwinian utopianism rapidly gave way to attempts either to justify the new economic and urban conditions, or to change them. The intellectuals and artists of the age had to deal in some way with the upheavals in society, the obvious inequities of abundance for a few and squalor for many, and, emanating from the throne of Queen Victoria (1837–1901), an emphasis on public rectitude and moral propriety.
The most popular of all English novelists, Charles Dickens, was born in 1812, The future novelist's schooling was slight and irregular, but as a boy he read much fiction, especially seventeenth and eighteenth century authors, whose influence is apparent in the picaresque lack of structure of his own works. From childhood also he showed the passion for the drama and the theater which resulted from the excitably dramatic quality of his own temperament and which always continued to be the second moving force of his life. During the remaining thirty-three years of his life Dickens produced novels at the rate of rather more than one in two years. He composed slowly and carefully but did not revise greatly, and generally published by monthly installments in periodicals which, latterly, he himself established and edited. Next after 'The Pickwick Papers' came 'Oliver Twist,' and 'David Copperfield' ten years later. Of the others, 'Martin Chuzzlewit,' 'Dombey and Son,' 'Bleak House,' and 'A Tale of Two Cities,' are among the best. For some years Dickens also published an annual Christmas story, of which the first two, 'A Christmas Carol' and 'The Chimes,' rank highest.Worthy of special praise, lastly, is the moral soundness of all Dickens' work, praise which is not seriously affected by present-day sneers at his 'middle-class' and 'mid-Victorian' point of view. Dickens' books, however, like his character, are destitute of the deeper spiritual quality, of poetic and philosophic idealism. His stories are all admirable demonstrations of the power and beauty of the nobler practical virtues, of kindness, courage, humility, and all the other forms of unselfishness; but for the underlying mysteries of life and the higher meanings of art his positive and self-formed mind had very little feeling. From first to last he speaks authentically for the common heart of humanity, but he is not one of the rarer spirits, like Spenser or George Eliot or Meredith, who transport us into the realm of the less tangible realities. All his limitations, indeed, have become more conspicuous as time has passed; and critical judgment has already definitely excluded him from the select ranks of the truly greatest authors.
Charles Dickens was hugely popular in the Victorian age; many people read his books and were anxious to read more! He especially had an impact on Christmas, and actually made it one of the most commercial holidays there is with his novel A Christmas Carol.
16 The Victorian era was the great age of the English novel—realistic, thickly plotted, crowded with characters, and long. It was the ideal form to describe contemporary life and to entertain the middle class. The novels of Charles Dickens, full to overflowing with drama, humor, and an endless variety of vivid characters and plot complications, nonetheless spare nothing in their portrayal of what urban life was like for all classes. William Makepeace Thackeray is best known for Vanity Fair (1848), which wickedly satirizes hypocrisy and greed.
Emily Brontë's (see Brontë, family) single novel, Wuthering Heights (1847), is a unique masterpiece propelled by a vision of elemental passions but controlled by an uncompromising artistic sense. The fine novels of Emily's sister Charlotte Brontë, especially Jane Eyre (1847) and Villette (1853), are more rooted in convention, but daring in their own ways. The novels of George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) appeared during the 1860s and 70s. A woman of great erudition and moral fervor, Eliot was concerned with ethical conflicts and social problems. George Meredith produced comic novels noted for their psychological perception. Another novelist of the late 19th cent. was the prolific Anthony Trollope, famous for sequences of related novels that explore social, ecclesiastical, and political life in England.
Thomas Hardy's profoundly pessimistic novels are all set in the harsh, punishing midland county he called Wessex. Samuel Butler produced novels satirizing the Victorian ethos, and Robert Louis Stevenson, a master of his craft, wrote arresting adventure fiction and children's verse. The mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, writing under the name Lewis Carroll, produced the complex and sophisticated children's classics Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and Through the Looking Glass (1871). Lesser novelists of considerable merit include Benjamin Disraeli, George Gissing, Elizabeth Gaskell, and Wilkie Collins. By the end of the period, the novel was considered not only the premier form of entertainment but also a primary means of analyzing and offering solutions to social and political problems.
17 The preeminent poet of the Victorian age was Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Although romantic in subject matter, his poetry was tempered by personal melancholy; in its mixture of social certitude and religious doubt it reflected the age. The poetry of Robert Browning and his wife, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, was immensely popular, though Elizabeth's was more venerated during their lifetimes. Browning is best remembered for his superb dramatic monologues. Rudyard Kipling, the poet of the empire triumphant, captured the quality of the life of the soldiers of British expansion. Some fine religious poetry was produced by Francis Thompson, Alice Meynell, Christina Rossetti, and Lionel Johnson.
In the middle of the 19th cent. the so-called Pre-Raphaelites, led by the painter-poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti, sought to revive what they judged to be the simple, natural values and techniques of medieval life and art. Their quest for a rich symbolic art led them away, however, from the mainstream. William Morris—designer, inventor, printer, poet, and social philosopher—was the most versatile of the group, which included the poets Christina Rossetti and Coventry Patmore.
