A Sociolinguistic Profile of the Abadi Language..

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Electronic Survey Report 2011-030
A Sociolinguistic Profile
of the Abadi Language Group
Alison Kassell
Margaret Potter
TKe Summer Institute of LinJuistics SIL) conducted a sociolinJ
uistic surve\ of tKe
Lala Abadi and Toura lanJuaJes for tZo ZeeNs durinJ -une and
-ul\ 2003 in tKe
Central Province of Papua NeZ Guinea. Observation and sociolinJ
uistic intervieZs
Zere used to investiJate lanJuaJ
e vitalit\ and speaNers’ attitu
des toZard
neiJKbourinJ lanJuaJes. Additionall\ intervieZs ZitK communit\
leadersKip Zere
It Zas found tKat tKe Abadi lanJuaJe is currentl\ vital altKou
JK indicators suJJest
tKat vitalit\ ma\ decrease in cominJ \ears. Abadi speaNers Kold
a positive attitude
toZard tKeir lanJuaJe and communit\ leaders are interested in l
General information
Language name and classification
Language location
Description of location
Accessibility and transport
PMV services
Water routes
A note on the use of Motu and Hiri Motu

A.1 Materials published in or about the language
A.2 Lexicostatistical data explanation
A.2.1 Affixes
BetZeen 1 -une and 4 -ul\ 2003 tKe Summer Institute of LinJui
stics SIL)
conducted a lanJuaJe surve\ of tKe Lala Abadi and Toura lanJu
aJe Jroups in tKe
Central Province of Papua NeZ Guinea. TKe surve\ team consisted
of SIL personnel
Namsoo .im DucNsKin .im Alison .assell MarJaret Potter and
TKe purpose of tKe surve\ Zas to determine ZKetKer a lanJuaJe-d
proJram Zould be viable in tKe Lala Abadi and Toura area.
TKe Joals of tKe surve\ Zere:
To investiJate tKe vitalit\ of tKe Abadi lanJuaJe.
To investiJate ZKetKer tKe communit\ is liNel\ to use vernacula
To investiJate ZKetKer tKe communit\ leadersKip is interested i
SociolinJuistic intervieZs and o
bservation Zere used to investi
Jate lanJuaJe vitalit\
and potential proJram viabilit\. Wordlists and data obtained in
intervieZs Zere used to identif\
lanJuaJe and dialect boundarie
Language name and classification
Abadi is an Austronesian lanJuaJe. TKe
Grimes 2000) Jives tKe
folloZinJ classification for Abadi >Nbt]: Austronesian Mala\o-
Pol\nesian Central-
Eastern Eastern Mala\o-Pol\nesian Oceanic Western Oceanic P
apuan Tip
PeripKeral Central Papuan West Central Papuan and Gabadi. Ab
adi is called
.abadi >Nbt] in tKe
and Gabadi b\ speaNers of tKe surroundinJ
lanJuaJes Abadi is tKe term tKe speaNers tKemselves use to ref
er to tKeir lanJuaJe
and Zill Kereafter be referred to as Abadi in tKis report. Acco
rdinJ to tKe
Abadi Kas 4 percent le[ical similarit\ ZitK Toura.
