(Amsterdam University Press — Film Culture in Transition) Erika Balsom-Exhibiting Cinema in Contemporary Art-Amsterdam Univer..


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VinzenzHedigerandPatrickVonderau(eds.)
FilmsthatWork:IndustrialFilmandtheProductivityofMedia,
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PasiVäliaho
MappingtheMovingImage:Gesture,ThoughtandCinemacirca
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MarijkedeValckandMalteHagener(eds.)
Cinephilia:Movies,LoveandMemory,
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ThomasElsaesser
EuropeanCinema:FacetoFacewithHollywood,
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MichaelWalker
Hitchcock
sMotifs,
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NannaVerhoeff
TheWestinEarlyCinema:AftertheBeginning,
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AnatZanger
FilmRemakesasRitualandDisguise:FromCarmentoRipley,
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WandaStrauven
TheCinemaofAttractionsReloaded,
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MovingForward,LookingBack:TheEuropeanAvant-gardeandtheInventionofFilm
Culture,
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EgilTörnqvist
Ibsen,StrindbergandtheIntimateTheatre:StudiesinTVPresentation,
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MichaelTempleandJamesS.Williams(eds.)
TheCinemaAlone:EssaysontheWorkofJean-LucGodard
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PatriciaPistersandCatherineM.Lord(eds.)
MicropoliticsofMediaCulture:ReadingtheRhizomesofDeleuzeandGuattari,
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MalaysianCinema,AsianFilm:BorderCrossingsandNationalCultures,
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FilmCultureinTransition
GeneralEditor:
ThomasElsaesser
ThomasElsaesser,RobertKievitandJanSimons(eds.)
DoubleTrouble:ChiemvanHouweningeonWritingandFilming,
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ThomasElsaesser,JanSimonsandLucetteBronk(eds.)
WritingfortheMedium:TelevisioninTransition,

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ALittleDeath
NowhereBoy
StillLife
TaxiDriver
TelQuel
Terminator
franchise(
TerSteege,Johanna
Tessier,Danièle
Thacker,Eugene
ThreetoTango
TimeZones:RecentFilmandVideo
Modern,London,
TreasuresofTutankhamen
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Sherman,Cindy
sOutofControl
Sirk,Douglas
ImitationofLife
Sitney,P.Adams
SituationistInternational
\t\n
Smithson,Robert
Snow,Michael
Wavelength
SnowWhiteinSnowWhiteandtheSeven
Sobchack,Vivian
255
videoprojection
Proust,Marcel
Quandt,James
Raad,Walid
Racine,Bruno
RadicalSoftwareGroup
franchise(
Rancière,Jacques
Rauschenberg,Robert
appropriation;foundfoo-
tage;remake
Seealso
convergence
Renoir,Jean
RulesoftheGame
LaRègledujeu
Renov,Michael
Resnais,Alain
LastYearatMarienbad
Annéeder-
nièreàMarienbad
NightandFog
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Müller,VanessaJoan
Mulvey,Laura
MuseumofModernArt(MoMA)
Nabokov,Vladimir
narrative
Nauman,Bruce
RindeSpinning,
Negri,Antonio
Neshat,Shirin
WomenWithoutMen
Zanan-ebedun-
emardan
Newman,Michael
Nichols,Bill
Nicholson,Jack
NightoftheHunter,The
HitchcockandContemporary
(MuseumofModernArt,Oxford,
Novak,Kim
novelty
,Brian
opticalunconscious(Benjamin)
OrdinaryPeople
otheredcinema
OtolithGroup
Oursler,Tony
Paik,NamJune
forFilm
Païni,Dominique
Pantenburg,Volker
Passagesdel
(CentreGeorges
Pompidou,Paris,
photochemicalfilm
o,Gillo
BattleofAlgiers
LaBattagliadiAlgeri
PostcardsfromtheEdge
Poussin,Nicolas
LandscapewithaManKilledbyaSnake
LandscapewithaCalm
253
Lessig,Lawrence
Lessing,GottholdEphraim
Levinas,Emmanuel
Lévi-Strauss,Claude
limitededition
Lind,Maria
Lindsay,Vachel
Lockhart,Sharon
PineFlat
London,Barbara
Longo,Robert
Lopez,Jennifer
Lotringer,Sylvère
Lovink,Geert
Lowry,Glenn
Lukács,Georg
Lumièrebrothers
Arrivéed
untrainàlaCiotat
FeedingtheBaby
Repasdebébé
Lynch,David
MacDonald,Scott
MacLaine,Shirley
MagnumForce
Magritte,René
Leseauxprofondes
Mamoulian,Rouben
Dr.JekyllandMr.Hyde
Manovich,Lev
Marclay,Christian
TheClock
MarianGoodmanGallery
Marker,Chris
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Huyssen,Andreas
Iles,Chrissie
Kino:Die
.KunstaufderSuchenach
(KunsthausZürich,
ImaginaryCrimes
immateriallabor
theLight:TheProjectedImagein
AmericanArt,
MuseumofAmericanArt,New
Jacobs,Ken
PerfectFilm
Tom,Tom,thePiper
sSon
Jameson,Frederic
JeanCocteau:Surlefilsdusiècle
GeorgesPompidou,Paris,
Jenkins,Henry
Julien,Isaac
Kanwar,Amar
ANightofProphecy
ASeasonOutside
MaWinMawOo
,from
TheTorn
FirstPages
TheFace
,from
TheTornFirst
TheLightningTestimonies
TheTornFirstPages
251
Graham,Dan
Graham,Rodney
StrangersonaTrain
TheBirds
TheManWhoKnewTooMuch
ToCatchaThief
Topaz
TornCurtain
Vertigo
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
ExperimentswithTruth
(FabricWork-
shopandMuseum,Philadelphia,
Ezawa,Kota
LYAM
Fassbinder,RainerWerner
BerlinAlexanderplatz
Fast,Omer
sList
TheCasting
FatheroftheBride
filmtheory
,David
TheCuriousCaseofBenjaminButton
Fisher,Morgan
Seealso
Fluxusgroup
Ford,John
TheSearchers
Foster,Hal
Foucault,Michel
foundfootage
,Catherine
Frey,Mattias
Friedberg,Anne
FutureCinema:TheCinematicImaginary
afterFilm
(ZKM,Karlsruhe,
GalerieAndreasHuber
Galloway,Alex
Galt,Rosalind
Gandhi,Mahatma
Gehr,Ernie
Eureka
Gehry,Frank
Gianikian,Yervant
Ricci-Lucchi,Angela
Gierstberg,Frits
249
SectionCinéma
TeignmouthElectron
TheGreenRay
Totality
DeBaecque,Antoine
DeCerteau
Debord,Guy
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Bush,GeorgeW.
Butler,Alison
Butler,Judith
Cahiersducinéma
Cameron,James
Avatar
Campbell,Jim
IlluminatedAverage#
Campbell,Neve
247
Barney,Matthew
Cremaster
CremasterCycle
Barry,Iris
Barrymore,Drew
Bartana,Yael
Barthes,Roland
Baudelaire,Charles
Baudrillard,Jean
Baudry,Jean-Louis
Baykal,Emre
Bazin,André
SingularPlural:MovingImagesfrom
(DeutscheGuggenheim,Berlin,
Bellour,Raymond
Benjamin,Walter
Benning,James
BerlinAlexanderplatz
AnExhibition
(Kunst-WerkeInstituteforContem-
Art,Berlin,andP.S.
,New
Berloff,Andrea
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Evenings:TheaterandEngineering
(Armory,NewYork,
Abramovic,Marina
SevenEasyPieces
Acconci,Vito
Adorno,Theodor
Ahtila,Eija-Liisa
Was
Ahwesh,Peggy
TheColorofLove
Aitken,Doug
Akerman,Chantal
NewsFromHome
Alea,TomásGutiérrez
MemoriesofUnderdevelopment
oriasdelsubdesarrollo
Allen,Woody
Altman,Robert
Alys,Francis
AmericanGraffiti
exhibitingcinema;photoche-
micalfilm
Anderson,Wes
HotelChevalier
TheDarjeelingLimited
Andrew,Dudley
AngelEyes
Antonioni,Michelangelo
ZabriskiePoint
ApocalypseNow
alsodispositif
Seealso
recycling;remake
Arcangel,Cory
archive
Aronofsky,Darren
TheWrestler
arthistory
ArtInstituteofChicago
Arthur,Paul
Assche,Christinevan
Ataman,Kutlu
ofVeronicaRead
Twelve
WomenWhoWearWigs
Chapter4
\b
OmerFast,
TheCasting
).Installationviewofafour-channelvideo,
sound,
mmtransferredtovideo.CommissionedbyMuseummoderner
Kunst,StiftungLudwig,Wien.Courtesyoftheartist,Arratia,Beer,Berlinand
gbAgency,Paris.©OmerFast.
Kutlu
Ataman,
WomenWhoWearWigs
).Installationviewofa
four-channelvideoinstallation.CourtesyoftheartistandThomasDaneGallery,
Eija-LiisaAhtila,
).Installationviewofa
mmfilm
transferredtoDVD,installationfor
projectionswithsound,
.©Crystal
EyeLtd,Helsinki,courtesyMarianGoodmanGallery,NewYorkandParis.
AmarKanwar,
TheTornFirstPages


).Installationviewofa
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
MatthewBuckingham,
FalseFuture
).Stillfromacontinuousblack-
and-white
mmfilmprojectionwithsound,
,dimensionsvariable.©
MatthewBuckingham,courtesyofMurrayGuy,NewYork.
TacitaDean,
).Stillfroma
mmcolourfilm,silent,
Courtesyoftheartist,MarianGoodmanGallery,NewYorkandParis,andFrith
IllustrationCredits
Kutlu
).InstallationviewattheSortingOffice,New
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
IllustrationCredits
Introduction
StanDouglas,
Overture
).Stillfromablack-and-white
mmfilm
withloopingdeviceandmonoopticalsoundtrack.Overalldimensionsvary
witheachinstallation.Editionoftwo.CourtesytheartistandDavidZwirner,
NewYork.
Chapter1
Installationviewof
Wasson,Haidee.
MuseumMovies:TheMuseumofModernArtandtheBirthofArtCinema
Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,
Wees,WilliamC.
RecycledImages:TheArtandPoliticsofFoundFootageFilms
.NewYork:
AnthologyFilmArchives,
WhitneyFocus
).Accessed
.http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=TYfIxEfywKM.
Willemen,Paul.
LooksandFrictions:EssaysinCulturalStudiesandFilmTheory
.Blooming-
ton:IndianaUniversityPress,
Williams,Linda.
DisciplineandDistraction:
,VisualCulture,andPostmodern
andtheProblemoftheDisciplines
,editedbyJohnCarlosRowe,
.NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,
ViewingPositions:WaysofSeeingFilm
,editedbyLindaWilliams,
.NewBrunswick,NJ:RutgersUniversityPress,
Bibliography
Serres,Michel.
TheParasite
.TranslatedbyLawrenceR.Schehr.Minneapolis:University
ofMinnesotaPress,
Sitney,P.Adams.
VisionaryFilm:TheAmericanAvant-Garde,
ThirdEdition
.Ox-
fordandNewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,
Sobchack,Vivian.
CarnalThoughts:EmbodimentandMovingImageCulture
.Berkeley:Uni-
versityofCaliforniaPress,
Spears,Dorothy.
PipilottiRist:MOMA.
ArtinAmerica
,no.
(January
SpecialSection:MuseumBlockbuster.
ArtinAmerica
(June
Spector,Nancy,ed.
MatthewBarney:TheCremasterCycle
.NewYork:GuggenheimMu-
seumPublications,
Steinberg,Leo.
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Putnam,James.
ArtandArtifact:TheMuseumasMedium
.NewYork:ThamesandHud-
Quandt,James.
DoubleExposure.
Rancière,Jacques.
Lecinémadansle
del
Cahiersducinéma
TheFutureoftheImage
.TranslatedbyGregoryElliott.London:Verso,
Bibliography
Mulvey,Laura.
TimesaSecond:StillnessandtheMovingImage
.London:Reaktion,
VisualandOtherPleasures
.Bloomington:IndianaUniversityPress,
VisualPleasureandNarrativeCinema.
Narrative,Apparatus,Ideology:AFilmThe-
oryReader
,editedbyPhilipRosen,
.NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,
MuseumofModernArt,NewYork.
Multiplex:DirectionsinArt,
toNow
.Accessed
.http://www.moma.org/collection/brow-
MuseumofModernArt,andCreativeTime.
MoMAandCreativeTimePresent
Aitken:Sleepwalkers
.Large-ScaleCinematicInstallationtoBeProjectedontothe
FaçadesofTheMuseumofModernArt,RhythmsandEnergiesofNewYorkandIts
InhabitantsInspireMajorPublicArtwork.
.Accessed
http://press.moma.org/wp-content/press-archives/PRESS_RELEASE_ARCHIVE/Ait-
Nabokov,Vladimir.
TransparentThings.
NewYork:McGraw-HillInternational,Inc,
Newman,Michael.
MediumandEventintheWorkofTacitaDean.
TacitaDean:
RecentFilmsandOtherWorks
.London:Tate,
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Lovink,Geert.
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TheCulturalLogicoftheLateCapitalistMuseum.
TheOriginalityoftheAvant-GardeandOtherModernistMyths.
Cambridge:MITPress,
ReinventingtheMedium.
CriticalInquiry
,no.
ReinventingtheMedium:Introductionto
JamesColeman
,editedby
GeorgeBaker,
.Cambridge:MITPress,
TheRock
:WilliamKentridge
sDrawingsforProjection.
TwoMomentsfromthePost-MediumCondition.
AVoyageontheNorthSea
:ArtintheAgeofthePost-MediumCondition
.London:
ThamesandHudson,
Lange,Christy.
DouglasGordon:TenYearsAgoToday.
,edited
byNancySpector,
NewYork:SolomonR.GuggenheimMuseum,
Lazzarato,Maurizzio.
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Hermange,Emmanuel.
Pournous,lecinémaestmort
:Notessurquelquesstratégies
cinéphilesdel
(July-September
Hilderbrand,Lucas.
InherentVice:BootlegHistoriesofVideotapeandCopyright
.Durham:
DukeUniversityPress,
Horrigan,Bill.
FiveYearsLater.
ArtandtheMovingImage:ACriticalReader
,editedby
TanyaLeighton,
.London:TatePublishingandAfterallBooks,
Horwath,Alexander.
SecondLives
TheDocumenta
FilmProgramme.
.http://www.documenta
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Galloway,Alexander.
Protocol:HowControlExistsafterDecentralization
.Cambridge:MIT
Galloway,AlexanderR.,andEugeneThacker.
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
DoestheMuseumFail?PodiumDiscussionatthe
rdInternationalShortFilmFesti-
valOberhausen.
Kinomuseum:TowardsanArtists
,editedbyMikeSperlinger
andIanWhite,
.Cologne:VerlagderBüchhandlungWaltherKönig,
Eakin,Emily.
CelluloidHero,
TheNewYorker
.Accessed
http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/
EditorialNotes.
TheMeaningofDecayinArt.
TranslatedbyJohnShepley.In
DebordandtheSituationistInternational:TextsandDocuments
,editedbyTomMc-
.Cambridge:MITPress,
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Daney,Serge.
Journaldel
anpassé.
Trafic
PostcardsfromtheCinema
.TranslatedbyPaulDouglasGrant.NewYork:Berg,
LaRampe:Cahiercritique,
.Paris:Cahiersducinéma,
Danto,Arthur.
BeyondtheBrilloBox:TheVisualArtsinPost-HistoricalPerspective
.Berkeley:
UniversityofCaliforniaPress,
Davila,Thierry.
InventingConsciousness.
TranslatedbyC.Penwarden,
ArtPress
Dean,Tacita.
ArtistQuestionnaire:
Fernsehturm:BackwardsintotheFuture.
TacitaDean:SevenBooks
SelectedWrit-
,np.Paris:ÉditionsdesMuséesdelaVilledeParisandSteidlPublishers,
TheGreenRay.
TacitaDean:FilmWorks
,editedbyRinaCaravajal,
.Milan:
EdizioniCharta,
TacitaDean:FilmWorks
,editedbyRinaCaravajal,
Milan:Edizioni
HistoricalFiction.
SaveCelluloid,ForArt
sSake,
TheGuardian
.Accessed
.http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/
DeBaecque,Antoine.
expoGodard,
compromissionsimpossibles.
).Accessed
.http://www.liberation.fr/cahier-special/
Passagesdel
image:Iconoclastes,iconolâtres.
Cahiersducinéma
DeCerteau,Michel.
ThePracticeofEverydayLife
.TranslatedbyStevenRendall.Berkeley:
UniversityofCaliforniaPress,
Debord,Guy.
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Bonitzer,Pascal.