Algernon Charles Swinburne began as a Pre-Raphaelite but soon developed his own classically influenced, sometimes florid style. A. E. Housman and Thomas Hardy, Victorian figures who lived on into the 20th cent., share a pessimistic view in their poetry, but Housman's well-constructed verse is rather more superficial. The great innovator among the late Victorian poets was the Jesuit priest Gerard Manley Hopkins. The concentration and originality of his imagery, as well as his jolting meter (“sprung rhythm”), had a profound effect on 20th-century poetry.
During the 1890s the most conspicuous figures on the English literary scene were the decadents. The principal figures in the group were Arthur Symons, Ernest Dowson, and, first among them in both notoriety and talent, Oscar Wilde. The Decadents' disgust with bourgeois complacency led them to extremes of behavior and expression. However limited their accomplishments, they pointed out the hypocrisies in Victorian values and institutions. The sparkling, witty comedies of Oscar Wilde and the comic operettas of W. S. Gilbert and Sir Arthur Sullivan were perhaps the brightest achievements of 19th-century British drama.
18. Irish drama flowered in the early 20th cent., largely under the aegis of the Abbey Theatre in Dublin (see Irish literary renaissance). John Millington Synge, William Butler Yeats, and Sean O'Casey all wrote on Irish themes—mythical in Yeats's poetic drama, political in O'Casey's realistic plays. Also Irish, George Bernard Shaw wrote biting dramas that reflect all aspects of British society. In fact, many of the towering figures of 20th-century English literature were not English; Shaw, Yeats, Joyce, O'Casey, and Beckett were Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, T. S. Eliot was born an American, and Conrad was Polish.
Poetry in the early 20th cent. was typified by the conventional romanticism of such poets as John Masefield, Alfred Noyes, and Walter de la Mare and by the experiments of the imagists, notably Hilda Doolittle (H. D.), Richard Aldington, Herbert Read, and D. H. Lawrence. The finest poet of the period was Yeats, whose poetry fused romantic vision with contemporary political and aesthetic concerns. Though the 19th-century tradition of the novel lived on in the work of Arnold Bennett, William Henry Hudson, and John Galsworthy, new writers like Henry James, H. G. Wells, and Joseph Conrad expressed the skepticism and alienation that were to become features of post-Victorian sensibility.
World War I shook England to the core. As social mores were shaken, so too were artistic conventions. The work of war poets like Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen, the latter killed in the war (as were Rupert Brooke and Isaac Rosenberg), was particularly influential. Ford Madox Ford's landmark tetralogy, Parade's End, is perhaps the finest depiction of the war and its effects. The new era called for new forms, typified by the work of Gerard Manley Hopkins, first published in 1918, and of T. S. Eliot, whose long poem The Waste Land (1922) was a watershed in both American and English literary history. Its difficulty, formal invention, and bleak antiromanticism were to influence poets for decades.
Equally important was the novel Ulysses, also published in 1922, by the expatriate Irishman James Joyce. Although his books were controversial because of their freedom of language and content, Joyce's revolutions in narrative form, the treatment of time, and nearly all other techniques of the novel made him a master to be studied, but only intermittently copied. Though more conventional in form, the novels of D. H. Lawrence were equally challenging to convention; he was the first to champion both the primitive and the supercivilized urges of men and women.
Sensitivity and psychological subtlety mark the superb novels of Virginia Woolf, who, like Dorothy Richardson, experimented with the interior forms of narration. Woolf was the center of the brilliant Bloomsbury group, which included the novelist E. M. Forster, the biographer Lytton Strachey, and many important English intellectuals of the early 20th cent. Aldous Huxley and Evelyn Waugh satirized the group and the period, while Katharine Mansfield and Elizabeth Bowen captured their flavor in fiction.
Moved by the Great Depression, the rise of fascism, and English policies of appeasement, many writers and intellectuals sought solutions in the politics of the left—or the right. Wyndham Lewis satirized what he thought was the total dissolution of culture in Apes of Gods (1930). George Orwell fought with the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. The experience left him profoundly disillusioned with Communism, a feeling he eloquently expressed in such works as Animal Farm (1946) and Nineteen Eighty-four (1949). The poets W. H. Auden, Christopher Isherwood, Stephen Spender, and C. Day Lewis all proclaimed their leftist respective political commitments, but the pressing demands of World War II superseded these long-term ideals.
