angl yaz


Unit 1
Market and Command Economies
Грамматика и лексика:
1. Временные формы глагола (повторение)
2. Глагол to be в сочетании С инфинитивом
3. Оборот «to be + of + существительное»
4. Существительное в функции определения
5. Числительные (повторение)
Задание на дом № 1
1. В разделе «Грамматика и словообразование» проработайте § 1, 6, 7 и 9.
2. Определите время и залог сказуемого. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:
1. We translated this text at the last lesson.
2. Are you translating the text?
3. What were you doing when they came? – We were translating an exercise.
4. Has he translated this article? – No, he hasn't.
5. He will translate the article in a week, I think.
6. We often translate from English into Russian at lessons.
7. This article has already been translated.
8. A new book will be translated by him next year.
9. This book was translated into Russian last year.
10. A lot of books are translated from English into Russian every year.
11. The fax is being translated now.
3. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания, содержащие существительное в функции определения:
lecture hall, school year, university laboratories, command economy, market economy, government intervention, land resources, government restrictions, Soviet bloc countries
4. Определите по суффиксам, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова:
economist, production, productivity, highly, mechanism, worker, limitless, manager, consumption, entirely, restriction, government, technical, decision, priceless, extensive, mainly, population
5. Переведите на русский язык предложения, содержащие оборот to be + of + существительное.
1. This book on economics is of great interest.
2. Independent work at the library is of great value to every university student.
3. These new machines may be of use on farms.
4. Knowledge of foreign languages may be of great importance to everybody.
6. Переведите текст Market and Command Economies и отработайте его чтение.
7. В тексте
1) выделите обороты to be + of + существительное;
2) определите, в каком значении употреблен глагол to be перед инфинитивом с частицей to;
3) найдите существительные в функции определения.
TEXT
Market and Command Economies
Economics is a science that analyses what, how, and for whom society produces. The central economic problem is to reconcile the conflict between people's unlimited demands with society's ability to produce goods and services.
In industrial Western countries markets are to allocate resources. The market is the process by which production and consumption are coordinated through prices.
In a command economy, a central planning office makes decisions on what, how, and for whom to produce. Economy cannot rely entirely on command, but there was extensive planning in many Soviet bloc countries.
A free market economy has no government intervention. Resources are allocated entirely through markets.
Modern economies in the West are mixed and rely mainly on the market but with a large dose of government intervention. The optimal level of government intervention remains a problem which is of interest to economists.
The degree of government restrictions differs greatly between countries that have command economies and countries that have free market economies. In the former, resources are allocated by central government planning. In the latter, there is not any government regulation of the consumption, production, and exchange of goods. Between the two main types lies the mixed economy where market and government are both of importance.
Словарный минимум к тексту
economics n 1. экономическая наука; 2. экономика
economic adj 1. экономический; 2. экономически выгодный; рентабельный
economical adj 1. экономный, бережливый; 2. экономичный
economist n экономист
economize v экономить; экономно расходовать или использовать
economy n хозяйство, экономика
command economy – централизованно управляемая экономика; нерыночная экономика
free market economy свободная рыночная экономика
mixed economy – смешанная экономика
society n 1. общество, общественный строй; 2. общество, организация, ассоциация
produce v производить, вырабатывать
production n производство
demand n спрос; требование; запрос; потребность
demand for smth – спрос на что-л.
to be in high / low demand – пользоваться большим / небольшим спросом
good[1] n товар, изделие
service n услуга
market n рынок
allocate v (smth to / in smth, smb) 1. размещать, распределять(что-л. куда-л., кому-л.)', 2. ассигновать (что-л. на что-л., кому-л.)
resource(s) n ресурс(ы), средства
consumption n потребление
through prep через; посредством; благодаря
price n цена
at high/low prices – по высоким / низким ценам; при высоких / низких ценах
price for /of a good – цена товара, цена на товар
plan v планировать
planning n планирование
decision n решение
to make a decision – принимать решение
rely v (on smb, smth) полагаться (на кого-л. или что-л.)
entirely adv полностью, всецело
government n правительство
intervention n вмешательство
government intervention государственное вмешательство
level n уровень
at a certain level – на определенном уровне
restriction n ограничение
(the) former adj первый(из двух названных)
(the) latter adj последний(из двух названных)', второй
regulation n регулирование
government regulation – государственное регулирование
both adj pron оба, обе; и тот и другой
importance n важность, значение
to be of importance – быть важным, иметь (большое) значение
Аудиторная работа № 1
8. Сгруппируйте приведенные ниже однокоренные слова и заполните графы следующей таблицы:
Постарайтесь перевести все слова без словаря, опираясь на значения слов из словарного минимума к тексту Market and Command Economies.
decision, recommend, regulation, consumer, produce, allocation, decide, consume, allocate, production, recommendation, consumption, regulate, producer
9. Отработайте чтение числительных.
а) В англоязычных странах в составных числительных после миллионов и тысяч ставится запятая. После сотен произносится союз and. Например: 8,861 – eight thousand eight hundred and sixty– one.
Прочитайте следующие числительные:
38; 189; 375; 23,633; 1,879; 211; 40,100; 71,213; 1,001,700; 43,641,788; 73,233,441
б) Цифры, обозначающие годы, читаются следующим образом: 1892– eighteen ninety-two; 1900 – nineteen hundred; 1802 – eighteen о two; 2000 – two thousand; 2002 – two thousand and two
Скажите по-английски:
1343; 1799; 2008; 1908; 1999: 1954; 1603; 3013
в) Если речь идет об одном десятилетии в течение века, например 30-е годы XIX века, то по-английски следует сказать: the thirties (30s) of the 19th century или the 1830s – the eighteen-thirties.
Скажите по-английски:
в 70-е годы; в течение 40-х годов; в 30-е годы XX века; в 90-е годы XIX века
10. Найдите в следующих предложениях сказуемое и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. For 40 years after 1945 countries in Eastern Europe had planned economies in which market mechanisms played only a small role.2. The government plays an important role in allocating resources in the economy.
3. Goods are produced on farms or in factories. Goods of the both groups are consumed by the people who buy them.
4. A government planning office decides what will be produced, how it will be produced, and for whom it will be produced.
5. Resource allocation decisions are being made every day in every city, mostly through the mechanisms of markets and prices.
6. When there was a bumper coffee crop (очень высокий урожай кофе) in Brazil, much coffee was bought by the Brazilian government from farmers and then burnt.
7. Grain (зерно) markets have greatly changed over the last 25 years in the United States and Europe. Both have high levels of government intervention in their agriculture.
8. The ideas of Adam Smith, the famous Scottish philosopher and economist, have been studied by economists for over two hundred years.
11. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на разные значения глагола to be перед инфинитивом.
1. Prices are to regulate production and consumption in a market economy.
2. The problem with government regulation of markets is to control how government restrictions work in real life.
3. The aim of that book is to form a theory of the role of government in economic life.
4. The market is to decide how much to produce.
5. A building society is a financial organization whose purpose is to help people buy houses or flats.
6. When the authors of the textbook discussed examples, their intention (намерение) was to prepare students for future economic analyses.
7. Governments are to regulate or plan production and consumption. The former is typical of mixed economies, the latter is typical of command economies.
Задание на дом № 2
12. Переведите следующие предложения, содержащие оборот to be + of + существительное.
1. Economists' recommendations may be of high value to governments but governments do not always rely on them.
2. The study of economics is of great use even to those students who have no wish to become professional economists.
3. Basic problems of economics are of great importance to every economist, while specific problems of farm economics are mostly of interest to economists who study agriculture.
4. Since economists cannot make experiments, collecting and using information from a large number of past years is of practical importance for analysing and solving problems of today.
5. Professional marketing services are of great value to producer's and sellers.
6. Economic statistics are of interest to economic policy decision-makers.
13. Перепишите предложения, заменяя формы действительного залога на формы страдательного. Обращайте внимание на то, в каком времени употреблен глагол.
ОБРАЗЕЦ: In a command economy the government makes all decisions about production and consumption. – > In a command economy all decisions about production and consumption are made by the government.
1. The government made all resources allocation decisions in the Soviet Union.
2. Prices regulate consumption and production in a market economy.
3. In a mixed economy the government does not entirely regulate exchange of goods.
4. The economists are monitoring the prices and levels of consumption of different goods and services.
5. Economics analyses society's production and consumption levels.
6. The company has made a decision to start producing new machines.
7. Economists had studied and discussed the ideas of Karl Marx for over sixty years before Russians put them into life.
8. If we allocate enough resources to agriculture, we will achieve a high level of production.
14. Вставьте пропущенные предлоги, где это необходимо.
1… a command economy that relies… central planning, government's economic role is… prime importance.
2… a free-market economy, economic decisions are made… firms and individuals and resources are allocated… markets.
3. Economic statistics are the statistics about levels… production and consumption… an economy, exports and imports, inflation and other information. They are usually collected… government.
4. The municipal council (городской совет) made a decision last year to allocate more money… the construction… the bridge… the airport.
5… such high prices… food the government cannot hope to keep its consumption… a sufficient (достаточный) level.
6. When people are poor, social services are… higher demand.
7. The European Union's (Европейский экономический союз) statistics are collected… the union level and… national levels of member countries.
8. The demand… bread has been going down… Western Europe… several years.9. Some direct methods… price regulation are sometimes used… governments, but they usually rely… indirect regulation.
10. Prices… farm products have been an example… government regulation… prices… the USA… a long time.
11. Individuals… demand… goods and services not only determine what and how much is produced… an economy, but also how many workers are allocated… every industry.
Аудиторная работа № 2
15. а) Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту Market and Command Economies.
1. What is the central economic problem of a society?
2. What is the market?
3. What is the function of the market in an industrial country?
4. How are decisions made in a command economy?
5. In what way does a free market economy differ from a command economy?
6. To which type do most economies in the West belong?
б) Подумайте и скажите:
1. To which type does the economy of present-day Russia belong?
2. Is the level of government regulation growing or falling in Russia's economy now?
16. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.
1. (A command economy /a free market economy) is a society where the government makes all decisions about production and consumption.
2. (Economics/Economy) studies how markets and prices allow society to solve the problems of what, how, and for whom to produce.
3. Every economist sees (the restriction/the importance) of the question of what, how, and for whom to produce.
4. Nations have different (consumption / levels) of farm production.
5. When (the price /the importance) of some goods grows, people will try to use less of them but producers will want to produce more of them.
6. In (mixed/both) countries, Canada and the USA structural changes in the agricultural sector of economy have become of interest to economists and general public in the 80s and 90s of the 20th century.
7. After years of competition between command and market economies, (the former / the latter) gave way in many countries of the world to (the former/ the latter).
17. а) Прочитайте следующие однокоренные слова, обращая внимание на ударение: Ударение на втором слоге Ударение на третьем слоге
economy economist to economize
economicseconomiceconomicalб) Измените следующие фразы, используя прилагательные economic или economical:
1. A practical woman.
2. Problems of economics.
3. A crisis in the field of economy.
4. To be careful in the spending of money.
5. Reforms in the field of economy.
6. A law (закон) regulating the sphere of economics.
7. A plan of the industrial development of the country.
8. A small car that doesn't use too much fuel.
9. Geography that studies the location (размещение) of industries, markets, transport.
в) Вставьте в предложения слова: economy, economics, economist, economic, to economize, economical.
1. An early definition (определение) of… was «an inquiry (изучение) into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations».
2. The national… is the system of the management and use of resources of a country.
3. You can… if you compare the prices of goods before buying them.
4. J. M. Keynes was a famous…
5. Inflation may cause a bad… state (положение) in a country.
6. If you've got a large family, it's more… to travel by car than by train.
18. а) Употребите данные в скобках глаголы в соответствующем времени и залоге.
Communism is a political and economic doctrine which (to say) that everything must belong to the state and the government is to organize all the production. Karl Marx (to formulate) his idea of communism as «from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs». Command economy where strategic decisions (to make) by government and (not to regulate) by the price system (to rely) on the communist doctrine. China still (to organize) its economy along communist lines but Russia and other former (бывший) Soviet Union's countries and East-European countries recently (to move away) to more market-based economies.
б) Кратко передайте содержание прочитанного текста (а) по-английски.
Задание на дом № 3
19. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на слова и выражения из словарного минимума к тексту Market and Command Economies.
1. Economics is the study of how society decides what, how, and for whom to produce.
2. The central economic problem for society is how to reconcile the conflict between people's limitless demand for goods and services and the resources which can be allocated for the production of these goods and services.
3. The market is the process by which individuals' decisions about consumption of goods, firms' decisions about what and how to produce, the workers" decisions about how much and for whom to work are reconciled by prices.
4. When resources are limited, they are allocated through the political process. In a country like Sweden with a strong government the level of production of social services may be higher than the level of production of goods for individual consumption.
5. The world economy produces mostly for the people living in the industrial countries.
6. In many countries there was a large dose of central regulation and planning.
7. Even the countries with free market economy still have high levels of government activity in the production of public goods and services and the regulation of markets.
8. All-round planning is not an easy task, and there is not any command economy that relies entirely on planning for all resources allocation decisions.
20. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:
1. Развитые страны достигают экономического успеха через специализацию.
2. В годы войны в стране всегда имеет место регулирование экономики правительством.
3. В экономиках смешанного типа имеются правительственные ограничения того, что производить и как производить.
4. Каждый менеджер принимает решения, как распределить ограниченные ресурсы наилучшим образом.
5. Мы не можем положиться на эти данные при планировании производства на следующий год.
6. При рыночной экономике регулирование производства и потребления осуществляется через цены.
21. а) Раскройте скобки и употребите глаголы в соответствующей форме.
There (to be) various forms of government restrictions and regulations in economies. For example, Turkey and Norway both (to limit) profits of firms, the latter also (to control) prices and wages; in Bolivia the tin mines (to nationalize)', in China communes (to establish)', in Cuba the government (to own) many industries and firms; and in Britain eight basic industries (to nationalize).
A free market economy (to be) rare in the world.The level of economy regulation (to be) different in different countries. In some countries it (to grow) in recent years, in others more freedom (to grant) to firms and individuals. But the general tendency (to be) to keep government regulation at quite a high level.б) Напишите к тексту четыре вопроса: общий, специальный, альтернативный и разделительный.
Аудиторная работа № 3
22. Заполните пропуски в предложениях следующими словами и переведите предложения на русский язык:
both, government, restrictions, the former, the latter, economics, through, to produce, services (2), goods (2), regulations, mixed economy
1. Every group of people must solve three main problems: what… and… to produce, how… them and for whom to produce them.
2… is placed among the social sciences.
3. Markets in which there is no… intervention are called free markets.
4. Society allocates resources into production… the price system.
5. There are no government… and… in a free market economy.
6… is an economy in which the government and private sector cooperate in solving economic problems.
7. Government regulations and restrictions must… work in the interests of society.
8. People produce… and are produced in factories or on farms…. – at schools, hospitals, shops, banks.
23. Составьте предложения из двух подходящих по смыслу частей.
1. America's strong demand for automobiles explains
2. In contrast to market economies, economies with different forms of dictatorial control
3. Big corporations are not allowed to dominate an industry or a market
4. In some industries, such as radio, television, telephone services and some others, competition cannot be relied
5. Resources are the things or services that are used
6. Economics and economists play an important role at the highest levels of governments
7. Until the middle of the 18th century, industry (in contrast to agriculture and commerce)
8. Under capitalism, economic decision-making is decentralized
a. may be called command economies.
b. entirely through government regulation.
c. and resources are allocated through goods and services markets.
d. why auto workers have historically been among the highest paid workers in the world.
e. which rely heavily on economic advisers in making the decisions about the future of the country.
f. entirely on to produce results that are good for the society.
g. was of little importance in the economies of Europe and America.
h. to produce goods which can satisfy (удовлетворять) people's demands.
24. Прочитайте текст, не пользуясь словарем. Озаглавьте его. Догадайтесь о значении подчеркнутых слов. Ответьте на вопрос, следующий за текстом.
The free market allows individuals to produce goods and services without any government restrictions. The command economy allows little individual economic freedom since (так как) most decisions are made by the government. Between these two extremes lies the mixed economy.
In a mixed economy the government and private sector co-operate in solving economic problems. The government controls production through taxation (налогообложение) and orders for goods and services for the army, the police force, administration and other needs.
In a mixed economy the government may also be a producer of goods. An example of this is the United Kingdom where there are nationalized industries such as railways and coal.
What is the role of governments in mixed economies?
Unit 2
Demand and Supply
Грамматика и лексика:
1. Причастия I и II (повторение)
2. Слова some, the same
3. Значения слова as и сочетаний с ним
4. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий, сравнительные конструкции
5. Числительные
Задание на дом № 1
1. В разделе «Грамматика и словообразование» проработайте § 2, 3, 5, 10 и 29.
2. Отработайте чтение числительных и употребление связанных с ними слов.
а) В экономических текстах часто встречаются цифровые показатели и выражения с числительными. Давайте научимся правильно произносить их по-английски.
У простых дробей в числителе указывается количественное числительное, а в знаменателе – порядковое. Если числитель больше 1, знаменатель употребляется во множественном числе. Например – one– fourth; 2/3 – two-thirds.
Прочитайте простые дроби: 3/4, 1/6, 3/8, 1/5
б) В десятичных дробях после целых чисел ставится не запятая, а точка, которая читается point. Например: 1.53 – one point fifty-three.
Прочитайте десятичные дроби:
3.71; 83.12; 17.4; 20.5; 11.33
в) Когда речь идет об изменении каких-либо показателей, то по– русски говорят увеличился на 3 %. В английском языке предлогу на соответствует предлог by. Например: grew by 3 percent[2],
Скажите по-английски:
возрос на 1,7 %; уменьшился (decreased) на 8 %; возрос на 1/3; уменьшился на 2/5.; возрос на 25 %; уменьшился на 30,1%
г) Русскому обороту в… раз соответствует английское слово… times без предлога. Например: уменьшился в два раза– decreased two times.
Скажите по-английски:
уменьшился в три раза; увеличился в четыре раза; уменьшился во много раз; увеличился в пять раз
д) Часто говорят увеличился (уменьшился) с… до… – increased (decreased) from… to…
Скажите по-английски:
уменьшился с 102 % в 1988 г. до 57 % в 1997 г.; увеличился с 40 тысяч тонн в 1991 г. до 42 тысяч тонн в 1998 г.; увеличился с $24 500 в 1996 г. до $24 650 в 1997 г.3. Образуйте причастия I и II от следующих глаголов, назовите их русские эквиваленты:
to work, to allocate, to limit, to analyze, to say, to make, to produce, to study, to buy, to sell, to give
4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функции причастий:
1. Exports are goods and services sold to other countries.
2. In free market economies changes in price are never results of regulations imposed by governments.
3. Imposing some restrictions on food prices, governments make it possible for all the people to buy enough food.
4. The 3.8 billion (миллиард) people of the world in the early 1970s had about 20 percent more to eat than the 2.7 billion living 20 years earlier.
