A composite structural component consists of:
two metal sheets bonded together.
two thin metal sheets and a light core material.
a matrix and fibres.
aluminium alloy with a covering layer of pure aluminium.
A framework of truss type fuselage is used in:
heavy wide bodied subsonic turbo-fan aircraft.
medium range commuter type turbo-props.
light training aircraft mainly.
A semi-monocoque aircraft fuselage structure usually consists of:
ribs, spars, skin.
skin, frames .stringers.
frames, fittings, stringers.
ribs, front spar, rear spar.
A SANDWICH structural part
well suited for absorbing point concentrated loads.
a so-called integral construction.
composed of two thin sheets and a light core material.
composed of resin and fibres.
The purpose of stringers, used in fuselage construction, is to:
provide attachment for the sound and thermal insulation.
assist the skin absorb longitudinal compressive loads.
absorb shear stresses.
carry the loads due to pressurisation and convert them into tensile stress.
A typical wing structure consists primarily of:
a front and rear main spar.
ribs only to give optimum and cost effective simple construction.
ribs and stringers only.
a front and rear main spar with ribs and stringers.
The function of ribs in a wing structure is to:
allow installation of fuel cells in the wing.
give the wing the desired aerodynamic shape.
withstand the torsional loads.
withstand all the structural loads.
Which of these statements about composite and metal structures are correct or incorrect?1) For a structural component with given dimensions composite materials enable a structural component's strength to be tailored to thedirection of the load.2) Composite materials enable structures with lower strength / weight ratio than metal structures.
1) is incorrect 2) is incorrect.
1) is incorrect 2) is correct.
1) is correct 2) is incorrect.
1) is correct 2) is correct.
What are the most frequently used materials in a monocoque or semi-monocoque structure?
Aluminium or magnesium alloy.
A non-cantilever wing is:
low wing configuration.
high wing configuration.
wing supported by braces or a strut connected to the fuselage.
wing planform other than rectangular.
A structure in which the skin takes all of the load is:
a semi-braced structure.
a semi-monocoque structure.
a box structure.
a monocoque structure.
One function of a rib is:
to stabilise the fuselage skin against buckling.
to carry tensile load of the fuselage pressure hull.
to maintain the aerodynamic shape of the wing.
to be the primary structural member to carry wings loads.
An aeroplane equipped with reversible flight controls:
does not have mechanical back-up.
need not be equipped with a separate gust lock system.
is equipped with simple spring type feel units.
does not require an artificial feel system.
A cable operated flight control system can be equipped with external gust locks.
They will not prevent movement of the control column.
When fitted to the control surface, they will prevent movement of the control column if the controls are not fitted with servo tabs.
They will prevent movement of a servo tab.
They will not be necessary because controls are irreversible and cannot be moved by the wind.
Which of these statements about a gust lock system are correct or incorrect?1) There Is no need for a gust lock on irreversible flight controls.2) Manual flight controls should have a gust lock.
1) is incorrect 2) is incorrect.
1) is correct 2) is correct.
1) is correct 2) is incorrect.
1) is incorrect 2) is correct.
Which of these statements about a gust lock system are correct or incorrect?1) There should be suitable design precautions to prevent flight with the gust lock engaged.2) Reversible flight controls should have a gust lock.
1) is correct 2) is correct.
1) is correct 2) is incorrect.
1) is incorrect 2) is incorrect.
1) is incorrect 2) is correct.
Which of the following statements Is UNTRUE?The disadvantages of manual flight control systems include the following statements:
Manual flying control systems are complex.
Jammed controls may cause an accident.
Aerodynamic forces mean that the control loads increase with airspeed.
Manual flying control systems rarely have redundancy built into them.
The expression "secondary flight control" applies to the:1) trimmable stabilizer2) rudder3) speed brake4) aileron
The combination that regroups all of the correct statements is:
What is the name of the control surface that rotates an aeroplane about its longitudinal axis?
The trim tabs.
PRIMARY flight controls are:
ailerons, elevators and rudder.
ailerons, elevators, rudder and flaps.
control wheel or stick, rudder pedals and speed brake.
control wheel or stick, rudder pedals, flap lever and throttle.
The elevators of a conventional airplane are used to provide rotation about the:
The expression "secondary flight control" applies to the:1) elevator2) speed brake3) lift-augmentation devices4) roll spoilersThe combination that regroups all of the correct statements is:
If the control stick of an aircraft with properly rigged flight controls is moved rearward and to the left, the right aileron will move:
down and the elevator will move up.
up and the elevator will move up.
up and the elevator will move down.
down and the elevator will move down.