19. Early 20 c. Drama
. The century is characterized by great diversity of artistic values & methods. This age had a great impact on the literary process. Variety of social, ethic & aesthetic attitudes. New achievements in science have their impact on literature. Literature absorbs & transforms the material of their influences: ‘The First World War’, ‘Russian Revolution’, ‘Freuds psychoanalysis’, ‘Bergsons philosophy of subjective idealism’, ‘Einsteins theory of relativity’, ‘Existentialists thought’, ‘Economic crises 1919-1921 & consequent upheaval of social movement’, ‘Marxist ideology’, ‘Strike 1926’. All these factors lead to literature of social problematics. There existed three trends: critical realism, beginning of social realism, modernism. The writers revolutionized, changed literary form, as well as continued the traditional forms. The early 20th century drama is connected with Twentieth Century British theatre, which is commonly believed to have started in Dublin, Ireland with the foundation of the Irish Literary Theater by William B. Yeats, Lady Gregory, and J.M. Synge. The playwrights of the Irish Literary Theater (which later became the Abbey Theater, as it is known today) were part of the literary revival and included: Sean O’Casey, J.M. Synge, W.B. Yeats. They all wrote on Irish themes—mythical in Yeats's poetic drama, political in O'Casey's realistic plays. Also Irish, George Bernard Shaw wrote biting dramas that reflect all aspects of British society. In fact, many of the towering figures of 20th-century English literature were not English; Shaw, Yeats, Joyce, O'Casey, and Beckett were Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, T. S. Eliot was born an American, and Conrad was Polish. The main representative of the early 20th century English drama was George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) He introduced intellectual play in the English theatre. He was much influenced by Ibsen. “In 1889 British stage came into collision with Norwegian giant Ibsen. He passed as a tornado & left nothing but ruin.” Everybody wanted to create something like Ibsen. The society was in crisis. Ibsen was accused of being immoral. But it implies the conduct that doesn’t conform to current ideals. The spirit of is constantly outgrowing his moral ideals & that is why conformity to those ideals produces results not less tragic than thoughtless violation of them. The main effect of Ibsen’s plays on public is that his plays stress the importance of being always prepared to act immorally. He insists that living will, humanistic choice are more important than abstract law, abstract moral norms. Ibsen: “The Doll’s House” let everybody refuse to sacrifice. There is no formula how to behave. English drama of the passed years was centered on some imaginary event. Ibsen did not write about accidents, he wrote about “slice of life”(life experience). He introduced open play – a play that has no end (if you show a slice of life you obviously have open play). Shaw objected “art for art’s sake”. It means only money’s sake. Every great artist has a message to communicate. His role is to interpret life, to create mind. All art is didactic. “Heartbreak House” reflects the state of Europe before the war. "Heartbreak House" Here, Shaw was influenced by Anton Chekhov. Shaw populates his play with humorous characters in sad, static situations. Set in England during World War I, the play centers on Ellie Dunn, a young woman who visits a leisurely household filled with philandering men and playfully idle women. The war is never mentioned until the play’s conclusion when enemy airplanes drop bombs upon the cast, killing two of the characters. Despite the destruction, the surviving characters are so excited by the action that they find themselves hoping that the bombers will return. Shaw demonstrates how much of society lacks purpose; they need calamity in their lives in order to find purpose. Heartbreak House is a pessimistic symbolic depiction of a larger society called England at the outset of the First World War. Shaw introduces a cast that is as intelligent as it is funny. The entire play takes place in the home of a retired sea captain. Various characters come to stay in this home for a short period of time and romances, secrets, and fights ensue!
20 Early 20 c. Novel
The century is characterized by great diversity of artistic values & methods. This age had a great impact on the literary process. Variety of social, ethic & aesthetic attitudes. New achievements in science have their impact on literature. Literature absorbs & transforms the material of their influences: ‘The First World War’, ‘Russian Revolution’, ‘Freuds psychoanalysis’, ‘Bergsons philosophy of subjective idealism’, ‘Einsteins theory of relativity’, ‘Existentialists thought’, ‘Economic crises 1919-1921 & consequent upheaval of social movement’, ‘Marxist ideology’, ‘Strike 1926’. All these factors lead to literature of social problematics. There existed three trends: critical realism, beginning of social realism, modernism. The writers revolutionized, changed literary form, as well as continued the traditional forms.
Representatives: Herbert George Wells(realism), John Galsworthy (social realism), James Joice (modernism), Virginia Woolf (modernism)
Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 – 13 August 1946) was an English author, now best known for his work in the science fiction genre. His early novels, called "scientific romances", invented a number of themes now classic in science fiction in such works as The Time Machine(1895), The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds(1898), When the Sleeper Wakes, and The First Men in the Moon. He also wrote other, non-fantastic novels that have received critical acclaim including Kipps and the satire on Edwardian advertising, Tono-Bungay(1909).