5. Knowing that their resources are limited, people make a decision how to allocate them in the best possible way (наилучшим образом).
6. The government can regulate monopolies controlling the prices or supplying the products itself.
5. Образуйте степени сравнения следующих прилагательных и наречий и переведите их на русский язык:
a) large, old, few, new; high, poor, low;
b) good, bad, little, many;
c) important, reliable, effective, difficult, limited, developed, popular;
d) effectively, soon, successfully, quickly, often, slowly, much, well
6. Переведите текст Demand and Supply и отработайте его чтение.
7. Выделите в тексте причастные обороты и причастия I и II.
TEXT
Demand and Supply
Demand is the quantity of a good that buyers wish to buy at each price[3]. Other things equal[4], at low prices the demanded quantity is higher.
Supply is the quantity of a good that sellers wish to sell at each price. Other things equal, when prices are high, the supplied quantity is high as well.
The market is in equilibrium when the price regulates the quantity supplied by producers and the quantity demanded by consumers. When prices are not so high as the equilibrium price, there is excess demand (shortage) raising the price. At prices above the equilibrium price, there is excess supply (surplus) reducing the price.
There are some factors influencing demand for a good, such as the prices of other goods, consumer incomes and some others.
An increase in the price of a substitute good (or a decrease in the price of a complement good) will at the same time raise the demanded quantity.
As consumer income is increased, demand for a normal good will also increase but demand for an inferior good will decrease. A normal good is a good for which demand increases when incomes rise. An inferior good is a good for which demand falls when incomes rise.
As to supply, some factors are assumed[5] as constant. Among them are technology, the input price, as well as degree of government regulation. An improvement in technology is as important for increasing the supplied quantity of a good as a reduction in input prices.
Government regulates demand and supply imposing ceiling prices (maximum prices) and floor prices (minimum prices) and adding its own demand to the demand of the private sector.
Запомните!
some – какой-то, несколько, некоторые
the same – тот же самый, такой же
* * *
as – так как; по мере того как; в качестве; как
as well – тоже также
as well as – так же как и
Запомните!
such as – такой (ая, – ое, – ие) как…
as… as – такой (же)… какas… as possible – как можно…
not so… as – не такой… как
as to – что касается…
the same as – такой же как…
Словарный минимум к тексту
quantity n количество; размер; величина
buy (bought, bought)v покупать, приобретать
buyer n покупатель
demand v (smth) требовать (что-л.), нуждаться в(чем-л.)
supply n предложение(товара)
excess supply – избыточное, чрезмерное предложение, перенасыщенность рынка
supply v предлагать; снабжать; поставлять
to supply smb with smth поставлять кому-либо что-либо
to supply smth to smb снабжать чем-либо кого-либо
sell (sold, sold) v продаватьсяseller n продавецequilibrium n равновесие, равновесное состояние, положение равновесия
equilibrium price равновесная цена
producer n производитель, изготовитель
consumer n потребитель
consume v потреблять
shortage n дефицит, нехватка, недостаточность предложения(товаров)
raise v повышать; увеличивать; поднимать
surplus n перенасыщение рынка; избыток, излишек
reduce понижать; уменьшать; сокращать
reduction n (in smth) снижение, уменьшение, сокращение (чего-л.)
influence v (smth) оказывать влияние, влиять(на что-л.)
influence n влияние, воздействие
income n доход(ы), прибыль, поступления
increase n (in smth) увеличение, рост, возрастание, прирост(чего-л.)
increase v увеличиваться), повышать(ся); расти; усиливать(ся)
substitute good – товар-заменитель(спрос на который изменяется в противоположном направлении по сравнению со спросом на другой товар, цена на который изменилась)
substitute n (for smth) заменитель (чего-л.)
decrease n (in smth) уменьшение, понижение, снижение(чего-л.)
decrease v уменыпать(ся), снижать(ся), убывать
complement good – товар– дополнение(спрос на который изменяется в том же направлении, что и спрос на некоторые другие товары, цены на которые изменились)
normal good – товар стандартного качества
inferior good – товар низкого качества
rise (rose, risen) v подниматься; увеличиваться; возрастать
fall (fell gel, fallen) v падать; опускаться; понижаться
technology n техника, технология
input n вложение, вводимый ресурс, затраты, инвестиции
input price – цена ресурсов, цена основных средств производства
improvement n улучшение, усовершенствование
improve v улучшать(ся), усовершенствоваться
impose v (on, upon) облагать (налогом, пошлиной кого-л.), налагать(обязательства, штраф)', возлагать(на кого-л.)', навязывать (кому-л.)
private adj частный; личный; собственный
Аудиторная работа № 1
8. Определите по суффиксам, к каким частям речи относятся следующие слова:
information, development, situation, growth, productive, productivity, investment, important, agriculture, importance, health, agricultural, industrial, wealth, worker, active, activity
9. Выберите из приведенных ниже слов пары однокоренных глаголов и существительных и переведите их на русский язык.
to fall, consumer, to stabilize, organization, demand, to sell, buyer, influence, to invest, to improve, consumption, fall, improvement, stabilization, to intervene, to organize, investment, seller, to consume, to buy, to demand, increase, to reduce, reduction, to influence, to increase, intervention
10. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на причастные обороты:
1., In East-European countries consumers couldn't get goods, and factories couldn't buy inputs at prices held low by governments.
2. Governments intervene in economies controlling the supply of money, limiting monopolies and helping private industries.
3. An improvement in technology will increase the supply of a good, increasing the quantity supplied at each possible price.
4. Governments regulate economic activities imposing some restrictions.
5. The governments can influence for whom goods are produced, taking income away from some people and giving it to others.
6. The high price for a good is the market mechanism telling suppliers it is now time to increase production.
7. The developing countries hope that the industrial countries will raise imports from the less developed countries imposing tariffs on imports from other industrial countries.
8. Income is money of all kinds coming in regularly to a person, family or organization.
9. Active money is money going from man to man and used by the people in buying and selling goods and services.
10. Reducing our imports, we decrease the exports of others.
11. At prices above equilibrium we have a situation known as excess supply, or surplus.
11. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.
1. The fashion for miniskirt (increased/ reduced) the demand for textile materials.
2. Even in (some/the same) middle-income countries many people are very poor.
3. Government regulations sometimes (decrease/ impose) a change in (technology/quantity) that producers do not want to use.
4. Stabilization of prices is of great importance to industrial nations (as well as /as well) the Third World countries.
5. Freeing up (освобождение) prices leads to their (decrease/increase).
6. (Inferior/normal) goods are usually low-quality goods for which there are higher-quality (improvements/substitutes) sold at higher prices.
7. A decrease in (complement/input) prices makes the production less expensive.
12. Закончите предложения, использовав сравнительные конструкции со словами than или as.
1. The market is in equilibrium when the demanded quantity is as large…
2. Prices rise when they are not so high…
3. Prices rise when they are lower…
4. We may have excess supply if prices are higher…
5. The demand for inferior goods at high incomes will not be as high…
Задание на дом № 2
13. Вставьте в предложения следующие прилагательные и наречия, образуя соответствующую форму степени сравнения:
high, important (2), many, large, low, effectively, much, great, clear, reliable, strong (2), quickly
1. Command economy relies… on planning than on prices.
2. Knowledge of foreign languages is of… importance now than it was some 40 years ago.
3. The degree of government regulation in present-day Russia is… than in the Soviet Union.
4. Government inter vention in Sweden is as… as in Denmark or, probably…
5. Land quality is… for agriculture than for other industries.
6. If we want to have a… picture of economic life in the country, we must have… information.
7. In the 18th century the… part of national income in… European countries came from import and export tariffs. These days they play a… role.
8. Governments can influence for whom goods are produced… in economies with… levels of government regulation.
9. If other things are equal, this firm will do the work… than the others.
14. а) Русским существительным, обозначающим изменения качества или количества, в английском языке часто соответствует прилагательное в сравнительной степени или причастие II. Например: увеличение цен – higher prices, increased prices; улучшение технологии – better technology, improved technology. Переведите двумя способами следующие словосочетания:
1. повышение доходов; 2. уменьшение спроса; 3. увеличение инвестиций; 4. сокращение рынка; 5. повышение предложения; 6. улучшение технологии; 7. увеличение ресурсов
б) Переведите на русский язык:
1. greater shortage; 2. lower equilibrium price; 3. increased demand; 4. greater influence; 5. decreased input; 6. reduced government intervention; 7. greater restrictions
15. Перепишите предложения, заменяя подчеркнутые придаточные предложения причастными оборотами.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 1: Resources can be a serious factor that limits production. – > Resources can be a serious factor limiting production.
1. Firms that produce computers act as buyers in the markets for the services of computer programmers.
2. A nation's income is the sum of the incomes of ail the people who live in that country.
3. There are several factors that determine a consumer's demand,
4. Individuals, families and governments that consume goods and services are called consumers in economics.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 2: Consumers typically buy a smaller quantity of the good that is sold at a higher price, – > Consumers typically buy a smaller quantity of the good sold at a higher price.
1. Supply restrictions that are imposed by cartels are as characteristic of industrialized economies as of developing economies.
2. Excess supply is a situation in which the quantity of a good that is demanded bv buyers is less than the quantity that is supplied by producers.
3. Society increasing the quantity of one good that is produced at one time typically reduces the quantity of another good that is produced at the same time.
4. Some of the inputs that an individual uses are food, chairs and tables, but another input of great importance is time. The consumer's time is limited, and this time limitation as well as his or her limited income influence the decisions that are made in dav-to-dav life.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 3: When societies act through their governments, they can make decisions on allocation of scarce resources. – > Acting through their governments, societies can make decisions on allocation of scarce resources.
1. When we put demand and supply together, we can determine equilibrium prices and quantities in different markets.
2. When it increases the quantity of one good produced at one time, the society reduces the produced quantity of another good as its resources are scarce.
3. When people consume goods and services, they provide a basis for further production.
4. As they make up a major portion of the national income. US high technology industries dominate and influence almost all other industries in the country.
16. Вставьте предлоги, где это необходимо.
1… a mixed economy the government may be a producer… private goods, for example, steel and motor cars.
2. An increase… the price… an input will lead to a reduction… the demand… that input.
3. The firm can sell as much as it wants… the market price.
4. A consumer's tastes and income as well as prices… other goods influence… his or her demand.
5. Consumers almost always respond to an increase… a good's price… a reduction… the quantity… it consumed… them.
6. A change… the supply… a good and… its demand both influence… its equilibrium price.
7. Rupert Murdoch, the media magnate, is planning to supply the services… his network… satellites… Internet development. If Internet is operated… satellites, there will be access… it… televisions and mobile phones, not only… personal computers… the near future.
8… a command economy, plans are imposed… producers… government agencies.
9. Scientists and engineers have been developing substitutes… natural building materials… several past decades.
10. Supplying people… food as well as industry… raw materials, agriculture is… great importance… an economy.
Аудиторная работа № 2
17. а) Ответьте на вопросы к тексту Demand and Supply.
1. What is demand?
2. What is supply?
3. When are the demanded and supplied quantities of goods high?
4. How are prices and the supplied and demanded quantities regulated by the market?
5. Which factors influence demand? How do they work?
6. Which factors influence supply?
7. How can governments regulate demand and supply?
б) Подумайте и скажите:
1. How can prices for other goods influence the demand for a good? Supply examples.
2. What inferior goods can you name?
3. What may be the result of imposing ceiling prices?
18. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на слова some и the same.
At some price, which we call the «equilibrium price», the demanded quantity of a good equals the supplied quantity.
All markets have the same economic function: they form prices equalling the quantities of goods that people wish to buy or to sell.
There has been some rise of income in the past two decades (десятилетия) in developing countries.
A less developed country is the same as a country of the Third World.
An association is an organization formed by the people having the same interests and held together by a system of management.
For the next twenty years the supply of energy will be limited in some sectors of the US economy.
A consumer group is a small group of people living in the same place who study the prices and the quality of consumer goods sold in shops, and make the information known to the public.
An improvement in technology is something that makes it possible for firms to produce more goods with the same quantity of inputs as before.
19. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения слова as и сочетаний с ним.
If the rise in prices is very large and quick, the situation is known as hyperinflation.
As to price ceilings, without government regulation and organization they may lead to «black market» as well as other social and economic problems.
Complement goods are those goods which you cannot use one without the other, such as cars and petrol. As the price for petrol rises, the demand for cars reduces.
Only when demand equals supply, people can buy or sell as much as they want.
Harvest failures (неурожаи) are the most important reason for changes in agricultural product supply, but there are other reasons as well.
Attempts to organize supply restrictions in coffee and cocoa have not been so effective as OPEC regulation of quantities of oil sold to other countries.
As the supply increases with an improvement in technology, firms want to produce more at the same price level as before.
Every firm wants to sell as many goods as possible.
20. Составьте все возможные словосочетания из слов в правой и левой колонке и переведите их на русский язык.
priceto influence
improvementto decrease
quantity, to reduce, to rise, to impose, input, to raise, equilibrium, to fall, private, reduction, substitute
surplus, a seller, technology, input price, a good, a buyer, to raise, supply
decrease, surplus, quantity, to sell, technology, a good
shortage, technology, input price, seller, quantity, surplus, reduction
Задание на дом № 3
21. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на слова и словосочетания из словарного минимума к тексту Demand and Supply.
1. If the price is higher than the equilibrium one, it will be falling till the equilibrium price is reached and there is no more surplus left. If a good is sold at a price below the equilibrium one, the price will grow and reach the equilibrium price till there is no more shortage of the good left.
2. Governments buy and produce many goods and services, such as defence, education, parks, and roads for firms and individuals.
3. Firms producing computers act as buyers in the markets for the services of computer programmers.
4. Governments, through their control of the quantity of money in the economy, can influence business activity.
5. With a reduction in input prices firms will supply more of a good at each price.
6. Inflation is a rise in the level of prices as demand is higher than supply because of an increase in the supply of money.
7. When there is a harvest failure, the producers' supply will decrease.
8. Supply restrictions imposed by cartels are as characteristic of industrialized economies as of developing economies.
9. Private sector in a mixed economy is that part of the economy that is controlled by private firms, not by government or corporations.
10. Excess supply is a situation in which, at a certain price, the quantity of a good demanded by buyers is less than the quantity supplied by producers.
22. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:
1. По мере того как цена товара растет, требуемое количество его уменьшается.
2. Положение в странах с низким доходом улучшилось с 1965 года.
3. Задача максимальной цены состоит в том, чтобы уменьшить цену для потребителей, а задача минимальной цены заключается в том, чтобы поднять цену для производителей и поставщиков.
4. Увеличение предложения ведет к повышению равновесного количества и понижению равновесной цены.
5. Когда цены будут уменьшены до равновесной цены, не будет товарных излишков.
6. Если цена одного товара падает, а цены других товаров, требуемых потребителем, остаются теми же самыми, то потребитель будет покупать более дешевые товары вместо дорогого товара.
23. а) Раскройте скобки и употребите глаголы в соответствующей форме.
What (to happen) to the equilibrium price of a product when its quantity (to.supply) by producers (to change)? For example, with an improvement in technology of wheat production wheat farmers (to wish) and (to be) able (to supply) more wheat at a given price than they (to do) before. How it (to influence) the equilibrium price? Clearly, it (to fall). But if the weather (to be) poor, the (to supply) quantity of wheat (to decrease). How it (to influence) the equilibrium price? It (to go) up.In 1984, police officers (to concern) with narcotics consumption in the United States (to show) what a change in (to supply) quantity (can) (to do). There (to be) a massive increase in the quantity of coca production in South America and the quantity of cocaine (to supply) to the United States (to raise) dramatically. The result (to be) a big fall in the price of cocaine. In some parts of the United States, cocaine (to sell) in 1984 for one-half to one-third the price of a year before. One of federal officials (to say): 'At no time in the modem history of international drug control the price of a drug (to drop) by half so quickly"
б) Напишите пять вопросов к тексту.
Аудиторная работа № 3
24. Вставьте в предложения следующие слова в соответствующей форме:
to impose, the same, surplus, to buy, consumer, to rise, to increase, equilibrium price, as well as, to fall, shortage (2), inputs, normal
… are the factors of production (land, labour, capital, materials) that are put into a business to produce goods and services.
When all goods are…, lower consumer income reduces the demanded quantity for all goods.
When the Beatles and Rolling Stones first became popular and the singers wore long hair, the demand for haircuts (стрижка) suddenly….When income…, the demand for most goods increases. Typically, consumers… more of everything.At any time, the market price may not be the… leading to excess supply (…) or excess demand (…).
If there is a national food…, a government may… a ceiling price on food so that poor people can buy enough food.
Workers in poor countries having no resources for health and education are often less productive than workers using… technology in rich countries. Aid without higher productivity it is hard… investment in people… in machinery.
Japanese… pay as much as eight world prices for beef (говядина).
25. Вставьте в предложения слово жили сочетания с ним. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
The newly industrialized countries… Brazil, Mexico, Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore, grew twice… quickly… the rich industrialized countries during the 1970s… a group, their share of world exports increased from 3 percent in 1960 to 7 percent in 1987. These countries now play a larger part in the world economy than… countries… Sweden and Australia.Capitalism is an economic system in which capital belongs to (принадлежит) private persons who are free to carry on business… they wish without any government intervention.
Alfred Marshall (1842–1924) is known… an economist who played an important role in the construction of theories of consumer demand and contributed to many other areas of economics His Principles of Economics written in 1890 was a leading economics book for many years.
26. Сравните следующие статистические данные по выпуску отдельных видов продукции в России в 90-х годах XX века, используя образцы. Составьте как можно больше предложений по каждому образцу.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 1: Car production in 1995 was lower than in 1997.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 2: Sugar beet (сахарная свекла) production in 1998 was not so high as in 1997.
Economic Indicators in Russia
Note: 1. '000 – thousand; 2. mln/t – million tons; 3. bcm – billion cubic metres27. Прочитайте текст, не пользуясь словарем. Ответьте на вопрос, следующий за текстом.
The Pope and the Price of Fish
It is interesting for a student of economics to learn how demand and supply analysis works in practice.
Until 1966 Roman Catholics were not allowed to eat meat on Fridays and ate fish instead. In 1966 the Pope (Папа Римский) said that Catholics could eat meat on Friday. What do you think happened to the average weekly price and average weekly quantity of consumed fish?
The demand for fish fell as some Catholics who had to eat fish before started eating meat on Friday when they were allowed to do so.
This is a simple example of the effect of a change in tastes (вкусы) on the demand. Economists said that lower demand would lead to lower equilibrium price and the quantity of demanded fish.
Studying reports on fish prices and quantities of sold fish in the United States before and after 1966 we can see that this is what happened.
Do you think tastes are as important for demand as prices of other goods in the markets? Supply examples.