The expression "primary flight control" applies to the:1) stabilizer2) rudder3) speed brake4) aileronThe combination that regroups all of the correct statements is:
Which of these statements about a gust lock system are correct or incorrect?1) A gust lock can be used in flight to reduce the effects of turbulence.2) There is no need for a gust lock on reversible flight controls.
1) is incorrect, 2) is incorrect.
1) is correct, 2) is correct.
1) is correct, 2) is incorrect.
1) is incorrect, 2) is correct.
What is the name of the control surface that rotates an aeroplane about its vertical axis?
The trim tabs.
If the control stick of an aircraft is moved forward and to the right, the left aileron will move:
up, and the elevator will move up.
up, and the elevator will move down.
down, and the elevator will move down.
down, and the elevator will move up.
When checking the fuel for possible water content, the presence of water will be indicated by:
change in the color of the fuel.
impossible to tell because they will mix.
the water will be found at the bottom of the strainer, because it is heavier than the fuel.
the water will be on top of the fuel in the fuel strainer because the water is lighter than the fuel.
On small aircraft the fuel content is typically measured by:
calculation of the centre of gravity of the aircraft.
the volume of fuel in the tank.
the weight of fuel in the tank.
the level of fuel in the tank.
What does the expression usable fuel mean?
The total fuel remaining at any stage of flight.
The total fuel on board the aircraft at start up.
The total amount of fuel that can be supplied to the engine.
The remaining fuel in the bottom of the tank when the pump is no longer immersed in fuel.
Fuel stored in aircraft tanks will accumulate moisture. The most practical way to minimize this when a plane is used every day or so isto:
use only high octane gasoline.
keep tanks topped off (full) when plane Is not in use.
drain tanks at end of each day's flight.
keep tank vents plugged and filler cap tight.
Unusable fuel is:
sometimes minimised by the incorporation of tank sump pads.
the amount of fuel not available for use but included on the fuel contents gauge.
fuel drained from the aircraft due to water contamination.
always the same quantity irrespective of aircraft attitude or flight conditions.
The fuel tanks in small aircraft are mainly located:
close to the engine.
in the wings.
in the tail section of the aircraft.
in the fuselage.
The main purpose of the mixture control is to:
adjust the fuel flow to obtain the correct fuel/air ratio.
decrease the air supplied to the engine.
increase the oxygen supplied to the engine.
decrease the oxygen supplied to the engine.
Specific fuel consumption is defined as the:
mass of fuel required to produce unit power for unit time.
quantity of fuel required to run the engine for one minute at maximum operating conditions.
designed fuel consumption for a given RPM.
maximum fuel consumption of the aircraft.
For a given type of oil, the oil viscosity depends on the:
quantity of oil.
Variations in the mixture ratios for carburettors are achieved by the adjustment of:
fuel flow, airflow and temperature.
fuel flow and airflow.
If the ground wire between the magneto and the ignition switch becomes disconnected, the most noticeable result will be that theengine:
will not operate on the right magneto.
will not operate on the left magneto.
cannot be started with the switch in the ON position.
cannot be shut down by turning the switch to the OFF position.
When in flight, a piston engine is stopped and the propeller blade pitch angle is near 90°, the propeller is said to be:
at zero drag.
Refer to figure 021-12.On the diagram showing the power output of a piston engine as a function of mixture ratio, theoretical best economy is shown at:
Dual ignition provides a factor of reliability and:
saves wear caused by using one magneto constantly.
provides more voltage.
improves combustion efficiency.
Air flowing through a venturi of a carburettor causes:
a decrease in pressure at the throat.
an increase in pressure at the throat.
an increase in velocity and pressure.
a reduction of air velocity at the throat.
When starting an engine or when the engine runs at an idle RPM on ground, the mixture is:
rich, because the choke valve is closed.
rich, because carburettor heat is switched on.
rich, to make starting possible and to cool the engine sufficiently when idling.
lean, to prevent that the engine consumes too much fuel.
For piston engines fuel/air ratio or mixture is the ratio between the:
mass of fuel and volume of air entering the carburettor.
volume of fuel and volume of air entering the carburettor.
volume of fuel and volume of air entering the cylinder.
mass of fuel and mass of air entering the cylinder.