John Galsworthy (1867-1933) is best known for his Forsyte Saga, a series of six novels which trace the story of a typically English upper-class family from Victorian days to the nineteen-twenties-presenting their reactions to great events which, in effect, spell the doom of all they stand for, including World War I, the growth of Socialism, the General Strike of 1926. Galsworthy also wrote serious social plays, including ‘strife’ (1909) and ‘justice’ (1910)
James Joyce (1882 – 1941) was an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century. Joyce is best known for Ulysses (1922) a novel of enormous length dealing with the event of a single day in the life of a single town-the author's native Dublin Joyce had previously published some charming but not outstanding verse, a volume of short stories called Dubliners, and a striking auto biographical novel-Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. The hero o this novel-Stephen Dedalus-appears again in Ulysses, this time subordinated in a secondary role: the hero is a Hungarian Jew, long-settled in Dublin, called Leopold Bloom. The novel has no real plot. Like the Greek hero whose name provides the title, Bloom wanders from place to place, but has very un-heroic adventures, and finally meets Stephen, who then takes on the role of a sort of spiritual son. After this the book ends But the eight hundred pages are not filled with padding; never was ; novel written in conciser prose. We are allowed to enter the minds of the chief characters, are presented with their thoughts and feelings in a continuous stream (the technique is called 'interior monologue'). The book is mostly a never-ending stream of Bloom's half-articulate impression of the day, but Joyce prevents the book from being nothing but that, b; imposing on it a very rigid form. Each chapter corresponds to an episode in Homer's Odyssey and has a distinct style of its own; for instance, in thi Maternity Hospital scene the prose imitates all the English literary style from Beowulf to Carlyle and beyond, symbolising the growth of the foetus in the womb in its steady movement through time. The skill of the book is amazing, and when we pick up a novel by Arnold Bennett or Hugh Walpole after reading Ulysses we find it hard to be impressed by ways of writing which seem dull, unaware, half-asleep. Ulysses is the most carefully-written novel of the twentieth century.
Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) is another novelist hard to classify. She dispenses with plot and even characterisation, preferring to analyse in the closest possible detail a mood or thought as presented at a given moment in time. Like Joyce, she uses an interior monologue device to depict' the stream of consciousness' of her characters. Her prose is careful, exquisitely light, approaching poetry in its power to evoke mood and sensation. Her view of the novel was a comprehensive one; she did not wish to limit herself to the mere story-telling of men like Arnold Bennett and Hugh Walpole, but wanted to see the novel absorb as many literary devices as possible, even, occasionally, to break away from prose and use verse instead. To many readers her novels do not appear to be works of fiction at all: they seem too static, too lacking in action and human interest-a kind of literary form which is neither true poetry nor true prose, neither completely dramatic nor completely lyrical. Perhaps her best works are Mrs. Dalloway, To the Lighthouse, and The Waves. Mrs Dalloway (published in1925) is a novel by Virginia Woolf that details a day in the life of Clarissa Dalloway in post-World War I England. It is one of Woolf's best-known novels. Created from two short stories, "Mrs Dalloway in Bond Street" and the unfinished "The Prime Minister", the novel's story is of Clarissa's preparations for a party of which she is to be hostess. With the interior perspective of the novel, the story travels forwards and back in time and in and out of the characters' minds to construct an image of Clarissa's life and of the inter-war social structure. ‘Время идет, Клариссе чего-то не хватает, хотя все есть. Решает в итоге жить для себя, начать новую жизнь, в 50 лет жизнь только начинается..’ © Малиновская
21 The novel of the 30s-40s
The century is characterized by great diversity of artistic values & methods. This age had a great impact on the literary process. Variety of social, ethic & aesthetic attitudes. New achievements in science have their impact on literature. Literature absorbs & transforms the material of their influences: ‘The First World War’, ‘Russian Revolution’, ‘Freuds psychoanalysis’, ‘Bergsons philosophy of subjective idealism’, ‘Einsteins theory of relativity’, ‘Existentialists thought’, ‘Economic crises 1919-1921 & consequent upheaval of social movement’, ‘Marxist ideology’, ‘Strike 1926’. All these factors lead to literature of social problematics. There existed three trends: critical realism, beginning of social realism, modernism. The writers revolutionized, changed literary form, as well as continued the traditional forms. Representatives: W. Somerset Maugham, George Orwell. They were representatives of critical realism in the first half of the 20th century. Criticism took different forms. Some of them modernist, others spiritual exploiters. Artists duty was to reflect truly thoughts of people. Some novelists found their subject matter in modern political ideologies, and one of the most important of these -was George Orwell (1903-1950) was an English author and journalist. His work is marked by keen intelligence and wit, a profound awareness of social injustice, an intense opposition to totalitarianism, a passion for clarity in language and a belief in democratic socialism. He is best known for the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (‘1984’) and the allegorical novella Animal Farm (The utopia and its offshoot, the dystopia, are genres of literature that explore social and political structures. Utopian fiction is the creation of an ideal world, or utopia, as the setting for a novel. Dystopian fiction is the opposite: creation of a nightmare world, or dystopia.) ‘1984’(published in 1949) is possibly the definitive dystopian novel, set in a world beyond our imagining. A world where totalitarianism really is total, all power split into three roughly equal groups--Eastasia, Eurasia, and Oceania. 