HitchcockianSuspense.
TranslatedbyMartinThom.In
You
veAlwaysWantedtoKnowaboutJacquesLacan...ButWereAfraidtoAskHitchcock
editedbySlavoj
.London:Verso,
Bordwell,David.
TheWayHollywoodTellsIt:StoryandStyleinModernMovies
.Berkeley:
UniversityofCaliforniaPress,
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IdeologicalEffectsoftheBasicCinematographicApparatus.
TranslatedbyAlan
Williams.In
Narrative,Apparatus,Ideology:AFilmTheoryReader
,editedbyPhilip
.NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,
Baykal,Emre.
Ataman:YouTellMeAboutYourselfAnyway!
TranslatedbyNazim
Dikbas.IstanbulandCologne:YapiKrediPublicationsandBuchhandlungWalther
Bazin,André.
WhatIsCinema?VolumeOne
.TranslatedbyHughGrey.Berkeley:Univer-
sityofCaliforniaPress,
Bellour,Raymond.
BattleoftheImages.
FutureCinema:TheCinematicImaginaryafter
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Bibliography
Adorno,Theodor.
.SusanSontag,
RegardingthePainofOthers
(NewYork:Picador,
Cinemaand
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
225
.PaulWillemen,
AnAvant-Gardeforthe
LooksandFrictions:Essaysin
CulturalStudiesandFilmTheory
(London:BritishFilmInstitute,
.OkwuiEnwezor,
Documentary/Verité:Bio-Politics,HumanRights,andtheFigure
inContemporaryArt,
TheGreenroom:ReconsideringtheDocumentary
andContemporaryArt#
,ed.MariaLindandHitoSteyerl(BerlinandAnnandale-on-
Hudson:SternbergPressandCenterforCuratorialStudies,BardCollege,
.Willemen,
.Ibid.,
.EmreBaykal,
KutlugAtaman:YouTellMeAboutYourselfAnyway!
,trans.Nazim
Dikbas(IstanbulandCologne:YapiKrediPublicationsandBuchhandlungWalther
.GeneYoungblood,
ExpandedCinema
(NewYork:E.P.DuttonandCo.,Inc.,
.Alsoin
,RolandBartheswrote,
problemisnottodestroy
narrativebuttosubvertit;today
staskistodissociatesubversionfrom
See:RolandBarthes,
TheThirdMeaning,
ImageMusicText
trans.StephenHeath(NewYork:HillandWang,
.LauraMulvey,
Changes:ThoughtsonMyth,Narrative,andHistoricalExperi-
VisualandOtherPleasures
(Bloomington:IndianaUniversityPress,
.Ibid.,
Eija-LiisaAhtila,quotedin:SamanthaEllis,
Eija-LiisaAhtila,
.AlisonButler,
FeministFilmintheGallery:
Was
CameraObscura
,no.
\b
.Eija-LiisaAhtila,quotedin:MagdalenaMalm,
TheIdeaofLinearityBothersMe,
AnInterviewwithEija-LiisaAhtila,
BlackBoxIlluminated
,ed.
SaraArrhenius,MagdalenaMalm,andCristinaRicupero(Stockholm:Propexus,
.HalFoster,
,PamelaLeewrotethat,
Forclose
totenyearsnow,thatambientphenomenonknownastheartworldhasbeenhitby
whatamountstoanidentitycrisis,moreoftenthannotfiguredunderthesignof
globalization.Flipthroughthecataloguesandmagazines,surveytheprincipal
actorsandbitplayers,tracktheever-proliferatingbiennials
fromSaoPauloto
ShanghaitoIstanbul
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
StreamsideDayFollies
)and
AJourneyThatWasn
)allfitwith
fourthgeneration,
disruptingsomewhatthecleandivisionshehopesto
make.Itshouldalsobenotedthatthenotionthatthese
fourthgeneration
practicesengageinanexplorationoftemporalityisechoedbyDanielBirnbaum
Chronology
,atextthattakesupconceptsdrawnfromphenomenologyandDeleuze
223
.JeanBaudrillard,
,trans.PhilipBeitchman,PaulFoss,andPaulPatton
(NewYork:Semiotext[e],
.JeanBaudrillard,
TheVitalIllusion
,ed.JuliaWitwer(NewYork:Columbia
UniversityPress,
.Inhisintroductionto
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
MarkB.N.Hansen,
NewPhilosophyforNewMedia
(Cambridge:MITPress,
.AsFrederickWasserhaswritten,
Pornobecameamajorpropellantinthe
221
Museum,NewYork,exhibitedtheworkinitslobbyon
asapartof
atwenty-fourhourmarathonoftalksandperformancesconcerningtheconceptof
.MariaWalsh,
CinemaintheGallery:DiscontinuityandPotentialSpaceinSalla
sTrilogy,
SensesofCinema
(September-October
);availableonline:
/salla_tykka_trilogy,accessed
.Birnbaum,
.DouglasGordon,quotedin:AmyTaubin,
HourPsycho
Spellbound:Artand
,ed.IanChristieandPhilipDodd(London:BFIPublishing,
.Incidentally,thisshotwasnotincludedinthetheatricalcutofthefilmbutcanbe
seenonthespecialfeaturesdocumentary
TheMakingof
Psycho
onthe
Psycho
sEdition
DVDreleasedbyUniversal.
.DouglasGordon,quotedin:Hermange,
.Mulvey,
.ChristyLangenotesthatthoughtheworkwasoriginallyproducedusingthisVCR,
inrecentyears,theworkhasbeendigitizedanditsslowmotionregulatedbya
computer.Whilethisisaninterestingcaseofhowtopreserveandexhibitmedia
artworksamidsttechnologicalchange,myanalysisconsiders
HourPsycho
aninstallationusingacommercially-availablevideotapeandaVCRsincethisis
howitwasoriginallyexhibited.See:ChristyLange,
DouglasGordon:TenYears
AgoToday,
,ed.NancySpector(NewYork:SolomonR.
GuggenheimMuseum,
.Taubin,
.Morethan
Tom,Tom,thePiper
sSon
,whichinvolvesextensive
Psycho
doesfindaprecedentinJacobs
PerfectFilm
forwhichthefilmmakerfoundouttakesfromatelevisionstudio
sreportageafter
theMalcolmXassassination,namedit
PerfectFilm
,andcirculatedasafilm
withoutanyalteration.AperhapsmorerelevantfilmfromtheAmerican
experimentaltraditionisErnieGehr
),whichopticallyreprintsthe
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
.See:YannMoulierBoutang,
LeCapitalismecognitif:lagrandetransformation
ÉditionsAmsterdam,
).Boutang
sterminology,however,riskssoundingasif
thisispurelyamatterofintellectuallabor,elidingtheimportanceofaffectandcare
toinstancesofimmateriallabor.
.Lazzarato,
ImmaterialLabour,
.WalterBenjamin,
ReplytoOscarA.H.Schmitz,
trans.RodneyLivingstone,in
SelectedWritings,VolumeTwo,PartOne,
,ed.MichaelW.Jennings,Howard
Eiland,andGarySmith(Cambridge:TheBelknapPressofHarvardUniversity
.Inthesecondversionofhis
WorkofArt
essay,Benjaminnotesthat
whatislost
inthewitheringofsemblanceandthedecayofaurainworksofartismatchedbya
hugegaininthescopeforplay[
].Thisspaceforplayiswidestinfilm
).AsMiriamHansenhasargued,thenotionofplay
providesBenjaminwitha
219
.Thestarsandfilmsusedare:JuliaRobertsin
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
217
AngelaBulloch,quotedin:MariaWalsh,
TheLightFantastic:AngelaBulloch
InterviewedbyMariaWalsh,
ArtMonthly
.GuyDebord,
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Vertigo
bodydouble
)takeup
),astoryof
pathologicaldoubling,while
bodydouble
)remakes
bodydouble
215
)drawonthemise-en-scèneofrenaissancepaintingstoproduce
slow-motioninvestigationsofhumanemotionandexpression.
.ChrissieIles,
RoundTable:TheProjectedImageinContemporaryArt,
.Telephoneconversationwiththeauthor,
.RadicalSoftwareGroupusedcustom-designedsoftwaretoeliminateallwhite
characters.Acomputerisolatedeachshotofthefilmandthendid
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
.DavidBordwell,
TheWayHollywoodTellsIt:StoryandStyleinModernMovies
(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,
.ClaudeLévi-Strauss,
TheStructuralStudyofMyth,
StructuralAnthropology
trans.ClaireJacobsonandBrookeSchoepf(NewYork:BasicBooks,
FredericJameson,
ThePoliticalUnconscious:NarrativeasaSociallySymbolicAct
(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,
.Lessig,
213
.Paramount
slawyersstatedthatthecompanyhasspent$
milliononproducing
thefilmandhadorwouldspend$
milliononadvertising.See:Paramount
PicturesCorporationvs.ChrisMoukarbel,
sMemoranduminSupportof
itsMotionforTemporaryRestrainingOrderandPreliminaryInjunction
.ChrisMoukarbel,quotedin:FeliciaR.Lee,
AnArtistReleasesaNewFilmAfter
ParamountBlocksHisFirst,
NewYorkTimes
);availableonline:http://
www.nytimes.com/
film.html,accessed
.JudithButler,
PrecariousLife:ThePowersofMourningandViolence
(London:Verso,
significantinformationsuchasthenumberandgeographicallocationofvisitorsto
thesite.
.JackValenti,quotedin:AmyHarmon,
BlackHawkDownload:MovingBeyond
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
.JonathanWalley,
ModesofFilmPracticeintheAvant-Garde,
Artandthe
MovingImage:ACriticalReader
,ed.TanyaLeighton(London:TatePublishingand
AfterallBooks,
.PaulYoung,
BlackBoxWhiteCube,
ArtandAuction
);available
online:http://www.artinfo.com/news/story/
/black-box-white-cube//,accessed
.ScottMacDonald,
mm:ReportsofItsDeathAreGreatlyExaggerated;InFocus:
TheDeathof
CinemaJournal
,no.
.Hansenwrites,
Thenotionofauraasapremonitionoffuturecatastropheharks
backtomedicaltheoriessinceantiquitythatusethetermtodescribesymptomsof
211
Itmightbefun.
VladimirNabokov,
TransparentThings
(NewYork:McGraw-Hill
International,Inc,
.ThisisapositionTroddrepeatswordforwordattheendofheressay,
LackofFit:
TacitaDean,Modernism,andtheSculpturalFilm.
sassertionthatDean
workcannotbeseenasreactivatinga
utopianpromisedormantincinema
weakindeed,suggestingeventhatthisissupportedbythefactthatDean
sisa
failedcinemasinceitisnotmadeformovietheaterexhibition,therebyrevealingan
incrediblynarrowunderstandingofcinemaandwhatitmightmeantoexcavatean
alternativefutureforit.See:TamaraTrodd,
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
.SusanStewart,
OnLonging:NarrativesoftheMiniature,theGigantic,theSouvenir,the
(Durham:DukeUniversityPress,
;emphasisintext.
.Benjamin,
TheArcadesProject
.Ibid.
.MichaelNewman,
209
.Adorno
spositionisdevelopedthroughouthisbodyofwork,butfindsspecial
emphasisthroughouthis
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
207
Lies:PerceptualRealism,DigitalImagesandFilmTheory,
FilmQuarterly
,no.
.MartinHeidegger,
TheQuestionConcerningTechnology,
TheQuestion
ConcerningTechnologyandOtherEssays
,trans.WilliamLovitt(NewYork:Harper
.Foraninvestigationintothemythologyofthisfoundingmoment,see:Tom
Gunning,
doesnotmakeaclaiminfavourofitsreality,itdoesnotprotestitsformerexistence;
itdoesnotclingtome:itisnota
.Liketherealworld,thefilmicworldis
sustainedbythepresumptionthat,asHusserlsays,
theexperiencewillconstantly
continuetoflowbyinthesameconstitutivestyle
;butthePhotographbreaksthe
constitutivestyle
(thisisitsastonishment);itis
withoutfuture
(thisisitspathos,its
melancholy);init,noprotensity,whereasthecinemaisprotensive,henceinnoway
melancholic(whatisit,then?
Itis,then,simply
likelife).
CameraLucida:ReflectionsonPhotography,
trans.RichardHoward(New
York:HillandWang,
.Schafhausen,
.T.J.Clark,
TheSightofDeath:AnExperimentinArtWriting
(NewHaven:Yale
UniversityPress,
.Ibid.,
.RolandBarthes,
TheNeutral
,trans.RosalindKraussandDenisHollier(NewYork:
ColumbiaUniversityPress,
MovieKodakMadeforIndividualUsers,
NewYorkTimes
,January
.HaideeWasson,
MuseumMovies:TheMuseumofModernArtandtheBirthofArt
(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,
.See:Wasson,
.Itshouldalsobeemphasizedthattheavailabilityofreduction
printsin
mmwerecrucialtothedevelopmentoffilmstudiesasadiscipline,asit
wouldhavebeenprohibitivelyexpensiveforuniversitydepartmentstorentand
.ForemostamongsuchexceptionswouldbedeRijkeanddeRooij
semploymentof
mm,asdiscussedabove.Onlythreeoftheirfilmshavebeenmadein
ThreeMen
BantarGebang
),and
allofwhichare
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
LiaMiller,
tobePairedWithaShort,
NewYorkTimes
);availableonline:http://www.nytimes.com/
jeeling.html,accessed
.Bellour,
BattleoftheImages,
.SeeAndréBazin,
Pouruncinémaimpur,
somewhatunfortunatelytranslatedas
InDefenceofMixedCinema,
WhatIsCinema?VolumeOne
,trans.anded.Hugh
Grey(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,
.Bellour,
BattleoftheImages,
.Bazin,
.Ibid.,
;emphasisadded.
.JessicaMorgan,
TimeafterTime,
TimeZones:RecentFilmandVideo
.Indeed,deRijkeanddeRooijweretheonlyartiststoshowworkonfilmin
TimeZones
,theTateModern
sfirstmajorexhibitiondevotedtothemovingimage.
205
.See:RosalindKrauss,
...AndThenTurnAway?AnEssayonJamesColeman,
JamesColeman
,ed.GeorgeBaker(Cambridge:MITPress,
;Rosalind
ReinventingtheMedium,
CriticalInquiry
,no.
RosalindKrauss,
TheRock
:WilliamKentridge
sDrawingsforProjection,
;andRosalindKrauss,
TwoMomentsfromthePost-
MediumCondition,
.Aslightlydifferentversionof
thesecondessaylistedhereisavailableas
ReinventingtheMedium:Introduction
JamesColeman
,ed.GeorgeBaker(Cambridge:MITPress,
.Krauss,
ReinventingtheMedium,
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
.HenryJenkins,
ConvergenceCulture
(NewYork:NewYorkUniversityPress,
.Lessingemphasizesthephysicalstructureofamedium,puttingforththatthe
propersubjectmatterforagivenmediumcanbeextrapolatedfromitsform.See:
GottholdEphraimLessing,
203
Intheintroduction,hewritesthat,
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
.See:AlanS.Oser,
Perspectives:GreatWhiteWay;PlanningforaBrighterTimes
NewYorkTimes
);availableonline:http://www.nytimes.
 \n
/realestate/perspectives-great-white-way-planning-for-a-brighter-
times-sq.html,accessed
.MayorBloomberg:
Lastyear,arecord
milliontouristsvisitedNewYorkCity,
withnearly
%ofthemvisitingourculturalofferings,andthroughthehelpof
exceptionalarteventssuchas
Sleepwalkers
,weexpecttosurpassthattotalthis
year.
Quotedin:
MoMAandCreativeTimePresent
DougAitken:
Sleepwalkers
.GuyDebord,
201
expectationsoftheimageandfromtheparticularswaycinematicconditions
maintainoveroureverydayhabitsofperception.
See:PamelaM.Lee,
Jeroende
Rijke/WillemdeRooij:APortfolio,
.VolkerPantenburg,
andBeyond:ExperimentalCinemaandInstallationArt,
ScreenDynamics:MappingtheBordersofCinema
,ed.GertrudKoch,Volker
Pantenburg,andSimonRothöhler(Vienna:Synema/FilmmuseumWien,
.RaymondBellour,
OfAnOtherCinema,
BlackBoxIlluminated
,ed.Sara
Arrhenius,MagdelenaMalm,andCristinaRicupero(Stockholm:Propexus,
.WalterBenjamin,
TheArcadesProject
,trans.HowardEilandandKevinMcLaughlin
(Cambridge:TheBelknapPressofHarvardUniversityPress,
;Anne
WindowShopping:CinemaandthePostmodern
(Berkeley:Universityof
CaliforniaPress,
.Païni,
Letempsexposé
.See,forexample:LauraMulvey,
VisualPleasureandNarrativeCinema,
Narrative,Apparatus,Ideology:AFilmTheoryReader
,ed.PhilipRosen(NewYork:
ColumbiaUniversityPress,
;StephenHeath,
NarrativeSpace
OnSuture
QuestionsofCinema
(Bloomington:IndianaUniversityPress,
.Biesenbachresignedasheadofthedepartmentinfall
tobecomeheadcurator
atMoMA
scontemporaryartprojectsspace,P.S.