The speed of a turbocharger is controlled by:
waste gate position.
propeller pitch and altitude.
Given the following statements about diesel engines;1) power is set by the mixture control.2) there is no mixture control.3) the amount of power is determined by the fuel flow only.4) thermal efficiency is higher than that for a petrol engine.5) diesel fuel is more inflammable than petrol.The combination that regroups all of the correct statements is
The main advantage of a constant speed propeller as compared to a fixed pitch propeller is that it:
does not require propeller blade twist.
has a higher maximum propeller efficiency over a wider range of airspeeds.
has a lower propeller blade stress.
maintains its maximum propeller efficiency over a wider range of airspeeds.
The propeller blade angle is defined as the acute angle between the airfoil section chord line (at the blade reference station)and which of the following?
The axis of blade rotation during pitch change.
The propeller thrust time.
The plane of rotation.
The relative wind.
If, when the magneto selector switch is set to the OFF position, a piston engine continues to run normally, the most probablecause is that;
there are local hot points in the engine (probably due to overheating of the cylinder heads).
there is a carbon deposit on the spark plugs electrodes.
a wire from the magneto is in contact with a metallic part of the engine.
the grounding wire of one of the magnetos is broken.
From the cruise, with all the parameters correctly set, if the altitude is reduced, to maintain the same mixture the fuel flow should;
increase or decrease, depending on the engine type.
remain the same.
the tendency of a liquid or gas to resist flow.
the pressure resistance of an oil.
the flow velocity inside the oil lines.
the temperature dependence of an oil.
To adjust the mixture ratio of a piston engine when altitude increases, means to:
increase the mixture ratio.
decrease the amount of fuel in the mixture in order to compensate for the increasing air density.
decrease the fuel flow in order to compensate for the decreasing air density.
increase the amount of fuel in the mixture to compensate for the decreasing air pressure and density.
What happens to the angle of attack of a fixed pitch propeller as the aircraft accelerates down the runway during take-off roll?
Blade angle changes to compensate for forward speed.
Remains the same.
When performing a magneto ground check on an engine, correct operation is indicated by;
an increase in RPM.
a slight drop in RPM.
no drop in RPM.
a decrease in manifold pressure.
In a piston engine, what ratio would be considered as a rich mixture?
In a piston engine if the ratio of air to fuel is approximately 9:1, the mixture is
too weak to support combustion.
In an airplane equipped with a fixed-pitch propeller the carburettor heat is selected ON. This results in:
no change in mixture and no change in RPM.
a leaner mixture but no change in RPM.
a reduction in RPM as a result of richer mixture.
a reduction in RPM as a result of leaner mixture.
Overheating of a piston engine is likely to result from an excessively:
low barometric pressure.
high barometric pressure.
During climb with constant throttle and RPM lever setting (mixture being constant) the;
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) increases.
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) decreases.
When altitude increases, in a normally aspirated piston engine, mixture must be adjusted because there is
an increase of air density resulting in too lean a mixture.
an increase of air density resulting in too rich a mixture.
a decrease in air density resulting in too rich a mixture.
a decrease of air density resulting in too lean a mixture.
The camshaft of a piston engine rotates at;
Twice the speed of the crankshaft.
Four times the speed of the crankshaft.
The same speed as the crankshaft.
Half the speed of the crankshaft.
On design purpose, the relationship between the fuel octane rating and the maximum compression ratio of a piston engine
the maximum compression ratio is independent of the octane rating.
the lower the octane rating is, the higher the maximum compression ratio is
the higher the octane rating is. the lower the maximum compression ratio is.
the higher the octane rating is, the higher the maximum compression ratio is.
The ignition system generally used for small piston engine aircraft is a:
low tension system
high tension system.
battery ignition system.
high intensity system.
An aircraft magneto is switched off by;
opening the primary circuit.
grounding the secondary circuit.
opening the secondary circuit.
grounding the primary circuit.
In a wet sump lubrication system, the oil supply is kept in the;
sump and tank.
engine and tank.
engine and sump.
tank and oil cooler.
Prolonged running at low RPM may have an adverse effect on the efficiency of the;
A piston engine compression ratio is the ratio of the:
total volume to the swept volume.
clearance volume to the swept volume.
swept volume to the clearance volume.
total volume to the clearance volume.
The octane rating of a fuel characterises the:
quantity of heat generated by its combustion.
fuel electrical conductivity.
resistance to detonation.