1984 is set in Oceania, which includes the United Kingdom, where the story is set, known as Airstrip One. Winston Smith is a middle-aged, unhealthy character, based loosely on Orwell's own frail body, an underling of the ruling oligarchy, The Party. The Party has taken early 20th century totalitarianism to new depths, with each person subjected to 24 hour surveillance, where people's very thoughts are controlled to ensure purity of the oligarchical system in place. Figurehead of the system is the omnipresent and omnipotent Big Brother. But Winston believes there is another way. 1984 joins Winston as he sets about another day, where his job is to change history by changing old newspaper records to match with the new truth as decided by the Party. ‘Роман-антиутопия; страна, где все плохо, тоталитарный режим, человек не имеет свобод, нет выхода: пессимистичные романы. Тема: уничтожение личности, общество разделено на партии и пролетариатов, лозунги «war is peace», общество сломало главных героев, в конце они-чужие люди. “Big brothers are watching you”-за людьми наблюдает, контролирует партия, вплоть до их личной жизни. ‘Big brothers’-правительство, которое никто не видел. © Малиновская Animal Farm(published in 1945) is an allegorical novella by George Orwell. The novel addresses not only the corruption of the revolution by its leaders but also how wickedness, indifference, ignorance, greed and myopia destroy any possibility of a Utopia. While this novel portrays corrupt leadership as the flaw in revolution (and not the act of revolution itself), it also shows how potential ignorance and indifference to problems within a revolution could allow horrors to happen if a smooth transition to a people's government is not achieved. ‘Критика сталинских строёв и всей системы’. The final farm-slogan All animals are equal but some are more equal then other-has become one of the bitter catch-phrases of our cynical age.’ © Малиновская (На ферме живут различные фивотные и фермер. На собрании животные решают убрать фермера и остаются одни. Главный среди них-боров (свинья) – символизирует Ленина, создает теорию анимализма(социализм:равенство), т. е. все животные должны одинаково есть, спать на подушках и т. д. Принципы действуют до поры до времени. Достаточно главными являются 3 другие свиньи: Наполеон-символизирует Сталина, Сноу- Троцкого. Народ показан в виде лошади (работает). Но старый боров умирает, и его место занимает Наполеон. Принципы сохраняются, но когда к власти приходит «Троцкий», верхушка получает больше привилегии. Естественно, что ни к чему хорошему это не приводит. Появляется новый фермер, который наводит порядок чреди животных. Лошадь, символизирующая народ, умирает.)
22 The novel of the 50s. ‘The angry young men’
After the war most English writers chose to focus on aesthetic or social rather than political problems; C. P. Snow was perhaps the notable exception. The novelists Henry Green, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Joyce Cary, and Lawrence Durrell, and the poets Robert Graves, Edwin Muir, Louis MacNeice, and Edith Sitwell tended to cultivate their own distinctive voices. Other novelists and playwrights of the 1950s, often called the angry young men, expressed a deep dissatisfaction with British society, combined with despair that anything could be done about it. The literature of the 1950s was as varied as at any time, but much of it was made notable by the appearance of a new breed of writers called the ANGRY YOUNG MEN. This phrase was originally taken from the title of Leslie Allen Paul's autobiography, Angry Young Man (1951). The word angry is probably inappropriate; dissentient or disgruntled perhaps is more accurate. The group not only expressed discontent with the staid, hypocritical institutions of English society-the so-called Establishment-but betrayed disillusionment with itself and with its own achievements. Most of these were of lower middle-class or working class backgrounds. Although not all personally known to one another they had in common an outspoken irreverence for the British class system and the pretensions of the aristocracy. They strongly disapproved of the elitist universities, the Church of England, and the drabness of working-class life. ‘ANGRY YOUNG MEN’, term applied to a group of English writers of the 1950s whose heroes share certain rebellious and critical attitudes toward society. This phrase, which was originally taken from the title of Leslie Allen Paul's autobiography, Angry Young Man (1951), became current with the production of John Osborne's play Look Back in Anger (1956). The word angry is probably inappropriate; dissentient or disgruntled perhaps is more accurate. The group not only expressed discontent with the staid, hypocritical institutions of English society—the so-called Establishment—but betrayed disillusionment with itself and with its own achievements. Included among the angry young men were the playwrights John Osborne and Arnold Wesker and the novelists Kingsley Amis, John Braine, John Wain, and Alan Sillitoe. In the 1960s these writers turned to more individualized themes and were no longer considered a group. Writers: English writers of the 1950s whose heroes share certain rebellious and critical attitudes toward society. In the 1960s these writers turned to more individualized themes and were no longer considered a group: John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger (1956): Trend of the period was crystallized.