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
.JamesQuandt,
DoubleExposure,
.AntoinedeBaecque,
expoGodard
,compromissionsimpossibles,
July
\n
);availableonline:http://www.liberation.fr/cahier-special/
\b \b
expo-godard-compromissions-impossibles,accessed
;translationmine.
.SperlingerandWhite,
artn
étaitpasàl
abridutemps,ilétaitl
abridutemps
;translationmine.
.See,forexample,CatherineFowler,
RoomforExperiment:GalleryFilmsand
VerticalTimefromMayaDerentoEija-LiisaAhtila,
Screen
,no.
;ChrissieIles,
199
NewArtExaminer
(December-January
SpecialSection:
MuseumBlockbuster,
ArtinAmerica
(June
ArtHistoryandthe
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
.AntoinedeBaecque,
Passagesdel
:Iconoclastes,iconolâtres,
Cahiersdu
;translationmine,emphasisintext.
.Itisworthnotingthattherearesignificantphenomenologicalandontological
197
Victorian,anEdwardianHitchcock,withhisimaginationsteepedinE.A.Poeand
Frenchdecadence,andaModernistHitchcock,influencedinturnbyWeimar
Expressionism,FrenchSurrealismandRussianmontageconstructivism.Andof
course,thereisthepostmodernHitchcock,alreadydeconstructinghisown
presuppositionsin
Vertigo
FamilyPlot
.The
BritishHitchcock
hasbeen
givennewculturalcontoursandlocalhistoryroots,tobalancethegeneral
preferenceforhisAmericanperiod.Andinrecentyears,wehavehadHitchcockthe
Philosopher:butwhichphilosopher?ThereisaSchopenhauerianHitchcock,a
HeideggerianHitchcockandaDerrideanHitchcock,severalDeleuzianHitchcocks,
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
narrative.See:PhilipDodd,
ModernStories,
Spellbound:ArtandFilm
,ed.Ian
ChristieandPhilipDodd(London:HaywardGalleryandBritishFilmInstitute,
.Lindsayplaceshisbookinthecontextoftheartinstituteandthemuseum,stating
aninterestindevelopingnon-commercialfilmpracticesandbelievingthat
pictureartisagreathighart,notaprocessofcommercialmanufacture
).He
makescomparisonstootherplasticartsandtomusic:the
actionfilm
issculpture-
in-motion,the
intimatefilm
ispainting-in-motion,and
splendourfilms
architecture-in-motion.Helooksbackatvariousworksofartinmuseumsandsees
thembothasprefiguringelementofcinemaandasprovidingaplacewhere
filmmakerscouldgotolearn.See:VachelLindsay,
TheArtoftheMovingPicture
(NewYork:TheModernLibrary,
.Jean-LucGodard,
AfricaSpeaksoftheEndandtheMeans,
GodardonGodard
ed.andtrans.TomMilne(NewYork:TheVikingPress,
.JonasMekas,
OnNewDirections,OnAnti-Art,OntheOldandtheNewinArt,
TheVillageVoice
November
),reprintedinJonasMekas,
MovieJournal:The
RiseofaNewAmericanCinema,
(NewYork:Macmillan,
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
.Hehasmadefunofpsychoanalysisin
RearWindow
Psycho
,butheisJacquesLacan
195
theSanFranciscoMuseumofModernArt,andtheNewArtTrust.Theprojectis
designedtoprovideguidelinesforthepreservation,loaning,andacquisitionof
time-basedmedia.See:www.tate.org.uk/about/projects/matters-media-art,accessed
.BillHorrigan,
FiveYearsLater,
ArtandtheMovingImage:ACriticalReader,
TanyaLeighton(London:TatePublishingandAfterallBooks,
.DominiquePaïni,
LeTempsexposé:Lecinémadelasalleaumuseé
(Paris:Cahiersdu
;translationmine.
.JonathanWalley,
ModesofFilmPracticeintheAvant-Garde,
Artandthe
MovingImage:ACriticalReader
,ed.TanyaLeighton(London:TatePublishingand
AfterallBooks,
.Thoughthelimitededitionistheprimarymodelofdistributionintheartworld,
importantalternativesdoexist,suchasElectronicArtsIntermixinNewYorkand
VideoDataBankinChicago,bothofwhichrentvideoartmuchasCanyonCinema
andFilm-MakersCooperativedofilmprints.
.MatthiasMüller,quotedin:ScottMacDonaldandMatthiasMüller,
AConversa-
TheMemoBook:TheFilmsandVideosofMatthiasMüller
,ed.StefanieSchulte
Strathaus(Berlin:VerlagVorwerk
.MariaLindandHitoSteyerl,
Introduction:ReconsideringtheDocumentaryand
ContemporaryArt,
TheGreenroom:ReconsideringtheDocumentaryand
ContemporaryArt#
(BerlinandAnnandale-on-Hudson:SternbergPressand
CenterforCuratorialStudies,BardCollege,
.Onthesideofarthistory,themarginalizationoffilmisboundupinitslinkstomass
cultureanditsbasisinmechanicalreproducibility.Infilmstudies,manyfruitful
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Narrative,Apparatus,Ideology:AFilmTheoryReader
,ed.PhilipRosen(NewYork:
ColumbiaUniversityPress,
.MichelFoucault,
TheConfessionoftheFlesh,
Power/Knowledge:Selected
InterviewsandOtherWritings,
,ed.ColinGordon(NewYork:Pantheon,
;translationmodified.
.IrisBarry,quotedin:HaideeWasson,
MuseumMovies:TheMuseumofModernArt
andtheBirthofArtCinema
(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,
.TheodorAdorno,
ValéryProustMuseum,
,trans.SamuelandShierry
Weber(Cambridge:MITPress,
.Benjamin,
.Forageneralaccountofthesefears,see:WheelerWinstonDixon,
Twenty-five
ReasonsWhyIt
sAllOver,
TheEndofCinemaAsWeKnowIt:AmericanFilminthe
193
theCinematicExperience
(VanAbbemuseum,Rotterdam,
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Introduction
TheOtheredCinema
.BrunoRacine,
Avant-propos,
LeMouvementdesimages
(Paris:CentreGeorges
.Furthermore,asLynneKirbynotesinherstudy,
ParallelTracks:TheRailroadand
SilentCinema
Asamachineofvisionandaninstrumentforconqueringspaceand
time,thetrainisamechanicaldoubleforthecinemaandforthetransportofthe
spectatorintofiction,fantasy,anddream.
See:LynneKirby,
ParallelTracks:The
RailroadandSilentCinema
(Durham:DukeUniversityPress,
.Foranaccount
oftheperceptualandtemporalchangesbroughtaboutbylocomotivetravelandits
affinitiestocinema,see:WolfgangSchivelbusch,
TheRailwayJourney:The
proposeanotherconjunction
contemporaryart
andtoacceptall
theconsequences.Ihavebroughtthehistoryoffilmtheoryinconversationwith
developmentsincontemporaryarttoarguethatthesecontributionstoarthis-
toryarealsocontributionstofilmhistory.Theseareartworksthatmovebeyond
themovietheater
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
whathastraditionallybeenconsideredtobecinema.Together,bothofthese
disciplinesmustconfronttheimplicationsofdigitization,notmerelyatthelevel
Cinemaand
beyondthefictionfeature:
Thehegemonyofthefictionfeaturefilmhas
heldstrongsincetheconsolidationoftheforminthelate
s,butalternatives
toithavealwaysexisted.Itispreciselysuchalternativesthatachieveanew
regularityandvisibilityintheotheredcinema.Documentaryandnon-narrative
formsarecommon,asareextremelyshortworksandworkstoolongtobeap-
prehendedinasinglemuseumvisit.Inasinglepiece,theviewermightencoun-
teroneprojectionoradozenandtheseprojectionsmightbefrontal,immersive,
orevencastontoobjects.Theprojectormightbehiddenorexposedassculptur-
alelementoftheinstallation.Quitesimply,aprincipleofvariabilityobtains,
takingthecinemabacktothemultipleexhibitionsituationsandnonstandar-
dizedformalstructuresthatmarkedbothitspreinstitutionalyearsandtheex-
trainstitutionalexperimentsoftheavant-garde.Fromthepermutationalnarra-
tivesofStanDouglastothemovietheaterprotocolsofJeroendeRijkeand
WillemdeRooij,fromthemultiprojectiondocumentaryofAmarKanwartothe
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
poraryartistsinterestedinexhibitingcinemapartakeofadifferentkindofre-
flexivity,fasteningontothecinema
shistoricalandsocialdimensionsandfore-
goingmaterialityastheirprimaryfocus.Theyallowonetoseeanewwhatthe
cinemahasbeenallalong,thoughnotalwaysrecognizedassuch:aninstitution
atoncepublicandhistoricalthatextendsfarbeyondthehegemonyofthefiction
Cinemaand
temporarymutationsanditspossiblefutures.Thisintegrationabidesbyaten-
underdiscussionhere
exhibitscinema
inthesenseofholdingitoutforexam-
ination,whatqualitiesorattributes
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Cinemaand
And,finally,ZisforZero
ZeroforConduct
,zerovisibility,andGodard
sslogan,
BacktoZero.
Asweentertheageofnewmedia,thecinemaisreinventingitself.
Weneedtoseethatreinventioninradicalaswellasmainstreamterms,totryand
reimaginethecinemaasitmighthavebeenandas,potentially,itstillcouldbe
experimentalart,constantlyrenewingitself,asacounter-cinema,as
cinemahaunted
bywriting.
Backtozero.Beginagain.AisforAvant-Garde.
lenceorrefusingthementirely
contemporaryartistsrepurposeanapparatus
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
imageshavenowbecomeinextricablefromfictionmightcontainsomespurious
assumptionsofitsown.Theimageofthewomanwhosevomitturnstoflowers
mayindictthewayviolenceisprocessedinfictionalcinema,butthepromi-
nenceofthegiraffe
sdeathsuggestsanuneasinesswiththeoutrightdiscredit-
ingofreferentialitythatappearsinboth
TheCasting
Nostalgia
.AsHito
Steyerlhasnoted,documentarytestimonycanbeunreliable,canlie,andwill
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
thegirafferecaststheentireenterpriseof
Nostalgia
ashauntedbyanoutside,
astroubledbythereferentialvalueoftheimageithasworkedhardtoexclude
fromitsrepresentationalsystem.
Attheendoftheworld,whenthegreatveneerofsimulationhasbeentorn
awayandtheseprecariousimmigrantstrulyinhabitthe
desertofthereal,
manstillturnshisgazetocinema.Asawayofrememberinganothertime,per-
haps,onebeforewhateverunnamedeventsprecipitatedtheglobalreorganiza-
tionthatdifferentiatesthisworldfromourown,orperhapsasanefforttogain
understandingofdeathwhenitiscloseathand.Thiswouldseemtospeaktoa
faithintheimageinspiteofthewaysinwhichithasbeenmarshaledbymedia
spectacle.Butthemanmanifestsaglimmerofinsanityandthedramatizationof
analoguefilmprojectionundergroundwhilesurveillancemonitorsreignabove
suggestsanallianceofthisapparatuswiththeoutmoded.Perhapstheimageof
thegiraffeissimplyaremnantofanothertime,anemblemofarelationtothe
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
textualizethemresponsibly.
Nostalgia
refusestotakethedocumentseriously
andthusfurtherexacerbatesthecrisisofvisualevidencethatitseekstodiag-
Thereis,however,asecondimageofdeathin
Nostalgia
thatsuggeststhat
thismaynotbethecase.Inthesciencefictionnarrative,thethreeBritonsrun-
ningthroughthetunnelcomeacrossaneeriefigure.Ashirtlessmanwitha
shavedheadsitsonachair,facingthewall.Hispostureisslumpedand,given
thecircumstances,thereisafairpossibilityhemightbedead.Thetriocastsa
strangeglanceatthemanastheywalkbyandcontinueonwards,hopingtofind
asylum.Butaftertheypass,themanlooksup,turnsbackaroundinhischair
despitethefactthatheissittinginanabandonedsubwaytunnelwhere
borderpatrolpolicesearchoutrefugees
beginstowatchafilm.Itisprojected
againstthewallheoriginallyfacedandthencomestooccupytheentirescreen.
ThefilmisnoneotherthanoneofthemoststrikingimagesofChrisMarker
Sanssoleil
:thearchivalfootageofthedeathofagiraffe.
Sanssoleil
,the
giraffesequencefollowsasceneataJapanesezoowherefamiliespaytributeto
theanimalsthatdiedthroughouttheyear,butasitappearsonscreenthevoice-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
wereoncemade.Itisanimaginationofadystopianfuture,butonethatmight
havestemmedfromthemindofthe
s:oldsurveillancemonitors,clothing
fashion,androtarytelephonesbespeakaverydifferentvisionofthefuturethan
wouldbefoundtoday.Summoningboththefutureandthepast,itspeculiar
temporalityisaugmentedbyanon-chronologicalarrangementofsequences
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
behindthefilmedsubject,asiftopointtothemutabilityofcontext.Thoughit
dealswithmanyofthesamesubjects,thetoneofthisinterviewisverydifferent
thanthatofpartone.TheactorplayingFast(hereafterreferredtoas
intervenesmuchmoreoftenanddisplaysavisiblesuspiciontowardhisinter-
viewsubject.Fast
ssoleinterjectioninpartone,
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Small,wholeblueberriesstarttoappearwithinit,thenstrawberries,thenflower
OmerFast,
Nostalgia
Nostalgia
carriesontheprojectof
TheCasting
,thoughwithamoreintricate
formalstructureandwithanincreasinglynuancedpositiontakenwithregard
toitscentralissues.Theworkbeginswitha
-minuteloopedvideoonaflat
screentelevision.Onthesoundtrack,thevoiceofaNigerianrefugeeseeking
asyluminLondontellsofhisupbringing,hisexperiencesinEngland,anddis-
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
misedbyfiction.Asareactiontothiswidespreadcondition,Kutlu
WomenWhoWearWigs
andAmarKanwar
TheTornFirstPages
insiston
thecontinuedimportanceofthedocumentaryimage,butdosowhiledeploying
strategiesthatmediateanyclaimstoobjectivetruth.Inbothcases,theartists
acknowledgetheoldRomanlaw,
testisunus,testisnullus
onewitnessisno
witness
andinsteadproducepolyphonicandcollectivetestimoniesthattele-
scopethesingularandtheplural,theindividualandthecollective.InEija-Liisa
Was
fictionanddocumentaryjoinintoproductivecontamina-
tionsthatallowfortheimaginationoftemporalitiesandnarrativesthatwould
beimpossibleineithermodalityalone.
OmerFast,
Nostalgia
Toconcludethisexaminationofhowdocumentaryandfictionhavebeenmobi-
lizedinrecentartists
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
projectionsareofcentralimportance.Whileonemightwellview
TheFace
anindependentwork,itachievesitsfullresonancewithinthelargerconstella-
tionoftheotherprojections.Thefaceofthemilitarydictatorshipstandsabove
andnexttothefacesofindividualswhoseliveswerelostinconnectionwith
theirpoliticalactivism;thespuriousceremonyofofficialgovernmentfunctions
ontheleftsideoftheapparatusfindsaninverteddoubleintheoppositional
mediaactivitiesoftheDemocraticVoiceofBurmaontheright.
Throughoutitstremendousandunrulyarchive,
TheTornFirstPages
mainspartialinadoublesense:itisbothfragmentaryandsubjectiverather
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
overagainfasterandfaster,causingthemusiconthesoundtracktoturnintoan
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
close-upofThanShwe.Thework
stitleanddateoffilmingappearonscreen.
Grainyslowmotionfootageofawreathofflowersgiveswaytoanintertitle:
Thenextmorning/SeniorGeneralThanShwe/SupremeHeadoftheBurmese
MilitaryDictatorship/visited/thecremationmemorialsiteofMahatmaGhandi
inNewDelhitopayhisrespects.
Theremainderof
TheFace
isgivenoverto
Kanwar
smanipulationsoffootageofthisvisit.Intheabsenceofbeingableto
filmthedaybefore(
nocamerasallowed
),theartistintervenesintothesanc-
tionedimageryinordertospeaktotheabsurdityoftheevent:theleaderofa
countrythatviolentlyrepressesnon-violentoppositionispayingtributeto
Ghandi,themanwhosaid,
Iobjecttoviolencebecausewhenitappearstodo
good,thegoodisonlytemporary;theevilitdoesispermanent.