Malayo-Polynesian (1239)
Central-Eastern (706)
Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (541)
Oceanic (502)
Western Oceanic (237)
Papuan Tip (62)
Central Papuan (14)
West Central Papuan (6)
| |
Gabadi (1)
Nuclear (5)
| |
Kabadi (Abadi)
Doura (Toura) Kuni Mekeo Nara (Lala) Waima (Roro)
[don] [kse] [mek] [nzr] [rro]
Description of location
Abadi speaNers live in tKe .airuNu District of tKe Central Prov
ince of Papua NeZ
Guinea appro[imatel\ 0 Nm nortK
Zest of Port Moresb\. Abadi is
bordered on tKe
Zest b\ Lala on tKe nortK b\ Fu\uJ >fu\] and on tKe east b\ T
oura and Mountain
.oiali >Np[]. Abadi Kas five mai
n villaJes and numerous seconda
r\ villaJes located
near tKe +iritano +iJKZa\ and near tKe coast see Table 1 and M
ap 1). In Pinu it
Zas reported tKat tKe villaJe of Toutu is a mi[ture of Abadi sp
eaNers Motu
speaNers and Australians. Educat
ors in Pinu reported tKat cKil
dren from Toutu
speaN Motu ratKer tKan Abadi. TKerefore Toutu Kas not been co
nsidered an Abadi
villaJe in tKis report. Aro’a Zas listed b\ TauberscKmidt and O
nNen 1) as a
Abadi villaJe KoZever no one in tKe Abadi area named Aro’a as
a Abadi villaJe
ZKen tKe\ Zere asNed ZKat villaJes belonJed to tKeir lanJuaJe J
roup. TKe surve\
team suspects tKat Aro’a is tKe cKurcK land in Pinu ZKere tKe A
roa Circuit Minister
lives. Unfortunatel\ tKis data
Zas not verified durinJ tKe sur
Table 1. Abadi villaJes as r
Main villages Secondary villages related to
main villages
Koupuana Koeana
Maobadina, Keveo
Magana, and Camp (1, 2, 3)
Ukaukana Mava and Idu Idu
Avabadina is immediatel\ adMacent to tKe villaJe of .eveona an
d Kosts tKe Jovernment services to tKe area
sucK as tKe Primar\ ScKool and Aid Post. It appears tKat onl\
tKe staff for tKese services live in Avabadina. For
tKe purposes of tKis report it Kas been considered to be a sub
Map 1. Abadi lanJuaJe area
Map 2. Abadi lanJuaJe boundaries

TKese boundaries are lanJuaJe b
oundaries onl\ and are not inte
nded to establisK land oZnersKip boundaries.
Villages and facilities in the Abadi Area (see Map 3)
Map 1. VillaJes in tKe Abadi area
ude of main Abadi villaJes
Village name Latitude Longitude
Keveona S 9 00 37.0 E 146 51 39.7
Koupuana S 9 00 24.6 E 146 52 00.0
Magavaira S 9 01 58.3 E 146 52 03.6
Pinu S 9 03 03.8 E 146 50 04.2
Ukaukana S 9 00 45.9 E 146 51 02.7
Table 3 sKoZs tKe population fiJures from botK tKe 2000 Nationa
l Population
Census and as reported in tKe vi
n based on tKe Census
if no furtKer information Zas available or a modification of tK
e census in
conMunction ZitK reported data.

TKe ScKool and Aid Post indicat
ed b\ .eveona are in tKe area o
f Avabadina a subsection of .eveona.
Table 3. Abadi population fiJures
villages related
Koupuana Koeana 450 500
Keveona Maobadina, Keveo
Magana, and Camp
(1, 2, 3)
600 500
Ukaukana Mava and Idu Idu 739
Not visited 739
Magavaira 288 500
Pinu 280 780
TOTAL 2,342+ 2,919
610 total ZitK appro[imatel\ ¼ livinJ in Port Moresb\.
.eveona 304) .eve’o MaJana 3
) Camp 1 2 3 no census dat
a) Maobadina 101).
Middle fiJure betZeen 400– 600.
UNauNana 461) Mava 27) and
Idu Idu no census data).
400–600 reported includinJ tKose livinJ in Port Moresb\ taNe
tKe middle fiJure of 500.
Middle fiJure betZeen 2 and 500.
70 plus 30 in Port Moresb\ or elseZKere.
Accept 70 tKe census statistics reported 46 Kouses but resi
dents said tKere Zere 70 tKis appears to be
In conclusion tKe population of tKe Abadi area appears to be b
etZeen 2342 and
21. Reportedl\ tKere are also a feZ Abadi speaNers in Toutu
total population
2) and tKere are around 500 additional Abadi speaNers residin
TKe maMorit\ of Abadi villaJes .eveona Mava Maobadina MaJav
aira and
Pinu) are easil\ accessible b\ roa
d and are about 2 Kours drivi
nJ time from Port
Moresb\. UNauNana and .oupuana are located on tKe far side of t
Ke river. TKere is
no bridJe across to an\ of tKe villaJes but tKere is a steep in
cline doZn to tKe river
on botK sides tKerefore tKe river must be forded on foot. In
tKe dr\ season tKe
river is about mid tKiJK at tKe deepest but durinJ tKe rain\ s
eason tKe river sZells
and tKe onl\ means of traversinJ tKe river is to sZim.
TKe nearest airstrip is -acNson Airport in Port Moresb\ about
0 Nilometres
aZa\ from tKe Abadi area. TKere used to be an airstrip nearer
called RoJers but it
closed in tKe 170s.