(the main character is antihero. Потому что не совершил ничего героического) Kingsley Amis (1922-1995): Best writer of 50s, realist, humanist attempting to put the writer’s talent in the service of society. Lucky Jim (1953): Social discontent, crystallized trend. Anthony Burgess (1917-1993): Fictional explorer of modern dilemmas combining wit, moral, earnestness and touches of bizarre. A Clockwork Orange (1962): Comic and violent. The English playwright John Osborne (1929-1994) was the first of Britain's "Angry Young Men" - a group of social critics and writers. He scathingly attacked many of the establishment's hallowed values in his numerous plays of the 1960s. Osborne's plays usually focus on an individual character and the sheer force of his language rather than on action. His first commercial success was Look Back in Anger (1956), concerning a restless and vociferous young man of the working class who is at war with himself and society; it became the seminal work for the so-called angry young men. His other plays depict the frustration of living without hope in a world filled with false values. Kingsley Amis is considered by many to be the best of the writers to emerge from the 1950s. The social discontent he expressed made Lucky Jim a household name in England. His first and best-known novel, Lucky Jim (1954), a brilliant comic satire on academic life, classified him as one of England’s angry young man. It is the story of Jim Dixon, who rises from a lower-class background only to find all the positions at the top of the social ladder filled. the central character is the antihero Jim Dixon, a junior faculty member at a small university, who faces one disaster after another with his girlfriend and professor. Dixon's job is in constant danger, often for good reason. He despises the pretensions of academic life, but his ambitious plans to improve his situation are fruitless, because the class distinctions are unbreakable. Герой-марионетка, зависим от удачи. В конце- работа, богатая жена, хотя сам из себя ничего не представляет, однако как пришло, так и уйдет!:D Главные темы: 1) удача и неудача, 2) деление на социальные классы. Автор шутя показывает, что не всем так везет, как Джиму, так что нужно полагаться на себя, а не на удачу! © Малиновская Anthony Burgess — was an English author, poet, playwright, composer, linguist, translator and critic. Burgess, a self-avowed anarchist, visited Leningrad in 1961 and was terrified at the degree to which the communist state controls people’s life. He based the character of Alex and his band of thugs (убийц) on Russian and British gangs of the 1950 and 1960s. “ Inspiration” for the violent scene in the novel stems from an incident in 1943 when a group of American soldiers attacked and raped Burgess’s wife in London, killing their unborn child. Published in 1962, Anthony Burgess’s “A clockwork orange” is set in the future, where the world is a dangerous place and, at night, gangs come out to rob and rape people. The story is narrated by one of these people, 15-year old Alex in Nadsat- a language invented by Burgess and comprised of bits of Russian, English and American slang, rhyming words, and “gipsy talk”. . Главный герой – продукт общества. Должен делать всё как все. Ненавидит школу, отношение родителей. Свою ярость изливает на других. Попадает в тюрьму и встает выбор: сидеть или подвергнуться эксперименту. Alex, the humble narrator, is a violent, wild youth who cares nothing for the harm he causes other people. To him is nothing more than a game. His group of friends betray him to the police and he is sent to be reformed. Finally he enters a strange treatment program that will turn him into a fully functional citizen or so everyone think “A clockwork orange” is a story about choice. And Alex is robbed of choice, he cannot choose to be good or bad, he is forced to be good. Burgess was afraid that the government would oppress the citizens.
23 Modern English philosophical novel (I. Murdoch, W. Golding)
The political and social developments in the second half of the 20th century led the literary men of England to serious meditations on the future of mankind, the aim of man's life, man's place in society. These problems are the essence of the philosophical novel which came into existence in the early 50s. The most prominent representatives of the genre are William Golding, Iris Murdoch, Colin Wilson and, to a certain extent, John Fowles. The novels are marked by pessimism and fear. Most of their heroes are lonely despairing individuals, powerless in a hostile and chaotic world. The relations between people are usually characterized by indifference and alienation. Symbolism and allegory are the chief literary devices in the philosophical novel . A great deal of contemporary English fiction and drama is dedicated to the subject of man's search for identity, and the stress is not so much on political or social issues as on moral problems, which adds another dimension to the portrayal of modern English society. . The problem of identity closely linked with one of the most influential philosophical trends of twentieth century thought, often evokes an existential attitude. It implies a certain scepticism about ever knowing the essential nature of any of man's various experiences, particularly when that experience is received only through individual consciousness. At the same time, man must live and make his choice, must come to some terms with his own existence and the true meaning of everything around him. Existentialist philosophy places limitations oil man's knowledge and power and even on his search for identity unci on the necessity for serious action or engagement. The influence of existentialist ideas left a profound impression on the work of Iris Murdoch.(1909-1919) She was an Irish-born British author and philosopher, best known for her novels about political and social questions of good and evil, sexual relationships, morality, and the power of the unconscious. She has created a series of intricate novels that essentially deal with the nature of man and his delusions. Her characters search for an understanding of the meaning of life; they try to reduce experience to the manageable and comprehensible, but none of the identities or definitions provide any satisfactory solution. Though Iris Murdoch always attempts to shape her characters perception of the world's chaotic nature into significant form, her rich mid highly artistic prose mocks man's efforts to formulate precise codes and laws about life. . She went on to produce 25 more novels and other works of philosophy and drama until 1995, and one of her best-known is ‘The black prince’. With Iris Murdoch the trend in creative writing moved to philosophical fiction. William Golding's novels and especially his most fissured success Lord of the Flies are notable for their symbolic treatment of human nature. “Lord of the