British Literature and American Literature


Чтобы посмотреть этот PDF файл с форматированием и разметкой, скачайте его и откройте на своем компьютере.
&
American
I
MAP............................................................................................................................
..6
INFORMATION
LITERATU
RE........................................................................................8
Notes..........................................................................................................................
................8
Planning.......................................................................................................................
...............10
ship.....................................................................................................................
..11
ship.....................................................................................................................
.........11
Summarize......................................................................................................................
.........11
tips...........................................................................................................................
.........13
ter......................................................................................................................
..14
tone...........................................................................................................................
............15
TERMS..................................................................................................17
LITERATU
RE?....................................................................................................................
.........18
nary.....................................................................................................................
...........18
ure.....................................................................................................................
..........18
and
tragedy.............................................................................140
play.............................................................................................................140
Lyly...........................................................................................................................
..............141
Kyd.................................................................................................................141
1593.................................................................................................141
buildings............................................................................143
England..............................................................................................191
Bradford
1657).......................................................................................................196
Wigglesworth
1705)..............................................................................................197
Sewall
1730)...........................................................................................................198
(c.1635
c.1678)................................................................................................199
1728)........................................................................................................199
1683).......................................................................................................199
American
Texts..........................................................................................................................
........200
re......................................................................................................200
Stories.........................................................................................................200
Saved?.............................................................................203
APHY...................................................................................................................
....................211
6
                                                           
DIALECT
7
TODAY
8
INFORMATION
STUDY
LITERATURE
preparation
any
piece
your
different
course
the
following
even
your
source(s).
book,
article,
write
information
Author,
publisher,
date
and
book
paper.
This
standard
educational
printed
small
notepads.
track
your
they
materials.
9
and
What
Emotion
transmitted
others
[Wordsworth]
Not
   ‐ 
should
transmitted
own
for
high
Chopin,
good
usually
planning,
and
the
you
question
this
evidence
directly
the
topic
asked
doubt,
prepared
formulate
new
 ‐ 
essays.
times
your
argument.
Example
What
that
depictions
and
the
media
should
should
not
more
 is worth studying
plan
entirety.
you
think
that
depictions
and
violence
should
should
more
Introduction
censorship
censorship
Aesthetic
inhibits
talent,
judgement
individuals
decide
themselves
nobody
Violence
from
portrayal
these
subjects
can
through
'second
hand'.
Violence
Summarizing
are
Even
though
notes
only
for
they
clearly
neatly.
you
doubt
the
following
guidelines.
you
even
start,
note
your
source(s).
this
article,
journal,
the
following
your
notes:
Author,
publisher,
date
book
paper.
This
standard
almost
educational
printed
matter.
Don't
notepads.
track
your
space
Qualities
Qualities
Qualities
educated
precocious
perceptive
unschooled
minded
unreasonable
incapable
bigoted
cunning
innocent
upstanding
truthful
honorable
puritanical
unprincipled
deceitful
unscrupulous
untrustworthy
degenerate
Qualities
Qualities
beautiful
hardy
dainty
charming
grotesque
ungainly
unkempt
cooperative
congenial
cheerful
debonair
courteous
tactful
encouraging
contentious
brusque
obsequious
unpolished
crabby
grumpy
chart,
ten
that
authors
Below
other
better
pinpoint
describe
tone.
WITH
the
two
poems
questions.
drum
world
Im
out
rhythm
whorls,
whirls,
mine
treasure
other,
however
grand
base,
ever
contain
time.
universe
key.
Impress,
implant,
myself,
blood
interior
weather,
sun
Imprint
mark
upon
world,
Whatever
become.
     
The
theme
each
poem
    
reverence
happiness
hope
sadness
anger
hate
cherish
tenderness
romantic
infatuated
enamor
compassion
fervor
merry
cheerful
mirth
relish
serene
content
anticipate
trust
somber
lament
    
individuality
    
     
ANALYSING
LITERARY
Vocabulary
author's
choice
 ‐ 
various
registers
technical,
journalism,
may
simple
direct
and
The
relationships
adjectives
description,
denote
action,
switching
WHAT
LITERATURE?
LITERATURE(n.)
recognized
place
literature
body
written
language,
period,
culture.
especially
Literature
analysis
experience
synthesis
findings
unity
West).
body
written
produced
scholars
field:
medical
material:
literature
the
subject.
the
specific
the
symphonic
literature.
 English, book learning,
French
litterature,
litter
(dated
2700
parts
Indian
Ramayana
and
Mahabharata.
cultures
based
that
adhere
particular
formal
(other
than
"non
great
deal
particularly
genre
known
creative
nonfiction.
However
areas
become
and
often
purpose:
immediate
information.
result
these
quality,
although
and
better
has
include
Herodotus,
Procopius,
count
canonical
Aristotle,
early
parts
Bible,
count
tables
Babylon
count.
during
Byzantine
Empire
reputation
founding
documents
countries,
including
United
States
count
however
rarely
exhibits
 ‐ 
essence
the
player
and
only
audience
these
small.
scripts
contain
immersive
poetry,
comedy,
tragedy,
melodrama,
tragicomedy.
This
continue:
"comedy"
genres,
example,
comedy
comedy,
burlesque
comedy,
comedy.
criteria
divide
are
change
constantly,
change
both
However,
loose
fiction
("literature
the
imagination,
not
presented
fact,
though
applied
fictitious
the
novel,
but
fables,
may
join
contradicting
Romance
mystery
their
plots,
Western
and
only
good
22).
Furthermore,
the
fatherhood
patriarchial
understood
alluding
Abraham,
the
nations
17:3
6).
Finally,
example
convey
banishment,
4:12).
they
understand
concept
already
connotation
(KAH
TAE
shun):
that
comes
particular
Connotations
actual
but
ideas
qualities
that
implied
that
word.
good
denotation
connotations,
however,
gold,
luxury,
Another
Genesis.
the
along
path,
the
heels
backward"
49:17).
Dan
not
going
become
snake.
However,
describing
"snake"
negative
such
danger,
Dan
dangerous
Writers
connotation
vivid
interesting
humor
thoughts,
On
Volunteer
Singer,
compares
and
contrasts
death
that
humans:
before
they
twere
bad
thing
Should
before
they
Lord
Randall
young
set
that
began
earliest
Ancient
Egypt
2600
elegies,
hymns
generated
religious
ceremonies.
the
authors
Wordsworth,
and
Shakespeare
helped
popularize
the
end
one
and
and
random
rhymes,
which
rhymes
accidentally
often
unrhymed
try
bring
verses
perfect
came
rhyme,
imperfect
rhyme,
chance,
natures
changing
course,
untrimmd.
         