28. Закончите данные ниже предложения, выбрав вариант, соответствующий содержанию прочитанного текста.
In 1966 the Pope said that Catholics…
a) could eat fish on Friday, b) could eat meat every day of the week; c) could eat fish every day of the week.
In 1966, when Catholics were allowed to eat meat on Friday…a) the demand for fish increased', b) the demand for fish decreased, c) the demand for fish remained the same.
The demand is influenced not only by consumer incomes but also by.. a) the price of other goods in the market, b) improvement in technology, c) consumers' tastes.
As the demand for fish fell…the equilibrium price fell, too;
the equilibrium price rose',
the equilibrium price remained the same.
29. Измените предложения по образцам в соответствии с содержанием текста The Pope and the Price of Fish.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 1: The demand for fish after 1966 was (high) before 1966. The demand for fish after 1966 was not as high as before 1966.
The demand for meat before 1966 was (high) after 1966.
The quantity of sold fish after 1966 was (great) before 1966.
The quantity of sold meat before 1966 was (great) after 1966.
The price for fish before 1966 was (low) after 1966.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 2: The demand for fish before 1966, after 1966 (high). – > The demand for fish before 1966 was higher than the demand for fish after 1966.
The average weekly price for fish after 1966, before 1966 (low).The average weekly quantity of consumed fish before 1966, after 1966 (big).The demand for meat before 1966, after 1966 (low).The quantity of meat consumed on Friday after 1966, before 1966 (big).
The quantity of fish consumed on Friday after 1966, before 1966 (small).
ОБРАЗЕЦ 3: Catholics ate (much) of fish before 1966, after 1966. Catholics ate more of fish before 1966 than after 1966.
People paid (little) for fish after 1966, before 1966.
People ate (little) offish after 1966, before 1966.
Meat was bought (much) on Friday after 1966, before 1966.
Fish was demanded (little) on Friday after 1966, before 1966.
Unit 3
Theory of Demand
Грамматика :1. Причастие II в постпозиции
2. Глаголы, выражающие долженствование
3. Временные формы глаголов и причастий I и II ( повторение)
Задание на дом № 1
1. В разделе «Грамматика и словообразование» проработайте § 4 и 8.
2. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на способы выражения долженствования:
As the price of one good rises, the consumer has to buy another good, whose price has not risen.
Government regulations should be in the interests of society.
The buyers have to reconcile what they want to do and what the market will allow them to do.
We ought to answer the question what should be done now to prepare managers on whom we'll be able to rely in the year 2010.
A foreign company in Great Britain must give certain information about itself to the government offices. It must also write its name and country of registration on all its documents.
The limited supply of energy in some sectors of the US economy is to lead to changes in the economic situation as a whole.
Making a decision, the economist should rely on all the information that he can find.
You ought to have the firm re-registered as soon as possible or you may have trouble.
3. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на употребление причастия в постпозиции.
The economist is investigating how an increase in the price of one good influences the quantity of another good demanded.
When all goods are normal, a reduction in income will reduce the quantity demanded of all goods.
As incomes rise, the quantity of food bought will rise but only a little.
Demand is the quantity needed of a good.
As the quantity supplied increases with an improvement in technology, firms seek to produce more at the same price level.
Production is the entire quantity of the goods produced.
The quantity demanded is influenced by changes in consumers' incomes.
4. Переведите текст Theory of Demand и отработайте его чтение.
5. Найдите в тексте:
1) причастия II в постпозиции;
2) глаголы, выражающие долженствование.
TEXT
Theory of Demand
Consumer demand is the quantities of a particular good that an individual consumer wants and is able to buy as the price varies, if all other factors influencing demand are constant.
That is, consumer demand is the relationship between the quantity demanded for the good and its price. The factors assumed constant are prices of other goods, income, and a number of noneconomic factors, such as social, physiological, demographic characteristics of the consumer in question (о котором идет речь).
The theory of demand is based on the assumption that the consumer having budget constraint seeks to reach the maximum possible level of utility, that is, to maximize utility, but he usually prefers to obtain more rather than less. The consumer has to solve the problem of choice. Provided he is to maintain a given level of utility, increases in the quantity of one good must be followed by reductions in the quantity of the other good. The consumer has to choose the specific goods within the limits imposed by his budget.
The concept of marginal utility is of great importance for solving the utility maximization problem. The marginal utility of a good is the additional utility obtained from consuming an additional unit of the good in question. The marginal utility from consuming a good decreases as more of that good is consumed. The income should be allocated among all possible choices so that the marginal utility per dollar of expenditure on each good is equal to the marginal utility per dollar of expenditure on every other good.
A price increase will result in a reduction in the quantity demanded. This relationship between the quantity demanded of a good and its price is called the law of demand. As the marginal utility from each additional unit of the good consumed decreases, the consumer will want to buy more of this good only if its price is reduced.
Market demand is the quantities of a good that all consumers in a particular market want and are able to buy as price varies and as all other factors are assumed constant. Market demand depends not only on the factors affecting individual demands, but also on the number of consumers in the market. The law of demand also works with market demand.
Словарный минимум к текстуconsumer demand – потребительский спрос
particular adj конкретный, частный, отдельный
vary v меняться, изменяться, варьировать
constant adj постоянный, неизменный; непрерывный
that is – то есть
relationship и отношение; взаимоотношения; связь
assume v предполагать, допускать
assumption и предположение, допущение
number и количество, число
a number of – некоторое количество, ряд
budget constraint – бюджетное ограничение (различные наборы товаров, которые могут быть куплены при данном размере дохода по средним рыночным ценам)
budget n бюджет
maximum n максимум, максимальное значение, высшая степень
maximize v доводить до максимальной величины, увеличивать до предела, максимизировать
maximization n максимизация
utility n полезность
marginal utility – предельная (маржинальная) полезность (дополнительная полезность, получаемая от потребления дополнительной единицы товаров или услуг)
prefer v (smth to smth) предпочитать(что-л. чему-л.), отдавать предпочтение
obtain v получать, добиваться
rather than – а не…; скорее (что-то, чем что-то другое)
choice n выбор, отбор
choose (chose, chosen) v выбирать; предпочитать
provided cj часто
provided that при условии что, в том случае если, если
maintain v поддерживать, сохранять
follow v (smb/smth) следовать (за кем-л., чём-л.), придерживаться (чего-л.), соблюдать(что-л.) within prep в, в пределах, в рамках
additional adj дополнительный, добавочный
unit n единица
per на в (указывает на количество, приходящееся на определенную единицу)
per capita, per head – на человека, на душу населения
expenditure n расходы; сумма, израсходованная для оплаты товаров или услуг
result in v (smth) приводить к (чему-л.), кончаться(чем-л.)
market demand – рыночный спрос, требования рынка; общий объем товара, который требуется по конкретной цене в конкретный момент времени
depend v (on, upon) зависеть (от); обусловливаться
affect (smth) воздействовать, влиять (на что-л.)
Аудиторная работа № 1
6. Переведите следующие прилагательные
а) с отрицательными приставками:
ineffective – effective (эффективный); inactive – active (активный); irregular – regular (регулярный); improper – proper (правильный);
б) образованные от существительных при помощи суффиксов – fid (обозначает наличие качества) и – less (обозначает отсутствие качества):
landless, fruitful, fruitless, endless, resourceful
7. Напишите русские эквиваленты следующих интернациональных слов. Сгруппируйте слова по частям речи.reserve, traditionally, to finance, industrialization, to exploit, textile, politician, quota, strategy, exports, imports, tariff, protectionism, statistics, licence, energy, dynamic, equivalent, dividend, subsidy, corruption, specific, special, partner, to calculate, calculation, migration, investment, rent, real, indicator, privatization, standard
8. Назовите номера предложений, в которых причастие в функции определения употреблено в постпозиции.
1. Reductions in income increase the quantity demanded if a good is inferior.
2. There is an assumption that the consumer chooses the good having the greatest utility for him.
3. The entire quantity produced does not have to be sold at once.
4. The utility depends on the quantities of the goods consumed.
5. Marginal utility is the utility obtained from that unit of a good that a consumer thinks is important for him to obtain.
6. As consumers prefer more to less, an increase in the amount of a good bought increases utility.
7. The consumer will always prefer buying the good that gives him more marginal utility per dollar spent.
9. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на глаголы, выражающие долженствование.
1. The consumer has to decide by how much the good A is preferred to the good B.
2. A great increase in the supply of money in the form of bank notes and bank credit is to result in inflation, that is, a rise in the general level of prices.
3. If prices change, the consumer will have to change the quantities demanded if he is to maintain utility at the same level.
4. Not all partners in a firm must take an active part in management.
5. The economist should be able to say which factors affect the allocation of resources for producing a particular good.
6. He ought to take a more active part in decision making on the exports strategy of the company.
7. Provided additional inputs are to be obtained, producers must have smaller risks of a fall of price between the time of making a decision and the time of selling their products.
8. Having the aim to maximize profit, the producer should make a decision how to reduce inputs.
10. Замените русские слова в скобках их английскими эквивалентами.
1. Large quantities of one good may be needed for compensating small reduction in the other good if a (постоянный) level of (полезности) is (должен поддерживаться).
2. In a free market it (предполагается) that every producer seeks to (максимизировать) profits by selling the product at the highest possible price, and every buyer seeks to (максимизировать полезность) by obtaining the product at the lowest possible price.
3. Consumer demand is not the quantity that the consumers would like to have but the quantity that they want to pay for, (то есть), demand in the economic sense (смысл).
4. Economic system is the (конкретный) way in which the economic activity in a country is organized, such as capitalism or socialism.
5. The model of consumer (расходы) on different goods (зависит от) the level of consumer income.
6. Increases in the quantities demanded typically (изменяются) with different goods as incomes rise.
7. Energy demand will increase at about 3.6 percent (в год) (в) the coming ten years in the USA
11. Выберите правильную форму причастия из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.
1. Market is an (organizing / organized) group of buyers and sellers of a particular good who are in contact with each other and who know the level of demand and supply so that there is only one price (calling/called) the market price.
2. Changes in prices of the products (producing/produced) with the same resources will change the supply.
3. The economist is interested in factors (affecting/affected) the allocation of resources for producing particular goods.
4. Excess supply is a situation in which, at a certain price, the quantity of a particular product (demanding/demanded) by buyers is less than the quantity (supplying/ supplied) by industry.
5. Improvements in technology may be a factor (leading to / led to) changes in supply
6. At constant prices, an increase in income leads to an (increasing/increased) consumption.
7. Every day in thousands of markets, consumers show which goods they prefer (making/made) practical choices and (spending/spent) money on some particular goods rather than others.
Задание на дом № 2
12. Вставьте в предложения следующие слова и словосочетания в соответствующей форме:
choice, to obtain (2), number, that is, within (2), to maintain, constant, rather than, per (4), provided, to result in, to assume, to choose
1. We assume that the consumer prefers to have more of a good….. less.
2… the good whose price has risen is a normal good, the economist can… that the demand for it will fall.
3. A constant level of utility is… through correct choice of goods or services that can be… at one time.
4. The lower price….. additional demand.
5. People must often make a… between two or more goods. They usually… the good with the highest utility… the limited budget, choose the cheapest good.
6. Income is usually counted… year, but sometimes also… month or even… week.
7. The man having a credit card has to pay… a certain… of days for everything that he has bought with its help during the month.
8. We do not assume that… acre productivity will remain… as modern agricultural technology allows farmers to… better results.
13. Образуйте подходящее по смыслу причастие I или причастие II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Переведите предложения на русский язык.1. The theory of consumer choice (to base) on individual utility shows how different tastes result in different demands for the same goods.
2. The theory of supply assumes that the producer (to depend) on a production technology wants to maximize profit.
3. A subsidy is money (to give) by a government to some producers, for example farmers, to help them to produce at a low price the goods or services (to need) by the public.
4. In a dynamic economy, the factors (to influence) the level of demand and supply, are changing.
5. Expenditure is an amount of money (to spend).
6. The price of land (to call) rent depends on supply and demand.
14. Вставьте пропущенные предлоги, где это необходимо.
1… Russia, real income… capita fell… 57 percent… 1998.
2. People must keep their purchases… their incomes, often making hard choices… small budgets.
3. The consumption… ice-cream… Russia is… five times lower than… the USA
4. The sales… the Hungarian drug maker Gedeon Richter fell… $78 million… 1997… $40 million… 1999 as the incomes… Russian people fell dramatically… the crisis… 1998.
5. An increase… the price… an input will result… a reduction in the quantity… that input demanded.
6. How much can be produced… week… each industry depends… how workers are allocated… the industries.
7. The economist is to explain what demand is and how it affects… the market price and quantity.
8. It is not always easy to explain why consumers prefer one good… another, but producers have to examine consumer preferences carefully as they depend… them.
9. We need… a number… elementary things… life, such as food, water and housing. It is veiy difficult to decrease… their consumption when the price increases, that is, demand… them is inelastic.
Аудиторная работа № 2
15. а) Ответьте на вопросы к тексту Theory of Demand.
1. What is consumer demand?
2. What factors influencing consumer demand are assumed constant?
3. What is the principal assumption of the demand theory?
4. Which choice does the consumer have to make?
5. What is marginal utility?
6. How should the consumer allocate his income?
7. How does the marginal utility change as the consumption of a good increases?
8. In what way is the marginal utility connected with price?
9. What is market demand?
10. In what way does market demand differ from individual demand?
б) Подумайте и скажите:
1. In what situation can a buyer prefer to have less rather than more? Has it ever happened to you?
2. Supply an example of marginal utility decreasing as the quantity consumed grows.
16. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.
1. An increase in food prices greatly (affects /follows) consumer real income because food is a large part of consumer {expenditure/ budget).
2. An increase in the price of the good j increases the quantity demanded of the good; when the two goods are (substitutes / normal) but reduces the quantity demanded of the good i when the two goods are (additional /complements).
3. We (prefer/ assume) that the consumer always decides that one good is better than, worse than, or as good as another.
4. This model of consumer (expenditure /relationship) can show different behaviour (поведение) of different consumers.
5. The demand theory assumes that the consumer (following/depending) on a budget constraint wants to (vary/ maximize) utility.
6. Importers often must first (follow/obtain) an import licence.
7. Economic development is the process of raising the income (per/within) head of the people of a country.
8. If the level of imports is high, great parts of incomes are spent on the goods produced abroad (that is/rather than) on the goods produced at home.
9. Statistics show that (the budget constraint / the number) of working women with young children is constantly growing in the USA today.
10. Ai increase in consumer expenditure usually (follows/results in) an equivalent rise in the income of consumers.
17. Составьте все возможные словосочетания из слов в левой и правой колонках и переведите их.
additional – utility, demand, substitute, maximization, expenditure, unit, assumption, budget, constraints, relationship
constant, maximum, utility, additional, equal, complementary – expenditure
unit, complementary, maximum, additional, particular, choice – goods
to maintain, to prefer, to depend on, to result in, to maximize, to affect – relationship
18. Составьте предложения из двух подходящих по смыслу частей.
1. Increase in the utility of one good can compensate
2. Equilibrium price is the price at which
3. The marginal utility of a good is the increase in
4. There are different ways
5. Over 60 percent of the capital of all US firms is in agro-industry
6. Higher expenditure on foreign goods rather than on the goods produced at home
7. Rising incomes result in
8. Per capita income in the United States
a. the quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied.
b. to restrict import expenditure.
c. that is, industry based on agricultural products.
d. an absolute fall of demand for inferior goods.
e. is still higher than in Japan.
f. the utility obtained by consuming one more unit of that good.
g. the reduction in utility of another good.
h. will increase demand for foreign goods.
Задание на дом № 3
19. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на словосочетания из словарного минимума к тексту Theory of Demand.
1. These two goods are good substitutes.
2. The problem of the consumer is to choose the particular goods and services within the limits imposed by his budget.
3. If the consumer wants to maintain a constant maximum utility and at the same time obtain more of a good, he should decide the consumption of which other good has to be reduced.
4. The relationship between utility and the goods consumed depends on the social, physiological, demographic and other characteristics of the particular consumer.
5. Budget constraint means that your expenditures for all the goods consumed must be equal to your income.
6. Economic theory is the part of the study of economics that examines and explains how the economic system is affected by man's behaviour, by nature, markets and governments.
7. Consumers want to buy a good as long as the ratio between its marginal utility and price is the same as for other goods.
8. The increase in the number of people in the world is followed at present by an increase in per capita consumption.
20. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:
1. Каждый потребитель должен решить проблему выбора.
2. При равновесной цене предложение равно спросу.
3. Цены ниже равновесной приводят к дефициту.
4. На свободном рынке изменения цены зависят от (колеблются в зависимости от) изменения спроса и предложения.
5. Фирма может контролировать одну или более производственных единиц, таких как завод.
6. Концепция предельной полезности очень важна для решения некоторых проблем спроса.
21. а) Раскройте скобки и употребите глаголы в соответствующей форме.
Each market (to describe) by two main characteristics: the good itself and the geographic area. Each market (to include) only the goods which (to satisfy) the same consumers' needs. For example, two brands of English muffins (сдобные булочки) (to be) in the same market, but televisions and cars (to be) in different markets. Nintendo and Sony electronic games (not to be) identical goods, but they both (to include) in the market for games.The second characteristic of a market, geographic area, (to be) also of importance for describing markets. As bread (to bake and to sell) usually in a particular place, the Chicago bread market and the Detroit bread market (to be) different markets. As microwave ovens (to transport) nationwide, the market for a particular brand (to be) the entire country or several countries.б) Напишите пять вопросов к тексту.
Аудиторная работа № 3
22 Сравните приведенные ниже статистические данные, используя известные вам сравнительные конструкции по образцам. Составьте не менее десяти предложений на каждый образец.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 1: The income per head was lower in Egypt than in the USA in 1994.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 2: The number of men working in the United Kingdom (UK) was not as high as in Germany in 1995.
Income Per Head in 1994 (US dollars)
Egypt 720
UK 18,340
Japan 34,630
USA 25,880
Germany 25,580
Number of Men Working in Economy in 1995
UK 28,000
Germany 40,000
Japan 66,000
USA 132,000
23 Раскройте скобки и употребите глаголы в соответствующей видо-временной форме. Обратите внимание на согласование времен.The lecturer said market (to stop) long before being a geographic site (место) where goods (to buy and to sell). He (to characterize) markets as arrangements (зд. структуры) through which goods (to sell) to those people who (to need) them.It was written in the book that some forms of money (to use) by man from early times.
In 1968, the British Parliament (to pass) the Trade Descriptions A: t imposing limitations on information that a firm (can) (to give) to the public In its advertisements (реклама). Before the A: t the firms (to have) a larger freedom in advertising activity.
The Prime Minister said the monthly pension (to grow) two times by the end of the year.
24. Запомните разницу в употреблении данных ниже глаголов при обозначении понятий увеличения или уменьшения чего-либо в размере, объеме, стоимости и т. п., которые могут быть переданы по-английски различными словами.