Flies” is a philosophical novel by W. Golding (Philosophical novel refers to works of fiction in which a significant proportion of the work is devoted to a discussion of philosophical questions such as role of society, the purpose of life, ethics or morals; the plot & the characters are secondary for the idea, they are based on existentialism-человек не в состоянии отвечать за свои поступки) Golding’s works are complicated, they are full of implication(скрыт. Cмысл). The novel “Lord of the Flies” was a result of the author’s reflections upon fascism and its roots. It’s an anti-utopian novel and was written as a parody of “The coral island’ by Ballantyne, where three teenagers lead a happy and harmonious life on a Pacific island. “Lord of the Flies” describes the fate of a group of schoolboys stranded on a tropical island after a plane crash, vividly illustrating their reduction to a state of savagery and their division into hunters and fire keepers. The book traces the faults in society to the faults(пороки) in the individual person. Golding says that each person has an evil inner nature poorely covered by a society. And if the society is taken away, then the inner nature comes out and chaos and lawlessness erupt. Golding uses a lot of symbolism in the book: conch(раковина)-authority and order, pigggy’s glasses- knowledge and insight, war paints-rejection of society. And the main: head of the killed pig(lord of the flies-the ugly looking head, covered with flies) became a symbol evil and savage power. The novel is a warning to people not to let fascism, the worst form of evil.
24 Modern English drama The theatre of Absurd –a term used for a distinct style drama written largely by European playwrights in the 1940s-1960s The main features of the Theatre of Absurd are : absence of a real story or plot, no action since all actions are insignificant, scenes often repeat, and often the language repeats. На практике театр абсурда отрицает реалистичные персонажи, ситуации и все другие соответствующие театральные приёмы. Время и место неопределённы и изменчивы, даже самые простые причинные связи разрушаются. Бессмысленные интриги, повторяющиеся диалоги и бесцельная болтовня, драматическая непоследовательность действий. Some of the most exciting work of this period came in the theater, notably the plays of John Osborne, Harold Pinter, Tom Stoppard, Arnold Wesker, Samuel Beckett. Thomas's lyricism and rich imagery reaffirmed the romantic spirit, and he was eventually appreciated for his technical mastery as well. Beckett, who wrote many of his works in French and translated them into English, is considered the greatest exponent of the theater of the absurd. His uncompromisingly bleak, difficult plays (and novels) depict the lonely, alienated human condition with compassion and humor. John Osborne (1929–94), English dramatist. He began his theatrical career as an actor and playwright in provincial English repertory theaters. Osborne's plays usually focus on an individual character and the sheer force of his language rather than on action. His first commercial success was Look Back in Anger (1956), concerning a restless and vociferous young man of the working class who is at war with himself and society; it became the seminal work for the so-called angry young men. (‘ANGRY YOUNG MEN’, term applied to a group of English writers of the 1950s whose heroes share certain rebellious and critical attitudes toward society) Harold Pinter (1930–, )English dramatist. One of the most important English playwrights of the last half of the 20th cent. and the most influential of his generation, Pinter writes what have been called “comedies of menace.” Using apparently commonplace characters and settings, he invests his plays with an atmosphere of fear, horror, and mystery. ‘The Lover’ is a 1962 one-act play by Harold Pinter about a middle class couple who live a secluded kind of life. They might be comfortably off financially, but their sex life seems to be less satisfactory. Pinter leads the audience to believe that there are three characters in the play: the wife, the husband and the lover. But the lover who comes to call in the afternoons is revealed to be the husband adopting a role. He plays the lover for her: she plays the whore for him. The play contrasts bourgeois domesticity with sexual yearning. As the play goes on the man (first as the lover and then as the husband) expresses a wish to stop the pretend adultery, to the dismay of the woman. Finally, the husband suddenly switches back to the role of the lover. As with the drama of Anton Chekhov, some of Pinter's plays support "serious" and "comic" interpretations; The Lover has been staged successfully both as an ironic comedy on the one hand and as a nervy drama on the other. As is often the case with Pinter, the play probably contains both. Главной темой произведения является тема того, как стать счастливым. В своем произведении Пинтер показазывает решение проблемы , которая возникла между мужчиной и женщиной, во взаимоотношениях которых наступил кризис.Пинтер показывает путь решения этой проблемы! Причем это не банальный выход из сложившейся ситуации, а совсем оригинальный, интересный и красивый подход. В пьесе можно выделить несколько главных идей. Более обширная-это то, что любовь спасет мир. Более узкая, и на мой взгляд, более видимая: любовь выживает только в бесконечной игре, что ярко продемонстрировал автор в своей пьесе. Бытовая жизнь скучна и через некоторое время надоедает, поэтому надо вносить яркие краски в эту ,ставшей серой, жизнь. Ознакомившись с пьесой Г. Пинтера “Любовник” тяжело понять, сколько главных героев в произведении. В конце-концов, понимаем, что в пьесе два главных героя и четыре персонажа. Действие пьесы разворачивается в благополучном по внешним признакам доме. Два персонажа муж и жена, которые прожили в браке 10 лет и вдруг поняли, что стали чужими, чуть ли не врагами друг другу. Придумав один раз так называемую игру в любовников, они уже не могут от неё отказаться, так как понимают, насколько мелочны проблемы, вызывающие раздоры по сравнению со счастьем, данным свыше любить и быть понятыми друг другом. . Супруги Ричард и Сара превращаются в любовников Макса и Долорес и вновь обретают свободу и радость в любви.