thy
BRIEF
HISTORY
LANGUAGE
did
not
start
subject
and
and
that
not
understand
reading
know
the
history
the
the
culture,
history
begins
after
600.
forests
Europe.
branch
people
northern
time
Roman
Empire.
Among
this
people
Angels,Saxons,Jutes
Anglo
Saxons
England.
period.
effected
language
merchants
Some
the
taken
from
1066
 ‐ 
The
Conquest
Britain
1066
French
Conqueror
the
Dutch
French
effect.
1066
until
1400,
French,
disappeared
entirely
during
this
period
the
French
and
Latin
dominated
court
and
government.
However,
1362,
the
the
choice,
and
saved
approximately
50%
Scandinavian)
Romance
(French
Many
added
Middle
during
period
French,
French,
Scandinavian.
Norman
French
Middle
catch
wage
warden
and
French
guarantee
regard
guardian
gage
Scandinavian
Middle
the
important
English
from
Middle
French.
French
duke
peer
baron
Middle
English
independently
king
queen
and
earl
French
include
city
mansion
Middle
include
town
house
Modern
Century
During
this
period,
became
organized
began
Although
word
order
and
construction
different,
Modern
Modern
the
pleases
became
"We
sailing."
from
and
profoundly
creation
and
Modern
received
grammar
 ‐ 
Middle
High
kuchen
breathe
heavily
the
French
cohhian
the
coughen
derived
current
 ‐ 
hegeisthai
sagire
keenly
the
suohhen
the
French
English
the
Middle
sekken
past
sought
tense
the
 ‐ 
From
French
thurh
and
thuruh
Middle
thorow
word
 ‐ 
From
related
French
which
remained
Middle
derived
current
thought
From
Sanskrit
tarati
the
Latin
trans
Beginning
Old
the
French
English
English
thruh
through
derived
current
through
Considerations
the
and
now
continents.
language
United
United
Kingdom,
Australia,
and
small
nations
the
Pacific
Ocean.
official
language
India,
Philippines,
and
countries
Saharan
Africa,
including
South
the
western
group
languages
(itself
Indo
language
and
closely
Netherlandic
(Dutch
and
the
16th
century,
only
England,
but
colonization
other
and
other
factors,
350
people
20th
century.
thus
tongue
than
any
language
Mandarin
the
foreign
that
communicate
when
they
cannot
understand
other's
the
language
technical
20th
century
and
widely
adopted
use
and
diplomacy.
language.
analytic
relatively
uninflected)
European,
the
ancestral
tongue
most
European,
North
languages,
"bath"
pronounced
the
fricatives
"thin").
(5)
When
high
(consonantal
start
the
subject
object.
Adjectives
other
that
nouns
placed
before
the
noun,
whole
phrases
acting
noun.
adjectives,
and
French,
which
consonant
sounds
"thin"),
[eth]
(as
"ship"),
"pleasure"),
affricatives:
and
the
(the
sound
that
the
"young");
the
trth"
(the
and
nothing
may
contrasted
(whatever
you
other
people);
"blck
brd"
black
contrasted
"blckbrd"
particular
bird
merula
(henceforth
only
primary
contrasted
with
corresponding
nouns
antepenultimate
(third
revealed
longitdinal,
nouns
the
French
representative,
legislature,
and
French.
marquis,
baron;
but
king,
queen,
and
knight
City,
court,
palace,
residence,
and
French;
but
town,
borough,
home
away,
distant"
compound
photography,
the
term
"telephotography"
denote
photographing
distant
objects
inserting
this
compound,
they
term
"photomicrography,"
denoting
the
electronic
photographing
bacteria
Such
probably
Aristotle.
Many
compounds
and
with
differentiations
appear
equivalents,
such
andante,
crescendo,
diminuendo,
pizzicato,
staccato,
terms
alchemy,
alcohol,
alembic,
algebra,
almanac,
cipher,
nadir,
naphtha,
syrup,
zenith,
and
zero.
Egyptian
Arabic,
recently
(also
luffa).
Hebrew,
Latin,
come
amen,
cherub,
manna,
rabbi,
sabbath,
and
leviathan,
century,
Winchester
became
centre
Chronicle
manuscript
Anglo
Saxon
Chronicle)
there
Orosius,
Gregory,
and
Venerable
translated;
there
native
thor,
sweostor
("father,"
"mother,"
"brother,"
and
"daughter,"
thaet
"that,"
thes,
articles,
article
being
the
"that"
expressed
Thus,
"the
good
plain
The
function
indefinite
performed
"one"
adjective
pronoun
sum
(certain)
thu
"you
good
had
two
only
(present
future
past),
(indicative,
subjunctive,
and
plural),
and
persons
(1st,
2nd,
3rd).
two
changes
changes
tense,
number,
man,
mdon,
gede
Such
and
weak,
and
masculine,
and
neuter.
"woman,"
and
were
feminine,
neuter,
respectively.
Hors
"sheep,"
and
"maiden"
Eorthe
"earth"
but
was
grammatical
gender
fact
that
the
gender
substantives
indicated
ending
terminations
the
demonstrative
pronouns
used
substantives.
endings
gender
disappeared
the
weakening
gender
occurred
E
adre
consecreated
Edred
adverbial
bydde
"Now
 "ask I"] one thing";
are
Lundenburg
king
occupied
London."
Impersonal
expressed.
Infinitives
constructed
placed
ends
dorston
forth
thre
"They
beyond
infinitive);
wolde
thas
awendan
this
awendan
the
came
dependent
clause
awritan
thas
awritan
gerihte
thre
bysene
anyone
copy
book
result
Norman
Conquest
1066
place
dialects
supremacy
and
centre
and
learning
gradually
Winchester
The
Northumbrian
became
although
the
the
13th
century
(Figure
14).
Mercian
dialect
into
West
Midland.
became
diminished
and
appropriately
South
dialect.
extended
and
South
accordingly.
(Northern,
Midland,
Midland,
South
Western,
South
Eastern)
their
own
and
developed
(1180
1210),
town
from
border,
adhered
and
Thus,
("much")
appeared
("house")
and
("how")
how
the
often
after
and
and
was
tch;
sh;
ght
Old
appeared
queen;
ditch;
ship;
secge
segge
century
the
Conquest,
loanwords
Normandy
but
extension
the
Pyrenees
Angevin
empire
Henry
1154
89),
other
especially
French,
Francien,
contributed
speech
the
Modern
acquired
the
catch,
leal,
French
corresponding
channel,
royal,
regard,
gage,
guardian,
guarantee,
Francien.
King
lost
Normandy
1204.
power
Capetian
Paris,
Francien
predominated.
Latin
three
centuries,
therefore,
the
was
Ancrene
guide
recluses
anchorites
three
sounds
changed
Even
late
and
vowels
shortened
before
consonant
groups
double
consonants.
Middle
short
the
open
ending
vowel.
syllables
"name,"
se,
and
13th
14th
centuries.
change
occurred
century
Latin,
13th
century
different
other
languages.
popular
that
mute
English
preceding
fact,
the
that
caused
pronunciation.
hand,
English
words,
those
haligdaeg
"holy
day,"
rende
errand,"
"Christianity,"
and
"southern,"
became
(Northern
liday
stendom
therne
Compare,
for
trisyllabic
the
chastity,
fabulous,
gradual,
linear,
nouns
adjectives
chaste,
nation,
omen,
table.
significant
inflections
the
Northern,
Midland,
Southern
dialects.
syllable
the
Old
singan
participle
was
kept.
apparently
contradictory
features
entirely
Scandinavian,
infinitive
early
singa
and
the
final
participle
doubled
sunginn
unmutated
present
participle
Scandinavian
Old
ende
the
present
participle
Saxon,
and
Southern
blended
nouns
action
that
already
become
gerunds
such
compound
nouns
athswering
and
as
a
holders
efficient
administrators
these
offices
the
Exchequer
revenues
the
development
monarchy,
the
events
occurred
during
reign
Henry
(1154
1189),
the
grandson
Henry
had
times,
contrary
throne.
Henry
power
the
significant
narrowing
granted
church
clergy.
and
Henry
had
gain
the
church
remained
autonomous.
problem
Roman
church
was
the
system
that
monarchs
England.
clergy
crime,
under
than
king.
ecclesiastical
("church")
court
canon
the
Roman
church,
than
church
highly
the
day
heinous
such
resulted
imposed
church
rankled
the
threatened
order
the
biggest
fight,
then,
church.
Henry
church
courts
1164
church
courts
but
demanding
Canterbury,
Thomas
his
France,
John's
nobles
resented
what
they
Magna
1215,
they
forced
king
charter
that
renounced
much
Magna
was
document
about
document
about
monarchical
and
the
foremost,
the
independentlyin
raise
obtain
document
power
arbitrarily
and
free
their
Finally,
created
council
vassals
could
council
eventually
monarchy
Europe
new
phasethe
the
creation
monarchical
the
creation
check
the
growing
monarch.
Everything
the
subsequent
powerful
(1272
1307),
aggressive,
only
England
but
through
conquest
became
albeit
medieval
Europe,
Edward
consolidating
end
"Talking."
The
purpose
Parliament
gather
the
one
place,
the
reasons
collecting
1296.
Scotland
holdtwo
and
Robert
Bruce,
the
grandson
the
Bruce
that
claimed
throne,
expelled
Scotland.
Edward
the
dissolution
monarchical
power
hands
suffered
throughout
this
century:
the
Black
Death,
and
1400,
had
developed
unique
government
through
checks
power
development
judiciary
practices.
succeeded
Edward
(1307
1330),
his
government
and
often
councilors,
inspired
revolt
III
(1330
1377)
occupied
fighting
France
French
kingthese
until
1453
permanent
continent.
changed
after
advent
1349,
England
the
Europe,
the
decrease
subsequent
early
years,
amount
redistributed
the
people
consequences
begin
produce
culture
diffusion
throughout
England.
culture
produce
body
literature
music
sensibility
that
diffuse
higher
first
figure,
Geoffrey
Chaucer,
and
sensibilities
this
the
Black
changed
the
economy
England.
Throughout
the
entire
the
economy
centered,
agriculture
Agriculture
was
rents
from
hierarchy.
entire
who
received
smallest
arable
that
often
enough
survival.
certain
amount
but
also
amount
lands
from
lands.
phenomenally
the
but
Death,
landholders
found
desperately
their
addition,
away
and
gainful
other
wage
the
Even
run
(the
effect
prospect
secure
enough.
With
the
loss
landholders
which
considerably
particularly
because
landholders
problem
converting
1500,
their
but
rented
The
innovative
approach
was
growing
graze
woolthis
practice
since
would
Enclosure
turned
out
even
the
and
throughout
fourteenth
and
centuries
from
phenomenal
production
England
European
turned
from
exporting
cloth.
Why,
collect
from
wool
pay
out
again
the
cloth?
fifteenth
century,
England
become
manufacturing
commercial
primarily
because
the
growth
cloth
industry.
economy
manufacturing
economy
fourteenth
and
fifteenth