Глагол to rise (rose, risen) употребляется без прямого дополнения и означает увеличиваться, расти, возрастать (в количестве, степени, цене и т. п.). Например: Prices continue to rise.
Существительное rise – повышение, увеличение, рост. Например: A rise in input prices resulted in a rise in product prices.
В американском варианте английского языка (American English) в этом значении употребляется также существительное raise.
Глагол to raise (raised, raised) употребляется с прямым дополнением и означает увеличивать, повышать что-л. (в количестве, степени, размере и т. п.). Например: The Finance Minister raised spending on medicine and education in the last year's budget.
Глагол to increase (increased, increased) употребляется как с прямым дополнением, так и без него и означает увеличиваться), возрастать (в размере, степени, количестве и т. д.). Например: The Finance Minister increased spending on medicine and education in the last year's budget. The population will increase to 12–13 billion in 2020–2025.
Существительное increase означает увеличение, повышение. Например: There was a great increase in population.
Глагол и существительное increase могут употребляться вместо rise и raise во всех приведенных выше примерах, что может помочь избежать ошибок в употреблении двух последних слов.
То give rise to smth означает приводить к чему-либо, вызывать что– либо (syn to result in smth, to cause smth, to lead to smth). Например: Industrial revolution gave rise to the development of banking.
Глагол to arise (arose, arisen) означает возникать, происходить. Например: The manager is to solve all the problems that may arise.
Глагол to decrease (decreased, decreased) может употребляться как с прямым дополнением, так и без него. Он означает уменьшаться (в размере, объеме, числе).
Глагол to reduce (reduced, reduced) употребляется с прямым дополнением и означает уменьшать (в размере, весе, количестве, стоимости, цене и т. д.).
Глагол to fall (fell, fallen) употребляется без прямого дополнения и означает падать, понижаться (в количестве, цене и т. п.). Например: The demand for ice cream usually falls in winter.
Существительные decrease и reduction означают уменьшение, понижение, сокращение. Например: A small decrease/reduction in production did not affect greatly the supply of the product.
б) Переведите русские слова в следующих предложениях:
Russia's natural gas exports (увеличился) from 181.6 billion cubic metres in 1998 to 182.5 billion cubic metres in 1999.There was a dramatic (увеличение) in oil prices after 1973 all over the world.
Inflation can (возникнуть) under a number of conditions.
Comparing 1999 and 1998, real investment in Russia (увеличились) by 1.0 percent.Inflation becomes stagflation (стагфляция) when economic growth (снижается), but inflation continues to (расти).
In 1999, Russia's exports of oil products (снизился) by 2.5 million tons and exports of fuel oil (увеличился) by 1.0 percent.Income per capita (снизился) in Russia in January 1999 compared with December 1997.
An inflation is characterized by the (повышение) in prices within a certain period of time.
It is important to (снизить) capital investment in the production if we want to (снизить) the production cost.
In the 1980s the gross national product (GNP) per person continued to (увеличиваться) in all groups of countries.
The production figures (снижались) every three months.
The high inflation (вызвала снижение) in consumption.A lot of problems (возникло) when the construction of the plant started.The government (повышало) teachers' salaries twice last year and there was a total (повышение) by 30 percent by the end of the year.
The (сокращение) in energy intensive (энергоемких) operations in the production line may greatly (увеличить) the quantity of goods produced.
25. Прочитайте текст. Догадайтесь, что означают подчеркнутые слова.
Income Elasticity of Demand
Studying the theory of demand we can assume that there is a relationship between price, income and quantity, but this assumption itself cannot allow us to see how much the quantity demanded is affected by a price change for a good or an income change. This relationship varies from one good to another.
One of the most important of these relationships is income elasticity of demand. The income elasticity of demand is to show how much the quantity demanded depends on changes in income if other factors are constant. The income elasticity is the percentage change in quantity following one-percent change in income if other factors are constant.
The coefficient is mainly positive as with the income increased a consumer buys more of most products, and when the income decreases, the quantity demanded falls.
The income elasticity for food in the United States is about 0.2. A few goods such as dry beans (сухие бобы) have negative income elasticities. If elasticity is above zero, the product is called a normal good, if elasticity is below zero, the product is an inferior good.
26. Отметьте утверждения, которые не соответствуют содержанию текста. Приведите их в соответствие с содержанием текста.The relationship between price, income and quantity demanded is constant for all goods.
The income elasticity of demand shows how much the quantity demanded changes with changes in income.
The income elasticity of demand is expressed in percent.
The coefficient may be positive and negative.
Income elasticity works in opposite directions for normal and inferior goods.
Unit 4
Theory of Supply
Грамматика :1. Временные формы глаголов и причастий I и II ( повторение)
2. Бессоюзное присоединение определительных придаточных предложений
Задание на дом № 1
1. В разделе «Грамматика и словообразование» проработайте § 10.
2. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное присоединение определительных придаточных предложений.
The European economy of the 2020s will be very different from that of the Europe we have known for the last decades.
Higher incomes have much more influence on the way people eat (more meat, less bread) than on the amount they eat.
With changed prices the consumer has to change the quantities he demands if he is to maintain utility at the same level.
Real income is the amount of the goods and services a consumer can buy with his money income.
A consumer is a person who consumes the products and services he buys.
The price at the time the good is ready for marketing may be different from the price at the time the decision to produce it was made.
3. Переведите текст Theory of Supply и отработайте его чтение.
4. Найдите в тексте:
определительные придаточные предложения, присоединенные к главному предложению без союзного слова (последний абзац);
причастие II в постпозиции (второй абзац);
причастные обороты (третий, четвертый, девятый абзацы);
одиночные причастия, употребленные в качестве левого определения к существительному (второй и седьмой абзацы).
TEXT
Theory of Supply
The theory of supply is the theory of how much output firms choose to produce. The principal assumption of the supply theory is that the producer will maintain the level of output at which he maximizes his profit.
Profit can be defined in terms of revenue and costs. Revenue is what the firm earns by selling goods or services in a given period such as a year. Costs are the expenses which are necessary for producing and selling goods or services during the period. Profit is the revenue from selling the output minus the costs of inputs used.
Costs should include opportunity costs of all resources used in production. Opportunity cost of a commodity is the amount obtained by an input in its best alternative use (best use elsewhere). In particular, costs include the owner's time and effort in running a business. Costs also include the opportunity cost of the financial capital used in the firm.
Aiming to get higher profits, firms obtain each output level as cheaply as possible. Firms choose the optimal output level to receive the highest profits. This decision can be described in terms of marginal cost and marginal revenue.
Marginal cost is the increase in total cost when one additional unit of output is produced.
Marginal revenue is the corresponding change in total revenue from selling one more unit of output.
As the individual firm has to be a price-taker[6], each firm's marginal revenue is the prevailing market price. Profits are the highest at the output level at which marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue, that is, to the market price of the output. If profits are negative at this output level, the firm should close down.
An increase in marginal cost reduces output. A rise in marginal revenue increases output. The optimal quantity also depends on the output prices as well as on the input costs. Of course, the optimal supply quantity is affected by such noneconomic factors as technology, environment, etc[7].
Making economic forecasts, it is necessary to know the effect of a price change on the whole output rather than the supply of individual firms.
Market supply is defined in terms of the alternative quantities of a commodity all firms in a particular market offer as price varies and as all other factors are assumed constant.
Словарный минимум к тексту
output n продукция; объем производства
profit и прибыль, доход
in terms of – в смысле; с точки зрения; в отношении; в переводе на
in terms of money – в денежном выражении
revenue и доход
marginal revenue – предельный, маржинальный доход{дополнительный доход, который получит производитель в результате продажи одной дополнительной единицы продукции)
costs – издержки, расходы
marginal costs – предельные, маржинальные издержки{дополнительные издержки при производстве дополнительной единицы продукции)
opportunity costs – альтернативные издержки (выгода, упущенная вследствие неиспользования экономического ресурса в наиболее доходной из всех возможных сфер и отраслей хозяйства)
earn v зарабатывать; приносить доход; быть рентабельным
expenses n затраты, издержки
use v пользоваться, использовать; употреблять
use n 1. употребление, применение; 2. польза
include v (smth in smth) включать {что-л. в состав чего-л.)', содержать
to be included in smth включаться во что-л., являться частью чего-л.
commodity n товар; продукт, предмет потребления
amount n количество; величина; сумма; объем
alternative adj альтернативный; другой
elsewhere adv где-нибудь в другом месте
in particular – в особенности, в частности
own v владеть, обладать, иметь
own adj собственный, свой собственный
owner n 1. собственник; 2. владелец
run (ran, run) v (smth) руководить; управлять(предприятием, учреждением)', вести{дело)
business n предприятие; фирма
receive v получать
total adj полный; общий
corresponding adj соответственный; соответствующий
offer v (smth to smb) предлагать (что-л. кому-л.)
Аудиторная работа № 1
5. Назовите русские эквиваленты следующих интернациональных слов:
organization, elastic, lord, standard, person, personal, million, to circulate, to calculate, calculation, typically, equivalent, real, to cultivate, quota, syndicate, activity, migration
6. Определите, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова, и переведите их на русский язык, не пользуясь словарем:
1) to limit, limited, unlimited, limit, limitation
2) to change, changing, changed, unchanged, change
3) to affect, affected, unaffected, affecting
7. Назовите предложения, где пропущен эквивалент слова который. Переведите их на русский язык.
1. Supply is the amount of a good that will be offered in the market at a certain price and time.
2. Firms' decisions about how much to produce depend on the costs of production and on the revenues they receive from selling the output.
3. The amount of output firms want to offer depends on costs and revenues.
4. Inputs are the factors of production (land, labour and capital, including materials) that are put into a business for producing output as a commodity or a service.
5. The economist is interested in the role of costs and profits affecting the firm's supply decisions and the allocation of resources for producing particular goods.
6. There are a lot of factors in agriculture that must be assumed as risks by the farmers.
8. Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык. Обратите внимание на значения причастий и на интернациональные слова.
a business owned and run by one or more members of the same family; financial analysis using statistical information about the past and examining present market tendencies; limited resources; supplying farm commodities; commodities supplied by individual firms; men running their own businesses; commodities offered at the market; decisions following the economic analysis; goods consumed; choice restrictions imposed by prices
9. Замените русские слова в скобках их английскими эквивалентами.
1. For each output level (производственные издержки) depend on technology.
2. The concepts (понятия) of (предельных издержек) and (предельного дохода) are of great (польза) for economic analysis, supply analysis, (в особенности).
3. For each possible (объема производства) level, a firm will want to know how much it will cost to produce this (продукцию) and how much (дохода) will be (заработано) by selling it.
4. Land is one of the factors of production called natural resources (включая) also minerals, water, weather, etc.
5. The concept of (альтернативных издержек) is of great importance in economics because it affects every decision in which limited resources and a choice between (альтернативными использованиями) play their role.
6. The financial capital may be used (где-нибудь еще) and bring in profit.
Задание на дом № 2
10. Раскройте скобки и употребите глаголы в соответствующей форме. Переведите предложения на русский язык.1. Mixed economy is an economic system in which some industries (to own) by the state and others (to own) by private persons and firms.
2. When supply is increased, a larger amount (to offer) at a given price.
3. The supply of agricultural products cannot be (to increase) within a very short period of time.
4. The aim of the Organization of Petroleum (to export) Countries (OPEC) (to found) in 1961 is to maintain a standard price for oil and, if necessary, to limit output. In 1973 the OPEC suddenly (to begin) to use its influence (to raise) the world price of oil so that by the end of 1974 the price (to rise) three times in most (to import) countries. It (to increase) many times since then.5. Marginal revenue is the additional revenue (to earn) by a producer from selling one more unit of his product.
6. Money supply is the total amount of money (to hold) by all persons and organizations in a country at a particular time.
7. The revenue (to obtain) from selling output depends on the demand.
8. Landless farmers, that is, farmers (to own) no land, have to cultivate land (to own) by others.
9. Economists use the word «capital» for goods not entirely (to use) up in the production process, during a particular period. Electricity is not «capital» as it (to use) entirely in the production process.
10. With less risk of a fall of price between the time decisions (to make) and commodities (to sell), producers will use additional inputs.
11. Supply (to depend) on output prices and input prices. An increase in the price of an input (to result) in a reduced use of that input. A reduction in the price of an output (to have) the same effect as an increase in the price of input, that is, a reduced use of input. The input use (not to change), provided output and input prices (to rise) or (to fall) by an equal percentage. Thus, the effect on output of a decrease in product prices (can) (to be neutralized) by an equal percentage decrease in input prices. Sometimes the prices of inputs and outputs (to change) together. For example, a fall of livestock product prices (to reduce) the demand for feed grains. This (to lead) to a fall in the price of feeds, that is, the price of inputs.11. a) Вставьте пропущенные предлоги, где это необходимо.
1. The growth… output… person rather than the growth… total output is… greater importance… an economy.
2. The companies selling consumer goods recognize the importance… consumer preferences; they spend over $40 billion… a year… the US… advertising trying to direct consumer preferences… their own products.
3. An increase or a decrease… total revenue may follow… a price rise and a decrease… the quantity produced accompanying it. The effect depends… which change is larger – the change… price or the change… the quantity produced.
4. After a particular market is defined… terms… its product and its geographic area, the economist can study the workings… demand and supply… that particular market.
5. As the price… a good increases, consumers can buy less… all goods, including… the good whose price has risen.
6. Opportunity costs and amounts paid… all resources are included… total costs.
7. The output… beer… Russia's largest beer maker, Baltika Brewery, grew… 30 percent… 1999… the previous year.
8… 1999, industrial production… Russia increased… 7.9 percent but the output… agricultural sector decreased… 0.6 percent compared… 1998 level.
9. Every field, economics… particular, has its «schools» and groups. «Liberal» economists believe… market system opportunities. But they also believe… government support and regulation… an economy. «Classical liberals» or the «Chicago Group» rely… people's private choices as the rational basis… the economic system. «Radical» economists, including… Marxists and other critics, believe that free-market capitalism must result… depressions and mass unemployment. They assume that governments must ran… all economic units and make all economic decisions.
б) Кратко охарактеризуйте три основные школы экономической мысли, о которых говорится в пункте 9.
Аудиторная работа № 2
12. а) Ответьте на вопросы к тексту Theory of Supply.
1. What is the principal assumption of the supply theory?
2. What is the difference between profit and revenue?
3. What is included in costs of production?
4. How do firms get maximum profits?
5. When are profits the highest?
6. When should firms close down?
7. What is the relationship between marginal revenue, marginal cost and output?
8. What is market supply? What is market supply important for?
б) Подумайте и скажите:
1. Why is it necessary to know the effect of a price change on the whole output rather than the supply of individual firms for making economic forecasts?
2. Can you give an example of technology influencing the quantity supplied?
13. Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых вариантов.
1. Farmers may (own / earn /run) more revenue from a bad harvest (урожай) than from a good harvest.
2. A rise in the income of consumers will typically result in an equivalent increase in (corresponding /total /alternative) consumer expenditure.
3. Statistics show the greatest increase in the number of jobs in the American non-production sector, among government workers (in terms of / elsewhere /in particular) today.
4. Don't forget to calculate the (marginal cost /costs /opportunity cost) of the man's labour, that is, the money that he could (own /earn /offer) by working elsewhere.
5. In Marxist theory, proletariat is the social class of workers who have to sell their (corresponding /own /total) ability to work.
6. If we want to understand how firms make output decisions, we must analyze how they determine (revenues /output /amounts) snd(commodities /costs /profits).
14. Составьте предложения из двух подходящих по смыслу частей.
1. Market demand is
2. An improvement in technology is a change that
3. Profits are
4. As long as the total demand and the total supply of the commodity remain equal,
5. Part of a company's profits is put back into the business rather than
6. Examining how revenues and costs change with the level of output produced and sold,
7. With inflation, people have to increase expenditure because
8. Profit depends on
9. Opportunity cost is the amount
a. revenues minus costs.
b. the firm can select the output level maximizing its profit.
c. paid out as dividends.
d. the equilibrium price will remain unchanged.
e. makes it possible for firms to produce more goods with the same amount of resources as before.
f. how much the amount received is greater than the amounts paid.
g. the total demand from all consumers.
h. the old level of expenditure in money terms now buys a smaller quantity of goods.
i. an input can obtain in its use elsewhere.
15. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод причастий I и II.
1. The syndicate controls prices and output and, allotting (отводить, выделять) quotas to its members, it divides the market demand among them.
2. Boom is a period of increased business activity when a rising demand for all commodities results in increased industrial production.
3. If free migration between countries is allowed, people from poor countries will be able to go elsewhere looking for higher incomes.
4. People working in their own businesses should calculate the cost of their own time spent in running the business.
5. Varying input, the firm can vary output.
6. The work of a farmworker and the work of a nurse are very different, but both are measured in terms of payment received.
Задание на дом № 3
16. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на слова и словосочетания из словарного минимума к тексту Theory of Supply.
1. The aim of macroeconomics is to examine and explain economic facts for the total nation, such as the total money supply, production, consumption, etc.
2. Profit is the revenue from selling the output minus the costs of inputs used.
3. For each level of output, the marginal costs are lower as the input price decreases.
4. A business needs some financial capital to start the business before the corresponding revenue is earned.
5. If bad harvests raise farmers' revenues and good harvests result in a fall in agricultural prices and farmers' revenues, you may now be thinking why farmers do not get together and restrict their supply thus increasing revenues.
6. Opportunity costs should be counted for labour and financial capital used.
7. European firms (and some from the United States and elsewhere) cooperate with East-European firms.
8. A change in the price of input, price of alternative output, technological factors, and the number of firms will result in a market supply change.
17. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Рыночный спрос – это общий спрос на товар в обществе.
2. Не все партнеры в деле должны принимать активное участие в управлении фирмой.
3. Нелегко рассчитать доход, издержки и прибыли для большого предприятия.
4. Фермер – это человек, который владеет и управляет фермой.
5. Когда цена поднимается выше предельных издержек, каждый производитель хочет производить больше.
6. Даже при нулевой выработке фирма должна оплачивать некоторые расходы.
7. Издержки должны включать альтернативные издержки всех ресурсов, используемых в производстве.
18. а) Замените подчеркнутые части предложений причастными оборотами. Про изведите в этих предложениях все необходимые изменения.Opportunity cost is a fundamental concept of economics. Opportunity cost is the economic cost of using scarce resources in terms of the alternatives elsewhere. This concept is of value for all economic choices. In every choice the person has to take one action rather than others. For each choice, the person compares the benefits and costs of each alternative and tries to get the maximum benefit.
Benefits are usually clearly seen. The person can feel satisfaction because he buys a car, a meal, a concert, or even a year at college. But costs are more difficult to see. The true economic cost – the opportunity cost – may be not the same as the simple expression in money terms because there are other real costs.