AmarKanwar,
TheFace
),from
TheTornFirstPages
TwomencarrythefloralwreathinfrontofThanShwe,wholaysitonthemem-
orialsiteandposesforthecameras,theshuttersofwhichareheardclickingon
thesoundtrackalongwithGandhi
sfavoritehymn,
VaishnavaJanato.
Shwewalksaroundthememorialasavoicefromoff-screenshouts,
me,sir!Wait,wait,sir!
AsthecamerapanstofollowThanShwe,itrevealsa
whitebarrierbehindwhichthepressstand.Ascamerasclick,ThanShwebegins
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
forreadyconsumption.
However,therecentturntodocumentaryincontem-
poraryartpracticealsoatteststothepossibilityofrefusingthelogicofthesimu-
lacrumandrevealstheextenttowhichproclaimingtherecessionofthereal
AmarKanwar,
TheTornFirstPages
AmarKanwar
TheTornFirstPages
bothinsistsonthetestimonialvalueof
theimagewhilealsoengaginginstrategiesthat
unrealize
theimageandas-
sertadistancefromthereferent.UnderthemilitaryjuntainBurma,theState
PeaceandDevelopmentCouncilrequiresthatallpublicationsincludestateob-
jectivesandslogansontheirfirstpage.InDecember
,KoThonHtay,a
bookseller,wasarrestedforremovingthesefirstpagesintheprintedmatterhe
TheTornFirstPages
drawsitstitlefromthisactofprotest.Theinstalla-
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
istperspective,
was
isespeciallyinterestingbecauseitexploresafeministpoli-
ticsoftemporality.
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
Asnotedabove,
Was
isaworkoffiction,butwasinformedbyinter-
viewswithyounggirlsAhtilaconductedinHelsinki.Theinfluenceofdocu-
mentaryintheworkisfeltinitsformalvocabulary,whichmakesfrequentuse
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
narrativeforms,
andasserts,
Ifnarrative,withthehelpofavant-gardeprinci-
ples,canbeconceivedaroundendingthatisnotclosure,andthestateoflimin-
alityaspoliticallysignificant,itcanquestionthesymbolicandallowmythand
symbolstobeconstantlyrevalued.
Thegalleryspace,withitsrejectionof
start-to-finishviewingandpossibilityformultiscreenenvironments,seems
especiallypoisedtopioneerthecreationofthesenewnarrativeformsthat
mightintegrateexperimentalstrategiesandproblematizeclosure.
Eija-LiisaAhtila,
Was
ThenotionofastateofliminalityaspoliticallysignificantiscentraltoEija-Liisa
Was
Was
isatriple-projectioninstallationthaten-
gagesatopicdeartothehistoryofvideoart:subjectformation.However,its
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
tionandimagecirculationthatareendemictoadvancedcapitalism.Thisrever-
salisaresultofcertainimpassesreachedinearlierformsofpoliticallyinvested
mediaproductionandoftheemergenceintheinterveningyearsofpost-
modernismasaculturallogicmarkedbyaspatialdiagramandthedisintegra-
tionofthesyntagmaticchain.Narrativeshiftsfrombeingseenascomplicitwith
ideologicalhegemony(asitwasinthe
s)tosomethingthatinfacthasthe
possibilityofdepartingfromthedominantculturallogicofdisconnectedsignif-
iers.Thereare,ofcourse,instancesinwhichnarrativeandspectaclejostlefier-
celywitheachother:theworkofMatthewBarneyandDougAitken,forexam-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
WhoWearWigs
,Atamanexaminesacomplexandlocatednexusofgender,
subjectiveexperience,collectivity,andpolitics.Thelinearityofanarrativethat
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
PaulWillemenhaspinpointedhistoryand
thesocialanchorageofmeaning
production
astwoblindspotsofvanguardmediapracticesinthe
sand
Questionsofmateriality,process,andsubjectformationtendedto
supersedeaninterestinhistoricalspecificityorexperience,somethingabso-
lutelyevidentifoneexaminestheearlyyearsofvideoartaswell.AsOkwui
afigurewho,asartisticdirectorofDocumenta
),wasama-
jorproponentofthe
documentaryturn
ofcontemporaryart
hasnoted,
Greenbergianmodernism
purgestheexternalworldfromthespaceofart,
wishingforitastateofpurity,astatewhichrejectsnotonlyillusionism,but
alsoassertsthatthefullmeaningofanyartistobefoundinitsspecificme-
Thoughfilmandvideomountedsignificantchallengestomodernism
asconceptualizedbyGreenberg,manyartists
usesofthesemediainthe
\n
scontinuedthispurgationandremainedintroverted.Asthemodernist
paradigmwanedandquestionsofhistoryandthesocialdidenterbackinto
videoproduction,itwasoftenattheexpenseofnecessaryinterrogationinto
signifyingpractices.Questionsofformwereleftbehind,implicitlysuggesting
thattruthwassimplyoutthere,waitingtobecapturedbyacamera.Willemen
findsathirdwayinBritishavant-gardefilmproductioninthe
s,inwhich
narrativebecomesanissueagain,ratherthansimplyabadobjecttobedisarticulated
oreliminated.Narrative,astheprocessthroughwhichthearticulationofsubjectand
historyiselaboratedinthetextaswellasinrelationtothetext,isthusunavoidableif
onepointofthediscourseispreciselytotracetheexistenceofthepoliticalwithin
particularhistories.
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Wigs
troublesanynotionofobjectivityortransparencythattheinterviewmode
itespousesmightinvoke.Thisisnosimplepoliticsofthesignifiedthatwould
usethemediumofvideoasamerecontainerforcontent.Rather,insteadofun-
mediatedtestimony,onebecomesawareofhowfabulationandmythologyare
alwaysalreadypresentintherecountingofpersonalexperience;
WomenWho
WearWigs
activelyinterrogatesthesignifyingmechanismsthatworktoconsti-
tuteidentity.Here,asinmanyotherworksbyAtaman
suchas
The
Seasons
ofVeronicaRead
Twelve
),and
thereisaninsis-
tenceonthemovingimageasadocumentoflivedexperiencepairedwitha
keenattentiontohowformalmechanismsservetoshapetheviewer
sexperi-
enceofsuchcontent.Ataman,whobeganasafilmmaker,worksoutofadocu-
mentarytraditionthathasrootsinthehistoryofcinemaratherthanthehistory
ofart.Throughtheexplorationofmultichannelinstallationsandexperiments
withthetemporalityofreceptionthatwouldbeimpossibleinastandardthea-
tricalexhibition,herecontextualizesthattraditioninadynamicwaythatintro-
WomenWhoWearWigs
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
thephysicalworldandcreatinggrandspectacle.Thehybridizationoffiction
anddocumentarydramatizesthisessentialfrictionand,insodoing,provides
theseartistswithawayofinterrogatingthestatusoftheimage.
Documentaryisalwaysalreadypresentbeneaththefiction,lendingitarela-
tiontothearchivizationofthepastnotpresentintheaterorliterature;attimes,
thetestimonialvalueofthisdocumentarywitnessingcanerupt,exceedthefab-
ulationthatseekstocontainit,andfracturetheveneeroffictionsoastorender
problematicitsontologicalstatus.
Meanwhile,onecanhighlightthemanner
inwhichdocumentaryisalwayssubjecttolayersofmediationthatworktoun-
realizetheprofilmiceventandchannelitthroughthecodesofcinematicrepre-
sentation
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
logic.Theauthorsof
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
actualityoftheapparatusceasestobeaconcernfortheseartists;indeed,they
aresharplyattunedtothematerialspecificitiesofthemediainwhichthey
work.Theydonot,however,turninwardstoconstructarecursivespiralof
reflexivitybutratherusethemovingimagetoturnoutwardsandopenartistic
productiontoanencounterwithsubjectiveand/orhistoricalexperience.In
The
,forexample,thesculpturalconfigurationofthequadrupleprojection
iskeytothework,butitiskeyasa
ratherthananendinitself.The
reflexivityexhibitedherehaslesstodowiththematerialattributesoftheappa-
ratusandaltogethermoretodowithadesiretoprobecinema
sdoublerelation-
shiptorepresentationandreferentiality
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Theinterestindocumentaryandfictioninmovingimageartsince
catesawaningofthephobicrelationshiptocinematicillusionismthathad
markedmanyearlierartists
usesoffilmandvideo.Fictionalpracticeshave
emergedthatexplorethenewpossibilitiesforstorytellingaffordedbythemul-
tipleprojectionenvironmentsofthegalleryspace,whileawholehostofcritical
andcuratorialprojectshaveexploredwhathasbeencalledthe
documentary
ofcontemporaryart.
Inshort,oneconfrontsadiverseembraceofthe
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
arevelatory,virtualencounterwithanotherplaceandtime.Thetransformative
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
claimsandunderlinethetruththatcanbeproducedthroughfiction.Where
BaudrillardengagesinapostmodernrevivalofPlatonismthatseestheimage
asameresemblance,theseartistsassertthat,morethanjustfunctioningasa
vesselofemptyspectaclesupplyingspuriousreality-effects,themovingimage,
withitsanchorageinactuality,canbeusedtoinform,tomove,andtoimagine
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
culture.Thesimulacrumisacopywithoutorigin,withoutanchorageinreality.
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Butwhatexactlyisthestatusofdocumentaryin
TheCasting
?Throughex-
tensiveediting,thesoldier
swordsareemptiedofanyattestationtothereal.
Fastassertstheall-pervasivenessoffabulation,suggestingthatso-callednon-
fictionimageryisfunctionallyequivalenttofictionduetothewaysinwhichit
isprocessedthroughhighlyconventionalstructuresofrepresentation.Though
thefrontalprojectionsseemtobegeneratedbythesewords
theyseemtobea
kindofparasiticaldiscoursethatfeedsoffofthedocumentarytestimony,visu-
alizingtheimagesitevokes
theeditingoftheinterviewsuggeststhatinfact
theoppositeistrue:theshapingofthesoldier
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
gorizesmemory
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Spielberg
sList
).Thisisfitting,indeed,sincethevoiceofthecast-
ingdirector/interviewerbelongstononeotherthanFasthimself.
Whentheviewerwalksaroundtothereversesideofthescreens,another
perspectiveonthesoundtrackisrevealed,quitedifferentthanthatavailable
whenonefirstenterstheblackbox.
TheCasting
isatwo-screeninstallation,
butaquadrupleprojection.Ontheothersideofthescreens,ratherthanthe
elaboratemise-en-scèneoftheprojectionsvisiblewhenonefirstentersthe
room,eachprojectionshowsatalkinghead,oneofayoungsergeantintheU.S.
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
inpinklight.Hecontinues,
Shewouldstandonthesideoftheroadaswe
drivepast.
hereatfirstseemstoreferbacktotheGermanredhead,
buttheimagesthataccompanythesentencetelladifferentstory.Onescreen
showsaHumveeparkedinthedesert,theotheraMuslimwomanwearinga
withaHumveeapproachinginthedistance.Thistransitionintroducesa
secondstory,inwhichthemanrecountshisexperiencesasasoldierintheIraq
War.Itfocusesonwhathecalls
probablyoneof[his]worstdays,
whenhe
shotatawindshieldtoscarethedriverintostopping,notrealizingthecarwas
full.Theactresultedinthedeathofayoungmaninthebackseat.Thisnarrative
OmerFast,
TheCasting
Attheendofthestory,welearnthatournarratorhasbeenunsuccessfulinhis
audition.Thecastingdirectortellshimthathisstorywastoolong,thatheisn
lookingforapoliticalangle.Curiously,hegoesontosay,
minterestedbasi-
callyinthewaythatexperienceisturnedintomemoryandthewaysthatmem-
oriesbecomestories,thewaysthatmemoriesbecomemediated,theybecome
recordedandbroadcastedandthingslikethis
aquestionthat,as
World
TradeCenter
)suggested,isintenselypoliticalindeed.Adiscernible
elementofcontradictionhasenteredthevoice-over,suggestingthatperhaps
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandthe
TruthofFiction
Everyfilmisafictionfilm.
activelycontributingtowhatitwillbecome.Forwithinallofthereflectionson
thesenescenceofcinema,thereisalsoatrajectorythatmovesforwardtocleara
spaceforanewcinemaofthegallery,acinemaofartistswhowillcontinueto
pushtheboundariesofwhatispossiblewiththemovingimageascinema
movesintoitssecondcentury.
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
whichisitselfaprocessoftranslation,isusedtointerrogatetheprocessesthat
translateexperiencesandeventsintoimages,questioningtheassumptions,
omissions,andaffectsthatresidetherein.
Withambivalenceastheirprimaryaffectivemode,suchpracticesparasiti-
callymakeuseofthepleasuresofdominantcinemawhilecontestingtheirvery
foundation.Thefunctionofcinemaasasiteofaffectivelaborandideological
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
shipcancullnewpleasuresfromanoldcinema.Itenactstheverykindsof
transformationstowhichcinemaisnowsubject,butdoessowithareflexivity
thatallowsforanassessmentofwhatisatstakeinthecontemporarycinematic
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
nessof
kairos
intothedullcrawlof
.Itisasiftheworkwereobeying
whatPascalBonitzerhasdesignatedtobealawofHitchcockiannarrative:
moreasituationissomewhatapriori,familiarorconventional,themostliableit
istobecomedisturbingoruncanny,onceoneofitsconstituentelementsbegins
turnagainstthewind.
The
ForeignCorrespondent
)referenceis
appositehere,astheuncanninessof
HourPsycho
is,likethewindmills
turningagainstthewind,amatterofaberrantmovement.Theintensityofthe
slowmotionstripsthefilmoftheterroritonceinducedbutintroducesanew
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
recalledfrompastviewings.If
HourPsycho
incessantlysummonsthepast,
itsfuturecanbedifficulttoaccesssinceanysenseofanticipationisfrustratedby
viscousslowness.EventhefutureGordondescribesintheabovequotationre-
mainsamatterofpastness:itisgeneratedoutoftheviewer
spreviouslyestab-
lishedfamiliaritywiththefilm.Anytruesenseoffuturity,oftimemovingfor-
wardinameaningfulway,ispalpablylacking.Temporalprogressionsplinters
intoasuccessionofdisjoinedinstantsthatareexhaustingtoassembleintoa
continuoustrajectory.Whileviewingthework,itcanbedifficulttoanticipate
whatwillhappennext,evenforaviewerintimatelyfamiliarwith
.The
gruelingpaceofthefilmandtheabsenceofthesoundtrackdisruptthepatterns
ofeditingandthenarrativecuesthatwouldnormallyservetostructurespecta-
torialexpectation.Anticipationbringsfrustrationmorethananythingelse,leav-
ingtheviewerstalledinthe
slowlychangingpresent,
weigheddownby
memoriesofthepast.
Asaresult,
HourPsycho
possessesnoneofthesuspensethatmarksthe
original.Whilethisappearstopitthedilationoftimeagainstthefunctioningof
suspense,temporalprotractionisinfactcentraltothebuildingofsuchtension,
particularlyinHitchcock
scinema.
HourPsycho
doesawaywithsus-
pensebyhyperbolizingtheverysametemporaltechniquesonwhichitde-
pends,makingGordon
salterationofthefilmanexaggeratedallegoryofits
owntemporality.Withoutsuspensetoinfusetimewithdesire,
HourPsycho
mightbethoughttopossessnoaffectiveresonanceforitsspectatorinitscurrent
form,justnostalgiaforthefilmitremakes.Thishowever,isfarfromthecase.
Whiletheinstallationlackssuspense,itdoesmaintainarelationshiptotheero-
ticizationoftime.However,insteadoftheeroticdelayofsuspense,thistempor-
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
thepornographyindustry,allowedillicitchannelsoftapecirculationto
emerge.
AsLucasHilderbrandhassuggested,
[B]ootleggingisexemplaryof
videotape:itforegroundsthetechnologyasarecordingformat,itexposesthe
formaldegenerationofthesignal,itstressestheimportanceofaccess,andraises
issuesofintellectualpropertyrights.
HourPsycho
doesnotin
factproduceanewcopyofHitchcock
sfilm(itexhibitsacommerciallyavailable
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
eachimageispresentasastillforabouthalfasecondbeforegivingwaytothe
next,allowingforthespectatortograspfilmicinstants,butonlythroughtheir
mutilation.
Videotapeisnotmerelytheinspirationfor
HourPsycho
,butisalsokeyto
thework
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
whichHitchcock
sfilmrests.But,inamannerthatputsitgreatlyatoddswith
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
ortheywouldberefusedadmission.Inaneraofmoviegoingwhenitwascom-
montoduckinandoutofscreeningsatwill,suchapracticewasunheardof.As
aresult,Hitchcockhasoftenbeencredited
perhapswrongly
withsingle-
handedlychanginghabitsoffilmspectatorship.