TKe +iritano +iJKZa\ runs from Port Moresb\ to tKe Abadi area.
It is paved
aspKalt) for appro[imatel\ tKe
first fift\ Nilometres out of P
ort Moresb\ toZards
Abadi KoZever it cKanJes to a compacted-dirt road before it r
eacKes tKe Abadi
area. WKen tKe surve\ team Zas i
n tKe area tKere Zas e[tensive
ZorN beinJ carried
out on tKe KiJKZa\ ZitK steamro
llers flatteninJ and smootKinJ
tKe dirt road. TKere
Zere dirt tracNs leadinJ from tKe KiJKZa\ doZn to Pinu UNauNan
a and .eveona.
TKe roads doZn to tKese villaJes
are potKoled and overJroZn in
parts but are still
PMV services
Public motor veKicles PMVs) run
Abadi area and Port
Moresb\. TKe Mourne\ taNes betZ
een 1½ to 2 Kours and is travell
members of tKe Abadi communit\. Five people in MaJavaira oZn PM
.oupuana tZo in Pinu and one i
rea oZn private
cars and travel bacN and fortK reJularl\ to Port Moresb\ about
tKirt\ people in
Pinu oZn a car eiJKt in MaJavaira and tKree in botK .oupuana
and .eveona).
Water routes
In tKe 150s people used to travel to Port Moresb\ b\ boat fo
lloZinJ tKe coast.
+oZever ZitK tKe construction of tKe +iritano +iJKZa\ tKis is
no lonJer a
common occurrence tKouJK on occasion people still travel to tK
e capital b\ boat
taNinJ appro[imatel\ 2 Kours. Man\ people in tKe area oZn canoe
s and dinJKies
some ZitK outboard motors. In Pinu tKese boats are used to fis
K at sea. In
.oupuana and .eveona people use dinJKies canoes and inner tu
bes to transport
produce from tKeir Jardens to tKeir Komes or doZn to tKe main r
To ZalN from one Abadi villaJe to anotKer people often folloZ
tKe main roads
but in addition tKere are smaller trails connectinJ tKe villa
Jes. It is a ver\ flat area
so ZalNinJ is not arduous. It taNes about 50 minutes to ZalN be
tZeen Pinu and
TKe use of Motu and +iri Motu in tKis report ma\ cause confusio
n for some
readers. ´Motuµ is a lanJuaJe spoNen in Central Province in an
d around Port
Moresb\. ´+iri Motuµ is a pidJini]ation of ´trueµ Motu and acc
ordinJ to tKe
is spoNen ´tKrouJKout Oro Central Gulf part of Milne Ba\ pr
and some in Western Province.µ SpeaNers of +iri Motu cannot und
erstand Motu
In tKis report ZKen referrinJ t
o tKe cKurcK leaders and offici
al use of Motu in
tKe cKurcK tKe autKor
s are alZa\s referrinJ to ´trueµ Motu. +o
Zever ZKen Abadi
speaNers refer to tKeir oZn use of Motu in ever\-da\ situations
 especiall\ cKildren’s
use tKe\ are normall\ referrinJ to +iri Motu.

TKe surve\ team elicited tKe 10-item standard SIL-PNG Zordlist
Revision) from a small Jroup of informants in eacK villaJe visi
ted. Group elicitation
Zas used to alloZ for discussion of tKe most appropriate Zord f
or eacK Jloss and to
avoid isolatinJ people ZKicK Zould be culturall\ inappropriate
TKe cKurcK is one of tKe main social institutions in Papua NeZ
Guinea tKus
cKurcKes’ attitudes toZards commu
nit\ proMects sucK as lanJuaJ
e development
siJnificantl\ influence tKe po
tential success of a proMect.
TKe United CKurcK is dominant in tKe Abadi area ZitK conJreJat
ions in five
villaJes. OtKer denominations in Abadi include CKristian Reviva
l Crusade CRC)
located in tKree villaJes Mava
 .oupuana and Pinu) Roman Ca
tKolic located in
one villaJe UNauNana) SeventK-da\ Adventist located in one v
illaJe .eveona)
In order to obtain information about tKe cKurcKes and missions
tKat Kave
ZorNed in tKe Abadi area tKe su
rve\ team intervieZed pastors a
nd deacons from
tKe United CKurcK and CRC cKurcKes. As formal intervieZs onl\ t
ooN place ZitK
tKese tZo cKurcK leaders inform
ation on otKer cKurcK denominat
ions is lacNinJ.