The other real costs are often hidden, or indirect. They include things, material and immaterial, the person cannot get because he gets something else.
For example, with just two days before exams, you can only study economics and raise your course grade from В to A. or only chemistry and raise that grade from С to A. The opportunity cost of an A in chemistry is getting a В in economics rather than an A.
Your parents bought a house for $20,000 some years ago. They can sell it for $45,000 now. The cost of their staying in the house now is $20,000. The opportunity cost is $45,000. "four parents stay in the house and do not get $45,000.
б) Напишите семь вопросов к тексту.
в) Кратко передайте содержание текста по-английски, используя причастные обороты.
Аудиторная работа № 3
19. Заполните пропуски следующими словами и словосочетаниями в соответствующей форме:
opportunity cost, corresponding, profit, owner, to own, to use (2), alternative, expenses, own, marginal costs, marginal revenue
1. A free market is a market in which buyers and sellers are free of intervention and control and are able to determine the market price… to supply and demand.
2. A person is economically free if he can do what he wishes with his… property, time and effort.
3. At profit-maximizing level has to be equal to
4. The personal sector in a mixed economy is that part of the economy that is… and controlled by private persons and private businesses.
5. The main aim of all firms is the same: to maximize… though there may be… aims as well.
6. Under feudal system the king was the… of all land, and his lords could… his land. The system came to an end when the peasants (крестьяне) were paid for their work and paid rent for the land they…
7 is the amount lost by not using the resource (labour or capital) in its best alternative use.
8. Profit is the difference between business income and….
20. ЗАПОМНИТЕ существительные amount, number, quantity, которые очень близки по значению, но между которыми имеются некоторые различия.
Существительное amount в значении сумма, количество чего-либо употребляется, в основном, с неисчисляемыми существительными, например: amount of work /information /coffee /money. С исчисляемыми существительными оно употребляется, только когда речь идет о большой общей сумме предметов, образующих целое, например: the total amount of goods produced, a maximum /minimum amount of goods, a large amount of potatoes.
Существительное number в значении номер служит для различения и подсчета предметов, например: the cheque number, the banknote number. В значении количество, число number употребляется с исчисляемыми существительными, например: I don't know what the number of pages in this book is.
A number of означает ряд, несколько, например: a number of goods / producers. После такого словосочетания глагол стоит во множественном числе: A number of tests were made by the consumer society last month.
Существительное quantity употребляется как с исчисляемыми, так и с неисчисляемыми существительными, например: a small quantity of gas, a large quantity of goods. В отличие от number, существительное quantity означает вес и объем, а не численное количество. Оно не употребляется с такими существительными, количество которых не может быть выражено в весе или объеме, например: consumer, factory.
Переведите русские слова в следующих предложениях.
1. Last year there was an increase in the (количества) of gas produced.
2. (Число) of sellers in the market has decreased.
3. Almost the same (количество) of coffee was exported last year as the previous year.
4. (Ряд) problems arise when a new company is set up.
5. When there is shortage, sellers can charge (назначать) the maximum (сумму) for their goods.
6. They supply the same (количество) of the commodity to this customer every week.
7. The (сумма) he puts in the bank every month is the same.
8. (Число) of their customers has increased this month.
9. It is cheaper to buy goods in large (количествах).
10. This big store has (ряд) suppliers.
11. The economist calculated the total (сумму) of the expenditure.
12. There is a shortage of the (количества) demanded of the goods.
13. Write down the banknote (номера) you paid him for his services.
21. а) Раскройте скобки и употребите глаголы в соответствующей форме.
Neoclassical economics (not to be) a school of thought (мысль) but a number of subschools of thought (to form) by economists (to follow) and (to develop) the ideas of such masters as Alfred Marshall in England, Leon Walras in France and Carl Menger in Austria. What all these subschools (to agree) upon was the importance of individual utilities and constraints for coordinating markets and prices.
In 1890 Marshall in his Principles of Economics (to show) how prices for commodities (can) (to be explained) by supply and demand in the context of firms (to struggle) to survive (выжить) within industries.Walras and his followers in France and England (to be interested) in the effect of supply and demand on market pricing (ценообразование). Walras (to examine) the mathematical conditions under which all markets (can) (to be) in equilibrium at the same time.
Among Austrians, the important task of economic study (to be) to sort out (отобрать) separate units of economic activity and then to analyze them in terms of supply and demand forces (to work) through the decisions (to make) by individuals.
б) Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
1. What were neoclassical economists mainly interested in?
2. What subschools and names are mentioned in the text?
22. Прочитайте текст без словаря. Найдите интернациональные слова, имеющие похожую форму и значение в английском и русском языках. Ответьте на вопросы, следующие за текстом.Price Elasticity of Demand and Supply
There is a relationship between demand and price. How much demand for a commodity is affected by a change in price is called elasticity of demand. If a small change of price results in a large change in demand, the demand is called elastic, if the demand changes only a little, it is called inelastic. The price elasticity of demand coefficient is negative as demand usually falls with a rise in price.
The price elasticity of supply shows the percentage change in the quantity supplied resulting from a one-percent change in price.
As an increase in the quantity supplied is normally a result of a rise in price, the coefficient is usually positive. We have a "0" (zero) elasticity when a price change results in no quantity supplied change. This is called a perfectly inelastic supply. Provided the elasticities vary between zero and one, the supply is called inelastic. With coefficients greater than one, the supply is called elastic. The percentage change in quantity is larger than the corresponding percentage change in price.
Agricultural supply is mostly inelastic because of the high proportion of such inputs as land, buildings, and machinery. The elasticities of agricultural commodities (potatoes, wheat, fruits, eggs, milk) vary greatly. Because of increasing specialization of production of farm animal products, in particular, elasticities for such commodities as pigs or broilers have decreased in recent years.
Which demand is called elastic?
In what units is elasticity of supply shown?
Why is the price elasticity of demand coefficient negative and the corresponding coefficient for supply positive?
What supply is called inelastic?
What is the difference between the inelastic and the perfectly inelastic supply?
Why is agricultural supply usually inelastic?
What is the tendency of agricultural supply development?
Revision I
TEXT 1
Переведите текст со словарем.
Mixed Economy
There are three types of management in economies. An economy maybe almost totally planned, as it was in the Soviet Union. An economy may be almost totally unplanned, as it is in the USA Or an economy may be a combination of planning and freedom of operat ion. Examples of the latter are Japan and South Korea
In a planned economy the government decides what goods are to be produced and how they are to be marketed. Governments set all the priorities, and the producers are to follow the directions given to them.
In a partially planned economy such as Japan's, the government often encourages industry and helps it with subsidies. Government also makes investments and regulates trade.
The United States is an example of an unplanned economy. But it has a lot of government intervention in economic activity. As the economy of the United States grew, and as government and its importance increased, the government policy at every level acquired greater importance for the economy.
But the economy of the United States may be called unplanned because the government does not regulate what will be produced and how it will be marketed. These decisions are left to the producers. Even the great amount of government regulation that has emerged since the Great Depression has not turned the economy of the United States into a planned economy.
The name of the American economic system is capitalism. Another name for it is the free market economy.
TEXT 2
Прочитайте текст и ответьте на следующие за ним вопросы.
Technology and Supply
An improvement in technology will increase the supply as producers will want to supply a larger quantity than before at each price. An improvement in cocoa refining makes it possible to produce more chocolate. So do improvements in packaging techniques. Faster transportation and better refrigeration may lead to less spoiled cocoa beans. Each of these technological advances allows firms to supply more.
Technology must be understood very broadly. It includes all know-how about production methods, not only the state of available machinery. In agriculture, the development of disease-resistant seeds is a technological advance. Improved weather forecasting may lead to better timing of planting and harvesting. A technological advance is any idea that allows more output from the same inputs as before.
1. What is included in technology?
2. What is a technological advance?
3. What technological advances may increase the supply of chocolate?
4. What technological advances in agriculture can you name?
TEXT 3
а) Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его.
A change in demand takes place when one of the factors assumed constant changes.
An increase in income results in a rise of the quantity demanded, provided the goods are normal.
A change in the price of one good has an income effect and a substitution effect. The income effect of a price increase is to reduce the quantity demanded of all normal goods. For inferior goods, the income effect works in the opposite direction. The substitution effect leads consumers to buy less of the goods whose price has increased.
The substitution effect of a price rise will also reduce the demand for the goods that are complementary to the goods whose price has risen.
In practice, there are three types of relationships between goods: the goods may be substitutes, complements, or independent. The definition of the three types of relationships is based on the substitution effect of the price change of a good.
(1) The substitution effect is positive for substitute goods, the price of the good (J) and the quantity of the good (?) move in the same direction. If the price of j increases, consumers tend to substitute? for /'. If the price of j decreases, then consumers tend to substitute the relatively cheaper j for L In both cases, there is a positive relationship between the price of j and the quantity of?', An example is butter and margarine.
(2) The substitution effect is negative for complementary goods such as buns and hot dogs. In this case, the price of hot dogs (j) and the quantity of buns (?) move in opposite directions. An increase in the price of j (hot dogs) means that the quantity demanded ofj decreases and the quantity of the complementary good i (buns) also decreases. The same happens when the price of j decreases. In both cases there is a negative relationship between the price of j and the quantity of I,
Notice that if the goods change places in the equation, it may result in a different coefficient. Let us consider the consumption of sugar and coffee. A change in the price of coffee may have some influence on the use of sugar, but a change in the price of sugar probably will have very little influence on the use of coffee.
(3) The substitution effect is zero for independent goods. Independence means that no substitution or complementary relationship exists between the two goods.
б) Расположите вопросы в таком порядке, чтобы они могли служить планом текста. Ответьте на эти вопросы.1. Do all complementary goods affect each other's use to the same extent?
2. What examples of complementary goods are given in the text?
3. What goods are called independent?
4. How many types of relationship between goods can you name?
5. How does the substitution effect work with complementary goods?
6. How does the substitution effect work with substitute goods?
в) Перескажите текст.
TEXT 4
а) Прочитайте текст и ответьте на следующие за ним вопросы.
Price Ceilings and Price Supports
During national emergencies (чрезвычайные обстоятельства), the government sometimes imposes limits on prices, not allowing them to reach their equilibrium level. For example, during World War II, the governments did not allow the prices of foodstuffs to rise to their equilibrium levels, as they felt that it would be unfair (несправедливый) and highly unpopular. As a result, the quantity demanded exceeded the quantity supplied. In other words, there was shortage.
As the price system is not allowed to do the rationing (нормирование продуктов), some formal system of rationing or allocating the available supply of the product may be needed. Thus, in World War II, families received ration coupons which determined how much they could buy of every commodity. And in 1979, when the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries cut back oil production and reduced exports of oil to the United States, there was serious talk there that gasoline and oil might be rationed. Such rationing schemes may work well in emergencies (over short periods of time), but they can result eventually in serious problems, as prices are not allowed to regulate production and consumption.
Consider, for example, the rent ceilings that have been imposed on some apartments in New York City. First, the purpose of these ceilings was to prevent (предотвращать) rents from rocketing up during World War II. It has resulted in a shortage of housing in New York City. Because they have pushed the price of housing below the equilibrium price, less housing has been supplied than has been demanded. The lower price of housing has kept investors from building new housing, and has made it unprofitable for some owners of housing to maintain their buildings. It is socially desirable to allocate more resources to New York housing, but the rent ceilings have prevented this.
Governments may also impose price floors – or price supports, as they are often called. The assumption is that they allow producers of the good in question to maintain their revenues at a higher level. For example, the federal government has imposed price supports on a lot of agricultural commodities that might increase farm incomes. The result is that the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded at the floor price. Thus, there is a surplus of the commodity – and, in case of (в случае) agricultural commodities the government has to buy up and store these surpluses.
1. When do governments usually impose limits on prices?
2. What examples of government regulations of prices are given in the textl What were their results?
3. Is government regulation of prices desirable?
б) Подумайте и скажите:
1. What other examples of government rationing of foodstuffs and other goods do you know? What were the reasons for it?
2. Are there any price limits in Russia at present? If there are any, give examples.
Unit 5
Factors of Production: Capital and LabourГрамматика и лексика :1. Инфинитив в функции подлежащего, обстоятельств цели и Следствия
2. Оборот «for + существительное + инфинитив»
3. Значения слова one (повторение)
4. Значения слова it (повторение)
Задание на дом № 1
1. В разделе «Грамматика и словообразование» проработайте § 13,14,15, 18 и 19.
2. Переведите, не пользуясь словарем, следующие группы однокоренных слов, опираясь на значение одного из них. Обратите внимание на отрицательные приставки.а) efficient (эффективный): inefficient, efficiently, inefficiently, efficiency, inefficiency;
б) to employ (нанимать, предоставлять работу): employed, employment, unemployed, unemployment
3. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на инфинитив.
а) 1. То run a business is to plan its activities and to determine all operations necessary at each step.
2. To control an economy is the same as to intervene in it.
3. To develop new information technologies is of prime importance for those countries that wish to lead in the world economy.
4. To stay in the tobacco market is not an easy task for Russian manufacturers.
5. To use food stamps (карточки, талоны) was common practice in many countries in wartime.
б) 1. In order to consume, we need income.
2. In order to earn income, we have to work.
3. Firms and individuals spend their income to consume and to invest.
4. To analyze the labour market, an economist should first explain how people allocate their time to production.
5. With an increase in the price of one factor of production, to produce a given output the firm starts using a technology economizing on the factor whose price has risen.
6. To calculate profit-maximizing output and the corresponding quantities of the factors demanded, we have to calculate the total cost for all output levels.
в) 1. As a rule, resources in industrialized countries are used effectively enough to make a solid basis for economic growth.
2. The imports tariffs were not raised high enough to decrease imports.
3. Statistics depends too much on limited information resources to avoid (избегать) compromises.
4. The economic growth is too slow now to expect a rapid increase in demand and supply.
5. In developing countries, labour efficiency is too low in agriculture to hope for an increase in food supply in the near future.
4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на оборот for + существительное + инфинитив.
1. The free market is one way for society to solve the economic problems as to what, how and for whom to produce.
2. Economically advanced countries' aid to the Third World is not generally strong enough for the latter to achieve economic independence.
3. For research and development to be carried out, the governments in less developed countries have to invest enough resources in their own research institutes.
4. For higher profit to be obtained, firms have to increase efficiency of labour.
5. Unemployment is growing too rapidly for labour markets to be in equilibrium.
5. Переведите текст Factors of Production: Capital and Labour и отработайте его чтение.
6. Найдите в тексте:
1) инфинитив в качестве подлежащего;
2) инфинитив в качестве обстоятельства цели;
3) оборот for + существительное + инфинитив;
4) предложения, где слово it не переводится;
5) предложения, в которых слово one не переводится.
TEXT
Factors of Production: Capital and LabourFactors of production are resources used by firms as inputs for a good or service to be produced. Factors of production are as follows: capital, labour, and natural resources.
In economic theory, the term «capital» refers to goods and money used to produce more goods and money. Classifications of capital vary with the purpose of the classification. The most general distinction is the one made between physical, financial, and human capital.
Physical capital is land, buildings, equipment, raw materials. Bonds, stocks, available bank balances are included in the financial capital. They both make a great contribution to production.
To group capital into fixed capital and circulating capital is common practice[8]. The former refers to means of production such as land, buildings, machinery and various equipment. They are durable, that is, they participate in the production process over several years. Circulating capital includes both non-renewable goods, such as raw materials and fuel, and the funds required to pay wages and other claims against[9] the enterprise. Non-renewable goods are used up in one production cycle and their value is fully transferred to the final product.
Human capital is knowledge that contributes «know-how» to production. It is increased by research and disseminated through education. Investment in human capital results in new, technically improved, products and production processes which improve economic efficiency. Like physical capital, human capital is important enough to be an indicator of economic development of a nation.
It is common, in economics, to understand labour as an effort needed to satisfy human needs. It is one of the three leading elements of production. Labour has a variety of functions: production of raw materials, manufacturing of final products, transferring things from one place to another, management of production, and services like the ones rendered by physicians and teachers.
One can classify labour into productive and unproductive. The former produces physical objects having utility. The latter is useful but does not produce material wealth. Labour of the musician is an example.
Unlike other factors of production, for example capital, when workers are employed, their efficiency can vary greatly with organization of work and their motivation.
Demand for labour is influenced by the demand for goods produced by workers, the proportion of wages in total production costs, etc. The supply of labour depends upon the size of population, geographic mobility, skills, education level (human capital), etc. Workers supply labour either individually or through trade unions. If demand for and supply of labour are not in equilibrium, there is unemployment. The rate of unemployment is a percentage of the total labour force without a job. It is desirable for an economy to have the lowest possible unemployment rate and to achieve higher employment as neither full use of resources nor maximum level of output can be achieved in an economy having unemployment.
Factors of production are combined together in different proportions in order to produce output. It is assumed in economics that one should choose the combination of factors which minimizes the cost of production and increases profits.
The third factor of production, natural resources, poses too many economic problems[10] to be discussed here. We will analyze them in the following unit.
Запомните!
It is important…. Важно….
It is common practice…. Общепринято….
It seems / appears that… Кажется, что….