HourPsycho
,Gor-
donchangestheprotocolsofspectatorshiponceagain,alteringthewaythe
spectatorviewsthismostfamiliaroffilmsbyeliminatingitssoundtrack,
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
emaandanother,straddlingamomentofintensetransition
preciselythesort
ofconditioninwhichcinemafounditselfagaininthemid-

sasitreachedits
one-hundredthbirthday.ForLauraMulvey,
mightbethelastfilmofthe
classicalcinema,
stand[ing]ontheedgeofthedivide
DouglasGordon,
HourPsycho
TheexhibitionspecificationsAlfredHitchcocklaidoutforthetheatricalrelease
wouldbevirtuallyimpossibletoapplytoGordon
sremake.Through
lobbyposters,specialtrailers,andthecooperationofmovietheaterowners,
Hitchcockinstitutedaspecialpolicyforthefilm.Perhapsasapublicitystuntor
perhapsoutoffeartheaudiencewouldbedisappointediftheyarrivedtofind
thefemalestaralreadydead,Hitchcockrequiredspectatorstoshowupontime
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
calapparatus.Fromwithinaspaceofcommonality,thesetransformativeworks
canopenpossibilitiesofreassessment,turningthespectacleinonitselfbycon-
frontingthegapsandfissuresthatpunctureandrenditsattemptattotality.
Theinsistenceonrecoveringtheutopianpotentialofcollectivereceptionthat
hadbeendissipatedbycinema
sroleasadisciplinarytechnologybecomespos-
sibleunderthespecterofaperceivedcrisisoftheinstitution.Whiletheusesof
mmdiscussedinthepreviouschapterrespondtothesuperannuationofcel-
luloidasamaterialsubstrate,practicesofremakingtakeupthenotionofcin-
emaasalostobjectattheinstitutionallevel.Themanyreferencestoclassical
Hollywoodcinemafunctionasasharedculturalmemoryandasasiteofcollec-
tiveexperiencethatisnowperceivedaslacking.In
,Timemagazinepro-
claimed
thepersonoftheyearinagesturethatexplicitlylinkedthein-
dividualistthrustofthe
sand
stothepopularityofYouTubeasanew
venueofpersonalizedimageconsumption.Whileitisbeyondthescopeofthis
studytospeculateonthenewformsofcollectivityandpublicitythatmightbe
madepossiblebythatwebsiteandothercomparabledevelopments,thereisno
avoidingthefragmentaryanddispersednatureofonlinemediawhencom-
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
ChrissieIleshassuggestedthat,
[A]rtists
useoffilminthe

s,particu-
larlypopularHollywoodfilm,ispartlytodowithwantingtoengagewith,and
perhapsinfluence,theconnectivetissuethatfilmcreates,andparticipateina
commonlanguageofcommunication.
Thevalueattachedtothis
common
languageofcommunication
isdecidedlyambivalent.Asanagentofstandardi-
zation,thecommonalitygeneratedbyfilmspectatorshipmightbethoughttobe
inextricablefromitsfunctioningasanideologicalapparatus,teachingitsspec-
tatorstobe
goodsubjects
atthemoviesbydisguisinghighlyculturaland
historicallyspecificnotionsofrace,class,gender,decorum,andsoon,asnatur-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
tionpossible,butitalsomakesnewformsofresistancepossible.Thereisalways
acertaincontingencytotheconsumer
sparticipationinthecreationofvalue,a
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
Play...nolongerconstitutesanalternativetoworkasdomination.Thedialecticalop-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
specificitytheymighthavehadastheyarerecuperatedbackintothearchetypes
ofwhichtheyhavealwaysmadeuse.
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
backgroundbehindthefigures,severingthemasmuchaspossiblefromthe
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
cinema,themerepossibilitythatsuchastatementcanbemaderestsonthe
activityofafan/artistwhochoosestomakeuseoftheavailabilityofnewtech-
nologiestocreateaworkthatwillservetointerrogatesuchmediarepresenta-
tions.Inthissense,Breitz
sself-placementastheonewhoimitatesthestaris
crucial,astheartistispresentbothasdupeandasdemystifier.
CandiceBreitz,
Intheworks
)and
),Breitzcreatesstutteringka-
leidoscopesofJackNicholsonandMerylStreepbycombiningclipsfromvari-
ousrolestheactorshaveplayedthroughouttheircareers.
makesuseof
twenty-threeJacksfromfortyyears;
bringsustwenty-eightMerylsfrom
thirtyyears.Bydatingtheworksasbeginningwhentheearliestsourcefilm
wasproducedandextendingtoBreitz
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
CandiceBreitz,
BecomingDrew
Becoming
whichdrawsitstitlefromthenameofanMTVrealityseriesthat
givesfansmakeoverstolookliketheirfavoritestarandproducesareenactment
ofoneofthestar
smusicvideos
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
possibilitythatartmightprovideavaluablespaceinwhichtocriticizethemass
media.
RemakingFandom
SouthAfricanartistCandiceBreitzhasadaptedthefound-footagetraditiontoa
gallerycontextbyproducingmulti-screeninstallationsthatinvestigatethelibi-
dinalvectorsthatbindcinematoitspublic,aswellashowtheyhavebeenim-
pactedbytherecentadventofthefan
sabilitytomanipulateandremixexisting
films.Breitz
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
theoriginalFrenchtitleof
ThePracticeofEverydayLife
Artsdefaire
addressedhisbooktothe
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
formsofcontestation),inboth
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
involvementofone
sowndiscursivepositionwithinthelibidinalandeconomic
structuresofcapital.Enjoymentisnotatoddswithcriticalengagement;rather,
bothcoexist.HarnessingthepleasuresofHollywoodcinemawithinpractices
thatacknowledgethelegaciesofexpandedcinema,Situationist
détournement
Pictures
appropriationism,theseworkstrytofindawaytowardsadif-
ferentpoliticsoftheimage.Itmustberememberedthattherearedifferentways
ofbeingbedfellowswithspectacle.TheexamplesofDougAitken
Sleepwalk-
)andPipilottiRist
PourYourBodyOut(
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Artistsmakeuseofthepleasuresofrecognizabilityascentraltotheaffective
resonanceoftheirwork,playingoffofaconceptionofcinemaasastorehouseof
communallysharednarrativesandresurrectingtheutopiansparkofcinemaas
analternativepublicsphere.Butatthesametime,itoftensurfacesthatthis
sharedculturalmemoryisalsoasiteofideologicalinterpellationtobeques-
tioned,asthecinemaisseenasaspectacularmachinechurningoutimagecom-
modities,regulatingculturalnorms,andimpactingthewayweunderstandhis-
tory.Stemmingfromthisisanirreducibleambivalencetowardsthemass
culturaltextsthatareintegratedintotheproductionofnewworks.Thisam-
bivalencemustneverbetakenforindifference,butmustbeseenasdescribing
strongforcesthatrefract,splinter,andenterintotensionwithoneanother.The
challengenowistotakeambivalenceseriously,toseeinitanopportunityto
rendervisiblethecontradictorylibidinalinvestmentselicitedbytheculturein-
dustries.
Thisambivalenceisanimportantresponsetothecollapseofthecomplicity/
critiquedivideafterpostmodernity
scolonizationofthelastzonesofresistance,
therealmofartforemostamongthem.InadiscussionoftheworkofPierre
Huyghe,MarkGodfreywrites,
Rarelyhasanartistassociatedwithacritical
positionbeencannyenoughtowork
affection,attraction,andamazement
andnotjustagainstthem.
Thiscoexistenceofacriticalpositionwith
tion,attraction,andamazement
istheaffectivestructurecharacteristicofthe
ambivalentengagementwithcinemathatmarksmanystrategiesofremaking
.Leavingbehindtheanti-pleasurepolemicsofthe
sand
\t
thedisavowalofenjoymenthasceasedtobeanecessaryprerequisiteforen-
gagement.Throughsuchambivalence,theseartistsrewritethedominantnarra-
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
kerneloftruth
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
lowingtheRightHandof...
seriesdoesexactlywhatitstitlesuggests:the
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
manyaspossiblefromacomputerscreen.
ZPoint
samplesoneframefrom
eachsecondoftheexcerpt(sincethepixelboxesarelimitedtoonechangeper
second)andtranslatesitintoanarrayofforty-eightlargepixels,oneforeach
AngelaBulloch,
ZPoint
Theremakesthatengageintranslationmayremediateoldmediaintonewme-
dia,muchastakesplaceincultureatlarge,buttheymayalsotranslatecinema
intooldermedia.Examplesofsuchthiskindofcross-mediumtranslationareto
befoundinFionaBanner
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
byremakingthisrepresentation,itcanpointtoitsfailures,omissions,and
biases.
providesartistswithawayofengagingwithindividualswhose
liveshavebecomeintertwinedwiththeproductionoffeaturefilmsinoneway
oranother.Thereifiedimagesofthecultureindustryoccludethelaborthatgoes
intotheirproduction,seeminglymaterializingoutofnowhereasglossyciphers.
Counteringthisprevailingregime,theactionofinterviewingindividualsin-
volvedwiththemakingoffeaturefilmsreintroducesasocialrelationintothe
circulationofimagesandpromptsaconsiderationoftheaffectivelaborthat
goesintotheirproduction.For
BlancheNeigeLucie
),PierreHuyghe
interviewedLucieDolène,thewomanwhodubbedthevoiceofSnowWhitein
SnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarves
)intoFrenchin
.Inthemid-
safterreceivingnoroyaltiesfromthefilm
VHSrelease,Dolènesuc-
cessfullysuedDisneyandregainedthelegalrightstohervoice.WhenJaneand
LouiseWilsonwerecommissionedtomakeaworkinresponsetotheholdings
oftheStanleyKubrickArchives,theydelivered
UnfoldingtheAryanPapers
).Forthiswork,theartistsinterviewedDutchactressJohannaTerSteege,
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
BriceDellsperger,
bodydouble
StanDouglas
SubjecttoaFilm:Marnie
)isasix-minuteblack-and-
mmremakeoftherobberysequencefrom
Marnie
)thatloops
backtothebeginningwhenthetitlecharacter
shandsareonthesafe.Instead
ofcontinuingthenarrativetodepictthediscoveryofMarnie
scrime,Douglas
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
lostandregained.Throughthisemploymentoftheresurrectedfamiliarmade
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
nationforthecinema.I
minterestedinitbecauseitisthevehicleofourcollective
unconscious,ofourrelationshiptothescenario.
Butonlyasmuchasthesupermod-
elKateMoss,anadvertisement,oramusicvideo!
StatementssuchastheseseemtosupportRaymondBellour
sassertionthat
DouglasGordonis
withoutnostalgia
andsuggestthatitmightbeextended
tootherartistsworkingwiththeremake.
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
movies.Insomecases,adistinctcinephiliaemerges.Take,forexample,Kota
Ezawa
LYAM
),athree-dimensionalanimatedremakeofAlainRe-
LastYearatMarienbad(L
AnnéedernièreàMarienbad,
)or
StanDouglas
InconsolableMemories
),alooseremakeofTomásGu-
tiérrezAlea
MemoriesofUnderdevelopment(Memoriasdelsubdesar-
rollo
)transposedtotheMarielboatliftof
:here,belovedartcinema
classicsareappropriatedasawaytoinvestigatetemporalityandhistorical
memory,respectively.Thereisnomovetodismantlethehostfilms,butonthe
contraryadesiretomobilizethediscoursestheyexploreandbringtheminto
confrontationwithpresentconcerns.Meanwhile,ChristophDraeger

ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
(suchasSamTaylor-Wood
StillLife

]and
ALittleDeath
Referencestofilmhistoryproliferate,making
itpossibletospeakofapalpablecinephiliawithincontemporaryart,butsimul-
taneously,alargenumberofthesereferencesholdupdominantcinemaasa
greatexemplarofthemachinationsofcultureindustries.Onethusconfrontsa
markedambivalencetowardsthecinematicinstitution.Ononeendofthespec-
trum,Moukarbel
WorldTradeCenter
manifestsnothingbutcontempt
forStone
soriginal.Similarly,
RSG-BLACK-
),RadicalSoftwareGroup
algorithmicreeditingofRidleyScott
BlackHawkDown
),reverseengi-
neerstheracialsegregationismofwhatgroupmemberAlexGallowaycalleda
JimCrowfilm
byalgorithmicallyeditingoutallwhitecharacters.
Thisre-
ducestherunningtimeofthefilm
whichis
basedonatruestory
oftheU.S.
ArmymissiontoMogadishu,Somalia,on
from
minutesto
Workssuchastheseengagethelegacyofappropriationartasa
modeofcritique,invokingtheSituationistInternational
stechniqueof
détourne-
asanimportantprecedent.
Thisoutrightcondemnationoftheappropriatedfilmis,however,byno
meansgeneralizableasacharacteristicofcontemporaryartremakesofold
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
iscentraltotheHollywoodsystem,whichceaselesslyproducesupdatesofthe
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
Valenti,copyrightextremistandlong-timepresidentoftheMotionPictureAs-
sociationofAmerica;regardingunauthorizedonlinedistributionofHollywood
products,Valentiasserted,
refightingourownterroristwar.
Thelawsuit
againstMoukarbelalsoclaimedthatthe
issuanceofaninjunctionwouldnot
substantiallyharmtheotherparty
sincehedidnotseekcommercialgainfrom
theenterprise,puttingforthanotablycircumscribedunderstandingof
aswellasmakingclearthatthelawsuitwasnotatitscoreafinancialmatter.
Thelawsuitclaimedthat,
ThepreemptivereleaseoftheMoukarbelFilmon
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
ialandthewayHollywoodrepresentspublicevents...Throughtheiraccessand
budgetthey
reabletoaffectalotofpeople
sideasaboutaneventandalsoaffect
policy.Iwasdeliberatelyusingtheirscriptandpreemptingtheirreleasetomake
astatementaboutpower.
BysuingMoukarbel,Paramountcompounded
whathisprojecthadalwaysbeenabout:thelawsuitpushedquestionsofown-
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
bel,bycontrast,drainsthescreenplayofitspromisesofvisibility,knowledge,
andredemption.Throughoutthevideo,itisverydarkunderthecollapsed
buildingsandthereisnothingtobeseen;thereisnoexitfromtheclaustropho-
bicenclosure,justafewlinesofdialoguetornfromcontextandunsentimentally
deliveredtotheuttervacuitythatHollywoodwouldbestowuponthem.The
radicalinsufficiencyoftherepresentationbecomesclearandthedistancethat
separatesitfromtheeventitpurportstodepictbecomesimpossibletoignore.
Whentheworkwasshownatthesculpturedepartment
sthesisexhibition,
Moukarbelinstalledasingleupward-castblue-tintedspotlightoutsidethegal-
lery,recallingbothafilmpremiereandtheTributeinLightceremoniesthat
havebeenheldinlowerManhattantocommemoratetheeventsof
.Bycon-
densingtheglitzofHollywoodandamonumentinremembranceofnational
traumainasinglegesture,thespotlightspeaksdirectlytowhatisatstakein
theprojectthatMoukarbelnamed
WorldTradeCenter
itques-
tionsthecinema
sroleasrepositoryofpublicmemory,whohastherighttotell
aparticularstory,andwhyandhowtheywilltellit.Fiveyearsaftertheevent
(toolate)andfourmonthsbeforetheHollywooddebut(tooearly),Moukarbel
(p)remakedeftlyutilizeditspurposefuluntimelinesstoperformthebecoming-
formulaicofanexceptionaleventwithadifficultrelationshiptonarration.
ChrisMoukarbel,
WorldTradeCenter
Hollywood,withitsastoundingglobalreach,hasemergedasperhapsthepri-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,New
Narratives
Isupposethatifaworkofartisbydefinitionthatwhichconserves,amythology
neverceases,onthecontrary,tomanageitselfandtorecycleitselfaccordingtothe
tasteoftheageandthestateoftechnology...Nothingwillbekeptofcinemaexcept
thatwhichcanberemade.