An EGT (Exhaust Gas Temperature) indicator for a piston engine is used to:
control the fuel temperature.
control the cylinder head temperature.
assist the pilot to set the correct mixture.
control the carburettor inlet air flow.
The primary purpose of a supercharger is to:
Provide leaner mixtures at altitudes below 5000 ft.
Maintain power at altitude.
Increase quantity of fuel at metering jet.
Provide a richer mixture at high altitudes.
If an engine detonates during climb-out, the normal corrective action would be to:
increase the rate of climb.
lean the mixture.
retard the throttle.
apply carburettor heat.
Assuming the modified Otto cycle, what is the position of the inlet and exhaust valve at the end of the exhaust stroke?
Inlet closed and exhaust open.
Both valves closed.
Both valves open.
Inlet open and exhaust closed.
On an air-cooled reciprocating engine the cooling airflow is provided by:
a pneumatic system.
On a four stroke reciprocating engine, the ignition in one cylinder will occur:
Four times each crankshaft revolution.
Once each crankshaft revolution.
Twice each crankshaft revolution.
Once every two crankshaft revolutions.
The part of a piston engine that transforms reciprocating movement into rotary motion is called the:
What is the best method to stop a running engine if the magneto switch ground wire becomes disconnected?
Feather the propeller.
Shut off the fuel supply.
No special method is required, if the wire becomes disconnected the engine will stop.
Lean out mixture until engine backfires and stops.
Which one of the following factors would be most likely to increase the possibility of detonation occurring within a piston engine?
The use of a fuel with a high octane rating as compared to the use of one with a low octane rating.
Using an engine with a low compression ratio.
Slightly retarding the ignition timing.
High cylinder head temperature.
Regarding carburettor ice, state the environmental caution areas most conducive for the formation of this type of ice.
Temperature between -5°C and +18°C, visible moisture or relative humidity greater than 60%.
Temperature between +5°C and +18°C and clouds present.
Temperature less than 0°C, and clouds present.
Temperature between +5°C and +18°C, visible moisture or relative humidity greater than 60%.
The valves are held shut by:
the rocker arms.
the valve springs.
The safest method of priming a piston engine for starting is:
pumping the throttle.
injection of fuel through spark plug holes.
by turning the propeller several times with the throttle wide open.
injection of fuel in the cylinder intake ports.
The ignition occurs in each cylinder of a four-stroke engine (TDC = Top Dead Centre):
behind TDC at each crankshaft revolution.
before TDC at each crankshaft revolution.
behind TDC at each second crankshaft revolution.
before TDC at each second crankshaft revolution.
The thermal efficiency of a diesel engine is higher than that of a petrol engine because:
the compression ratio is much higher.
the air mass flow through the engine is higher.
the EGT is higher.
the calorific value of the fuel is higher.
A normally aspirated engine has:
a density controller.
a density controller and a rate controller.
a dual controller to maintain turbine speed.
no power augmentation devices.
If the ground wire between the magnetos and the ignition switch becomes disconnected the most noticeable result will be that:
the engine cannot be shut down by turning the ignition switch to the "OFF" position.
the power developed by the engine will be strongly reduced.
the engine cannot be started with the ignition switch in the "ON" position.
a still operating engine will shut down.
The function of the propeller drive gearbox is to cause the propeller to rotate at an RPM:
greater than engine RPM.
which varies in its ratio with engine RPM.
the same as engine RPM.
less than engine RPM.
The blade angle of a propeller is the angle between the:
reference chord line and the propeller axis of rotation.
reference chord line and the relative airflow.
reference chord line and the propeller plane of rotation.
plane of rotation and the relative airflow.
When applying carburettor heating:
a decrease in RPM results from the lean mixture.
no change occurs in the mixture ratio.
the mixture becomes leaner.
the mixture becomes richer.
The function of the primer pump in a reciprocating engine is to:
inject additional fuel during engine acceleration.
provide additional fuel for engine start.
serve as main supply pump in a fuel injection system.
serve as an alternate pump in case of engine driven pump failure.
In a reciprocating four-stroke engine, the only "driving" stroke is the:
The lubricating system of an air cooled piston engine is used to:
reduce internal friction and provide cooling.
operate constant speed propellers.
to operate the fuel control unit.
keep the engine warm.
The reading on the oil pressure gauge is the:
pressure of the oil on the outlet side of the pressure pump.
pressure in the oil tank reservoir.
pressure of the oil on the inlet side of the pressure pump.
difference between the pressure pump pressure and the scavenge pump pressure.