It is news to us. Это для нас новость.
both оба
both… and… и… и; как… так и…
either… or… или…или, либо…либо…
neither… nor… ни… ни…
Словарный минимум к тексту
as follows как следует ниже; следующий
following adj следующий; нижеперечисленный, нижеследующий
capital n капитал
physical capital – физический капитал (фактор производства, обычно представленный машинами, оборудованием и производственными зданиями)
financial capital – финансовый капитал (фактор производства, обычно представленный деньгами)
human capital – человеческий капитал (умение и мастерство, общее или специальное, приобретенные человеком в ходе профессиональной подготовки и производственного опыта)
fixed capital – основные средства(капитал, вложенный в основные фонды предприятия, т. е. землю и здания, производственные сооружения, машины и оборудование, инвестиции в компании-филиалы)
circulating capital – оборотный капитал(часть капитала компании или другой организации, которая– задействована в ее торговой деятельности)
labour – труд
labour force – рабочая сила;piтрудовые ресурсы; самодеятельное население; число работающих(напр. на предприятии)
natural adj естественный, природный
natural resources – природные ресурсы
nature – природа
to vary with – различаться в зависимости от; зависеть от
to vary from… to… – изменяться, колебаться(в пределах, от… до…)
variety – разнообразие
a variety of (factors) – ряд, множество (факторов)
various adj различный, разный; разнообразный
purpose n цель, намерение
for this purpose – с этой целью
equipment – оборудованиеraw material(s) – сырьеraw adj сырой, необработанный
available adj наличный, имеющийся в наличии; (to smb) доступный(кому-л.)
availability – наличиеcontribution – (to smth) вклад(во что-л.)
to make a contribution to science – сделать вклад (внести свою лепту) в наукуcontribute – v (to smth) делать вклад(во что-л.), содействовать, способствовать(чему-л.)
means of production – средства производства
machinery – машины; оборудование
durable adj длительного пользования
durable goods – товары длительного (долговременного) пользования
durables – товары длительного пользования
production process – производственный процесс
fuel – топливо, горючее
require – v (smth) нуждаться (в чем-то), требовать(чего-л.)
required – adj необходимый
requirement – требование; нужда, потребность
to meet the requirements удовлетворять потребности; отвечать требованиям
wage(s) часто pi заработная плата
enterprise промышленное предприятие; завод, фабрика
non-renewable adj невозобновляемыйnon-renewable resources невозобновляемые, истощимые ресурсы
ant renewable adj возобновляемый
to use up – израсходовать, использовать (полностью); истощить
production cycle – производственный цикл
value – стоимость(в денежном выражении)', ценность
transfer v переносить, перемещать; переводить(деньги), перечислять(суммы)', перевозить
final product – конечный продукт
investment и (in smth) – капиталовложение, помещение капитала, денег, инвестирование; инвестиция, вклад(вочто-л.)
invest v (in smth) помещать, вкладывать деньги, капитал (вочто-л.)
efficiency n эффективность; производительность; продуктивность
efficiency of labour – производительность труда
ant inefficiency и неэффективность
efficient adj эффективный, действенный; целесообразный
ant inefficient adj неэффективный, малопроизводительный
like грам. знач. предлога – подобно, как
unlike adj в грам. знач. предлога — в отличие отmanufacture v производить; изготовлять
manufacturing n производство
manufacturer n изготовитель; производитель; поставщик
management n управление
manage v руководить, управлять
manager n управляющий, руководитель; директор
employ v предоставлять работу; нанимать; использовать
employed adj имеющий работу (службу) (небезработный)
employed workers – занятые рабочие (небезработные)
employment n работа (понайму), занятость (рабочей силы)
full employment – полная занятость, отсутствие безработицы
unemployed adj безработныйunemployment n безработицаunemployment rate (ж. rate of unemployment) – уровень безработицыproduction costs (тж. costs of production) – издержки производстваproduction cost (тж. cost of production) – себестоимостьcost n стоимость; pl расходы, издержки
cost v стоить, иметь стоимость
size n размер(ы), величина; объем
population n населениеtrade union – профсоюзjob n работа, место работы
Аудиторная работа № 1
7. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на значения слова it. Укажите номера предложений, в которых it не переводится.1. In principle, it is possible, but in practice, it is very inefficient to control the output of cars changing the incomes of potential buyers and manipulating transport costs. It is easier to control the output of cars controlling the availability of raw materials, for example steel, to manufacturers.
2. Firms can either save (копить, накапливать) their income or pay it out to their owners.
3. It is common practice to include all the more or less durable means of production, such as land, buildings and machinery in fixed capital.
4. Early economists such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo said that the value of product depended upon the amount of labour needed to produce it.
5. In comparing national incomes (in total and per person) it is not important which members of the population earn this income, in analyzing incomes within a country, it is important.
8. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на значения слова one.
1. One thing in which workers are different is human capital.
2. Many people who do not get a new job after quitting (оставлять) the old one often leave the labour force to return to school, to work in a family garden, or for other purposes.
3. Everyone can find himself in one of three situations: employed, or unemployed, or out of the labour force.
4. One can be more economical buying large quantities of a good rather than small quantities.
5. A worker in the United Kingdom earns more than the one in India
6. One should know that present-day economists, unlike economists of the 19th century; include land in capital.
7. One has to replace inputs used up in one production cycle.
8. If, with a change of price, the supply increases by less than one per cent, it is called inelastic.
9. One defines (определять) efficiency as the relationship between factor inputs and output of goods and services.
10. One calls a consumer good such as a television, which is used over long periods of time rather than immediately, a durable good.
9. Определите, в каких предложениях оборот for + существительное + инфинитив является обстоятельством цели.
1. Simplified (упрощенные) models of economic units are used in macroeconomics analysis for an economist to be able to study various relationships within the economy
2. For the business to be efficient, all production costs have to be minimised.
3. It is important for every manager to know labour efficiency in his enterprise.
4. For statistical systems to meet the requirements of dynamic policies, they have to be constantly updated (обновлять).
5. If labour markets are inefficient, it is more difficult for a worker to find a job.
6. Agricultural production in poorer developing countries is so inefficient that almost everyone has to work on the land for enough food to be produced.
7. For the workers to spend less time in unemployment, high efficiency of labour markets is required.
10. Переведите предложения на русский язык и скажите, какие функции инфинитив выполняет в этих предложениях.
1. То produce goods and services firms use the following factors of production: workers' time, talents and knowledge, equipment, land, buildings.
2. To know the contribution of every industry to the national economy is very important for the government.
3. The government ought to take steps to reduce the unemployment rate.
4. The problem is that demands are practically limitless and the resources – natural resources, labour and capital – available at one time to produce goods and services are limited in supply.
5. To meet the requirements of a variety of potential users is the purpose of economic statistics.
6. Like physical capital, human capital is important enough to be an indicator of economic development of a nation.
7. To build atomic power stations near rivers is common practice as they require a lot of water for cooling (охлаждение).
Задание на дом № 2
11. Объедините предложения так, чтобы обстоятельство следствия выражалось инфинитивом.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 1: The company is too big. It cannot be managed by one man. – > The company is too big to be managed by one man.
1. The equipment is too sophisticated. It cannot be operated by a worker.
2. The information is too outdated. It cannot be used for the analysis of the present-day situation.
3. The enterprise is too big. It cannot be located in the city centre.
4. The rate of unemployment is too high. It cannot be ignored by the trade unions.
5. The company's batteries are used up too soon. They cannot be relied upon in a long expedition.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 2: The equipment is sophisticated. It should be operated by an engineer. – > The equipment is sophisticated enough to be operated by an engineer.
1. The company is not large. It cannot invest much in production.
2. The factory has raw materials. It can work for a month.
3. The production costs have risen. They have become a real headache for the manager.
4. The job is well-paid. It meets his requirements.
5. He has made a big contribution to the development of the project. He can hope for a success and a good share of the profit.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 3: The information is too outdated. The economist cannot rely on it. -> The information is too outdated for the economist to rely on it.
1. The manufacturer's guarantee is too short. We will not buy their equipment.
2. The company's investment in machinery was too big last year. The dividends cannot be high.
3. The value of the equipment is too high. We cannot take any risks transporting it by train.
4. The rate of unemployment is too high. The government cannot ignore it.
5. The firm's requirements are too high. All their jobs cannot be filled in.
ОБРАЗЕЦ 4: The demand for durable goods is big. Their manufacturers raise the output. – > The demand for durable goods is big enough for their manufacturers to raise the output.
1. Your income is not big. You cannot live without a job.
2. The choice of goods is good. The store is the most popular one in the neighbourhood.
3. Human capital in some industries is not well-paid. Young people do not want to pay for their education in corresponding professions.
4. The birth-rate in Russia is low The size of the labour force will become a problem for society in the near future.
5. The efficiency of investment on the farm is high. The cost of its final products is lower than the one on other farms of the region.
12. Используя слова economical, interesting, important, required, useful, possible, impossible, составьте предложения с приведенными ниже фразами по образцу:
ОБРАЗЕЦ: То produce goods more efficiently. – > It is important to produce goods more efficiently.
to know on what information a decision is based;
to buy large quantities of a product rather than small quantities;
to be economical if one compares the prices of goods before buying them;
to replace the inputs used up in one production cycle periodically;
to know that in Denmark young men below 18 cannot be trade union members;
to know that production costs depend on the size of the business;
to analyze the production cycle in detail in order to decrease production cost and increase production efficiency
13. Вставьте пропущенные предлоги, где это необходимо.
1. Each individual's expenditure always contributes… some other individual's income.
2. All parts… ecological system greatly affect each other in nature and these relationships are… special interest… biologists.
3. In some industry specific human capital may be… high demand and short supply and other human capital may be… excess supply.
4. Increases… the quantities demanded typically vary… different goods as incomes rise.
5. Karl Marx's contribution… economics may be doubted these days but we still rely… his fundamental idea that labour is the most important factor… production. Raw materials are taken… the earth… human hands, equipment used… this process is produced… labour and earlier manufactured equipment. Even the knowledge… people – sometimes called… human capital – comes… our own efforts to learn, as well as the time our teachers spend… trying to teach… us.
6… order to know what agriculture's contribution… the national economy is, economic statistics are needed.
7. The demand… factors… production depends… the demand… the firm's… output.
8… workers receiving wages, a self-employed man receives profit.
9. The uses of land are… follows:… agriculture…. houses, industrial and office buildings,… recreation, and… other purposes.
10. In 1995, the rate… unemployment… the developed economies varied… 3.1 percent… Japan… 8.3 percent… the United Kingdom and 9.1 percent… Germany.
11. When more labour is invested… a commodity, the latter becomes more expensive.
Аудиторная работа № 2
14. Укажите, какие предложения не соответствуют содержанию текста Factors of Production: Capital and Labour. Дайте правильный вариант.1. In economics, the term «capital» refers to labour and natural resources used to produce goods.
2. Physical capital is more important for production than financial one.
3. Fixed capital includes such durable means of production as land, buildings, machinery, and equipment.
4. Unproductive labour is less important for society than productive one.
5. Labour efficiency can vary greatly from one enterprise to another depending on management of work and workers' motivation.
6. The demand for labour depends on the size of population, geographic mobility and human capital.
7. It is possible for an economy to achieve full employment.
15. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.
1. (Like / Unlike) physical capital, human capital is expensive.
2. A man's budget constraint is determined by the total amount of time (following / available) over a given period such as a day, a month, a year.
3. Individuals can (either/neither) spend their income on consumption (or/nor) save it.
4. A person has an income which allows him to consume (efficient/various) goods and services and live in a particular neighbourhood (район).
5. In labour markets many aspects are regulated: paid holidays, the length of working day and week and other aspects of the (employment / contribution) relationship.
6. Changing policies (require/vary with) constant updating (обновление) of statistical systems.
7. How the European Union's statistical system is adapting to (requirements/values) in the 21st century is of importance (either/ both) inside (or/and) outside the EU.
8. Some part of (circulating capital/fixed capital), for example equipment, loses its value in the (cost of production /production process), another part of (circulating capital /fixed capital), for example land, may grow in value.
16. Замените подчеркнутые слова и словосочетания словом-заместителем one.
ОБРАЗЕЦ: Some businessmen think that older workers are more reliable than younger workers. – > Some businessmen think that older workers are more reliable than younger ones.
1. The firms prefer the factor of production retaining its old price to the factor of production that has become more expensive.
2. The new technology used now in less developed countries is taken from the developed countries.
3. It is necessary to replace this inefficient equipment with the new equipment.
4. The production cycle for manufacturing Coca Cola and some other drinks in Russia is not the same as the production cycle in West Europe.
5. Generally, the value of renewable resources is not so high as the value of non-renewable resources.
17. Составьте предложения из двух подходящих по смыслу частей.
1. Infrastructure equipment
2. Large Pakistani population living in many countries
3. Long-term-unemployed workers lose
4. Minimum wages
5. Like physical capital such as factory and machinery, human capital
6. It is required that all goods and services
7. Economists use the word «capital» for goods
8. The national labour force
9. Capital includes such non-renewable goods as
10. Efficiency is
11. Means of production are
a. the human capital and contact with the active labour force.
b. the relationship between factor inputs and outputs of goods and services.
c. the same as factors of production.
d. (roads, bridges, telecommunications) is often publicly owned and operated.
e. produced must be bought.
f. includes all people within the nation who are available for work, that is, the working population.
g. sometimes reduce the demand for labour.
h. raw materials and fuel.
I that are not entirely used up in the production process.j. regularly transfers labour income to the home country.
k. is the result of past investment and its purpose is to generate future incomes.
18. Укажите, в каких предложениях инфинитив является подлежащим.
1. As productive equipment is referred to as physical capital, to buy new equipment is to invest in production.
2. To be effective a price ceiling must be imposed below the free market equilibrium price.
3. To value the US national income fully is impossible as the increase in accumulated durables is not usually counted.
4. To know the quantities of factors a firm will demand, we have to know the demand for the firm's output.
5. To keep the economy as close as possible to full employment is an important aim of the government.
6. To run an enterprise efficiently the manager must have industry-specif– ic knowledge.
7. To increase output with the fixed total cost of inputs means to reduce the cost of production per unit produced.
8. Fixed capital, that is, such durable goods as buildings and machinery, are bought in order to be used in the firm rather than to be sold to another business.
9. To include non-renewable goods such as raw materials and fuel as well as the funds required to pay wages in circulating capital is common practice.
Задание на дом № 3
19. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Trade union organizations vary with the country. Their activities vary from general protection to specific members' advantages for some jobs.
2. Unlike machinery or raw materials, workers can think. Machines can neither leave their jobs nor decide how much they would like to work for their owners.
3. Minimum wages may paradoxically result in youth unemployment because firms do not want to employ young workers receiving them.
4. In terms of percentage of employment the movement away from agriculture into industry and from industry into services is clearly seen now.
5. The European Union's economic policies have to be reformed to meet the changing requirements (economic, technical, political) of the new millennium.
6. It is important to reduce capital investments in the production process in order to lower the cost of production.
7. In the poor countries there is too little machinery relative to the size of the population to make labour efficient.
8. To use more fuel-efficient aircraft is the present-day trend with airlines.
20. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Важно производить конечный продукт на территории страны.
2. Трудовые ресурсы – это часть населения, участвующая в производстве.
3. Труд имеет следующие основные функции: производство сырья, промышленное производство конечного продукта, управление и услуги.
4. Основные факторы производства следующие: земля, техника, финансовый капитал и труд.
5. Предприятие – это единица производства и управления.
6. В начале 90-х годов 40 % трудовых ресурсов России было занято в негосударственном секторе экономики.
7. Повышение цен на нефть в начале 1970-х годов было достаточно сильным, чтобы вызвать немедленное повышение стоимости экспорта топлива.
21. а) Заполните пропуски словами из словарного минимума к тексту Factors of Production: Capital and Labour.
Part of human capital is firm– or industry-specific. This explains why workers are better paid when they have worked in the same… for several years. But when industries decline, some workers may have an industry-specific that has become of no or little… They cannot find…, and at the same time developing industries cannot find workers with the… industry-specific capital. This results in a high… alongside… vacancies.
б) Напишите пять вопросов к этому тексту.
Аудиторная работа № 3
22. Заполните пропуски следующими словами из словарного минимума к тексту Factors of Production: Capital and Labour в соответствующей форме: both… and, to contribute, to employ (2), employment, unlike, variety, purpose* machinery, available, various
1… physical capital, human capital does not belong to the firm that has invested in it.
2. Trade union restrictions do not allow… of youths in some industries and many service sectors.
3. The… of minimum wages is to protect young people from exploitation.
4. Natural resources research in the USA of the 1930s was based on gathering information from a… of sources.
5. The European Union's statistics are collected… at the union level… at national levels of member countries.
6. There are… forms of money.
7. The marginal product or labour shows how much each additional worker increases total output. The marginal product grows as the first few workers are… because it is hard for the first and second worker to handle all the… By the time the third worker is…, marginal productivity of labour starts falling. When all… machines are fully used, each new worker has less and less to…
23. Составьте предложения, используя слова и словосочетания из разных колонок.
A
It is (not)
В
usefulprofitablenecessaryimportantrequiredС
forD
employment and unemployment
businessmenstudents of economics
firmsstatistical systems
governmentslabour markets
E
1. to know that in Denmark young people below 18 cannot be trade union members.
2. to calculate changes in their marginal cost and marginal revenue.
3. to know the contribution of both industry and agriculture to the national economy.
4. to employ workers as long as the value of the product produced by them exceeds (превышать) their wages.
5. to change when political systems change.
6. to be more effective for workers to go easier into employment.
7. to be stabilized for labour markets to be in equilibrium.
24. Заполните пропуски парными союзами both… and…, either… or…. neither… nor… или словом both.
Profits are… paid out as dividends… held back as earnings.
Income differences between nations pose problems… for society… for economists.
Labour force does not include people who are…working… looking for work.
A person can be… employed… unemployed… out of the labour force.
The European Union's experts think that statistics should be available… on economic activities of fanners… on social aspects of rural (сельская) life.
Financial capital that will be used in a business may… belong to the business itself… it may be borrowed from a bank.
Unlike people, machines can… quit (прекратить, оставить) their jobs… decide how much they would like to work for their owners.
An increase in the price of a production factor will increase… total costs… marginal costs.
As their incomes grow, countries like people… spend a smaller share of their budget on food… allocate less to agriculture.
25. Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте каждый абзац.
Production Costs
Production costs are the costs of making factor input into higher value outputs of goods and services. The costs of manufacturing products include costs of raw materials, labour costs, depreciation of plant and equipment, rent, lighting, and heating of factory buildings.
It is important to say that factor inputs can be combined in a variety of ways to produce the same amount of output. One method which is technically the most efficient is the one which uses only small amounts of labour, while another method may employ large quantities of labour and only a little capital. In physical terms, the method which is technically the most efficient is the one that uses the fewest inputs. Economists, however, are more interested in the cost aspect of the input-output relationship, specifically the least costly way of producing a given output.
To achieve the highest efficiency, that is, the optimal relationship between factor inputs and outputs of goods and services, the economist analyzes the relationship between the cost of factor inputs and the cost of output in a firm. In order to determine the cost of producing a particular output it is necessary to know not only the required quantities of various inputs but also their prices. The factor prices a firm must pay in order to buy units of these factors will depend upon the interaction (взаимодействие) of the forces of demand and supply in factor markets.
26. Используя текст, закончите следующие предложения:
1. The costs of manufactured products include…
2. The methods of combining factor inputs are as follows…
3. Economists are interested in achieving the least costly technology of producing output, that is, in…
4. The highest efficiency of production is…
5. To know the cost of producing a particular output it is necessary to know…
Unit 6
Factors of Production: Natural Resources and Land
Грамматика и лексика :1. Конструкция «сложное дополнение»
2. Значение слова due и сочетаний с ним
3. Значения слова which
Задание на дом № 1
1. В разделе «Грамматика и словообразование» проработайте § 22.
2. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на конструкцию «сложное дополнение».
a) 1. We know many newly industrialized countries to have weak trade unions.
2. The developing countries want the rich countries to stop imposing tariffs on imports from the Third World.
3. Economists consider land to be the factor of production supplied by nature.
4. As the prices of fuels rise, we expect their production to expand.
5. Some businessmen think trade union regulations to result in fewer jobs.
b) 1. A rise in the price of a unit of labour will make the firm start using a more capital-intensive technology (капиталоемкая технология).