SergeDaney
Inthespringof
,ChrisMoukarbel,anMFAstudentintheYaleUniversity
SchoolofArt
ssculpturedepartment,wassuedbyParamountPictures.Why?
natureofthecase,
accordingtotheaffidavitissuedtotheUnitedStates
DistrictCourt,wasasfollows:
ThisisanactionforcopyrightinfringementpursuanttotheCopyrightLawofthe
UnitedStates,
U.S.C.§
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Thus,if,throughitsemphasisonthefilmprintasrareobject,gallery-based
mmpracticepartakesofthefalseauraofthecommodity,initsmeditationsof
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
strikinganeditionofthreetofivecopiesofagivenwork(plusartist
sproofs)so
astoimbuethephysicalobjectofthefilmprintwiththepullofrarity.This
allowsforanentirelydifferentpricebracket,leadingtoTacitaDean
Michael
Hamburger
)and
DarmstädterWerkblock
)tobeofferedfor
euros,respectively,attheMarianGoodmanGallery,New
York,inSpring
.Goingagainstthecapacityforreproducibilityinherentin
themedium,thewillfulrestrictionofthenumberofprintsavailableaccording
tothelimited-editionmodelprohibitsexcessivecirculationoftheseworks,arti-
ficiallyrenderingbacktofilmaqualityofauraticdistance.Itbecomesaprivi-
legedexperiencetobepresentbeforeadeRijkeanddeRooijfilm,tosharea
roomwithitforaparticulardurationoftime.Inthisrespect,thebecoming-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
manyyoungerartistschoosetoworkinamodethattreatsfilmasobject.This
onthefilm).Itfeaturesportraitsofchildrenamongstthelandscapeofthefoot-
hillsoftheSierraNevadaMountainsinasuccessionoftwelvestaticlongtakes.
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
WorkofArt
essay,theauraisdefinedinanantitheticalrelationshiptofilm,
whichreplacesauniquelocationinspaceandtime,a
uniqueapparitionof
distance,howevernearitmaybe,
withaproliferationofcopiesthatallowsthe
massestobringthingscloserbywayoftheirreproduction.
Cultvalueisre-
placedbyexhibitionvalue.Whentheauraisdiscussedinrelationshiptofilm,it
isinthecontextofthe
falseaura
ofthecommodity,epitomizedforBenjamin
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
deRijke/deRooij
s,Buckingham
s,andDean
sproduceameditationonthe
sspecificitypreciselyatsuchajuncture,emphasizingitsrelationship
tononsynchronoustemporalitiesandtheabilitytoproduceanaffectively
chargedexperienceofthepast.Verydifferentthanconceptionsoffilm
sspecifi-
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
ThoughGiulianaBrunoassertsthatweliveinanage
repelledbyruina-
AndreasHuyssenseesanobsessionwithruinsasbecomingpervasive
overthelastfifteenyears,atimethat
Huyssendoesnotmakethisconnection,
butitshouldbenoted
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
rememberedthatanachronismisaconceptfarfromachronism,whichwould
denoteastateoftimelessness,aplaceoutsideoftime.Rather,theOxfordEng-
lishDictionarydefinesanachronismas,
Anerrorincomputingtime,orfixing
dates;theerroneousreferenceofanevent,circumstance,orcustomtoawrong
Anythingdoneorexistingoutofdate;
,anythingwhichwas
propertoaformerage,butis,or,ifitexisted,wouldbe,outofharmonywith
thepresent.
Anachronismdescribesthecoexistenceofmultipletemporalities
thatarefoundwithintheruin,whileobsolescencehighlightstheinevitabilityof
entropicdispersionthatistheundersideofnovelty,leadingtodisappearance.
Obsolescenceandanachronismarebothatplayin
Palast,Fernsehturm
,and
acrossDean
sbodyofwork
butnowhereistherearemovalfromthevicissi-
tudesoftime.
TroddisintenttoarguethattheemphasisonfailurefoundinDean
spractice
makesherworkincompatiblewiththeimaginingofutopia,sincetheonlycol-
lectivitythatcanbeimaginediseitherfailed,temporallyconfused,orfictiona-
However,inanagethathaslostitsabilitytoimaginealternativefu-
tures,openingthepossibilityofpastcontingenciesstillservestodislodgethe
necessityofourpresent.TheutopianhopesthatTroddascribestoanearlier
generationoffilmmakers(
sfiguressuchasMichaelSnowandAnthony
McCall)werethemselvesunachieved.Andmoreover,itisinthenatureofuto-
piatoalwayslieelsewhere
perhapsinthepast,thefuture,oreveninfiction
forifitwerepresent,itwouldnolongerbeutopia.Thus,utopiaandfailureare
bynomeansopposedconceptsastheyaredeployedinDean
sfilmmaking,but
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
beencrossedoutasamistakeinthereckoningofhistory.
Thefailureofuto-
pia:afamiliarthemefromtheworkofMatthewBuckingham,itreemergeshere
asanattempttomakesenseofBerlin
srecentpast.Thisisnotaromanticover-
valuationofalostepoch,butacallforthenecessityofrememberinghistory
failuresaswellasitssuccesses,foritisthesecatastrophesanddefeatsthat,un-
acknowledged,hauntourpresent.EastGermanyisonesuchfailedutopia,but
thecinemaitselfisanother.Theymightbelefttooblivion,hitwiththepassive
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Volkskammer,theEastGermanparliament,butalsohousedartgalleries.Its
architecturalstylewastypicaloftheDDR,markingamajorchangefromthe
buildingthathadstoodonthesiteuntiltheSecondWorldWar,theBerlin
Stadtschloss,abaroquepalacethathadformerlyhousedthemonarchy.The
EastGermangovernmentdecidednottorebuildafterthewar,declaringthe
StadtschlossaremnantofPrussianimperialismandtherebymakingwayfor
theconstructionofamonumenttothesocialistfuture.ThroughouttheDean
TacitaDean,
Palast
ThePalast,consideredbymanytobeaneyesore,hereattainsafadingglorythat
surpassesbothitscontaminationbyasbestos(coincidentallydiscoveredjust
priortoGermany
reunification)andtheBundestag
decisiontore-
buildareplicaoftheStadtschlossonthesite,therebyoverwritinghistorywitha
simulationofit.AsDeanputsit,
Berlinneedstokeepevidenceofthatother
place,thatcountry,anditscorruptmismanagementofautopiathathasnow
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
context,itwouldbenaïvetoseethefactoffilmingashavingsavedtheseobjects
fromtheruinationoftime.Forcinemaitselfis,inDean
sconception,afragile
ruin;itisfittocapturesuchobjectsforitsharesintheirstature.Thereisan
acknowledgmentthatthedesiretopreserveforposterityisalwayshauntedby
adestructivenessthatlurksattheheartofthedesiretoconquerfinitude.
emacanreanimatelife,butonlyasaghostlyapparitionshotthroughwithab-
sence.Deathcannotbevanquished.Cinema,once
substitut[ing]forourgazea
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt

Chapter2
FilmicRuins
tion-basedexperimentalfilmmaking.Recursivityisnotwhatisatstakeinthis
conceptionofmediumspecificity,eveniftheilluminatedoblongwindowsof
BubbleHouse
mimicthefilm
sframeorthelighthouseofher
Disap-
pearanceatSea
referencesthemechanismofprojection.
Rather,theconceptionofmediumspecificityputforthintheseworksisradi-
callyanti-autonomous,interrogatingthehistoryofthemediumanditshistori-
city,itsfunctionasarchiveandsocialtechnology.ForJacquesRancière,essenti-
alistconceptionsofmediumspecificitysuchasGreenberg
serasetherelation
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
identityonceaccordedtomodernistmedia.Itcannotfullydoublebackina
perfectself-enclosure,foritismadeupofaggregatepartsandisacknowledged
tobeself-differing.Nevertheless,itisthetaskoftheartisttoproducethegreat-
estpossiblerecursivity,toaimatautonomyevenifitcannotfullybeachieved.
Thenotionofreinventingthemediumisexplicitlylinkedtotechnologicalob-
solescence,asitinvolvesstakingaclaimondisusedcommoditiesasgroundfor
producingarenewedautonomyofartpreciselythroughthatwhichoncecom-
promisedit
asKraussnotes,photographywas,afterall,theserpentthaten-
teredtheEdenofartisticautonomy.
Now,overandabove
because
sanchorageinmasscultureanditstiestocirculation,thesuccessfully
reinventedmediumwithdrawsaparticulartechnologyfrommasscultureand
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
Herewehaveamanwhosejobitistogathertheday
srefuseinthecapital.Every-
thingthatthebigcityhasthrownaway,everythingithaslost,everythingithas
scorned,everythingithascrushedunderfoothecataloguesandcollects.Hecollates
theannalsofintemperance,thecapharnaumofwaste.Hesortsthingsoutandselects
judiciously;hecollects,likeamiserguardingatreasure,refusewhichwillassumethe
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
failureglimpsedattheendof
SituationLeadingtoaStory
,thisfailureis
paradoxicallygenerative:ittestifiestothespecificityofcinema.Itiswhatcan-
notbespokenbysuchdescription,bythe
studium
,thataccountsforthedesires
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
SituationLeadingtoaStory
,hereonceagainBuckinghaminsistsonthe
storyofapersondisappearing
atrace.ForevenifLePrincewasnever
found,heleftbehindhisfilms,oneofwhichisremadebyBuckinghamtoform
theimage-trackof
FalseFuture
AsthesubtitledFrenchvoice-overrelates,out
ofthe
framesthatoriginallycomprisedLePrince
sviewoftheLeedsBridge
inLeeds,England,onlytwentysurvive
roughlyonesecondofprojectedfilm.
InsteadofthegreatshowingattheSalonIndienbytheLumièresin
,here
welearnofafalsestartofcinema,abeginningthatwasn
t.Thetitlecomesfrom
theFrenchverbtensethe
fauxfutur
usedinhistoricalnarrationtoanticipate
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
themargins,itmighthavebeensoallalong.Andwithsomeeffort,perhapsit
stillmightbe.
BuckinghamhaspubliclydiscussedhisinterestinBenjamin:
sanotionthatcanbefoundinWalterBenjamin
swritingthatiscentraltowhat
Itrytoworkwith.Benjamindescribesthevanishingpointofhistoryasalwaysbeing
thepresentmoment.Thisformulationofhistory
thinkingaboutthepresentmoment
asthepointwherehistoryvanishes
isawayofreversingthereceivednotionof
historyasvanishingsomewherebehindus,vanishingintoanonexistenttime,atime
thatnolongerexists...Wearerestagingthoseeventshereandnowinordertothink
aboutwhat
shappeninghereandnow,tothinkaboutthepresent.
MatthewBuckingham,
FalseFuture
ThisimpulseisparticularlyevidentinBuckingham
\t\n
mminstallation,
FalseFuture
.Here,theartistexploresthestoryofamannamedLouiswho
inventedcinema.Butno,not
Louis,brotherofAuguste,butinsteadalittle-
knownpioneernamedLouisLePrincewhomanagedapanoramacompany
beforetryinghishandatthecreationofmovingimagessomefiveyearsbefore
theLumières.Heproducedatleastthreefilms,eacheightsecondslong,before
mysteriouslydisappearingonatrainleavingDijonboundforParisin
SomesuspectedEdison.Likethedisappearancesof
AmosFortuneRoad
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
awayfromthedistanteventcapturedonfilm.Thereisnoillusionofpresence,
butmerelyalingeringtrace.
Asiftocompensatefornotbeingabletorecoverthemomentofregistration,
Buckinghaminsteadseekstofindthemanwhosenamewaswrittenonthebox
offilm.Sincehecannotunearththefilmingbody,the
main/tenant
,thehandthat
heldinthenow,perhapshecanatleastrecoverthe
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
time,noselectionofplotfromstory,justafewhyper-quotidianmoments,banalactiv-
itiesperformedonlybecausethereisacamerathererecordingthem.
BuckinghamsecondsDoane
sassertionthatwhiletheearlycinemaallowedfor
theceaselessproductionofmeaning
outof
contingency,
withthedevelopment
ofnarrative,cinematictimeis
troped,
madeplasticbythedevelopmentof
editing,andsubvertedtotheneedsofthestorytelling.
Amateurfilmmaking
providesBuckinghamwithaplacetoexcavatethepersistenceofanearliertem-
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
Theparticular
situation
ofanartistfindingdiscardedfilmleadstoa
story,
ortobemoreprecise,tomanystories.Forthroughoutthetwentyminutesofthe
film,Buckinghamweavesapolyphonyofvoicesandtemporalitiesthatcriss-
crossmodalitiesofdiscoursefromhistoriesofexploitation,tofilmpreservation,
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
ploitopticalprintingasawayofinstillinganincreasedfascinationwiththe
agedcelluloidimage.Butdespitethiscommonality,
SituationLeadingtoa
mustbedistinguishedfromsuchworks,foritnotonlymakesuseof
foundfootage,butalsodirectlyinterrogatestheprocessesoffindingandmak-
ingsenseofsuchimagesofthepast.AsMarkGodfreysuggests,
Itcouldbe
MatthewBuckingham,
SituationLeadingtoaStory
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
aMoholy-Nagy-inspiredprojector,Grahamhasdescribedhisinstallationas
SimonStarling,
WilhelmNoackoHG
Overjerky,hand-heldblack-and-whitefootageofagardenpartyfromdecades
ago,avoice-overtellsastoryoffindingfourrollsof
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
ALittleHistoryof16mm
Everymoveapicture,everymanhisownmoviedirector,everylawnamovie
studio,andeveryhomeamovietheater.
Sobeginsthefirstmentionof
filminthe
NewYorkTimes
,on
.Kodakintroducedthegaugethat
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
...ourpresentmeansofimage-productionstrikemeas...aninstrumentationofacer-
tainkindoflanguageuse:theirnotionsofimageclarity,imageflow,imagedepth,and
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
areheremobilizedatthelevelofformandcontent,makingthedeceptively
modest
VoorBasOudt
intoapowerfulmeditationonboththematerialityof
filmandthepassingoftime.
InthefilmsofdeRijkeanddeRooij,onefindsarelationtotemporalityandto
historythatstandsagainstanotionofeasyimageconsumptionandthedelivery
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Thequestionofspectatorialaffectiscentralhere.JustasDeansaw
The
GreenRay
asbeingaboutfaithandbeliefinwhatonesees,itmustbeunder-
linedthatthoughthecategoryofindexicalityisusedtodesignateaparticular
regimeofthesignlinkedtothematerialityofcelluloid,itsmobilizationcannot
beconfinedtothismateriallevelalone.For,followingBazinandBarthes,the
poweroftheindexmustbeunderstoodasarelationtothespectatorboundup
intime,desire,andfinitude.Heideggersuggestedthat,
Theessenceoftechnol-
ogyisnothingtechnological,
meaningthattechnologiescannotbeunderstood
intermsoftheirfunctionalitybutmustinsteadbeunderstoodintermsoftheir
culturallyproducedmeaningsandusages.
Thesameistrueofindexicality.
Theindexisamatterofdiscourseasmuchasofthemuteregistrationofthe
real.Itisthe
oftheindex,theaffectofthetracethatisnowsummoned
bythefilmimage.Cinema
sspecificityoncelayintheillusorypresenceofthe
objectsonscreen,perhapsmostembodiedintheapocryphalstoryofcredulous
earlyspectatorsrecoilingattheoncomingtrain.
Now,however,onewitnesses
ashift
frompresencetoabsence,fromlifetodeath.Tombstonespopulatethe
visualfieldof
Untitled
,butthefilm
seeriestillnessequallylendstheworka
senseofmortification.Thefilm
staciturnitydirectsattentionbackontothecon-
ditionsofviewing,inducingareflectiononmortality.Notjustthetemporality
oftheimage,buttheapparatusitselfcontributesheretothesenseofthestub-
bornresistancesofthepast,thepersistentfascinationoftheruin.Becoming
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
beliefratherthanknowledge.Theconceptofdisavowalhasalonghistoryin
filmtheory,invokedinthe
sasawayofconceptualizingthespectator
willingnesstosuspenddisbeliefandinvestintheimpressionofreality.
Now,
however,thecomplexmachinationsofdisavowalstructureaquasi-mysticalin-
vestmentinthepowersoftheanalogueimage:
Iknowverywell(thatphoto-
graphshavealwaysbeendoctoredandthedigitalcanalsotellthetruth),butall
thesame(Iamdrawntoanalogueimages,fortheforceoftimepresentwithin
them,Ican
texplainit,itjust
feelsdifferent
Aknowledgeofhowtheimageis
producedformsthegroundofacomplexstructureofdisavowalandbeliefthat
mustbetakenseriouslyandunderstoodhistorically.
ForDoane,indexicalityisaprofoundlyhistoricalcategorythatdesignates
thepromiseoftherematerializationoftime
anintensedesireprovokedin
partbytheabstractionofthesubject
srelationtotimefollowingthestandardiz-
ingprocessesofindustrialmodernity.
Electronicmediaallowforan
asymptoticapproachtothesimultaneous,linkingdisparatespacesacrossglobal
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
filmmakersveryfirmlywithinlineageofstructuralfilm.
However,asmuchas
deRijkeanddeRooijengagethislegacy,theyalsobreakapartfromitbyinsist-
ingonthehistoricityofthefilmimage.
Untitled
putsforthanotionofcinema
asanarchiveofchance,registeringmutecontingencies,pointingtoareferent
thatitcanneverquitesummontopresence.Onecanseethispointingtothe
profilmicreal,butthefilm
sblockage,its
haltedquestforunderstanding,
pointstotheunrepresentableforcesofglobalcapital,extendingfromcolonial
dominationtotoday
stransnationalflowsoflabor,information,andpower.