+oZever tKe surve\ team did speaN informall\ ZitK a leader of
tKe SeventK-da\
Adventist CKurcK in .eveona. Additionall\ tKe surve\ team Zas
able to speaN ZitK
tKe Aroa Circuit Minister of tKe United CKurcK as Zell as tKe
assistant to tKe priest
of St. Vincent CatKolic ParisK in UNauNana.
History of work in the area
Data in tKe folloZinJ section reJardinJ tKe Kistor\ of CKristi
an ZorN in tKe area Zas
reported to tKe surve\ t
eam durinJ intervieZs.
TKe London Missionar\ Societ\ LMS) beJan ZorN in Manu Manu in
reacKinJ tKe Abadi people sKortl
\ tKereafter. TKe first LMS mis
sionaries to tKe area
came from tKe SoutK Pacific includinJ Samoa and FiMi. TKrouJK
a series of cKurcK
merJers tKe LMS conJreJations became tKe Melanesian CKurcK tK
en Papua
ENalesia and finall\ tKe United CKurcK in tKe 160s. TKe lead
ers of tKe cKurcK in
MaJavaira reported tKat four LMS foreiJn missionaries ZorNed am
onJ tKe Abadi
betZeen 172 and 16 ZKen tKe cKurcK Zas ´indiJeni]edµ since
tKat time tKe
United CKurcK leadersKip Kas bee
n entirel\ Papua NeZ Guinean.
TKe CRC beJan ZorNinJ in Mava in 16 an Abadi pastor ZKo Zas
ZorNinJ as a teacKer in Port Moresb\ drove to Mava ever\ ZeeNe
nd for cKurcK
services. +e ZorNed as a la\man ZitK anotKer pastor from 11 t
o 17. In 17
tKe Abadi pastor moved to Pinu
ZKere Ke started anotKer CRC cK
urcK. TKere are
also CRC cKurcKes in .eveona and .oupuana.
Churches attitude toward vernacular use and development
In Jeneral cKurcK leaders e[pre
ssed positive attitudes toZard
development. WKen asNed ZKen people Zould potentiall\ use verna
cular literature
cKurcK leaders from all Abadi villaJes visited said tKat tKe\ t
KouJKt vernacular

TKe surve\ team endeavoured to intervieZ all cKurcK leaders in
tKe area unfortunatel\ some Zere
unavailable for intervieZ at tKe time of tKe surve\.
literature Zould be used in tKe
cKurcK. TKe Aroa Circuit Minist
er for tKe United
CKurcK favors tKe use of local lanJuaJes in tKe cKurcKes. TKe A
roa Circuit includes
speaNers of Abadi Lala and Roro. TKe Circuit Minister and Kis
Zife an important
Zomen’s leader in tKe cKurcK in
dicated tKat people need encour
aJement to use
tKeir oZn lanJuaJe in tKe cKurcK
es because in tKe past it Zas
not encouraJed and
people are not accustomed to usinJ it in tKis settinJ. DurinJ o
ne Zomen’s meetinJ
tKe minister’s Zife insisted tKat tKe Zomen speaN onl\ Abadi³sK
e disalloZed
EnJlisK and Motu entirel\ from tKe meetinJ. SKe said tKat tKe Z
omen responded
ZitK Jreat interest and tKe minister added tKat tKeir interest
Zas due to tKe fact tKat
tKe messaJe Zas clearer in Abadi tKan it Zould be in EnJlisK or
.eveona’s United CKurcK pastor felt tKat tKe local lanJuaJe Zas
so important
tKat Ke asNed a deacon to translate part of Kis +ol\ WeeN sermo
n into Abadi so tKat
Ke could present it in tKe people’s lanJuaJe.