centuries
contributed
the
new
These
commoners
the
Edward
reign
Richard
that
emerged
potent
force
Europe.
Anglo
hung
poetry,
that
place
strongly
medieval
England.
anti
clerical
culture
was
theological
doctrinal
culture
forged
out
that
culture
itself
poor
Langland,
mystical
Book
Margery
Kempe
entire
corpus
practices.
individual
the
youngest
become
England
and
reigned
immensely
His
however,
presence
warfare
and
had
The
and
LITERARY
AMERICAN
LITERATURE
SUMMARY
named
rulers,
events,
periods
names.
What's
worse,
these
debated.
Century
the
Baroque
era?
baroque
intractable
though
may
Century
Shakespearean
the
1200
1500
Middle
English
Geoffrey
Chaucer
1500
1660
English
Renaissance
1500
1558
Tudor
Period
John
1558
1603
1603
1625
Jacobean
(1590
1640)
1625
1649
Caroline
Ford,
1649
1660
Commonwealth
Protectorate
Baroque
later,
Rococo
Marvell,
Hobbes
1660
1700
Restoration
Dryden
1700
1800
Century
Enlightenment;
Jonathan
1785
1830
Romanticism
Revolution
William
Wordsworth,
Bronts
1830
1901
Victorian
George
Robert
Browning,
Tennyson
1901
1960
Modern
(1901
H.G.
Wells,
James
Joyce,
Lawrence,
T.S.
1960
Contemporary
Doris
Fowles,
Byatt
English
Period
Saxon
Period
literature
produced
from
England
tribes
half
century
conquest
1066
Conqueror.
During
the
Old
English
Period
began
from
tradition,
the
century
Period
produced
the
centuries
literature.
Another
Johnson
because
authors
Samuel
Johnson
and
produced
greatest
novels
language,
including
Richardson's
(1748)
and
Henry
Fielding's
(1749).
began
the
century
until
1832.
general,
Romantic
literature
can
characterized
personal
nature,
feeling,
abundant
symbolism,
exploration
nature
supernatural.
addition,
Romantics
innovative
their
that
literature
spontaneous,
imaginative,
personal,
Romantic
Period
produced
authors
Samuel
Coleridge,
Wordsworth,
Jane
Austen,
Byron.
during
the
Romantic
Period
that
Traits
literature
dark
crowded
the
still
the
categories
and
postmodernism
Modern
reorganized
and
expanded
Colonial
Period
Revolutionary
Period
Period
(Also
Transcendentalism)
Realistic
Period
Period
American
Period
Harlem
Generation"
The
Contemporary
Period
Writers
Ethnic
Literatures,
limited
to:
American
Writers
Period
American
Literature
the
writings
present
subjects
These
frank,
crude,
Stephen
Crane,Jack
London,
Dreiser
most
studied
American
Naturalists.
INTRODUCTION
LITERATURE
literature
English
c.1450
inhabitants
15th
century
that
language
acquired
Anglo
literature,
the
Old
Middle
literature
period,
c.1100
c.1500.
the
and
thus
particular
Beowulf
Beowulf
(b
'uwoolf), oldest English epic, probably composed in the early 8th cent. by an Anglian bard in the vicinity of Northumbria. It s
urvives in
only one manuscript, written c.A.D. 1000 by two scribes and preserved in the British Museum in the collection of Sir Robert Cot
ton. The materials for
the poem are derived mainly from Scandinavian history, folk tale, and mythology. Its narrative consists of two parts: The first
relates Beowulf's
successful fights with the water monster Grendel and with Grendel's mother; the second narrates the hero's victory in his old a
ge over a dragon and
his subsequent death and funeral at the end of a long life of honor. These events take place entirely in Denmark and Sweden. Th
e poem contains a
remarkable fusion of pagan and Christian elements and provides a
vivid picture of old Germanic life. It is written in a strongl
y accentual, alliterative
but
doubtful;
them
those
English
Danes
are
overjoyed,
Beowulfs
spreads
across
kingdom.
departs
Hrothgar,
Hrogar's
near
city
Scylding
known
through
Scandinavian
and
Anglo
Saxon
Anglo
(1016
1042,
coincident
Beowulf
manuscript)
known
descended
from
poem
catalogue
Hrogar
rulers
Ingeld
the
Heao
Bards.
Danes
Dena,
Beorht
Dena
(Bright
Dena
(Spear
(Ring
Swedes
lived
Sweden
and
Volter
north
the
Geats.
Sweden
reveals
the
mounds
Ongeneow
buried
510
515,
grandson
buried
575.
the
(Swedes),
the
Scylfingas
(Sons
Scylf),
Scylfingas
(War
Heao
Scylfingas
(War
Fight
Finnsburh
The
fragment
Finnsburh
Finnsburh
reference
Beowulf
overlap.
during
Heorot
described
poem.
overlap
studied
the
that
involved
Danes
and
one
survived
flood,
that
the
Scandinavian
England,
characters
Scandinavian
that
manuscript,
shed
the
the
poem.
Kiernan
century
origin,
that
manuscript
book
Beowulf
the
Beowulf
Manuscript
summarized
Eleventh
Century
and
the
Beowulf
Manuscript
Noting
the
efforts
scribe
proofreading
correcting
the
Beowulf
rest
Nowell
Kiernan
that
the
copy
manuscript,
the
174v
been
combined
the
What
manuscript
digression
the
starting
163
until
the
Kiernan
that
the
1939,
seventh
century
ship
burial
Sutton
near
Suffolk.
Its
Beowulf
interesting
pagan
practices
the
breathe
Beowulf
explain
contents
Sutton
Together,
archaeology
paint
opens
demonstrating
Scyld
Scefing,
have
benches
much
kept
because
other
him.
peacekeeper
the
prevalent
kingship
the
weapons
treasures
bestowed
Beowulf
Hrogar
following
defeat
Grendel
example
distribution
treasure
warrior
proven
(*XV,
*XXVI).
exemplary
story
reward
protection
ferocity
 ‐‐ 
for
Saxons.
Beowulf
Beowulf
Beowulf
change
being
neither
pagan,
 to be an attempt to integrate
history
frame].
let
you,
this
Epic.
Picture
taken
the
Luminarium
Middle
other
The
Norton
Anthology
English
covers.
Hymn
earliest
NAEL
1.25
27),
belongs
the
seventh
century.
The
Everyman
dated
"after
1485"
probably
belongs
century.
addition,
the
Middle
Ages,
central
movement
event
Reformation,
the
Civil
organize
approach
the
When
did
Literature"
begin?
Any
that
must
problematic,
concept
concept
and
had
knowledge
discovered
and
edited
the
put
tendency,
the
the
cathedrals
which
architecture,
liturgy
magnificent
expressions
approach
one
recent
Such
the
political,
economic,
and
technological
took
vastly
included
Middle
attempt
convey
that
the
century.
Eight
French,
Saxon,
Icelandic,
each
Catalan,
and
Arabic.
Literary
Contexts
Beowulf
demonstrates
kinship
Anglo
early
branches
group.
Anglo
Saxon
beginning
Chaucer's
narrator
audience
that
"condicioun"
the
"degree"
(social
"whiche
they
were,"
that
they
that
their
apologizes
has
arranged
degree
that
they
sholde
stonde
their
NAEL
1.219,
3841;
235,
718;
236,
74547).
concern
putting
people
place
the
twelfth
thirteenth
developed
taste
for
chivalry
many
them
about
Arthur
the
the
Round
Round
"order,"
order.
Book
the
popular
out
concept
the
book
instruction
presented
knight
young
about
dubbed
knighthood.
belonged
following
But
Benedict's
Lull,
discussions
and
orders,
except
those,
Ancrene
estate.
Women
husbands
the
the
there
body
that
they
belonged
enterprise
Romance
Rose
Meun,
created
character
named
Woman,
discourse
how
advantage
succeed
enterprise
discourse
important
source
Bath's
Although
the
(the
originally
'shoemaker')
probably
1338,
author
who
was
lived
becomes
center
About
about
earlier
there
fragmentary
information,
pieced
1359
campaign
France
taken
That
appears
subscription
equivalent
thousand
present
day
after
own
1368
promoted
the
probably
already
queen's
Chaucer
thirty
age,
sagacity
and
held
public
Continent
Flanders,
Italy
diplomatic
years
charge
the
London
where
uncongenial
drudgery
occupied
through
the
perform
deputy.
1386
Kent;
but
that
the
faction
Duke
(uncle
young
II,
had
succeeded
grandfather,
Edward
before).
party
were
power,
during
the
remaining
dozen
years
from
Court
and
rewards,
often
Henry
son
deposed
throne
prosperity
but
this
dying
suddenly
1400.
buried
Abbey,
most
descriptive
poet
things
persons)
displays
equal
objects,
perfect
clearness
brings
them
likeness
eyes,
that
grew,
final
several
successive
view
circulation
could
But
Wiclif
proposed
popularize
book,
order
conscience
every
the
authority
question
and
this
Church
allow.
Innocent
Wreced
Engendring
Mankinde"
humanae
begun
straightforward
Seynt
(the
the
Canterbury
Legenda
Aurea
Voragine,
story
patience
often
quoted
the
touches
and
humour
conversation
the
eagle,
quoted
the
Legende
Good
Women
those
which
Chaucer
professes
affection
the
the
attack
Cupid
and
defence
Alceste.
Recent
discoveries
that
touches
about
controversy
between
the
Leaf
Deschamps,
Chaucer
returns
them
some
framework
the
two
Legende
and
notably
Chaucer's
When,
however,
had
written
eight
the
ninth
which
planned
concentration
drama,
Chaucer
cut
off,
from
innumerable
touches
poems
characterization
have
centuries
later.
and
demanded,
humanity,
and
which
place
among
greatest
poets,
which
bring
day,
warmth
near
played
Chaucer
the
development
language
often
corrupted
said,
French
words
otherwise
fixing
afterwards
played
translators
the
When
up,
educated
Legend
Women"
the
Language
December,
1904.
The
that
attendance
the
tales
originally
contemplated,
but
the
164
the
presumed
Inner
about
although
definite
recorded
became
court
Edward
undocumented
much
the
next
ten
but
that
began)
during
was
May
1380,
''raptus''
What
''raptus''
kidnapping,
unclear,
but
incident
been
quickly
leave
Chaucer's
reputation.
known
Chaucer
city
Revolt
(the
1381).
comptroller,
have
Kent,
appointed
one
peace
Kent,
French
invasion
thought
''The
Canterbury
early
1380s
(the
Way
fictional
their
Canterbury
Cathedral
Kent).
became
for
Kent
1386.
reference
Chaucer's
and
presumed
1387.
survived
political
caused
the
Lords
despite
fact
that
Chaucer
knew
executed
1389,
Chaucer
was
appointed
the
sort
Construction
foreman
organizing
the
begun
during
but
did
conduct
Palace,
George's
Chapel,
Windsor,
continue
building
wharf
stands
for
tournament
1390.
paid
day,
September
1390,
records
that
robbed,
conducting
business
and
1391,
capacity.
June,
began
deputy
forester
the
royal
North
continental
accentual
his
Many
manuscripts
contain
these
Although
Chaucer's
language
than
Beowulf,
differs
that
(and
Here
Lettow
Ruce,
                 