What is meant by a wet sump engine?
One that uses hydraulic valve lifters.
One that carries its oil supply in an external oil tank.
One that carries its oil supply in the engine itself.
One that uses water injection for detonation suppression.
The crankshaft of a piston engine rotates at:
Four times the speed of the camshaft.
Half the speed of the camshaft.
Twice the speed of the camshaft.
The same speed as the camshaft.
The crankcase is the component which:
provides a mounting point for most of the engine components and in which are the main rotating assemblies located.
operates within the float chamber.
provides a mounting for an oil cooler.
converts reciprocating motion into rotary motion.
The main function of a carburettor in a piston engine is to:
control the amount of air entering the air-scoop.
supply a correct fuel-air mixture at all speeds.
prevent vapor lock.
When the pilot moves the mixture lever of a piston engine towards a lean position the:
volume of air entering the carburettor is increased.
amount of fuel entering the cylinders is increased.
amount of fuel entering the cylinders is reduced.
volume of air entering the carburettor is reduced.
Diesel engines, compared to petrol engines have:
a higher compression ratio.
a lower compression ratio.
the same compression ratio.
a variable compression ratio.
Valve overlap occurs between:
exhaust and induction stroke.
induction and compression stroke.
compression and power stroke.
exhaust and power stroke.
Carburettor heating is generally not used with take-off and climb-power settings, because of the:
fire hazard involved.
loss of power and possible detonation.
impossibility of engine supplying enough heat.
On a normally aspirated engine, the manifold pressure gauge always indicates:
a value equal to the atmospheric pressure when the engine is at full power on the ground.
a greater value than atmospheric pressure when the engine is running.
a lower value than atmospheric pressure when the engine is running.
zero on the ground when the engine is stopped.
The use of too low an octane fuel may cause:
a cooling effect on cylinders.
higher manifold pressure.
The mixture controller of a carburettor:
varies the fuel supply to the main discharge nozzle.
moves the butterfly valve through a separate linkage to the main throttle control.
alters the pressure drop at the main discharge nozzle.
varies the air supply at the main discharge nozzle.
Ignition systems of a running piston engine receive electrical energy from:
rotating permanent magnets.
In which sections of the carburettor would icing most likely occur?
Main air bleed and main discharge nozzle.
Venturi and the throttle valve.
Float chamber and fuel inlet filter.
Accelerator pump and main metering jet.
Which statement is correct concerning the effect of the application of carburettor heat?
The density of the air entering the carburettor is reduced, thus enriching the mixture.
The volume of air entering the carburettor is reduced, thus leaning the mixture.
The volume of air entering the carburettor is reduced, thus enriching the mixture.
The density of the air entering the carburettor is reduced, thus leaning the mixture.
The working cycle of a four-stroke engine is
induction, compression, power, exhaust.
induction, compression, expansion, power.
induction, power, compression, exhaust.
compression, induction, power, exhaust.
A piston engine may use a fuel of a different grade than the recommended:
provided that the grade is lower.
provided that it is an aeronautical petrol.
provided that the grade is higher.
Once the engine has started, ignition systems of piston engines are:
dependent on the DC generator.
dependent on the AC generator.
dependent on the battery.
independent of the electrical system of the aircraft.
The purpose of the venturi in a carburettor is to:
create a rise in pressure at the throat before the mixture enters the induction system.
create the suction necessary to cause fuel to flow through the carburettor main jets.
prevent enrichment of the mixture due to high air velocity through the carburettor.
ensure complete atomisation of the fuel before entering the injection system.
When increasing true airspeed with a constant engine RPM, the angle of attack of a fixed pitch propeller:
stays constant because it only varies with engine RPM.
In a piston engine, the purpose of an altitude mixture control is to:
correct for variations in the fuel/air ratio due to decreased air density at altitude.
enrich the mixture strength due to decreased air density at altitude.
weaken the mixture strength because of reduced exhaust back pressure at altitude.
prevent a weak cut when the throttle is opened rapidly at altitude.
For a piston engine, the chemically correct fuel/air ratio is
Define a normally aspirated engine:
An engine that is neither supercharged nor turbocharged.
An engine that is turbocharged.
An engine that is supercharged and turbocharged.
An engine that is supercharged.
With respect to a piston engined aircraft, ice in the carburettor:
may form at OATs higher than +10 °C.
will only form at outside air temperatures (OAT's) below the freezing point of water.
will only form at OATs below the freezing point of fuel.
will only form at OATs below+10 °C.