TheRealissummonedbytheimagebutcannotbespokenbyit.
Thisnotionofthemediumaslinkedtobothcontingencyandhistoricityin-
vokestheconceptofindexicality,acategorythathascometoachievecrucial
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
FatmawatiSokarno,whowasboththewifeofSokarno,thefirstpresidentof
Indonesia,andthemotherofMegawatiSukarnoputri,whoservedasthefirst
femalepresidentofthecountryfrom
.Sokarnolobbiedforindepen-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
trapolations,itisthisexistencefromwhichthecriticmusttakehispointofde-
parture.
Asthecinema
sexistencechanges,sowillconceptionsofwhatis
specifictoit.Onceagain,itisbesttofollowBazin
sadvice:
JeroendeRijkeandWillemdeRooij,
JeroendeRijkeandWillemdeRooij
Untitled

)isasilent
mmfilm
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
wastodismantlesuchunity,tomakeevidenttheworkoftheapparatusand
therebyprovokeanAlthusserian
knowledgeeffect.
Withtheerosionofthishegemony,thesituationhaschanged.Now,inahor-
izontallyintegratedindustry,oneconfrontstheaggregatecharacterofthecin-
emaeverywhere,reachingasfarasthemarketingoffast-foodtie-insorthe
downloadingofcompanionshortfilmsonline.
Theobjectivenowbecomes
lessadestructionofunity
forfragmentationispresumedtobethepointof
departure
andmoreasalvagingoftheremnantsofanobjectbecomeprecious,
recollecting(assemblingagainandremembering)thecinemathroughaninter-
rogationofitselements.Thisistoinsistfirstonthehistoricalvariabilityoffilm
mediumspecificityratherthanonanenduringessence,andsecondonthegal-
leryasaspacewhereaninterrogationintothecinema
scomponentpartsand
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
withlittlerelevanceforthecontemporarymoment.WritingonTacitaDeanin
anessaywhosetitlemisleadinglysuggestsaparticularconcernwiththeme-
dium,MichaelNewmanproposesthat,
Theissueisnolongerhowtodistinguishmediumsfromeachotherordifferentuses
ofamediumwithinagivenstateoftechnologicaldevelopment(asintherelation
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
Nearingtheendof
VoyageontheNorthSea
andinthearticleson
ingthemedium
thatfollow,thechangedstatusoffragmentationinKrauss
thoughtbecomesclear.
ReinventingtheMedium:Introductionto
Photo-
essayonJamesColeman,shewrites:
Itisatthishistoricaljuncturethatthetabooagainstspecificitycomestoseemlessand
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
oftheexhaustedmodernistparadigmofmediumspecificity.Ifdigitalconver-
genceisonereasondiscussionsofmediumspecificityhavereceded,anotheris
theterm
sinevitableinvocationofthespectersofmodernism,formalism,essen-
tialism,andofClementGreenberg
perhapsthemostinfluentialtheoristof
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
natedobjectof
cinema,
butrathertoopenfilmstudiestothechangingcon-
toursofitsobject,foregoingapurityofcinemaforthepossibilitiesthatmaybe
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
ofanalogueexceptionalitythatpervadesDean
swritingsaboutit,thisconfig-
urationoffilm
smediumspecificityhasasmuchtodowiththediscoursessur-
roundingthemediumanditshistoricalemplacementasitdoeswiththeinher-
entqualitiesofitsphysicalsupport.In
TheGreenRay
,asisthecasefor
practicallyallofDean
sfilms,theartist
swritings,whichshedescribesas
functionanimportanttextualsupplements.Thefilmtextitselfmight
eschewnarrative,butthroughthissupplementarydimension,thefilmsenter
intoaseriesofinterlockingstoriesandjourneysthatrunthroughouttheartist
practice.Butonemustalsoconsiderthewaysinwhichotherkindsofdiscourses
constituteacontemporaryunderstandingofthemediumspecificityoffilm.In
thecaseofartists
employmentsofcelluloid,forexample,theinstitutionaland
economicdiscoursesofthegalleryandthemuseummustbetakenintoaccount.
Inthecontemporarygallery,analoguefilmisfiguredasanoldmedium,a
remnantofacinemanowinruins.Ithasaprivilegedlinktoephemeralityand
historicity
qualitiesthathavealsofoundasignificantplaceindiscussionsof
mediumspecificityinrecentfilmtheory.Tocallsomethingan
oldmedium
toassertthatthismediumhasahistory;thatis,itistoassertthattheverycon-
ceptofwhatmightcountasamediumisaprofoundlyhistoricalcategory.These
worksassertthehistoricalvariabilityoffilm
sspecificity,butgofurtherthanthis
topositfilm
sspecificityasinextricablefromitsrelationshiptothepast.While
thefilmsunderconsiderationheredonotmakespecificreferencetothehistory
ofcinema,thereisadiscernibleinterestininterrogatingtherelationshipofthe
filmtothearchivizationofthepast,andindoingsoatapointinitsownhistory
atwhichitmightbeconsideredasantiquated.Filmprocessinglabsareclosing
rapidlyandtheU.S.NationalAssociationofTheaterOwnersestimatesthat
mmprojectionwillbeoutofcommercialcinemasbytheendof
asituationleadstoaconsiderationoffilmasanoldmedium,onethatoccurs
notonlybyvirtueofform-contentrelationshipswhereincelluloidisusedto
dealwithagedordisappearingsubjects,butalsobyplacingfilminsidethegal-
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
Itisasmuchofthismomentinthehistoryofcinemathat
TheGreenRay
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
DisappearanceatSeaII
BubbleHouse
),and
Teign-
mouthElectron
)arefilmsgeneratedfromDean
sexplorationofthe
storyofDonaldCrowhurst,aBritishamateursailorwhojumpedoverboard
afterabandoningaracearoundtheworldinatrimaran,takinghischronometer
withhiminagesturethatcannothelpbutbereadascarryingsymbolicweight.
Thesunandtheseafunctionhereasthematicandimagisticconcerns,certainly,
buttheyalsosuggestacertainrelationtotime.In
TheGreenRay
,thecyclical
recurrenceofthesun
sdiurnalmovementsisinterrupted
byabrief
TacitaDean,
TheGreenRay
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
Soobsolescenceisabouttimeinthewayfilmisabouttime:historicaltime,allegorical
time,analogtime.Icannotbeseducedbytheseamlessnessofdigitaltime;likedigital
silence,ithasadeadness.
TacitaDean
,TacitaDeantraveledtothewestcoastofMadagascartofilmthetotal
eclipseofthesun,aprojectthatwouldlaterbecomethefilm
DiamondRing
).Bychance,whileshewasthere,sheheardofaphenomenoncalledthe
greenray
:oftenglimpsedatsea,thebriefflareofgreenlightthatshootsupas
thelastbitofsundipsbelowthehorizonhadlongbeenasymbolofgoodfor-
tuneforsailors.Morombe,Madagascar,wasanidealplacetosighttheelusive
ray,whichtakesplaceunderconditionsoflowmoistureandclearair.Alsoby
chance,DeanhadalsolearnedtheeveningbeforethatÉricRohmerhadfaked
theeffectin
Summer
LeRayonvert,
),hiscinematographerhaving
waitedsometwomonthsintheCanaryIslandsforeverysunsetbeforegiving
upandgoinghometothemagicofpostproduction.ThismadeDean
howcinema
sstatusasanoldmediummaybeusedtointerveneintheprob-
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
theapparentpermissivenessofneoliberalismmaskspowerstructuresthatare
nowinternalizedratherthanforciblyadministeredthroughenclosureandseg-
mentation,astheywerewithintheregimeofdisciplinarypower:
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
DorothySpearsoffersapositionontheinstallationsignificantlydifferent
fromthatofSaltz:
Thevideo-and-soundenvironmentsofSwissartistPipilottiRistareeasyontheeyes
andears
makingthemanexcellentbalmfortoday
sworld-wearyculturetravelers.
AndifthesamecanbesaidforthelobbyofaWHoteloraBlissspa,thisiscertainly
nocoincidence...Rist
stantalizinginstallationsspeaktheuniversallanguageofplea-
suretoanaudienceweanedonAmbien,electronicbillboardsandechoing,white-
washedspaces.
WhatSaltzsawasaprovocativefeminizationofthemuseumishereviewedas
atransformationofthatspaceintoamirrorofluxuryconsumerzonesofpam-
peringandcare
arealmthat,oneshouldadd,isalsocloselyalignedwitha
mythologizedfemininity.Spearssees
PourYourBodyOut
asthecommodity
formdeckedoutasarejuvenationofspiritualwellbeing,apostmodernsublime
offeringreifiedimagesintheguiseof
spiritualvitamins
andreproducingthe
servicesforsaleintheexperienceeconomy.Theemphasisonfemininityinthe
installationreinforcesitsstatusasacaretaking,comforting,andcomplianten-
closure.Iterasesahistoryofwhatsomemightfindlesspleasantfeministinter-
ventionsinfavorofafuzzywholenessconcoctedfromblendingarompinthe
grasswithbeyond-Technicoloreffects.Thereisnodebatingthesensorypower
ofRist
sinstallation;evenSpearsallowsthatit
speak[s]theuniversallanguage
ofpleasure.
Whilepleasureisbynomeansaproblem,onemustinterrogatethe
basesonwhichthepleasuresof
PourYourBodyOut
rest:aneutralizationof
thepoliticsofgenderinfavorofatimeless,essentialistfemininityandaspecial
effectssublimethatpacifiesand,asKracauerwouldhaveit,compensatesfora
lackbytheverysamemeansthelackwasinduced.
Sleepwalkers
PourYourBodyOut
indicatetheextenttowhichthe
contemporaryintegrationofcinemaintothemuseummustbeseennotonlyas
amatterofprotectingorcommemoratinganendangeredinstitution,butalsoof
mobilizingitsaccessibilityandentertainmentvaluesinordertoattractaudi-
ences.Givensuchastateofaffairs,itisimportantthatonemaintainsahealthy
scepticismaboutwhatPantenburghascalled
emancipationtheories
ofthe
spectatorialpositionputforthbynewmovingimageinstallations.
Suchthe-
oriesseecomponentssuchasamobilespectatorandamultiplicityofview-
pointsasinherentlydemocratic,thusfailingtorecognizetheredistributionof
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
PipilottiRist,
PourYourBodyOut
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
loguewiththepublic,whowehopewillbeinspiredtothinkaboutartinrela-
tiontothecityitself,andtothelargerurbanexperience...
Sleepwalkers
willbe
easilyaccessibletoabroadanddiverseaudienceofNewYorkersandvisitorsto
thecity,whocanengagedirectlywithanartworkinavitalandunexpected
context.
Viewing
Sleepwalkers
didnotrequiremuseumadmission,butes-
sentiallyfunctionedasavideobillboardadvertisementfortheMoMA,perhaps
luringpeoplewhowouldnotnormallyvisitthemuseumbackwiththepromise
ofmoreseductiveimagesofthe
Sleepwalkers
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
ingproportions.Theexhibitionemployedsevenenormousprojectionsonthe
facadesoftheMoMAatnightfrom
Januaryto
February
,dissolving
thearchitectureofthemuseumintoadazzlingseaofcolortorenderitsspecta-
cularizationquiteliteral.
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
DougAitken,
Sleepwalkers
Sleepwalkers
literalizestheconceptionofviewerofthemovingimageinstalla-
tionas
flâneur
byplacinghimorheroutsideonWest
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
astheshot/reverseshotortheeyelinematchworktofosteridentificationand
createastableandsafepositionforthespectatortooccupy.
Whilesuchstruc-
turesoccasionallyfindtheirwayintomovingimageinstallations,itisclearthat
nosuchcoherentformalsystemexiststhereintobetheorizedafterthemanner
sfilmtheoristssuchasLauraMulveyorStephenHeath,afactthatsurely
contributestoBellour
scharacterizationofthisspectatoras
dissolved,frag-
mented,shaken,intermittent.
Nonetheless,onemightsuggestthatinsteadofthetechniquesofsuturefound
inclassicalHollywood,certainmovingimageinstallationsfavorimmersive
spectacle,overwhelmingtheviewerthroughlarge-scaleprojectionsofahigh
sensoryintensity
anargumentthatcouldalsobemadeofthecontemporary
postclassicalblockbuster.ArtistssuchasMatthewBarney,PipilottiRist,andBill
Violamakeuseofextravagantvisuals,highproductionvalues,andamaximal-
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
art,imagesareofferedupforpassingconsumptioninamannerthatmimics
strollingthroughthearcadesandgazingatmerchandise.
Philippe-AlainMichaudvalorizedtheexperienceofthe
inhisdiscus-
sionofthemodeofspectatorshipelicitedbythecentralavenueofprojectionsin
LeMouvementdesimages
,wheninfactthisdistractedviewingattimesmerely
mimicstheperceptualregimeofmassculture.LikesomanyofBenjamin
sar-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
walkingwithoutgoal,bychance;usingone
stimewithoutprofitac-
cordingtoLeLittré.LeRobertevokesabandonmenttothesensationofthemo-
somethingthatPaïninotesiscrucialtotheexperienceofcontemporary
movingimageinstallations.
Certainly,thisistheprincipleatplayamidstthefortyscreensofKutlu
).Theinstallationreliesonthemobilityofitsviewertoweave
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
tionposition,shotthroughwithidealism.
Withoutdiscountingtheimpor-
tanceofsuchcanonicalaccounts,itisnecessarytoacknowledgethegreatbody
ofworkthathastakenplacesincethepublicationoftheseseminaltexts,aswell
astheimmensechangesthathaveoccurredwithintheinstitutionofcinema.
Incontemporarydiscoursesconcerningthestatusofthespectatorofthemoving
imageinstallation,thenotionthatthecinemaspectatorispassivewhilethegal-
leryspectatorisinherentlyactiverestsonaspuriousmappingofpassive/active
binariesontothisarchitecturaldifference,asiftoconflatephysicalstasiswith
regressivemystificationandphysicalambulationwithcriticality
aclaimthat
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
thecrisisofthewhitecube
forbothinstitutionsareimplicatedinthepredica-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
sperceptionofallobjectsitencountered.This,ofcourse,includedthehis-
toriesofartandcinema,bothofwhichwerebanishedtotheanteriorroomsof
Yesterday
TheDayBeforeYesterday.
ForGodard,thecollectivehistory
thatliesburiedwithinthembecomesimpossibleinthewar,porn,andmerchan-
diseof
Today.
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
utopiantravels,
givingadollhousehintofwhatthenineroomsofhisexhib-
itedarchaeologyofcinemamighthavelookedlike.
Inplaceofthisabortedexhibition,Godardmadethreeroomstitled
Today,
Yesterday,
TheDayBeforeYesterday
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
tookupthevicissitudesofcinema
sintegrationintosuchaspace,standingasa
Jean-LucGodard,
Voyage(s)enutopie
,JLG,
Àlarecherche
unthéorèmeperdu
TheexhibitionstemmedfromaprojectabandonedinFebruary
Collage(s)deFrance,archéologieducinémad
aprèsJLG
,whichhaditself
beenborneoftheCollègedeFrance
srejectionofGodard
sproposaltoteacha
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
thiscriticalideaofexplodingcinemaorexpandingcinemainthe
sand
shas
nowturnedintoanotherconnotationoftheword
Nowit
saboutex-
pandingwithcinema.Bythat,Imeanmuseumsandthemuseumstructureusing
movingimageryasapartoftheirshoppingmall.
Nolongerdoesoneconfrontthesingularimageofthetitleof
Passagesdel
whichmaintainedaconcernforthespecificityofaparticularimageregimein
tensionwiththehomogenizingthrustsofconvergence.Nowoneconfrontsthe
pluralityofimagesinmovement.Whilesuchthematiccurationcansometimes
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
flâneur
thathesawasdisappearingwith
thetheatricalizationofcinema
sufficestopassinfrontof[theseworks]forafewmoments...Whatweseein
thisbiasedway,inamannerveryunconsciousandfugitive,isdifferentbutnot
lessinteresting.
Someoftheseworkswereindeedvideosmadetobeshown
LeMouvementdesimages
,CentreGeorgesPompidou,Paris,level
BrunoRacine,presidentofthePompidoufrom
,wrotethattheex-
hibition
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
Thiskindoflarge-scalepublicimagewasparticularlyappealingtoartinstitu-
tionsandmajorinternationalexhibitionsinthe
s.Halfofthe
artmu-
seumsintheUnitedStateswerelessthantwenty-fiveyearsoldin
,with
manyofthemdevotedpurelytomodernandcontemporaryart.