25 Modern English poetry
The 30s. The poets who began to emerge in the 1930s had two things in common; they had all been born too late to have any real experience of the pre-World War I world and they grew up in a period of social, economic and political turmoil. Perhaps as a consequence of these facts, themes of community, social (in)justice and war seem to dominate the poetry of the decade. The poetic imagee of the decade was dominated by four poets; W. H. Auden, Stephen Spender, Cecil Day-Lewis and Louis MacNeice
The 40s. The main movement in post-war 1940s poetry was the New Romantic group that included Dylan Thomas, George Barker, W. S. Graham, Kathleen Raine, Henry Treece and J. F. Hendry. These writers saw themselves as in revolt against the classicism of the New Country poets. Other significant poets to emerge in the 1940s include Lawrence Durrell, Bernard Spencer, Roy Fuller, Norman Nicholson, Vernon Watkins, R. S. Thomas and Norman McCaig. These last four poets represent a trend towards regionalism and poets writing about their native areas; Watkins and Thomas in Wales, Nicholson in Cumberland and MacCaig in Scotland.
The 50s.
The 1950s were dominated by three groups of poets, The Movement (Philip Larkin, Elizabeth Jennings, D. J. Enright, Kingsley Amis, Thom Gunn and Donald Davie.They were identified with a hostility to modernism and internationalism), The Group (much more formally a group of poets, meeting for weekly discussions under the chairmanship of Philip Hobsbaum and Edward Lucie-Smith. Other Group poets included Martin Bell, Peter Porter, Peter Redgrove, George MacBeth and David Wevill.) and a number of poets that gathered around the label Extremist Art (These included Charles Tomlinson, Gael Turnbull, Roy Fisher and Bob Cobbing)
One of the most outstanding poets of modern english poetry is W. B. Yeats. He stands at the turning point between the Victorian period and Modernism, the conflicting currents of which affected his poetry. He is a greatest lyric poet Ireland has produced and one of the major figures of 20th-century literature, Yeats was the acknowledged leader of the Irish literary renaissance. His first work, the drama Mosada (1886), reflects his concern with magic, but the long poems in The Wanderings of Oisin (1889) voiced the intense nationalism of the Young Ireland movement. In 1898 with Lady Augusta Gregory, George Moore, and Edward Martyn he founded the Irish Literary Theatre in Dublin Poetry: First Period Yeats's verse can be divided into two periods, the first lasting from 1886 to about 1900. The poetry of this period shows a debt to Spenser, Shelley, and the Pre-Raphaelites. It centers on Irish mythology and themes and is mystical, slow-paced, and lyrical. Among the best-known poems of the period are "Falling of Leaves," "When You Are Old," and "The Lake Isle of Innisfree." Yeats edited William Blake's works in 1893, and his own Poems were collected in 1895. Poetry: Second Period, and Later Life Yeats's poetry deepened as he grew older. In the verse of his middle and late years he renounced his early transcendentalism; his poetry became stronger, more physical and realistic. A recurring theme is the polarity between extremes such as the physical and the spiritual, the real and the imagined. Memorable poems from this period include "The Second Coming," "The Tower," and "Sailing to Byzantium." Yeats initiated his second period in such volumes as In the Seven Woods (1903) and The Green Helmet and Other Poems (1910). In 1917 he married Bertha Georgiana Hyde-Lees (known as Georgie or George), and his occultism was encouraged by his wife's automatic writing. His prose work A Vision (1937; privately printed 1926) is the basis of much of his poetry in The Wild Swans at Coole (1917) and Four Plays for Dancers (1921). Yeats ultimately became a respected public figure, a member (1922–28) of the Irish senate, and winner of the 1923 Nobel Prize in Literature. Some of his best work was his last, The Tower (1928) and Last Poems (1940). All of Yeats's work shows interesting and important revisions from earlier to later versions

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