The pressure altitude is the altitude corresponding:
in standard atmosphere, to the pressure Ps prevailing at this point.
in standard atmosphere, to the reference pressure Ps.
in ambient atmosphere, to the reference pressure Ps-
in ambient atmosphere, to the pressure Ps prevailing at this point.
The operating principle of the vertical speed indicator (VSI) is based on the measurement of the rate of change of:
The vertical speed indicator VSI is fed by:
The airspeed indicator of an aircraft is provided with a moving red and white hatched pointer. This pointer indicates the:
speed indicated on the auto-throttle control box versus temperature.
speed indicated on the auto-throttle control box versus altitude.
maximum speed in V^o operation versus temperature.
maximum speed in Vmo operation versus altitude.
Due to its conception, the altimeter measures a:
The limits of the green scale of an airspeed indicator are:
Vso for the lower limit and Vno for the upper limit.
Vsi for the lower limit and Vne for the upper limit.
Vsi for the lower limit and V[_o for the upper limit.
Vsi for the lower limit and Vno for the upper limit.
Calibrated airspeed (CAS) is obtained from indicated airspeed (IAS) by correcting for the:
position and density errors.
position and instrument errors.
A vertical speed indicator measures the difference between the:
total instantaneous pressure and the total pressure at a previous moment.
instantaneous static pressure and the static pressure at a previous moment.
total pressure and the static pressure.
dynamic pressure and the static pressure.
The static air temperature (SAT) is:
the temperature resulting from the aircraft motion in the air.
the TAT divided by the recovery factor.
the ambient outside air temperature.
the outside air temperature measured by the pitot probe.
An airspeed indicator displays:
The altimeter consists of one or several aneroid capsules located in a sealed casing. The pressures in the aneroid capsule (i) and casing (ii) are respectively:
i) static pressure; ii) total pressure.
i) total pressure; ii) static pressure.
i) vacuum (or a very low pressure); ii) static pressure.
i) static pressure at time t ii) static pressure at time t - t
The vertical speed indicator reads:
the differential pressure between the capsule pressure and the outside static pressure.
the differential pressure between the static pressure and pitot pressure.
the differential pressure between the capsule pressure and the case pressure.
only the outside static pressure.
Assuming that the CAS remains constant, if the total pressure probe is blocked, the IAS:
remains constant during all the phases of the flight.
remains constant during level flight, decreases during a climb and increases during a descent.
remains constant during level flight, increases during a climb and decreases during a descent.
increases during level flight, remains constant during a climb and a descent.
Given:Pj = total pressurePs = static pressureDynamic pressure is:
(Рт - Ps) / Ps
(PT - Ps) / Рт
If the pitot tube ices up during a flight, the affected equipment(s) is (are):1) the altimeter2) the variometer3) the airspeed indicatorThe combination regrouping all the correct statements is:
The airspeed indicator measures:
If the static source to an airspeed indicator (ASI) becomes blocked during a descent the instrument will:
continue to indicate the speed applicable to that at the time of the blockage.
In case of static blockage, the airspeed indicator:
over-reads in climb and under-reads in descent.
over-reads in climb only.
under-reads in climb and over-reads in descent.
under-reads in descent only.
What is an operational difference between the turn coordinator and the turn and slip indicator?
The turn coordinator is always electric; the turn and slip indicator is always vacuum-driven.
The turn coordinator indicates roll rate, rate of turn, and co-ordination; the turn and slip indicator indicates rate of turn and co-ordination.
The turn coordinator indicates angle of bank; the turn-and-slip indicator indicates turn rate in coordinated flight.
The turn coordinator indicates bank angle only; the turn and slip indicator indicates rate of turn and co-ordination.
When, in flight, the needle and ball of a needle-and-ball indicator are on the right, the aircraft is:
turning right with too much bank.
turning right with not enough bank.
turning left with not enough bank.
turning left with too much bank.
In a left turn, the ball of the turn co-ordinator is out to the right, what corrective action is required?
More left bank.
More left rudder.
Less right rudder.
Less left bank.
A directional gyro consists of a:(Note: the rotor spin axis is not counted for the number of degrees of freedom of the gyro)
1 degrees of freedom vertical axis gyro.
2 degrees of freedom horizontal axis gyro.
2 degrees of freedom vertical axis gyro.
1 degrees of freedom horizontal axis gyro.