Thelastquar-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
TheNewBlockbusters
Therootsofanundertakingliketheexhibitionof
BerlinAlexanderplatz
backtothe
\t
sandtheemergenceofwhathasbecomeknown,borrowing
fromthelanguageofcinema,asthe
blockbusterexhibition.
The
Treasuresof
Tutankhamen
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
asthevisitorpleased,thelikelihoodofviewingtheentire
minutesofthe
seriesishighlyunlikely,tosaytheleast,whilesoundbleedingfromotherpro-
jectionsmadeconcentratedviewingdifficult.Alongwiththeseepisodes,thein-
stallationincludedanaudiorecordingofFassbinderspeakingabouttheproject,
Fassbinder:BerlinAlexanderplatz
AnExhibition
,KWInstitutefor
ContemporaryArt,Berlin
March-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
occurrenceinamajorinternationalartexhibition.Ofthemovietheater,
Howarthwrote,
Thisformatandspacearebasedonthephysicalandtechnical
characteristicsofthemedium.Theyallowfilmtobeperceivedonaspecificlevel
ofintensitytowhichitowesitshistoricalsuccess.
Horwath
svehementoppo-
sitiontoexhibitingworksmadeforthemovietheaterwithinthegalleryisa
minorityposition,atleastwithinacontemporaryartcontext.Today,itisan
exceedinglycommonexperiencetowalkintomajorartinstitutionsandfind
digitalcopiesofclipsandshortfilmsplayingonloop.
InKerryBrougher
HallofMirrors:ArtandFilmSince
,heldattheLos
AngelesMuseumofContemporaryArtin
,oneencounteredovertwohun-
dredcinema-themedworksondisplay.Theseworksspannedacrossmediaand
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
exhibitionforoldmovies,orbysponsoringanewkindofmovingimageprac-
tice.AccordingtoBellourandElsaesser,cinemaisgrantedescapefromthe
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
asexemplifiedinthischapter
sopeningexampleofthe
othersinordertorescueit,Elsaesser
sunderstandingofGreenawayrecallsBel-
snotionof
savingtheimage,
aswellashisconceptofthe
whichproducesanonessentialistconceptionofmediumspecificitythroughan
engagementwithhybridforms.
BellourandElsaesser
senthusiasmforthepossibilitiesofagallery-basedcin-
emaiswhollyunderstandable.However,itisnecessarytointerrogatetheideo-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
sturntowardamodeofpresentationhistoricallyalignedwithcinema
occurredpreciselyasthelatter
sstatusasabadobjectbegantowane.Asthe
centennialapproachedandcinema
shegemonicpositionasculturaldomi-
nantwasincreasinglycompromised,agrowingchorusofcritics,filmmakers,
artists,andscholarswouldsingarequiemforitaslovedandlost.Itisworth
notingthatDominiquePaïnichooses
asthedatethatmarksthepassageof
cinemaintoanewrealm,thatofpatrimony:
,afterhavingbeenthe
curiosityofthecentury,theleisureofthecentury,theartofthecentury,the
cultureofthecentury,cinemabecomesthe
ofthecentury.Eachfilmis
also
adocument,testimony,trace,memory.
Païnisummarizestheimpli-
cationsofthisshiftquitesimply:
Thislastmutationisonefromindustryto
Mainstreamnarrativecinemacontinuestotrafficincelebrityandmass
culture,butinthemeantime,anotherconceptionofcinema,onethatwouldbe
incessantlyemphasizedbycontemporaryartistsandcurators(tosaynothingof
academicfilmstudies),hasarisen.After
,thedispersionofcinemathrough-
outcultureingeneral,whichPaïniseesastakingplacefrom
onwards,
dialecticallyreversestogivewaytotherarefactionofcinemathathadalways
existedwithinit,leadingtoaninterestinitshistoryanditsspecificity.Spread
toothinovertheentireculturalfield,amorerestrictednotionofcinemaap-
pears.Itisacinemaindangerofdisappearance,onethatspawnsrearguard
effortstobothrememberitandtoreassembleit.
Throughoutthe
s,nodoubtspurredontheintroductionoftheDVDin
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
before,whileDouglashadused
mm.Butthecriticalmassofexhibitingthem
BillViola,
TheArcofAscent
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
GaryHill,
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
thisverysamecinema,whichonceexistedataremovefromthetraditional
mediumsofartisticpractice,nowincreasinglyfindsitselfapartofthem.
Bypairingvanguardcontemporaryartwithawide-rangingselectionoffilms,
theexhibitioninsistedonitsabilitytoopenupacriticalspaceinwhichtorecon-
sidertheimagesofthepastinanewlight,maintaininganinvestmentinhistory
whilewelcomingthemovingimageintothegallery.Itcrossedhighandlow,
seeingapopularfilmsuchas
WhoFramedRogerRabbit?
)ashavingas
muchtooffertoaninquiryintothestatusoftheimageastheunshakableaus-
terityof
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
Passages
ofCinema
Today,themovieshavelargelyleftthemovietheaterandhavescatteredall
acrosstheculturalfield.Theprevalenceofdiscussionsofdigitalconvergence
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
change,itisimperativetoalsotakeaccountoftheincreasinglynumerousloca-
tionsofcinemaalongsidethenumericalbasisofitsnewimages.Evenifthe
answertothequestion
Whereiscinema?
isaquick
thein-
quirycannotstopthere.Whileonecanspeakofageneralizationofcinema,its
dispersalacrossvariousplatforms,onemusttakecaretointerrogatethemulti-
plespecificitiesofthisscatteredcinemaandquestiontheramificationsofeach
componentofit.TomGunninghaswrittenthattherehasbeenanunfortunate
tendencytoveerawayfrom
anyinvestigationintothediversenatureofmedia
forfearofbeingaccusedofpromotinganidealistproject.
Thechallenge,
then,istoaccountfortheaggregatenatureofmediawhileresistingthelureof
idealismbyalwaysmaintaininganattentiontothehistoricalandmaterialspe-
cificitiesoftheformationsunderdiscussion.Cinemamaybeeverywhere,but
everywhereitdoesnotremainthesame.
Whenthemoviesleavethemovietheaterandenterthemuseum,theytake
upaparadoxicalposition:theyareatonceold,supposedly
rescued
from
commercialexploitationbytheirentryintothegallery,andalsonew,transform-
ingaspacethathasuntilrecentlyshutoutbothtechnologyandmassculture.
Cinemaappearsasanoutmodedimage-regimeindesperateneedoftheshelter
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
temporaneouslywiththecinema
centennialandmustbeunderstoodas
bothparticipatinginandrespondingtoaperceivedcrisisofthecinematicinsti-
tutionatthistime.Passingoverintothespaceofthemuseum,thecinemabe-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
stakewaslessadefinitivestatementonthedirectorthantheself-consciouspro-
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
Ephémèrecinéma,avided
DominiquePaïni
Uponentering
discussionofworksbyEija-LiisaAhtila,Kutlu
Ataman,OmerFast,andAmar
Kanwar,Idemonstratethatartistsrehabilitatecinema
sstatusasatechnologyof
thevirtualinordertointerrogatesubjectiveandhistoricalexperience.
,JonasMekaspublishedanarticleinthe
VillageVoice
entitled
OnNew
Directions,OnAnti-Art,OntheOldandtheNewinArt.
Init,Mekasdis-
cussedtheproliferationofexperimentalandexpandedcinemapracticesthathe
sawaroundhim.Hewrote,
Themediumofcinemaisbreakingoutandtaking
overandisgoingblindlyandbyitself.Whereto
nobodyknows.
Whileone
mightadjustMekas
proclamationtoassertthatthecinemanolongergoesforth
byitself,butinaggregateformationswithothermedia,itisasentimentworth
resuscitatingtoday.Gallery-basedmovingimagesthatbothinheritthelegacyof
thosepracticesMekasdescribesanddepartfromthemareengaginginimpor-
tantarticulationsofthehistoriesandfuturesofcinema.Inthepagesthatfollow,
Iwillprovideanaccountofthesepracticesandsomeofthequestionstheyraise,
allinanefforttoemphasizethat,ratherthanbeingatimetomournthedeathof
Introduction
TheOtheredCinema
plorewhichmodelofspectatorshipmightbestbeabletograpplewiththeparti-
cularitiesofthemovingimageinstallation.
Chaptertwoisentitled
FilmicRuins.
Inthischapter,Iexaminehowartists
suchasMatthewBuckingham,TacitaDean,andJeroendeRijke/Willemde
Rooijuse
mmfilmasanobsolescentmediumlinkedtoaspectralhistoricity,
thepathosoftheruin,andthefailedutopiasofmodernity.Asnotedabove,the
useofcelluloidwithinthespaceofthegalleryvirtuallydisappearsafterthe
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Introduction
TheOtheredCinema
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
stateofcinema.DominiquePaïni,forexample,haswrittenthat

signalsthe
dateafterwhich
cinemabecomestheheritageandculturalinheritance[
moine
]ofthecentury,
takingonasurplusculturalvalueIwillargueisinte-
graltothewayinwhichcinemahasbeenconceptualizedwithinthespacesof
artduringthepasttwodecades.
Therelationshipoftheotheredcinematothatrealmtraditionallycalled
avant-garde
experimentalfilm
isavexedone.Inhisaccountofartists
cinemaandavant-gardecinemaasmodesofproduction,JonathanWalleyholds
Introduction
TheOtheredCinema
videawe-inspiringfarethatwillsatisfymuseumvisitorsand,inturn,adminis-
trators.However,Adornoalsomakesclearthatthenewisequallypresentin
sabilitytodislodgeestablishedframeworksofunderstanding;itisakindof
blindspot.
Inthissecondformulation,thenoveltyofthenewliesinitsun-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
sstatementisprescientindeedandhasturnedouttobemoreliteralthan
heperhapsintended.
TheartistisnowaHollywooddirectornotsimplyinthe
Introduction
TheOtheredCinema
preciousnessarecultivatedas,inadigitalageofindividualizedimagecon-
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
otherssuggestadrasticmutation.Thisensembleofpartsirreducibletoself-
identityispreciselywhatthetermthe
otheredcinema
invokes.Itisclearthat
cinemanolongermeansjustonething
though,ofcourse,itneverdid.Rather
thanbuyintothenotionthatallmediawillconvergeintoanhomogeneousdi-
gitalfield,itisnecessarytodaytointerrogatethewaysinwhichtheboundaries
Introduction
TheOtheredCinema

ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
faceofnewmedia,forexample,analoguefilmhasreasserteditsuniqueness.
Thecontemporarymomentisnotsimplyoneofconvergence,butalsoonethat
seesanunleashingofmultiplemediumspecificitiesthatdispersethenotionof
cinemaacrossvariedconceptualandmaterialspaces.Ideasofwhatthecinema
might
arenowarticulatedinnumerousandincompatibleforums,ranging
fromHollywood
sincreasingeffortstocombatonlinebootleggingthroughcam-
paignsthatemphasizethegiganticismofthemultiplexscreentopartnerships
withmobiletelephonecompanies(nowrebrandingthemselvesasprovidersof
multimediadevices
Introduction
TheOtheredCinema
transcodedtodatabasedinbinarycode.
Itmustbeemphasized,though,that
convergenceisnotmerelyamatterofmaterialsubstrate.Rather,astheproducts
ofcinemabecomeavailableonanincreasingnumberofviewingplatforms,the
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
oftropesandstrategiesdrawnfromcinema.FilmmakerssuchasChantalAker-
thelasttwodecadesisakeysiteatwhichinterrogationsintocinematicspecifi-
cityhavetakenplacethatbothreflectonthematerialcomponentsoftheappa-
ratusandextendbeyondthem.Theseworks
cinemanotsimplyas
celluloid,projector,orbinarycode,butalsoasasocialandhistoricalinstitution.
Theyoffernumerousanswerstothequestionofwhatcinemamightbeand,in
sodoing,maybeunderstoodasengaginginfilmtheorythroughpractice.
Onaverybasiclevel,thekeyword
designatestheoperation
bywhichmedialosetheirmedium-specificqualitiesbybeingremediatedor
Introduction
TheOtheredCinema
meaningandhistoryofthecinemaoverthepasttwentyyears.Inthe
WalterBenjaminarticulatedthepressingquestionofhowtheadventofme-
chanicalreproduction,mostforcefullyembodiedinthecinema,mightchange
ourconceptionofart.
Withoutabandoningthisnotion
foritisbynomeans
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
theveryforceoftimethatProust
snarratorsoughttorecover,testifyingtothe
wayinwhichthepastcanbesummonedinallitsanachronismtochallengethe
present.AsDouglashasremarked,
Introduction
TheOtheredCinema
voluntarymemoryaselaboratedbyProust.
StanDouglas,
Overture
wouldnotbeoutofplaceamongstthemanyworksoftheexperi-
mentalfilmtraditionthathavedrawnuponthepreclassicalcinema,suchas
ErnieGehr
),whichalsousesfootageofaphantomride.
ever,
isnotanexperimentalfilm,butafilminstallation.Itbelongs
nottothemovietheater,buttotheartgallery.Itisanearlyexampleoftheways
inwhichartistswouldclaimthegalleryasaspacetoinvestigatefilmhistoryin
s,mobilizingtwostrategiesthatwouldbecomecentraltothisunder-
taking:theremakeofanexistingfilmandtheinvestigationof
mmasame-
diumalignedwithhistoricity.
Overture
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Introduction
TheOtheredCinema
[T]heneedistoproposenewanswerstothequestionthatisnowraisedinallinstitu-
tionsdedicatedtomodernandcontemporaryart:Howisfilmtobeexhibitedand
howisfilmtoattainthestatusofanartwork?
BrunoRacine,president,CentreGeorgesPompidou,
Toopen,an
Overture
.In
,StanDouglasproduceda
mmworkthatre-
cycledsomeofcinema
searliestimagesandoneofitsearliestgenres,thephan-
tomride.DouglaspairedrecycledfootagefromtwoEdisonfilmsshotinthe
CanadianRockies,
KickingHorseCanyon
)and
WhitePass,British
Columbia
),withasoundtrackofpassagesexcerptedfromMarcel
Proust
InSearchofLostTime
consistsofthreeimagesections,each
separatedbyblackleader,andsixpassagesoftext.Thesepassagesarereadbya
malevoice-overthroughtworepetitionsoftheimagetrack,resultinginthe
sameimagebeingaccompaniedbydifferenttextintheseconditerationofthe
seven-minuteloop.Thephantomridecelebratestechnologizedperception,
FedericoWindhausen,andthestudentsofmy
ArtandtheMovingImage
seminar.
ManythankstomycolleaguesinFilmStudiesatCarletonUniversity,particu-
larlyMaliniGuha,andtoJohnOsborne,deanoftheFacultyofArtsandSocial
Sciences,forhissupportofthisproject.
BartTesta,KevinWynter,andanonymousreadersat
videdmewithveryhelpfulfeedbackonparticularsectionsofthebook.Iam
especiallygratefulfortheencouragementandcriticismofMiekeBalandUrsula
Frohne.
Thisprojectwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutfinancialsupportreceived
fromBrownUniversity,theSocialSciencesandHumanitiesResearchCouncilof
Canada,theAndrewW.MellonFoundation,andCarletonUniversity.
Mostofall,thankyoutoCatherineBalsomandMichaelGallagher.
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Acknowledgements
Thisbookwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutthekindcooperationofmany
individualswhoassistedintheprocessofviewingworkthatoftencirculatesin
onlyalimitedmanner:AndrewBeccone,BramBots,andRoseLordatMarian
GoodmanGallery;JaniceGuyandFabianaVisoatMurrayGuy;RosalieBenitez
Notes
Bibliography
IllustrationCredits
Index
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
TableofContents
Acknowledgements
Introduction
TheOtheredCinema
Chapter1
ArchitecturesofExhibition
Passages
ofCinema
ProjectionandPatrimony
BlackBox/WhiteCube
TheNewBlockbusters
TheMythofActivity
MediaatMoMA
Chapter2
FilmicRuins
Post-mediumPost-mortem
IndexingthePast
ALittleHistoryof
Ruinophilia
AnalogueAura
Chapter3
TheRemake:OldMovies,NewNarratives
AmbivalentAppropriations
TheFourOperations
Precursors
TheFalsePromisesofthe
UtopiaofUse
RemakingFandom
Room-for-Play
VCRMemories
Chapter4
TheFictionofTruthandtheTruthofFiction
Anti-anti-illusionism
HybridForms
RehabilitatingNarrative
ThisbookispublishedinprintandonlinethroughtheonlineOAPENlibrary
(www.oapen.org)
tionsreproducedinthisbook.Nonetheless,whosoeverbelievestohaverights
tothismaterialisadvisedtocontactthepublisher.
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
ErikaBalsom
ExhibitingCinemainContemporaryArt
Amsterdam University Press
IN TRANSITION
FILM
CULTURE
FILM
CULTURE
ERIKABALSOM

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