2. Higher prices for oil make research laboratories work at substitutes for oil.
3. The command economy does not let an individual make free economic decisions.
4. Increased output per worker in agriculture lets more workers be transferred from agriculture to industry.
5. Allocation of additional capital lets a high level of production be maintained with fewer workers.
3. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на слово due и сочетания с ним.
1. The growth of labour force due to growing numbers of women workers results in higher unemployment.
2. The increase in the value of fuel exports was due mainly to the rise in oil prices after 1973.
3. The Prime Minister says due steps will immediately be taken in order to control inflation.
4. Economists believe that all governments will pay due attention to economic problems caused by growing scarcity of natural resources.
5. Due to a wage increase, more capital-intensive technologies may become substitutes for labour.
4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на то, что слово which относится ко всему предыдущему предложению и переводится словом что.
1. Employment among young men is very low in Germany, which is due to the government's subsidies for education.
2. The government did not pay due attention to the economists' recommendations, which led to lower economic growth.
3. Some economists expect world population to reach 12–13 billion as soon as 2020–2025, which will require much more non-renewable resources than at present.
4. The consumer incomes have risen, which has resulted in lower demand for inferior goods.
5. Under conditions of food shortage a government might impose a price ceiling on food, which will let poor people buy adequate quantities of food.
5. Переведите текст Factors of Production: Natural Resources and Land и отработайте его чтение.
6. Найдите в тексте:
1) предложения с конструкцией «сложное дополнение»;
2) предложения, где слово which переводится словом что.
TEXT
Factors of Production: Natural Resources and Land
Economists consider natural resources to be the third factor of production. They are a contribution to productive activity made by land (for example, a factory site or farm location), raw materials such as iron ore, timber, oil, water for crops and power production, forests and animals.
Some natural resources, wheat, for example, are renewable, others such as iron ore are non-renewable and will sooner or later be used up. Economists know reduced supplies of non-renewable resources to result in their higher prices, which provides an incentive to look for natural or synthetic substitutes for them.
The supply of land, an essential natural resource, is limited and it cannot be easily increased to meet an increase in demand except in certain cases. For example, the Dutch have been able to reclaim from the sea[11] some areas of low-lying land.
Another essential characteristic of land is that it is durable, that is, land is not used up in the production process, although it may be depleted by use.
Land is, in some respects[12], close to physical capital, though the former is supplied by nature and the latter is produced by man. But applying labour to kill weeds or fertilizer to improve the soil, farmers can «produce» better land and raise its price.
Price of or income from land, as well as from other natural resources, is called rent. Land itself has no cost of production, so rent depends on the degree of scarcity and on the demand for it.
The purposes for which land is used are due to its characteristics. Land can be used for housing or offices, for mining, or for building roads. Besides, it contributes to the production of crops, providing an environment that supplies water, air, and nutrients for plant growth.
Land is a unique agricultural resource, so a lot of management problems arise. In the first place[13], the farmer has to make a choice between buying and leasing it. The advantages and disadvantages depend on the farmer's financial position, on the availability of land for lease and purchase and some other factors.
Because purchasing land usually requires a larger capital, farmers with limited capital lease land and use their capital for machinery and other resources.
Economists consider a satisfactory lease to be the one that is profitable both for the landowner and the tenant. A fair lease compensates both parties in proportion to their contributions to the farm business.
Other management problems may arise due to differences in land profitability in various farming branches and other industries. Economists know different crops and classes of animals to vary in profitability. The farmer has to study thoroughly the conditions on his farm to make a correct choice between alternative uses.
Although the total supply of land is limited, its allocation between industries is not. If a government wants to stimulate, for example, either housing or afforestation[14], it offers a subsidy raising the rent received by owners of housing land or forests. This may create incentives for farmers to transfer land from farming to other industries.
Запомните!
due – надлежащий, соответствующий
due to – вследствие, благодаря
to be due to – объясняться, обусловливаться
* * *
…, which – что (относится ко всему предшествующему предложению)
Словарный минимум к тексту
ore и руда
iron ore – железная руда
oil n нефть; нефтепродукт
crop n сельскохозяйственное растение, сельскохозяйственная культура
supply n обычно pi. запасы, общее количество
supply v снабжать; поставлять; обеспечивать; давать
to supply a factory with raw materials снабжать фабрику сырьемprovide v снабжать, обеспечивать; предоставлять, давать
to provide industry with resources обеспечивать промышленность ресурсамиto provide resources for / to industry поставлять ресурсы для промышленности, предоставлять ресурсы промышленности
incentive n стимул
disincentive n снижение побуждений или стремлений(к повышению производительности, эффективности производства, получению работы и т. п.)
to look for (smth) – искать (что-л.)
essential adj обязательный, необходимый; существенный; важнейший
meet (met, met) v удовлетворять; отвечать; соответствовать
to meet the demand – удовлетворять спросto meet the requirement удовлетворять требованию; отвечать потребности
except prep кроме; за исключением, исключая
besides prep кроме, помимо; adv кроме того
area n площадь, пространство,
участок; район, область, зона
although cj хотя; несмотря на то, что
though cj хотя, несмотря на; все же;adv однако, тем не менее, все же
apply v использовать, применять, употреблять
fertilizer n удобрение
soil n почва
rent n рента, арендная плата; доход с недвижимости
so cj так что, поэтому; следовательно
degree n ступень, степень
to a great degree – в большой степени
housing n жилищное строительство
mining n горная промышленность; ведение горных работ, разработка(полезных ископаемых)
environment n окружающая среда
lease v брать в аренду, внаем, арендовать; (out) сдавать в аренду
lease n аренда, наем; сдача внаем
advantage n преимущество; превосходство
to get / have an advantage over / of smb – добиться / иметь преимущество над кем-л.
ant disadvantage и недостаток; невыгодное, неблагоприятное положение
to be at a disadvantage быть в невыгодном положении
purchase и покупка, закупка; приобретение
purchase v покупать, приобретать
profitable adf прибыльный, выгодный, доходный, рентабельный
profitability n прибыльность, доходность, рентабельность
tenant n наниматель, арендатор, съемщик
business n дело; предпринимательство; экономическая, хозяйственная деятельность; бизнес
to vary in – различаться по (какому-л. признаку)
thoroughly adv тщательно, как следует
thorough adj тщательный, доскональный
condition n состояние, положение; рl обстоятельства, условия
under good / bad condition(s) в хороших / плохих условияхfarming n занятие сельским хозяйством, земледелие
Аудиторная работа № 1
7. а) Запомните написание данных ниже слов и потренируйтесь правильно произносить их.
through – через, посредством
though – хотя
although – хотя(в начале предложения)
thought – прошедшее время от
to think – думать
thorough – тщательный
thoroughly – тщательно
б) Заполните пропуски в предложениях этими словами.
1… some farmers have enough money to purchase land, they prefer to lease it over several years to examine the conditions for farming in the given area….
2. A lot of countries are mixed economies… some are nearer to command economies and others are nearer to free market economies.
3… economic analysis is essential for good results.
4. Farming efficiency is raised… improved technology, fertilizers, crops, and livestock (домашний скот, животные).
5. If we want resources to be allocated efficiently, government intervention… environmental standards can be used.
6. In earlier days economists… rent only to be income received from land.
7… the firm is run by its manager, not its owners, profit maximization is the most essential aim of the firm's business.
8. Переведите на русский язык предложения с конструкцией «сложное дополнение».
1. When market conditions change, economists expect the price for land to vary.
2. Too high cost of imported cotton (хлопок) has made a lot of textile enterprises close down in Russia.
3. Economists believe the availability of labour to be an essential requirement for economic activity.
4. Private-sector producers consider profitability to be the most essential condition of their business.
5. Economists consider demand for non-essential goods to be particularly inelastic.
6. A decrease in prices for energy could let farmers improve technology rapidly.
7. High oil prices make consumers purchase substitute commodities.
9. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.
1. (Provided / although) an economist knows of services which people (provide j purchase) not for money, he is not interested in these services.
2. On the labour market the seller may be (providing / looking for) a buyer as much as the buyer (provides / looks for) the seller.
3. Advanced economies may (be due / vary) greatly (to / in) the importance of their governments for economic development.
4. If an industry's demand for resources is (supplied j met) in (due / due to) time, we can expect the industry to develop at a rapid rate (быстрыми темпами).
5. The US economists expect agriculture (profitable /profitability) to grow rapidly in the near future.
6. The government feels housing in the (area / environment) requires improvement.
7. In the first years of perestroyka an enormous housing programme was adopted. The government pledged (торжественно обещать) to (provide / supply) a flat or house for each family by the year of 2000.
8. Trade unionists consider a minimum wage to be (an incentive / a disincentive) for employers to give jobs to workers with little human capital.
9. One knows firms to carry on (business /purchase) for the purpose of making profit.
10. а) Составьте предложения из двух подходящих по смыслу частей.
1. Economists believe the price of land
2. Economists expect the price of ore
3. We expect rising prices for mineral resources
4. Economists believe a low wage level
5. We expect farmers
6. We don't believe the rent in the area
7. Economists don't believe the present-day condition in mining
8. We don't believe cost of production in mining
9. Economists believe profitability of housing
10. We don't expect the farmer
a. to be a disincentive for potential investors.
b. to lease the land as he has enough money to purchase it.
c. to be high enough to scare off (отпугнуть) all potential tenants.
d. to meet the requirements of potential investors.
e. to be too high to make the industry profitable.
f. to change due to a change in its condition.
g. to rise as its supply reduces.
h. to apply fertilizers on this poor soil.
i. to be a disincentive for businessmen to look for capital-intensive technologies.
j. to be a strong enough incentive for people to look for their substitutes.
б) Образуйте предложения из частей А, В, и С. Вставьте в нужном месте глаголы make или let в соответствующей форме, образуя конструкцию «сложное дополнение».
A
1. The small rent
2. A large supply of raw materials and spare parts (запасные части)
3. Profitability of housing in areas near big cities
4. Used up supplies of mineral resources
5. An increased rent
В
the manager landowners tenant farmers the enterprise
С
work smoothly (зд. без остановок), make their farms profitable, transfer land from farming to housing, raise the price of the output.
transfer land from mining to other uses.
Задание на дом № 2
11. Объедините или измените следующие предложения по образцу, используя конструкцию «сложное дополнение».
ОБРАЗЕЦ: It is known to every economist that an increase in the price of a factor will reduce demand for it. – > Every economist knows an increase in the price of a factor to reduce demand for it.
The rate of unemployment in tourist areas is higher than in highly industrialized ones. Economists know this.
It is well known to economists that the motives for nationalization are political as well as economic.
As prices for fuel and electricity have risen, we expect an increase in all prices.
The degree of profitability in private enterprises is higher than in the public sector. Some economists think so.
Many experts think that the growing use of fertilizers and other chemicals presents a danger to the environment.
Experts expected that the Iran-Iraq war would cause a sharp rise in oil prices in 1979–1980.
12. Заполните пропуски следующими словами и словосочетаниями в соответствующей форме:
profitable, though (2), conditions (2), to meet the demands, although, lease, rent, advantage, disadvantage, purchase, to provide, besides
After the 1973 shock rise in oil prices firms tried to stay in business for some time…. they were given a new blow by the second sharp rise in oil prices in 1980-81.
Economic statistics have to of various potential users.
Industry-specific human capital has both… and experienced workers get higher wages, they may have difficulty in finding a job if their human capital has become of no or little value.
Economic… are constantly changing.
With risen prices for oil, producers find it… to do research on substitute sources of energy.
To analyze the labour market, an economist should first explain how and under which… people allocate their time to business, which means he should study the supply of labour…, he should decide how firms employ labour, which means he should study demand for labour.
Part of national income is spent on the… of imported goods and services… it should not exceed a certain share of it.
Transfer of surplus labour from agriculture to industry can… a source of economic growth.
… is a contract under which the owner of a building, machinery, land, etc. lets someone use his asset for a specified period of time in return for periodic payments of…
13. Вставьте пропущенные предлоги, где это необходимо.
The degree… which income is unequally distributed… a country will affect… the question of… whom goods and services are produced.
Higher prices… oil make the economy look… technologies requiring… less oil.
There is always an element… risk in providing… capital… new businesses.
Farming relies heavily… commercial energy sources.
There are different types… leases. With some of them the landlord is… an advantage… the tenant… terms… risk from a harvest failure, though with others, the risk is shared… the landowner and the tenant.
… conditions of overall environment pollution we can expect the greenhouse effect to gain power… a rapid rate… the near future.
The mayor said the population should not expect the local government to supply them… cheap housing.
Agriculture provides… raw materials… industry.
Agriculturists know soils to vary greatly… productivity depending… their structure and composition.
Present-day industry meets… the demand… farmers providing them… fertilizers and growth regulators… livestock and crops.
The housing… this part… the town does not meet… the requirements… the population.
… conditions… growing oil scarcity, investors hope to meet… future demand… oil buying new reserves. Paying now, they expect to provide themselves… sources… revenue… future.
Аудиторная работа № 2
14. а) Расположите вопросы к тексту на с. 78 в таком порядке, чтобы они могли служить планом текста, и ответьте на них.
Why is land transferred from one industry to another?
Why is land an essential agricultural resource?
When do farmers buy land and when do they lease it?
What natural resources are named in the text?
Can the supply of land be increased?
When do prices for non-renewable resources rise?
How can a farmer raise the price of land?
Why do fanners have to choose between alternative uses of land on their fanns?
Why is land durable?
For what purposes is land used?
б) Подумайте и скажите:
What other renewable and non-renewable resources besides the ones mentioned in the text can you name?
What advantages and disadvantages of land lease for a farmer can you think of?
15. Вставьте в предложения пропущенные слова except или besides.
It is impossible to fully value the US national income as the increase in accumulated durables is not fully counted… in housing.
As oil prices continue to grow, airlines look for more fuel-efficient aircraft…, coal generators become more widely used.
… energy, there is another factor raising farm productivity: chemicals, whose prices are growing with every year.
The prices of all goods in the market…. the price of this one, have risen lately.
The economists expect wages in all branches of mining…. coal mining, to grow.
Most farmers in the United States prefer to make their business on their own land… those ones who cannot purchase large enough plots (участок) and have to lease the land.
… land resources and climate, sufficient water resources are essential for successful farming.
16. Назовите номера предложений, в которых слово which относится ко всему предыдущему предложению.
The relative cost of using capital and labour in rich and poor countries affects the manner in which goods and services are produced.
In the 1980s, the Finnish government offered a subsidy to landowners for afforestation, which was a disincentive for them to go on using land for farming.
The land used formerly (ранее) for mining is being transferred to farming and afforestation, which is to improve the environment.
Profits are maximized at the output level at which marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue.
Unemployment benefits provide disincentives to looking for a new job, which increases unemployment.
Trade unions let workers participate in many types of political activities, which is essential for protecting their interests.
About 60 percent of the world's population live in poor countries, the two largest of which are India and Indonesia
Investors try to buy the resources now before their supplies have been used up, which will send up prices.
17. Составьте предложения из двух подходящих по смыслу частей.
1. The purpose of the natural resource research in the USA was
2. The contract of lease is made between
3. Rent is
4. The economists believe the quantity of fresh water consumed to double (удвоиться) in about 30 years
5. A subsidy for housing may become a strong enough incentive
6. The lease contract may include some incentives
7. Experts consider the presence of chemicals to be
8. Mining is the industry
9. Oil importing countries feel themselves at a disadvantage due to
10. When the price rises above marginal costs, each producer has an incentive to produce more than the output agreed upon by cartel members,
18. Переведите следующие фразы:
a. the main disadvantage of the food produced in industrialized areas.
b. for the tenant to improve the land on which he farms.
c. the periodic payments made to the owners of assets for the use of their land or other factors of production or for consumption.
d. so they expect the demand for supplies of fresh water to grow.
e. to provide a basis for the development of agricultural and environmental policies.
f. for the landowners to transfer land from farming to housing.
g. which really took place in coffee, cocoa, tin (олово) and some other markets except the oil one regulated by the OPEC.
h. of getting minerals out of the earth.
i. the landowner and the tenant.
j. regulations imposed by the OPEC.
1) the following fertilizers have to be applied; in order to apply the following fertilizers the farmer should…; for the following fertilizers to be applied; the following fertilizers are too expensive to be applied; we expected the fanner to apply the following fertilizers; applying the following fertilizers the farmer improved…; the farmer applying the following fertilizers improved…; the farmer applied the following fertilizers to improve…; to apply the following fertilizers is a good practice;
2) to purchase land for housing is expensive; we expect the corporation to purchase the land for housing; in order to purchase land for housing; for the land to be purchased for housing; the land is too far from the centre of the city to be purchased for office buildings; the land purchased for housing; purchasing land for housing, the corporation…; the corporation purchasing land for housing;
3) для того, чтобы арендаторы взяли в аренду эту землю; арендаторы, берущие в аренду эту землю; беря в аренду землю, арендаторы…; земля, сданная арендаторам; чтобы взять в аренду землю, арендаторы… (два варианта); мы думаем, что арендаторы берут в аренду эту землю, чтобы…; аренда земли популярна среди…
Задание на дом № 3
19. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Economists say rent to be the periodic payments to the owners of land and other assets.
2. The tenant farmer usually has certain freedom in the choice of crops and livestock raised and practices of soil cultivation applied, though the landowner may impose a number of restrictions.
3. Profitability is the profit earned by a firm in relation to the size of the firm, measured in terms of capital or the number of workers employed.
4. The Middle East oil kingdoms expect to use up most of their supplies of oil in about 15 years.
5. Although a large capital-intensive plant is expensive, it can produce a large output at low cost. To use labour-intensive technology is more expensive and less efficient. So economists consider it to be profitable to choose very capital-intensive production technologies in gas, electricity and some other industries.
6. Mass production is the manufacture of a product in very large quantities using capital-intensive methods of production. Mass production is typically found in industries where the degree of standardization of a product supplied is high, which lets manufacturers use the advantages provided by automated machinery and processes.
7. The primary sector is part of the economy which extracts raw materials and provides agricultural crops and animal produce. Economists consider the primary sector to be essential in less developed economies where large areas are allocated to farming and mining.
20. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Мы знаем, что фермеры применяют удобрения для того, чтобы заставить сельскохозяйственные культуры расти лучше.
2. В условиях экономического кризиса уровень безработицы имеет тенденцию к росту.
3. Мы знаем, что руда – это порода, земля и т. п., из которых можно получать металл.
4. Некоторые экономисты предполагают, что в следующем столетии не только различные виды топлива и руд, но и водные ресурсы и плодородные почвы будут полностью использованы, что приведет к локальным, а также глобальным войнам за ресурсы.
5. Повысившаяся рентабельность производства нефти привела к увеличению вложений в новые нефтяные месторождения (oil fields), особенно в Северном море, что ослабило контроль ОПЕК над мировыми запасами.
6. Мы знаем, что компания British Gas добывает газ очень рентабельно в мелкой части Северного моря.