campaigned
Lithuania
Russia,
degree.
                 
Christian
Gernade
seege
hadde
                 
been
Grenada
siege
Algezir,
Belmarye.
                 
Algeciras,
Morocco.
Lyeys
and
Satalye,
                 
and
bawdryk
grene;
                 
shoulder
green;
forster
gesse.
                 
guess.
was
Nonne,
                 
PRIORESS,
                 
and
smiling;
waterlees
                 
cloystre.
                 
cloister.
heeld
                 
considered
worth
seyde
                 
said
sholde
hymselven
                 
should
and
himself
cloystre
                 
cloister,
handes,
laboure,
                 
work
Austyn
served?
                 
Augustine
commands?
served?
Austyn
swynk
reserved!
                 
unto
swich
worthy
                 
such
Acorded
facultee,
                 
suitable,
official
have
aqueyntaunce.
                 
have
sick
lepers.
nat
                 
not
respectable;
profitable,
deelen
poraille,
                 
such
riche
selleres
vitaille.
                 
rich
sellers
victuals.
over
                 
every
arise,
and
lowely
                 
courteous
nas
nowher
                 
anywhere
capable
such
beggere
                 
beggar
[And
yaf
certeyn
ferme
graunt;
[And
gave
certain
begging
                 
dignified
affairs
bargaynes
and
chevyssaunce.
                 
and
selling
sothe
                 
indeed,
sooth
noot
hym
calle.
                 
                 
(scholar)
unto
logyk
longe
                 
begun
logic.
leene
                 
lean
                 
fat,
looked
                 
emaciated,
abstemious.
overeste
                 
short
ecclesiastical
living,
office.
                 
secular
hym
levere
have
beddes
                 
head
                 
Twenty
                 
robes
riche,
fithele,
                 
elegant
                 
even
was
philosopher,
                 
diligently
scoleye.
                 
gave
wherewithal
schools.
studie
heede.
                 
heed
neede,
                 
spoke
needed,
forme
                 
short
and
sentence;
                 
short
lively
elevated
content;
Sownynge
speche,
                 
speech
consonant
virtue,
gladly
lerne
gladly
                 
gladly
learn
gladly
LAWE,
wys,
                 
LAW
(high
often
hadde
been
Parvys,
                 
been
(where
lawyers
was
excellence.
                 
qualities.
HABERDASSHERE
and
                 
HABERDASHER
WEBBE,
DYERE,
                 
DYER,
and
MAKER
clothed
lyveree
                 
clothed
livery
solempne
                 
cause
roote,
                 
source
(patient's)
man
                 
gave
sick
apothecaries
                 
sende
drogges
and
letuaries,
                 
send
and
electuaries,
ech
made
oother
                 
each
made
nas
newe
bigynne.
                 
not
begun.
Wel
Esculapius,
                 
Aesculapius,
Deyscorides,
eek
Rufus,
                 
Dioscorides,
Rufus,
Haly,
Galyen,
                 
Galen,
Serapion,
Razis,
                 
Serapion,
Rhazes,
Averrois,
                 
Averroes,
Constantine,
Bernard,
Gatesden,
Gilbertyn.
                 
Bernard,
Gaddesden,
Gilbertus.
diete
                 
rather
doute,
                 
rather
give,
doubt,
parisshens
                 
offryng
substaunce.
                 
(received
mass)
some
income.
litel
suffisaunce.
                 
sufficiency
possessions.
parisshe,
houses
asonder,
                 
houses
apart,
lefte
                 
thunder,
siknesse
meschief
                 
sickness
parisshe,
lite,
                 
living
away
his
                 
wrestling
knarre;
                 
large
framed
fellow;
was
heve
                 
                 
berd
                 
beard
spade.
                 
moreover
spade.
the
                 
exact
stood
herys,
                 
hairs,
Reed
                 
Red
nosethirles
                 
swerd
syde.
                 
greet
greet
forneys.
                 
large
large
furnace.
and
goliardeys,
                 
and
synne
                 
deeds
Wel
stelen
tollen
                 
payment
crazy),
hym
                 
economically
                 
(they
able
any
myghte
                 
emergency
happen.
                 
subtly,
yeve
lene
                 
giving
lending
lord's
possessions,
have
                 
streight
Rome.
                 