As reported by church leadership
CKurcK leaders reported tKe folloZinJ information to tKe surve\
team durinJ
intervieZs leaders Zere specificall\ asNed ZKat lanJuaJes are
used for tKe
folloZinJ activities: sinJinJ K\mn
s sinJinJ otKer sonJs spont
aneous pra\er
sermon/Komil\ announcements Scripture readinJ \outK services
 and Zomen’s
Jroups. A summar\ of tKeir ansZers ma\ be found in Table 4. Unf
ortunatel\ ver\
Table 4. Reported lanJuaJe use in cKurcKes
Motu (if
made by
a little Motu
Abadi Abadi
brouJKt b\ or at least influ
Table 4. Reported lanJuaJe use in cKurcKes continued):
Motu (if
a little English
Motu Motu English
into Abadi,
even in
Motu (if
4.3.2 As observed
On Sunda\ 22 -une 2003 tKe surve\ team attended tKe morninJ s
ervice in
.eveona’s United CKurcK. TKe service Zas mostl\ in Abadi e[cep
t for tKe sermon
some K\mns tKe Bible readinJ and a feZ small portions of tKe
TZo deacons pra\ed in Abadi prior to communion. TKe Motu K\mnbo
oN Zas used
Immediatel\ prior to tKe cKurcK’s main meetinJ tKe surve\ team
cKildren’s Sunda\ scKool sinJinJ in a variet\ of lanJuaJes inc
ludinJ at least tZo
sonJs in Abadi one Kad been translated from ToN Pisin to Abadi
) a sonJ in EnJlisK
and a sonJ sunJ in botK Waima and Abadi.
TKe pastor preacKed primaril\ in Motu but occasionall\ said a
sentence in
EnJlisK KiJKliJKtinJ one of Kis main points. TKis Zas liNel\ f
or tKe benefit of tKe
surve\ team and for tKe scKoolteacKers from otKer areas ZKo liv
e in .eveona.
DurinJ an intervieZ tKe previous
da\ tKe pastor mentioned tKat
Ke includes EnJlisK
for tKe saNe of tKe non-Motu-spe
aNinJ teacKers. OtKer instances
of EnJlisK in tKe
service included an official ´tKanN \ouµ to SIL for cominJ to t
Ke villaJe and a
mi[inJ of EnJlisK ToN Pisin and Abadi in tKe announcements. T
Ke announcements
Zere almost entirel\ in Abadi but occasionall\ tKe announcer
Zould slip in a feZ
Zords or sentences of EnJlisK quicNl\ revertinJ bacN to Abadi.
TKe ToN Pisin pKrase
toN save
announcements) Zas used folloZed b\ an announcement in Abadi
. TKe
surve\ team also saZ an EnJlisK Bible lesson outline on a cKalN
board in tKe front of
tKe cKurcK.
TKe vernacular pla\s a prominent role in Abadi cKurcKes indica
tinJ tKat tKe
vernacular is valued b\ cKurcK l
eaders and vernacular literatur
e Zould Kave a Jood
History of schools in the area
ScKools Zere introduced in tKe Abadi area b\ tKe London Mission
ar\ Societ\
reportedl\ durinJ tKe first Kalf of tKe 20tK centur\. TKe Jover
nment started Abadi
elementar\ scKools in 17.
Table 5 Jives some information about tKe scKools in tKe Abadi l
anJuaJe area.
Table 5. Sites and si]e
School name Village/(year
Grade levels
Avabadina Primary School Keveona/1964 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,8
Keveona Elementary School
Keveona/1997 EP, E1, E2
Pinu Community School Pinu/circa 1960 4, 5, 6
Pinu Elementary School Pinu/1998 EP, E1, E2
Magavaira Elementary School Magavaira/1997 EP, E1, E2
Koupuana Elementary School Koupuana/1997 EP, E1, E2
Ukaukana Elementary School Ukaukana/1997 Data unavailable
If a Jrade number is listed tZice it indicates tKat tKere is
more tKan one class in tKat Jrade level for e[ample
Avabadina Primar\ ScKool Kas
tZo tKird-Jrade classes.
EP stands for Elementar\ Prep E1 for Elementar\ One and E2 f
Educators reported tKat Abadi students Kave attended LaloNi Pro
vincial +iJK
ScKool and ide tKe Abadi-
ScKool board cKairmen and elementar\ scKool teacKers usuall\ co
me from tKe
villaJe ZKere tKe scKool is located. Most communit\ scKool teac
Kers come from
outside tKe lanJuaJe area ZKere
tKe scKool is located altKouJK
tKere are some
Abadi teacKers on staff at Avabadina Primar\ ScKool and Pinu Co
Enrollment, attendance, and academic achievement
Dail\ attendance in tKe scKools
is siJnificantl\ loZer tKan enr
ollment. Often all
scKool-aJed cKildren are enrolled in scKool but not all of tKe
m attend. TKe
Keadmaster of St. -oKn’s Communi
t\ ScKool in .uriva ZKicK is l
ocated soutKeast of
tKe Abadi-lanJuaJe area said tKat a t\pical pattern is KiJKer
attendance at tKe
beJinninJ of tKe scKool \ear diminisKinJ dramaticall\ as tKe \
ear continues.