21. а) Перепишите подчеркнутые предложения, используя конструкцию «сложное дополнение», для чего воспользуйтесь словами, данными в скобках после этих предложений.
The degree of modern farming dependence upon commercial energy sources is very high (US economists, to believe). Heavy equipment requires gasoline and oil; fertilizers and insecticides are made by energy-intensive processes. This tendency was efficient as long as farm wages were rising faster than oil prices. But the sharp rise in energy prices has made the two essential sources of raising farm profitability unavailable.
The present-day condition in the energy market is moving farm technology away from energy-intensive methods (the present-day condition in the energy market, to make).
б) Напишите пять вопросов к тексту упр. 21а.
Аудиторная работа № 3
22. а) Вставьте пропущенные предлоги, где это необходимо.
1. Goods in the market vary… price… the cheapest… the most expensive.
2. The price of a good varies… its quality.
3. The price of a good varies… as its supply changes.
4. The price of land varies… its supply.
5. Land varies… its quality.
6. These goods vary greatly… price.
7. Ore may vary greatly… iron content (содержание)… the richest… the poorest.
b) Вставьте в предложения слова to vary (с нужным предлогом), various или variety.
1. In the long run (долгосрочный период) all factors of production can be…
2. Economists know labour to have a… of functions.
3. Trade union organizations… greatly… country… country. The benefits general protection… advantages for some particular jobs.
4. The degree of economic activity of trade unions….. the country.
5. The average US supermarket has several thousand… goods on its shelves. To produce this great… of goods… machines and other inputs are needed.
6. Countries… greatly… the importance of primary commodities, that is products of farming and mining, for their economies.
23. Вставьте в предложения слова though, although, so, as, which, that, in order to.
а) 1. European butter prices are above the free market equilibrium price…. European governments have to purchase large supplies of butter… private demanders do not want to purchase.
2. Second and third TV sets are often purchased… enable each family member to watch different shows at the same time.
3. World supplies of some minerals are non-renewable… real prices will eventually have to rise… ration (ограничивать) increasingly scarce supplies.
4. In many developing countries, the factor with… they are better supplied is land… they can take advantage of the world economy by exporting goods… require intensive land use.
б) In the USA there is a serious problem… water supplies are usually not owned by specific users…. results in their competitive over-use (чрезмерное использование) by farms, factories, and towns… one user can sink a well (пробурить колодец) and drain all the water supplies… they may be needed for many miles around. On a larger scale (в большем масштабе), greatly lowered levels of underground water in western states are due to huge irrigation projects…. the local authorities are much worried and are taking due measures, the problem has grown very serious in the Great Plains, in south-central Arizona, and in some parts of California
в) Ответьте на вопрос:
What are lower water supplies in some areas of the USA due to?
24. Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его. Кратко передайте содержание текста по– английски.
The rising efficiency and profitability of agricultural technology in the USA is due to three essential conditions.
First, the improvement in capital inputs. Farm machinery has grown larger and more complex. Each unit of capital can produce a larger output with about the same labour, which shows growing capital efficiency. The new equipment lets farmers both raise efficiency of their business and use less labour.
The second condition is improved fertilizers, insecticides and chemicals for livestock (домашний скот). In recent decades, much more and better fertilizer has been applied to soil, which resulted in better crops and let farmers have more crop cycles during the year. We know chemical insect and bacteria killers to be widely used for ground and tree crops. Higher efficiency of livestock farming is due to heavy doses of medicines and specially prepared chemical feeds (корма).
The third essential condition is better breeding (селекция). Since the 1920s, there have been genetic improvements in crops that have given faster growth, better resistance to insects and diseases, and larger yields (урожай) per plant. Livestock breeding has also become more efficient and profitable and produced better animals.
Unit 7
Circular Flow of Payments and National Income
Грамматика и лексика:
1. Инфинитив в функции определения
2. Вводящее слово there
Задание на дом № 1
1. В разделе «Грамматика и словообразование» проработайте § 16 и 17.
2. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с инфинитивом в качестве определения.
How much more efficiently than the government the private sector uses resources remains a problem to be discussed.
To keep the economy as close as possible to full employment is an essential aim to be reached by the government.
Larger investments in production expansion result in smaller amounts to be saved and to be distributed as dividends.
Durable goods are goods to be used in production in future or to be consumed over a long period of time.
A person starting his own business should have some financial capital to be used for buying needed inputs.
Farmers normally attract additional labour force to be used at harvest time.
3. Переведите на русский язык предложения с вводящим словом there.
Since the 1960s there has been an increasing tendency for population to move from city centres to the countryside.
Although in a perfect market there should always be a variety of sellers, large numbers of sellers are not always available in the real life.
There must be equilibrium between demand for and supply of goods.
In the United States, there live at present over two hundred million people.
There is clearly seen a tendency to put less weight on the government's role in an economy than in the past.
There have recently been offered nationwide schemes providing incentives for industrial investment.
4. Переведите текст Circular Flow of Payments and National Income и отработайте его чтение.
5. Найдите в тексте:
инфинитив в функции определения (второй, третий, пятый и седьмой абзацы);
инфинитив в функции подлежащего (первый абзац);
инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели (второй и пятый абзацы).
TEXT
Circular Flow of Payments and National Income
To have a glimpse in the working of the economy as a whole may be of use to a student of economics.
In every economy there are lots of households to supply labour and capital to firms that use them to produce goods and services. Firms provide incomes for households, who in turn[15] use this money to purchase the goods and services produced by firms. This process is called the circular flow of payments[16].
The gross domestic product (GDP) is the total money value of all final goods produced in the domestic economy over a one-year period. The GDP can be measured in three ways: (a) the sum of the value added[17] in the production within a year, (b) the sum of incomes received from producing the year's output, (c) the sum to spend on the year's domestic output of goods and services.
The total money value of all final goods and services in an economy over a one-year period, that is the GDP, plus property income from abroad (interest, rent, dividends and profits) make the gross national product (GNP). The GNP is an important measure of a country's economic well-being, while the GNP per head provides a measure of the average standard of living of the country's people. However, this is only an average measure of what people get. The goods and services available to particular individuals depend on the income distribution within the economy.
We now recognize that assets wear out in the production process either physically or become obsolete. This process is known as depreciation. There has to be part of the economy's gross output to replace existing capital, and this part of gross output is not available for consumption, investment, government spending, or exports. So we subtract depreciation from the GNP to arrive at national income.
National income measures the amount of money the economy has available for spending on goods and services after setting aside enough money[18] to replace resources used up in the production process.
Since output is determined by demand, the aggregate demand or spending plans of households and firms determine the level of the output produced, which in turn makes up the income available to households and firms. Aggregate demand is the amount to be spent by firms and households on goods and services.
Governments also intervene in the circular flow of income and payments. They buy a considerable part of the total output of goods and services in an economy adding their demand to the demand of the private sector. Since government spending is a large component of aggregate demand, and since taxes affect the amount households and companies have for spending, government spending and taxation decisions, which are referred to as[19] fiscal policy, have major effects on aggregate demand and output.
Словарный минимум к тексту
whole adv целый
as a whole – в целом
household и (условная) семья
gross domestic product (GDP) – валовой внутренний продукт (ВВП) (денежная стоимость всех товаров и услуг, произведенных в хозяйстве за определенный период)
gross adj Валовой; совокупный
domestic adj внутренний; отечественный; местный
final goods – готовые изделия, готовая продукция
measure v измерять
measure и мера, показатель, измерение; система мер
way n образ действия; метод; способ
a way of doing smth – способ, которым делается что-л.
in some way – каким-либо способом
property n собственность, имущество
abroad adv за границей, за границу
gross national product (GNP) валовой национальный продукт (ВНП) (ВВП плюс проценты, прибыли и дивиденды, полученные из-за рубежа)
while cj в то время как
average adj среднийstandard of living; living standard жизненный уровеньhowever adv однако, тем не менее
distribution n распределение
assets и фонды; имущество; активы
wear out (wore, worn)v изнашиватьсяdepreciation n 1. износ (оборудования), амортизация; 2. снижение стоимости; обесценивание
replace v (smth by / with smth) заменять(что-л. чём-л.)
Coal was replaced by oil. – Уголь был заменен нефтепродуктами,
exist v существовать, быть
spending n расходы
since 1)prep and cj с, с тех пор как; 2) cj так как; поскольку
determine v определять, устанавливать
aggregate demand – совокупный спрос(совокупный спрос на все товары и услуги в экономике в какое– то определенное время)
make up (made, made) v составлятьconsiderable adj значительный; большой
add v (to smth) добавлять, прибавлять (к чему-л.)
tax n налог
taxation n налогообложение
fiscal policy – налоговая, фискальная, бюджетная политика (использование государственных расходов для воздействия на экономику государства в целом)
Аудиторная работа № 1
6. Назовите номера предложений, в которых инфинитив является определением, и переведите их на русский язык.
1. In some rural areas of the USA and Canada it is common practice to be employed on a farm and elsewhere at the same time.
2. When each unit of capital input costs £320 per week and each unit of labour input costs £300 per week, the cheapest way to produce 100 units of output is to use labour-intensive technology (трудоемкая технология).
3. The value of the total output to be produced in the public sector and the private sector will make up the gross national product.
4. We know the quantity of capital inputs to affect the total output.
5. Competing suppliers may maintain their prices at a low level to attract customers from a higher-price firm.
6. Imports may be raw materials for domestic production or the goods to be consumed directly by households, such as a Japanese television set or a bottle of French wine.
7. Переведите на русский язык предложения со словом there.
1. There may be a number of ways to solve the problem of scarce information resources.
2. There exists considerable unemployment in some economies while a lot of vacancies (вакансия, незанятое рабочее место) cannot be filled.
3. In the 1980s, there continued a rise in the GNP per person in all groups of countries.
4. Since government intervention in agriculture has grown, there have occurred considerable changes in grain markets both of the USA and Europe.
5. There is a large amount of economic activity that cannot be measured, such as household services and the underground economy.
6. There exists close (тесная) relationship between minimum wages and standard of living.
7. If there is a subsidy for housing, there may be an incentive for the landowner to transfer land from farming to housing.
8. There is unequal (неравный) income distribution within each country as well as between (different) countries.
8. Найдите среди английских словосочетаний эквиваленты следующих русских словосочетаний:
амортизация фондов, обложение собственности налогом, экономика в целом, отечественное производство, существующие фонды, средняя заработная плата, средняя семья, крупная собственность, собственность за рубежом
existing assets, fiscal policy, to replace assets, taxation of assets abroad, property taxation, depreciation measure, depreciation of assets, circular flow of payments, average household, household spending, taxes imposed on households, home production, property abroad, economy as a whole, average wage, domestic production rather than production abroad, household property, domestic production, considerable property
9. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.
1. The (measure / way) in which the European Union's statistical system is adapting to requirements of the 21st century is of importance both inside and outside the European Union.
2. The marginal product of labour is how much each extra worker (adds to /makes up) total output.
3. In a dynamic political society old statistic systems have to be (replaced / determined) by new ones.
4. If a person can do what he wishes with his own (property / output), time, and energy, then economists say that he is economically free.
5. The price of a good in a market is (determined / measured) by the law of demand and supply
6. (Gross/aggregate) demand is the total amount of (spending/ depreciation) on (final / domestic) goods and services.
7. You and your family have an annual (годовой) income which allows you to consume various goods and services, live in a particular neighbourhood (район) and maintain a certain (standard of living/fiscal policy).
Задание на дом № 2
10. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на использование инфинитива.
1. Stabilization policy is government actions to control the level of output in order to keep the GNP close to its full-employment level.
2. Although money is a helpful tool to measure output, there may arise certain difficulties.
3. A: ting through their governments, societies can decide how much they want to take measures to change the distribution of income.
4. Economists consider capital to be the property owned by an individual or corporation at a given time.
5. Governments regulate the level of aggregate demand in order to maintain full employment and stimulate economic growth.
6. As taxes affect levels of prices for various groups of goods, they influence the way to allocate resources in the economy.
7. To calculate depreciation is necessary in order to know the value of the assets of an enterprise.
11. Вставьте в тексты (а) и (б) указанные ниже предлоги и союзы, где это необходимо:
in, to, of, while, by, who, which, on, since, through, where, however, for
а) Household is a group of people… make economic decisions together. In economic theory households have two roles: they enter the market as buyers or consumers… goods and services produced… firms and they provide… factor inputs… firms… order to produce those goods and services. The term «household» is used… national income analysis, supply and demand analysis it is replaced… the term «consumer»,
б) Black economy is nonmarket economic activity… is not included… the national income accounts, either because such activity does not pass… the market or because it is illegal. Illegal economic activity may exist in the usual price system… is determined… demand and supply. Examples may be the purchase and sale of illegal drags… the street, or alcohol… the US prohibition era… the 1920s.
…, some nonmarket activity is carried out… non-profit-making purposes. For example, a housewife provides services… her family. Other nonmarket activity is done… a barter basis, for example…. a mechanic selves a motor car of an electrician… in return helps the mechanic install light fittings (установить осветительную аппаратуру)… the house…. there has been no money paid, the activity does not add… the G DP and so does not exist for statistics.
в) Напишите пять вопросов к тексту (б).
г) Кратко передайте содержание текста (б).
12. Измените следующие предложения, используя формы страдательного залога.
1. Final goods absorb the value of intermediate components and services.
2. The GDP does not include the value of imported goods and services.
3. We won't rely upon the statistics provided by the agency.
4. Chemists and engineers are looking for alternative automobile fuels.
5. The natural resources examination data have made up the basis for a nationwide environment conservation project.
6. The government has distributed support among producers.
7. The government has to provide tax relief for smaller producers.
8. The US administration applies its farming support policies flexibly.
Аудиторная работа № 2
13. а) Ответьте на вопросы к тексту Circular Flow of Payments and National Income.
1. What process is known as the circular flow of payments?
2. What is the gross domestic product?
3. What is the gross national product?
4. What does the GNP indicate?
5. How is national income determined?
6. What is aggregate demand?
7. How do government activities affect the aggregate demand?
8. What is fiscal policy?
б) Подумайте и скажите:
1. Can the average standard of living reflect the actual way in which people of all social groups live?
2. How can government spending stimulate the development of a particular industry?
14. Заполните пропуски следующими словами и выражениями из словарного минимума к тексту Circular Flow of Payments and National Income в соответствующей форме:
household, while (2), to determine, to add to, asset, to make up (2), property, as a whole, since, spending, distribution
1. A worker receives his wages… the owner of the enterprise receives the profit from the whole business.
2. In comparing (сравнивать) national incomes it is not important which members of the population own these… and earn this income; in analyzing the… of incomes within a country it becomes important.
3… macroeconomic problems characterize the economy, they are more spoken about on television and in newspapers… microeconomic problems are of interest to a limited number of economists.
4. Labour should not be employed when additional employment… more… costs than revenue.
5. Individual income of wages and… earnings such as dividends, rent, etc.
6. The demand for labour by firms depends on its productivity which…… by the available technology and capital.
7. The aggregate demand of demand in the following three sectors of the economy: imt government, and business.
8. To reduce the budget deficit by £1 billion it is necessary to cut government… by 1 billion.
15. Вместо подчеркнутых определительных придаточных предложений используйте инфинитив.
ОБРАЗЕЦ: Measures that the government will take will not be popular. – > Measures to be taken by the government will not be popular.
1. This is the best method that we can use in order to compare the productivity of capital in different industries.
2. Engineers have developed a soya-based car fuel which is to replace petrol one day.
3. Intermediate goods are the goods that will be used as inputs in production of other goods.
4. Intermediate products are the goods and services that are not to be counted as part of the gross national product.
5. Final goods are the goods that will be consumed by end-users.
6. The purpose of a demand analysis which will have to be done is to determine which products the company can sell and at what price.
7. The labour supply is a measure which can be offered at given wages at a certain time.
8. Labour supply is determined by the number of workers who will be available for commercial production and the average number of hours that can be worked by available workers.
16. Составьте предложения из двух подходящих по смыслу частей.
1. Taxes have a great effect on the way
2. Economists consider the value of total output of the public sector as well as the private sector
3. The GDP is the basic measure
4. In most countries higher living standards of the typical man rather than
5. Import is a good which is produced abroad
6. One person's spending must be
7. Individual incomes come either from working or from property
8. When industries were first nationalized in Britain, many of them after the Second World War, the governments' aim was
a. their international image are of prime importance.
b. someone else's income.
c. to provide conditions under which nationalized industries could not be run directly by ministers, but through boards of directors with a considerable measure of managerial independence.
d. society allocates its scarce resources.
e. which earns rent, dividends, and interest.
f. to make up the gross national product.
g. and which is then transported to and sold in the home market.
h. of the total output of goods and services in the economy.
Задание на дом № 3
17. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The aggregate price level is a measure of the average level of prices of goods and services in the economy, relative to their prices at some particular date in the past.
2. The amount of information to be used in measuring the GNP is enormous, and there are always errors in collecting and adding up numbers. So, aggregate data – the data that represent the whole economy – can never be fully accurate and complete.
3. Material goods and services make up only a part of a person's welfare. Besides, there should be available such costless rights as freedom of speech and others.
4. In the 1980s British workers in the gas and electricity industries earned £20 a week more than the national average wage and earned considerably more than workers in the textile industry.
5. The primary sector together with the industrial sector and the service sector form a chain of economic activities which make up a whole economy
6. They believe there are considerable advantages to be obtained from increasing the size of the enterprise.
7. Due to taxes, part of the income of households to be spent on consumer goods and services is reduced.
18. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Совокупное предложение зависит от рынков товаров и труда.
2. Следует знать средний темп увеличения зарплаты в год.
3. После покупки предприятия в прошлом месяце новый владелец не стал заменять всю управленческую команду немедленно.
4. Увеличение государственных расходов и заимствований (borrowing) оказывает некоторое воздействие на процентные ставки (interest rates), которые будут предложены банками.
5. Модель кругооборота дохода показывает, как, в денежном выражении, семьи покупают товары и услуги у фирм, используя доход, полученный от поставки фирмам факторов производства.
6. Средние прямые правительственные выплаты американским фирмам в субсидируемых отраслях колеблются в зависимости от размера фирмы.
7. Хотя власти США наложили некоторые ограничения на импорт зерна из Европейского Союза, нет никаких доказательств, что это в значительной степени сократило экспорт из ЕС.
19. а) Вставьте пропущенные предлоги, частицы и союзы, где это необходимо.
Economic growth is usually measured… terms… an increase… the real GNP or GDP over time or an increase… income… head over time. The latter measure relates (соотносить) increases… total output to changes… the population. If total output rises faster than the increase… population, there will be an improvement… average standards… living.
The importance… economic growth is… its contribution… the general wealth… society… a whole. Growth is desirable… it lets the society… consume more private and public goods and services (health and education), improving… real standards… living. However, rapid economic growth can also contribute… using… natural resources and adds… environmental pollution.

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