Rome.
"Com
love,
                 
sang
"Come
love,
Somonour
burdoun;
                 
Summoner
harmonized
nevere
                 
speak
and
freely,
ellis
telle
                 
else
inaccurately,
feyne
fynde
newe.
                 
find
were
brother;
                 
may
(telling
brother;
moot
another.
                 
must
another.
spak
ful
writ,
                 
very
writ,
                 
you
rudeness.
                 
whosoever
wordes
cosyn
dede.
                 
words
closely
deed.
prey
                 
pray
have
That
Bath's
 the
Bath,
has
been
another
husband:
should
marry.
fine
but
are
condemned;
the
Apostle
that
husband
debtor,
and
have
power
husbands
good
and
bad.
three
were
and
them
husbands,
emboldened
drink,
home
preach
against
women;
the
better
husband
Th'
apostel,
whan
meant
peril
bothe
tow
assemble;
assemble
and
knowe
ensample
example
apply
This
som:
heeld
virginitee
This
virginity
parfit
weddyng
freletee.
perfect
sholde
paiement,
payment,
used
his
instrument?
blessed
instrument?
Thanne
upon
creature
Then
were
made
upon
creature
purge
uryne,
eek
for
engendrure.
purge
seye
noght
every
holde,
say
required,
That
hath
swich
harneys
tolde,
That
has
equipment
usen
hem
engendrure.
and
procreation.
Thanne
sholde
men
take
chastitee
Then
should
have
and
shapen
man,
Christ
man,
many
seint,
that
world
bigan;
many
began;
husband
shall
evenings
Whan
come
forth
paye
housbonde
have
wol
lette
husband
 ‐‐ 
Which
shal
which
were
bounden
unto
bound
woot
what
meene
this,
pardee!
help
God,
whan
thynke
How
pitously
swynke!
fey,
tolde
stoor.
That
many
`Woe
me!'
The
bacon
fet
for
The
bacon
scolding
make
flee
Out
hir
owene
houses;
benedicitee!
their
houses;
me!
such
given
Deceite,
wepyng,
spynnyng
God
hath
yive
Deceit,
weeping,
spinning
has
given
wommen
kyndely,
whil
they
women
live.
thyng
avaunte
ende
hadde
sith
resonable
since
more
Than
been
suffrable.
Than
able
suffering.
cold
engendreth
surely
engenders
likerous
moste
likerous
tayl.
must
lecherous
wommen
vinolent
defence
drunken
there
defense
 ‐‐ 
This
knowen
lecchours
experience.
This
lechers
experience.
whan
remembreth
Lord
jolitee,
youth,
gaiety,
skillfully;
but
burye
preciously.
expensively.
God
soule
reste!
Let
well;
give
and
cheste.
and
casket.
fifthe
housbonde
wol
husband
tell.
God
lete
soule
nevere
come
let
hell!
close
dwelling
town;
God
have
soule!
Alisoun.
have
soul!
Her
herte,
eek
chirche
housbonde
born
church
husband
neighebores,
for
sorwe;
neighbors,
Jankyn,
oure
clerk,
oon
Jankin,
clerk,
those.
help
God,
that
saugh
help
beere,
thoughte
hadde
paire
buyldeth
his
hous
salwes,
`Whoever
house
twigs,
Tho
redde
how
Sampson
loste
heres:
Then
Sampson
Slepynge,
lemman
kitte
with
sheres;
Sleeping,
lover
Thurgh
which
loste
Through
Tho
redde
me,
that
Then
lie,
Hercules
Dianyre,
Hercules
That
caused
sette
hymself
caused
set
thyng
forgat
the
forgot
woe
That
Socrates
hadde
with
two,
That
Socrates
How
Xantippa
caste
pisse
upon
his
heed.
Xantippa
caste
head.
This
sely
stille
deed;
This
poor
dead;
heed,
namoore
dorste
seyn,
head,
say,
that
stynte,
comth
reyn!'
`Before
stops,
comes
Phasipha,
that
queene
Crete,
Phasipha,
queen
she
also,
she
chaste,
gold
ryng
sowes
nose.'
gold
sow's
wolde
wene,
wolde
suppose,
would
believe,
suppose,
The
that
myn
herte
and
pyne?
The
woe
heart
whan
saugh
wolde
nevere
fyne
cease
reden
this
cursed
book
cursed
sodeynly
leves
plyght
suddenly
have
leaves
Out
his
book,
right
radde,
also
with
fest
hym
the
cheke
cheek
That
oure
bakward
adoun.
That
dooth
wood
leaped
does
with
fest
smoot
the
heed
head
That
the
floor
deed.
That
dead.
whan
saugh
how
that
still
agast
wolde
way,
frightened
and
laste
out
swogh
breyde.
awoke.
hastow
seyde,
hast
said,
for
thus
hastow
mordred
for
hast
murdered
me?
deed,
this
Somonour,
"and
bishrewe
                  
"and
curse
myself,
tales
two
                  
freres
come
Sidyngborne
                  
Siitingbourne
That
shal
thyn
herte
for
                  
heart
wel
thy
pacience
                  
Oure
Hooste
"Pees!
anon!"
                  
Host
cried
"Peace!
seyde,
telle
                  
said,
th'
olde
                  
which
speken
                  
life,
canst
thyng
moost
                  
women
desire.
keep
boon
from
                  
Beware,
(axe)!
thou
kanst
                  
canst
right
from
every
mannes
sighte,
                  
skillfully
That,
namo.
                  
except
loved
hire
moost,
hire
also;
                  
loved
and
also;
preyede
hire
creature
                  
prayed
creature
sholde
tellen
                  
should
disfigurement.
swoor
for
world
                  
world
nolde
that
vileynye
synne,
                  
would
make
housbonde
foul
name.
                  
make
husband
reputation.
nolde
telle
owene
shame.
                  
would
shame.
nathelees,
thoughte
dyde
                  
                  
she
secret
long;
thoughte
aboute
hir
herte
                  
swelled
That
nedely
som
word
hire
moste
asterte;
                  
necessarily
escape
sith
dorste
telle
man,
                  
since
dared
Doun
                  
close
she
herte
                  
her
bitore
bombleth
the
myre,
                  
leyde
mouth
doun:
                  
laid
down
with
                  
Heere
thogh
tyme
                  
Here
you
see,
abide,
                  
assembled,
hear
knyght
bode
appeere.
                  
afterward
knight
commanded
every
comanded
silence,
                  
Silence
commanded
person,
knyght
sholde
telle
audience
                  
should
thyng
loven
                  
best.
This
knyght
stood
doth
best,
                  
knight
silent
anon
answerde
                  
straightway
answered
manly
voys,
herde:
                  
lige
generally,"
quod
he,
                  
liege
"Wommen
desiren
                  
every
owene
love
                  
your
which
that
saved
lyf,
                  
she
saved
life,
certes,
                  
shame
vileynye;
                  
shame
dishonor;
wole
han
gentrye,
                  
noble
boren
hous
                  
Because
house
hadde
eldres
noble
                  
had
and
ancestors,
nel
hymselven
dedis
                  
will
deeds
folwen
gentil
auncestre
that
deed
is,
                  
gentil,
erl,
                  
earl,
vileyns
dedes
cherl.
                  
deeds
gentillesse
nys
but
renomee
                  
auncestres,
hire
heigh
bountee,
                  
ancestors,
goodness,
Which
thyng
persone.
                  
thy
Thy
That
gentil
dooth
dedis.
                  