Educators report tKat parents commonl\ blame scKool fees tKe d
istance tKeir cKild
Kas to travel to scKool dissatis
faction ZitK teacKers or stud
ents’ \ounJ aJes as
TKe overall level of education i
n tKe Abadi area is relativel\
KiJK. Probabl\ due to
tKeir pro[imit\ to Port Moresb\ and tKe pletKora of educated pe
ople tKere Abadi
speaNers ZitK Grade 10 education or loZer are usuall\ unable to
Jet Jood Mobs in
toZn nearl\ all of tKem are livinJ in tKeir Kome villaJes see
Table 6) KoZever
some Abadi speaNers ZitK Grade 10 education are ZorNinJ as teac
Kers carpenters
sKop assistants and medical prof
essionals. TKe Keadmaster of A
vabadina Primar\
ScKool said tKat man\ families K
ave asNed tKeir educated \ounJ
people to come
Kome tKe\ Zant tKem to live in tKe ´custom Za\.µ Pinu villaJe
Kas an unusual
number of educated people inclu
dinJ tKirt\-five people ZKo Kav
e attended universit\
and nineteen people ZKo Kave atte
nded teacKers’ colleJe. Indivi
duals from Pinu ZKo
Kave been able to enter a variet\ of desirable professions incl
ude tZo doctors tZo
laZ\ers an arcKitect a civil enJineer and appro[imatel\ five
Table 6. Number of educated individuals present in villaJes
Village Grade 10 Grade 12 University
Keveona 15
Pinu 26 3 2
Magavaira 10 2
Koupuana Unknown 2 3
Table 7 lists Abadi KiJKer-educa
tion Jraduates tKat are no lonJ
er resident in tKeir
oriJinal villaJes.
Table 7. Abadi KiJKer-education Jraduates not resident in tKe a
4 people Elai Kolamba/Rabaul
Pinu 35 people 19 people
Magavaira 2 people 7 people
Koupuana 3 people 3 people
At least one person/Metago Bible
College near Port Moresby
AccordinJ to national polic\ el
ementar\ scKools beJin educatin
J cKildren usinJ
tKe vernacular. In Jrades EP and E1 Abadi teacKers reported tK
at all education is in
tKe vernacular. In Jrade E2 tKe\ beJin ´bridJinJµ transition)
to EnJlisK usinJ botK
EnJlisK and tKe vernacular in tK
e classroom all elementar\ scK
ools reported
folloZinJ tKis polic\. TKe bridJi
nJ approacK is relativel\ neZ
in tKe area and ZKile
it is supported b\ teacKers it Kas not alZa\s been Zell receiv
ed b\ parents. Several
educators in tKe Abadi area reported tKat tKere Kas been siJnif
icant parent
dissatisfaction because tKeir cKi
ldren are not beinJ instructed
in EnJlisK from tKe
start. TKe Keadmaster in .eveona and tKe TeacKer-In-CKarJe in M
aJavaira reported
tKat altKouJK parents Zere previousl\ upset about vernacular e
ducation most of
tKem Kave cKanJed tKeir mind. AZareness meetinJs Kave pla\ed an
instrumental role
in effectinJ tKis cKanJe.
All elementar\ scKools reported
tKat cKildren use tKe vernacula
r on tKe
pla\Jround. TKree elementar\ scK
ools reported tKat ZKile cKild
ren mostl\ speaN
Abadi on tKe pla\Jround tKe\ also speaN some ToN Pisin.
Pinu Community School
TeacKers primaril\ use EnJlisK to instruct tKeir students some
times JivinJ
e[planations in Abadi ToN Pisin or Motu. As tKe students proJ
ress tKrouJK tKe
Jrades an attempt is made to ma[imi]e use of EnJlisK. Ideall\
b\ Jrade 6 tKe class
sKould be entirel\ in EnJlisK altKouJK tKe teacKer did mention
tKat sometimes
Abadi ToN Pisin and Motu are also used.