does
deeds.
housbonde,
conclude:
                  
therefore,
husband,
were
auncestres
were
rude,
                  
Than
drede
noght
been
cokewold;
                  
filthe
and
eelde,
also
                  
prosper,
prologue
into
women
Late
Middle
probably
Chaucer
himself,
character
developed
ones,
twice
far
wommen
han,
that
shal
matere
queynte
fantasye:
Wayte
what
thyng
nat
day
Forbede
thyng,
that
desiren
we;
faste,
and
thanne
Throughout
Church
Middle
Ages
authority
the
and
Dutiful
worshipfully
books,
then,
these
willing
defending.
They
the
book,
and
the
their
cultural
that
whole
swept
away
bubonic
Black
1349
51,
when
Chaucer
Europes
population
poem
survivors
cataclysm,
new
church
unable
plague.
The
about
sources
authority,
number
them
began
own
experience
that
church
fathers
when
they
y),"
these
Europeans
And
that
shape
Wife
Baths
opening
From
experience
Introduction
Cambridge
Baths
Winny
this
the
accumulated
poses
pungent
proverbial
the
cut
thrust
daily
events.
contest
English
General
general
Middle
the
uniformity
aspects
throughout
Europe.
during
this
period
nations,
acquiring
consciousness,
began
the
which
the
the
Roman
Empire.
The
Church,
every
actual
the
unifying
the
government,
and
the
everywhere
society
the
same
organization
and
perhaps,
than
time,
brotherhood,
thinking
the
same
thoughts,
actuated
the
period,
largely
composed
and
the
army
exhibits
thorough
uniformity
types
the
this
tendency
crudeness
their
actual
frequent
inability
enter
thought
the
and
doubt
furthered
the
fantastic
1200,
same
general
forms
that
what
said
general
period,
roughly,
(1)
(2)
Secular.
But
must
observed
important
during
Middle
Ages
than
recent
and
the
between
than
many
them
addressed
Virgin,
beautiful
and
devotion,
crudeness
but
occasionally
beautiful
miscellaneous
them
'Bestiaries,'
accounts
supposed
habits
drawn
from
abundance
extremely
hardly
both
popular
fourteenth
century
numerous
works,
perhaps,
produced
monasteries
the
centuries,
greater
French,
and
Many
them
were
annals
Anglo
Chronicle,
but
works
with
genuine
England,
part
entire
Europe.
from
manuscripts
the
authors
them;
printed
for
knowledge
the
period.
the
form
during
the
beginning
century,
romance,
the
powerful,
precursor
fiction.
grouped
great
perhaps,
those
French
which
love,
appears
the
the
Saracens.
Second
which,
salvage
retell
altered
antiquity,
mainly
achievements
the
fortunes
Arthurian
romances,
and
fourth
scattering
belong
other
classes,
most
them,
with
English
'King
Horn'
'Havelok,'
direct
both
Warwick'
'Bevis
Hampton,'
which
the
the
belong,
Arthurian
belong
because
British
but
they
the
the
Rich
characters
and
incidents
universal
attached,
their
they
popular
the
others
continued
form
chief
quarries
material
the
inspiration
modern
'BRUT.'
Thus
about
that
Arthur,
the
national
deadly
foe
adopted,
champion,
only
one
Nine
Worthies
but
glory
work
which
after
Conquest,
'Brut'
(Chronicle)
about
the
1200,
Laghamon
paraphrased
Wace's
paraphrase
Geoffrey.
[Footnote:
written
'Layamon,'
but
incorrect.
'Brut'
comes
the
'Brutus,'
according
Geoffrey
hero
eponymous
founder
Standing
beginning
(and
history,
came
whole
the
and
the
century
half,
from
1350
1500,
which
third
the
constitutes
age
Chaucer.
fourteenth
century
the
externally
fifty
years'
reign
1337
begun
the
though
often
campaigns
France
together
Hundred
Tears'
War,
having
against
and
luxury.
country
increasing
prosperity;
Edward
trade,
and
towns
and
town
merchants
becoming
but
the
oppressiveness
the
becoming
outgrown,
was
apparent,
the
however,
uninfluenced
these
problems,
being
fifteenth
century
first
above
(the
pronounced
probably
identified
the
Malory
during
the
France
and
civil
adherent
the
died
1471
under
outlawry
IV.
And
observations,
indicate
inspiration
the
experienced
disappointment
and
bitterness
Further
that
Morte
Darthur'
had
1467.
purpose
collect
great
body
Arthurian
and
continuous
history
King
Arthur
Morte
Death
Arthur,
popular
Arthurian
which,
they
only
with
Arthur's
death,
properly
enough
which
general
name
entire
Arthur's
[Footnote:
French
'Morte'
feminine,
preceding
originally
but
thought
compound
phrase
hence
masculine
neuter
gender.]
but
others
which
they
wonderfully
multiplied
and
1475,
fifty
catch
definite
the
the
Each
cycle
natural
unity,
centering
about
theme
the
judgment
Mankind.
But
both
only
the
plays
but
the
intrusion
the
comedy
and
which
coarse
taste
audience
demanded.
purpose
exercised
whole
submission
boy
the
and
his
earthly
father,
the
yearning
the
Jesus,
and
infinite
and
pity
the
least
time
genuine
consciousness
beauty
higher
religious
continent
years
cannot
lightly
Plays.
Mystery
greatest
popularity
fourteenth
and
fifteenth
centuries.
dawning
the
and
though
exceptional
places
and
Play
probably
arose
from
teach
the
principles
and
compact
was
Bible
form
dramatized
offshoot
the
which
there
appeared
among
the
actors
good
bad,
Deadly
Contemplation,
Slander.
this
exclusion
supernatural
persons
figure
standing
Mankind.
the
opposing
groups
contend;
the
type
brief
hero's
life,
that
the
every
yields
but
flippancy
Repentance,
pardoned
mercy,
and
assured
compared
Mystery
plays
Moralities
the
advantage,
that
they
independence
the
and
powerful
they
might
hands
gifted
author
demonstrated
the
them,
'Everyman'
(which
probably
from
Dutch
original).
the
spirit
proved
fatal,
the
genuinely
abstract
the
Virtues
sanctimonious
declamation.
this
tendency,
the
other
hand,
antidote;
often
abstract
only
become
and
except
the
they
inherited
account.
During
the
Reformation
period,
the
early
sixteenth
century,
character
underwent
had
been
conquered
fifth
century
the
but
the
the
culture,
only
influences
that
the
speaking
powerfully
the
forces
contributing
revolutionize
upon
it.
printing,
books
before
had
only
laboriously
copied
page
page,
absolutely
transformed
processes
knowledge
and
thought.
began
expansion
the
geographical
exploration.
the
the
fifteenth
century
sailor,
Vasco
finishing
Diaz,
discovered
the
India
around
Columbus
had
the
that
the
round,
proof
England.
home,
under
breach
widened,
until
nation
divided
camps,
inconsistent
uncertain,
reflecting
changing
points
1526
Tyndale,
zealous
excellent
translation
the
the
authority,
though
influence
the
and
(Luther's)
this
been
directly
indirectly
point
for
subsequent
translations
suffered
but
1535
Coverdale,
bishop
but
only
artificial
foreign
origin
ever
adopted
and
instrument
the
nation
pitch,
London
particular
stimulus
the
kind
Spain.
generation
depredations
Spanish
fleets
intriguing
courtship
and,
1594,
produced
sonnet
sequence,
result
the
that
had
buried
Westminster
Abbey.
'Faerie
only
poems;
there
others,
'when
come
suddenly
upon
unpleasant
surprise,
unity
pervades
the
first
begins
the
clearness'
Spenser's
high
than
'The
atmosphere
and
entire
Spenser
gentleman
his
company
from
intrusion
anything
also,
beauty
harmony
the
beauty
Spenser
but
the
foes
righteousness
external
three
Saracen
brother
appear
Sansloy,
enemy
Sansfoy,
the
enemy
religion,
but
Sansjoy,
enemy
And
beauty
there
than
Spenser.
'he
the
incarnated.'
romantically
languorously
delightful
often
form
and
and
sound.
'The
true
Spenser
pictures
takes
hour
enough
effect.
constant
skilful;
the
alliteration
conspicuous
apparently
accidental.
Spenserian
Stanza.
external
beauty
Spenser,
modifying
ottava
Ariosto
which
rimes
which
only
that
[Footnote:
that
inconsistent
sonnet.]
The
scheme
ababbcbcc
last
iambic
pentameter
place
that
Spenser's
spite
length,
central
(about
1575
about
1619),
adds
the
appearance
irregularity
experimenting
large
form,
fact,
every
love
while
sentiment
often
Petrarchan,
often
note
independence,
taking
favorite
the
fickleness
Donne
much
Chapter
drama
that
point,
toward
the
the
century,
when
Mystery
Plays
had
and
Moralities
Interlude
Farces,
decadent,
sharing
confused
that
popular
which
remained
unabsorbed
and
social
thirty
forty
years
humor
supposedly
fact
shared
Among
the
adventurers
age
London
taverns
said
attained
conspicuous
reputation
1593
before
had
reached
the
thirty.
unworthy,
the
fault
rather
circumstances
genuine
nature.
representative
greatness
learning,
apparently
boundless
had
opened
human
consciousness
power,
evidently
intoxicated
Marlowe
ambition
youthful
picture
cramped
outraged
the
conventions
humor,
attains
only
the
brutal
horse
which
audiences
laughed
centuries
Mystery
and
the
the
open
galleries
lined
building
the
yard.
theaters,
therefore,
octagonal,
the
projected
from
wall
unroofed
pit
(the
'orchestra'),
where,
three
the
stage,
common
people,
admitted
for
sixpence
each
either
going
rained
staying
and
getting
complex
heroine.
picturesque
but
objectionable
young
carrying
itself,
they
conspicuous
objects
attention
crowded
the
actors
abused
them
the
play
their
that
from
manhood,
apparently
father,
until
1601,
and
fortunes
family
Stratford.
grant
coat
arms,
1597
purchased
the
largest
house
Stratford;
acquired
other
large
property
often
may
Stratford
the
twenty
years
but
London
failure
unpractical
(Brutus);
'Hamlet'
the
struggle
perplexed
and
soul;
noble
one
through
power
jealousy;
'King
hateful
this
greatest
continuous
group
out
they
'Antony
and
Cleopatra,'
which
sensual
the
background
decaying
Shakespeare
problems
but
having
presented
them
powerfully,
perhaps,
human
turned
only
the
expression
the
now
and
beautiful
comedies,
'Cymbeline,'
'The
protean
human
notable
delightful
young
romantic
 The theory
persistently
advocated
during
century
Shakespeare's
written
but
Bacon
other
can
never
credence
which
produced
during
years
chiefly
attacks
other
retorted
fierce
actors'
referred
Shakespeare's
and
intellectual
the
produce
disagreeable
both
character.
knaves,
scoundrels,
hypocrites,
and
dupes;
and
includes
its
important
characters
and
not
Jonson
the
mass,
but
Another
highly
Thomas
confined
debtor's
'Shoemaker's
Holiday'
(1600),
chosen
amateur
but
charming
picture
apprentices
hearted
Thomas
Heywood,
days
newspapers,
produced
enormous
entire
hand,
least
than
hundred
and
twenty
plays.
slipshod,
but
sturdy
English
and
romantic
adventure
'The
West')
naturalness
cruelty,
one
the
from
Shakespeare's,
are
acted.
survived
Restoration
and
died
London
1666.
comedies
comedies
thoughtless
Court
London
reckless
abandonment
which
the
interval
great
contemporaries,
under
Macaulay's
known
marred
Macaulay's
abuse.
technically
laid
open
condemned
heavy
were
enforced,
perpetual
incapacitation
public
and
banishment
Even
after
continued,
taste,
extravagantly
beyond
(again
that
Charles
that
'scorned
1626
caught
the
prosecution
researches,
namely
the
preserve
Bacon's
splendid
unique
intellectual
produced,
perhaps
his
public
only
fragmentary
during
the
the
sixteenth
century
Bible
reached
greatest
books
(or
rather,
books),
King
('Authorized')
1604
conference
approved
king,
new
The
entrusted
body
about
scholars,
themselves
groups,
among
books
apportioned.
resulting
proceeding
the
dramatic
apparently
natural
that
they
unmeditated
outpourings
happy
and
idle
surpassed;
certainly
one
Cherbury,
Herbert's
dedicate
purposes
appeared
highest
supporting
the
the
church
the
office
extent
treatments
narrative
languages
naturally
and
kept
mind.
beyond
the
poem,
work,
product
aimed,
specifically,
produce
epic
with
the
epics
antiquity
those
the
entirely
the
consent
course
paradoxical.
pointed
that
has
the
hero
poem
scarcely
fail
sympathize
fallen
archangel
unconquerable
decrees
despotic
Deity.
Further,
Puritan
prejudices
and
books
Vanity
Humiliation
one
that
reader
hand
hand
fears
dangers
rejoices
their
however,
further
fascination
supernatural
romance;
union
homely
accounts
the
appeal,
direct
manner
become,
did,
therefore,
that
Bunyan
expected
circulation
confined
people;
early
are
cheap
paper,
printing,
doubt,
discovers
technical
faults.
often
the
full
balance
incidents
and
narration
would
it;
allegory
hundred
places;
characters
are
only
and
always
preacher
artist,
distinctly
bad
ones
them.
things
unimportant.
Every
allegory
inconsistent,
and
Bunyan
repeatedly
that
dream;
simplicity
character
treatment
directness
effect.
greatest
earnestness
untrained
Nothing,
course,
can
alter
fundamental
distinctions.
greater
because
the
energy
that
merchants.
Accounts
such
Richard
Hakluyt,
Purchas,
and
Walter
eagerly
the
Although
George
Donne
the
principal
metaphysical
literary
century
Christopher
Edmund
Spenser,
Shakespeare,
brooded
magical,
transforming
power
could
Sidney
but
could
demonic
the
Spenser's
enchanter,
Archimago
NAEL
1.714902),
Marlowe's
Doctor
Faustus
NAEL
1.10221057).
great
written
the
not
theatrical
fantasy
fear
the
state
could
act
Doctor
Fian
horrendous
Marlowe
suspicion
and
indicated
the
Forgers;
Fraud;Dice
coggers.
pence
resulted
hanging
 ‐ 
for
starving.
Even
small
could
Punishment
poaching
according
 ‐ 
night
resulted
punishment
death,
whereas
poaching
during
time
crime
during
punishment
included
burning
beheading.
burnt
stake
Executioners
required
anyone
needed
travel
England
 ‐ 
This
ensured
that
disease,
plague,
contained
that
the
from
another
 ‐ 
age
thinking,
introduction
printing
greatest
increasing
knowledge
and
learning,
the
inventions
 ‐ 
the
supernatural!
and
knowledge
about
technology
astrology
led
renewed
the
supernatural
including
witches,
ghosts
and
the
Facts
about
these
subjects
the
Shakespeare
Shakespeare
1586
shirking
responsibilities,
1592
was
reprimanded
coming
church
for
process
debt.
daughter
Robert
Arden,
had
Shakespeare.
the
third
Shakespeare,
tradesman
public
Arden
Shakespeare,
daughter
gentleman
farmer,
baptized
April
26,
1564.
this
that
about
23,
1564.
about
and
documented
facts
christening
and
documents.
young
attended
King's
School
been
education.
probably
taught
the
French
authors
Aesop,
Caesar,
Virgil,
Ovid.
probably
also
taught
logic,
Anne
Hathaway,
daughter
Richard
Hathaway
Shottery
gathering
farm
houses
near
Stratford
May
26,
1583
their
daughter
Susanna
baptised.
later,
26,
1583,
Anne's
daughter,
Susanna,
born.
Hamnet
Judith,
Shakespeares
survive
manuscript
and
plays
produced
not
certainty.
However,
Errors
Labours
Lost
Midsummer
Nights
Dream
early
tragedy
Romeo
influenced
contemporary
conventions,
but
characterization
inventive
Language
Shakespearean.
century,
Shakespeare
produced
four
tragedies;
The
Comedy
?
The
Taming
Shrew
?
?
?
Richard
Love's
Labor's
Lost
?
Gentlemen
Midsummer
Night's
Dream
Romeo
Juliet
Richard
John
?
The
Merchant
Venice
1
The
Merry
2
V
Ado
About
Nothing
Julius
Caesar
Night
Cressida
Well
That
Ends
Well
For
Lear
Athens
Prince
Coriolanus
The
Tempest
Shakespeares
during
actors
could
courts,
courtyards,
open
spaces
available.
1574,
when
Shakespeare
ten
and
theaters
1576,
actor
future
Chamberlain's
Man,
Burbage,
the
permanent
theater,
the
Theatre,
Shakespeare's
figure
contradictory
brought
AMERICAN
LITERATURE
William
representation
President's
Senate
Wing,
Religion
themes
History
(Benjamin
Exploration
(Americus
Vespucius).
Roger
Williams
and
chosen
states
represent
and
American
Experience
Cindy
Rationalism/Age
Enlightenment
Historical
Context
religious
America
colonize
hardships
Native
growing
dissatisfaction
with
taxation