One Kour per ZeeN tKere is a Communit\ Activities class ZKicK
is sometimes
tauJKt b\ communit\ members or b\
tKe teacKer. BotK EnJlisK and
Abadi are used
durinJ Communit\ Activities.
AccordinJ to scKool polic\ students are alloZed to speaN Abadi
up to Grade 5.
Grade 6 students are proKibited from speaNinJ tKe vernacular. R
eportedl\ tKe\
frequentl\ speaN Abadi b\ accident and are required to Zrite ou
t ZKat tKe\ said in
EnJlisK ten to tZent\ or more times.
One teacKer married an Abadi Zoman tZent\ \ears aJo and speaNs
lanJuaJe. AnotKer teacKer Kas been teacKinJ at tKe scKool for t
Kree \ears and it is
learninJ tKe lanJuaJe.
It is reported tKat Abadi speaNers are ´quite Kapp\ ZitK tKeir
lanJuaJeµ and tKat
surroundinJ lanJuaJe Jroups do not Kave neJative attitudes toZa
Avabadina Primary School
Information for Avabadina Primar
\ ScKool Zas provided b\ tKe Ke
Abadi EnJlisK and ToN Pisin are all used in tKe classrooms in
Avabadina Primar\
ScKool. TKe use of some Abadi is required in tKe tKird Jrade o
ne of Grade 3 teacKers
is neZ and is still learninJ tKe lanJuaJe. Reportedl\ one of t
Ke Grade 4 teacKers is
also learninJ to speaN tKe lanJuaJe. TKere is no traditional la
nJuaJe component in
tKe curriculum tKe Keadmaster said tKat sucK a component Zould
be desirable
because it is empKasi]ed b\ tKe Department of Education but tKe
problem is tKat tKe
scKool does not Kave man\ Abadi
teacKers and tKere is not room
in tKe curriculum.
CKildren are alloZed to speaN Abadi in class until Grade 5 aft
er tKat it is discouraJed.
AltKouJK EnJlisK is encouraJed
cKildren are not punisKed for s
peaNinJ tKe vernacular.
AccordinJ to tKe Keadmaster parents are still JettinJ used to
tKe idea tKat tKe
vernacular is used alonJside EnJl
isK in tKe scKools tKis cKanJ
e is fairl\ neZ so tKe\
don’t see tKe benefits \et. Parent
s Zould prefer tKat tKeir cKi
ldren Zere onl\
instructed in EnJlisK in scKool.
Use of tKe vernacular in tKe classroom is a Zell-establisKed pr
actice in
elementar\ Jrades EP E1 and E2. TKere is an empKasis on EnJli
sK in tKe KiJKer
Jrades recoJni]inJ students’ need to master EnJlisK if tKe\ a
re to continue on to
KiJKer education. Several educat
ors mentioned tKat parents Zere
dissatisfied ZitK
scKools particularl\ because tKe\ Zere not in favour of tKeir
cKildren beinJ
educated in Abadi in tKe earl\ Jrades.
Man\ Abadi individuals Kave a KiJK level of education man\ Zel
people are residinJ in tKeir Kome villaJes.

See section 6.2 for e[planation of platform.
Council or Committee usuall\ re
fers to one person ZKo represen
ts tKe communit\ on a local Jovernment level.
do an\tKinJ tKese da\s. If Ke Zere to asN people to do sometKin
J tKe\ Zould Kave
to do it. TKis Zas confirmed b\ tKe Aroa Circuit Minister in Pi
nu ZKo said tKat if
tKe cKief Zere to support a lanJuaJe-development proMect tKe p
eople Zould be
obliJed to Kelp. +oZever tKe pa
ramount cKief ZorNs in Port Mor
esb\ so is absent
from tKe villaJe a Jreat amount of time Ke Zas not present ZKi
le tKe surve\ team
Zas in tKe Abadi area.
In conclusion ZKile tKe traditional s\stem of leadersKip still
e[ists and is
recoJni]ed in tKe Abadi area tK
e traditional elders e[ert less
overt influence noZ
tKan Zas tKe case in previous Jenerations.
Appro[imatel\  percent of tKe adult population in tKe Abadi vi
llaJes visited
Zere reported to be immiJrants from otKer areas.