representation
rebellion
Revolutionary
Genre/Style
narratives
political
relationship
with
beliefs:
original
American
utopia
Bible
culture
vehicle
proliferance
Romanticism
Realism
Historical
Context
developments
make
seem
easier
(telegraph
engine)
extended
men
shift
expansion
Genre/Style
imagination
nature
supernatural/mysterious
fueled
abolitionist
movement
detective
fiction,
invented
Poe,
realism
changing
realistic
fiction
remains
Historical
Context
changes
between
generation
and
alienated
generation
Depression
expanded
Genre/Style
same
genres
genre:
Harlem
Renaissance
experimental
(rejection
same
genres
past
found
concrete
poems
confessional
convention
verse,
stream
consciousness
prose
use
lines
reality
depends
impersonal,
effectively
grief
world
media
seeped
literature
peoples
shaped
gender
emergence
literature
leading
edge
achievement
Overview
American
and
introduction
the
students
enter
the
literature,
and
important
figures
foundation
American
the
pilgrims
puritans.
Both
important
producing
American
and
immigration
the
Pilgrims
occurred
they
became
apparent
enough.
Separatist:
they
that
reforms
church
far
that,
although
Catholicism
1535
belief
authority
grounded
Scripture,
substituting
pope
head
church,
unnecessary,
corrupt,
and
21).
respect,
outcome
the
subsequently
authority
implicit.
individualism
then
have
atomization
authority
duly
feared,
that
generations
democratization
1921
"They
that
function
church
chosen
(Wheelwright,
However
emphasize
democratic
they
suggest
democratic
they
decided
again.
gone
England
backing
the
Company,
102
that
religion
nevertheless
bound
order
traceable
the
that
notes
further
the
Thanksgiving,"
painting
J.L.G.
depicts
early
highly
and
whose
education
tended
translate
positions
authoritarian.
this
one
"Very
few
nevertheless
encouraged
education
among
the
group,
demanded
learning
understanding
Application
Redemption
"Its
ignorant
the
the
Apothecaries
choycest
Medicines
the
night:
...because
cannot
takes,
may
but
disease"
(qtd.
13).
Knowledge
Scripture
uncompromising
characterized
entry
England,
according
Perry
Johnson,
thematic
anthology,
(1932,
1963),
became
standing
corrective
the
Puritanism
accused
735).
democracy.
repeatedly
under
assumptions....that
such
that
acme
found
during
years
1630
1650"
110).
Sacvan
Bercovitch
Jeremiad
this
the
Mather
New
England
Jeremiahs."
such
Mather's,
instead
Bercovitch's
phrase)
that
could
escaped
Balkans
1606
expedition
plunders
raconteur's
flair
bemoaned
rigors
earning
chronicles,
Relation
(1608)
and
General
History
New
England,
Summer
(1624),
the
American
culture
dependent
popular
England.
England
Clergy.
Original
seacoast
Captain
adventurers
the
Discovery,
Susan
Constant
town
Smith,
the
the
colony
existence,
true
soldier
fortune,
good
and
grasp
circumstances
belongs
Lincolnshire
had
perhaps
the
point
the
present
sturdy
old
adventurer
favorable
natural
enough
daring
catch
the
spirit
enthusiasm
which
exploration
and
that
which
the
South
thereof,
Native
legends
included
the
audience
literature
begins
transmitted
lyrics
(always
than
500
languages
cultures
Europeans
Native
American
literature
quite
Narratives
nomadic
hunting
cultures
the
Navajo
from
settled
agricultural
such
Acoma;
the
often
stories
like
 ‐‐ 
worshipping
gods,
plants,
Systems
government
ranged
councils
elders
tribal
enter
the
well.
Indian
endowed
tribe,
group,
individual.
Indian
sense
American
Ralph
Emerson's
transcendental
"Over
pervades
life.
tribes
Examples
almost
Indian
chants,
fairy
anecdotes,
incantations,
proverbs,
and
legendary
Accounts
and
ancestors
abound,
and
creation
are
particularly
creation
turtle
Cheyenne
the
Maheo,
four
chances
earth
bottom.
snow
high
and
down
dive,
cannot
but
cannot
succeeds
bringing
Only
creature,
right
Maheo
 ‐‐ 
hence
Indian
America,
"Turtle
associated
Japanese
Eastern
imagistic
Englanders
acquired
self
independent
102
the
peninsula
Cape
projecting
southeastern
know
they
anyone
gone
before;
the
first
land
they
neared
Casas
the
about
the
early
contact
distinction
tobacco
exhausted
the
soil
several
Breaking
ground,
scattered
numerous
region,
the
capital,
had
only
few
equal
significance
foundations
American
education
the
colonial
Harvard
founded
1636
government
the
colonies
not
unchallenged.
authorities
court
Bradford
Plymouth
recorded
document
governance
the
World,
the
"Mayflower
Compact,"
drawn
the
board
The
compact
harbinger
Declaration
Independence
century
and
later.
amusements
dancing
playing,
which
ungodly
Reading
books
fell
this
category.
poured
their
tremendous
energies
nonfiction
and
highly
change
the
Diary
compared
Pepys's
diary
period,
records
the
record
reflecting
piously
and
purchases
ill
about
entertainment,
that
truth
refreshing
among
these
barbarians,
than
amongst
thousands
that
themselves
inspiring.
England
during
bloody
drew
organize
deliveries
London
during
their
coal
cut
lively
defenses
only
sects,
God,
Paganish,
Turkish,
Antichristian
consciences
worships,
granted
Bloody
one
asked,
but
bear
chief
answered:
"Don't
talk
only
come
hunters
their
backs,
the
they
had
the
drops
they
down
the
mountain,
looked
behind
rise
and
back
the
When
the
hunters
Whirlwind
empty
house,
and
obeying
his
barred
Although
asked
say
nothing
anyone
nature,
the
hunters
the
because
that
hunters
begged
them
Concern
the
 jailer] "brought
saved?
they
the
thou
shalt
saved,
thy
house"
16:30
31)
What
Must
Saved?
Question!
deplorable
that
asked
Frequency,
Agony.
The
Slumber
the
the
Serpent
brought
Men
exceedingly.
Awaken
out
this
 stupidity,
Salvation
proposed
the
And
there
Nothing
Great
Concernment
obtain
that
Great
Knowledge
And
Unspeakable
 1] We read Hosea 4:6. of People Destroyed
Knowledge.
Ignorance,
what
done
the
world
thee
rendered
the
Kingdom
without
knowledge
good;
They
know
Vengeance
taken
them;
They
have
know,
Guilt
Sin,
you
are
under
the
Reign
Sin,
under
Reign
too;
from
Enemies
with
you.
visits
great
consolations
are
against
you;
that
your
Ensnare
you,
but
produce
your
further
prosperity
you;
Chains
Death
upon
every
moment
danger,
Ruin'd
Sinner;
become
Enquiry;
What
vast
Saviour?These
things
Own'd,
plain
Inference
them
the
Unworthy
Reasonable
Man,
But
time
great
Enquiry,
Second
which
for
Receive
offered
unto
operate
that
which
far,
counterfeit,
must
behold
glorious
yourselves
Consent,
Request,
That
say
unto
you;
15:2
"You
keep
memory
preached
unto
you."
And
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Literary
Terms
ed.,
M.H.
Longman
Companion
Literature
Gillie,
2005.
AVERY,
Behold
the
Child:
and
Books,
16211922.
1994.
ANONYMOUS,
Klaeber,
F.R.
D.C.
1950.
ASHER,
Encyclopedia
Language
and
Linguistics
Pergamon
Press,
1994.
1125.
BAYM,
Nina,
Howard
Mumford,
and
Literature
and
Background
1890.
Rev.
4th
ed.
Cambridge,
University
1972.
KIRK,
Connie
Ann,
Encyclopedia
American
Literature.
Westport,
Conn.:
Greenwood
Press,
2003.
Alpana
S.,
ed.
New
Immigrant
the
States:
Sourcebook
Literary
Westport,
Conn.:
Greenwood
Press,
1996.
MERRIAM
WEBSTERS
Websters,
Publisher,
Springfield,
OGRADY,
Michael
Dobrovolsky
and
Mark
Aronoff.
Contemporary
Linguistics
Martins
Inc.,
1992.
332.
RULAND,
Richard.
From
Postmodernism:
History
American
Literature.
Viking,
1991.
STONE,
Kong:
Co.
1970.
George
America:
History.
New
Norton,
1988.
TRACHTENBERG,
Stanley,
ed.
Essays
American
York:
Hall;
1995.
DOREN,
History
Knowledge
Present,
and
Future.
1992.
154.
WALKER,
Marshall.
Literature
the
United
States
America.
London:
1983.

Приложенные файлы

  • pdf 24001001
    Размер файла: 4 MB Загрузок: 0

Добавить комментарий