FiJure 1 sKoZs male immiJration patterns Jrouped b\ province
from tKe
reported data collected in .eveon
a .oupuana MaJavaira and Pi
nu. TKe sections of
tKe pie cKart represent tKe number of men from a particular pro
vince as a
proportion of tKe total reported to Kave moved to tKe four prev
groups in
Gulf (21)
Bay (9)
Western (1)
Sepik (1)
Male immigration grouped by province, from data
collected in Keveona, Koupuana, Magavaira,and Pinu
(total number of men in brackets after province)
Men from other
composed as
Kivori 1
Kuni 1
Lala 5
Mailo 1
Motu 8
Mekeo 1
Rigo 1
Waima 5
FiJure 1. Male immiJration patterns.
All tKe men ZKo Kad moved into tKe Abadi area Zere reported to
Kave done so
for tKe purpose of marriaJe. It Zas reported tKat in Jeneral
men ZKo marr\ in
learn to speaN some Abadi but feZ speaN it fluentl\ and most u
se ToN Pisin or Motu
for tKeir dail\ interactions ZitKin tKe villaJe. +oZever it Za
s reported tKat tKe vast
maMorit\ of cKildren of tKese mi[ed marriaJes speaN Abadi as Z
ell as ToN Pisin

Based on tKe reported number of immiJrants as a percentaJe of
tKe best estimate adult population for
.eveona .oupuana MaJavaira and Pinu calculated as 60 percen
t of tKe total population for tKese villaJes
2000 Census states 40 percent o
f tKe population as under 15 \e
ars of aJe).
Motu or tKeir fatKer’s lanJuaJe. TKere Zere man\ cases ZKere t
Ke cKildren Zere
reported to onl\ speaN Abadi and ver\ feZ cases ZKere tKe\ Zere
reported to speaN
FiJure 2 sKoZs female immiJration patterns Jrouped b\ province
 from tKe
reported data collected in .eveon
a .oupuana MaJavaira and Pi
nu. TKe sections of
tKe pie cKart represent tKe number of Zomen from a particular p
rovince as a
proportion of tKe total number of Zomen reported to Kave moved
to tKe four
Other groups
from Central
Province (18)
Gulf (13)
Milne Bay (10)
Oro (4)
Sepik (3)
Highlands (2)
Western (2)
Manus (1)
Madang (1)
Female immigration grouped by province from data collected in
Keveona, Koupuana, Magavaira,and Pinu
Women from
other areas in
Central Province
are composed as
Motu 5
Lala 4
Koiari 2
Keapara 2
Waima 2
Toura 2
Rigo 1
All tKe Zomen ZKo Kad moved into tKe Abadi area Zere reported t
o Kave done
so for tKe purpose of marriaJe. In Jeneral it Zas reported tKa
t Zomen ZKo marr\ in
learn to speaN some Abadi but feZ speaN it fluentl\ and most u
se ToN Pisin or
for tKeir dail\ interactions ZitKin tKe villaJe. TKere Zere so
me Zomen from
Toura Lala and Waima neiJKbourinJ and related lanJuaJes) ZKo
Zere reported to
speaN Abadi fluentl\. TKere Zere also some Zomen from tKe +iJKl
ands ZKo Kave
lived in tKe area for over tZent\ \ears ZKo Zere reported to sp
eaN fluent Abadi. In
.eveona .oupuana and Pinu cKildren of mi[ed marriaJes ZKere
tKe motKer Zas
from anotKer lanJuaJe Jroup Zere virtuall\ all reported to spe
aN Abadi plus ToN
Pisin and/or Motu and in some cases tKeir motKer’s lanJuaJe t
oo. +oZever in
MaJavaira it Zas reported tKat
tKe cKildren of mi[ed marriaJes
primaril\ spoNe
ToN Pisin some Zere reported to speaN onl\ ToN Pisin.
TKe main emiJration trend in tKe Abadi area is for men to move
to Port Moresb\
to find ZorN taNinJ tKeir families ZitK tKem. BetZeen ten and
fift\ men and tKeir
families from eacK Abadi villaJe
Zere reported to Kave moved to
Port Moresb\.

BotK references to Motu in tKis paraJrapK could refer to eitKe
r Motu or +iri Motu tKis Zas not confirmed b\
Man\ of tKem return to tKe villaJes on ZeeNends and Kolida\ tim
es to visit tKeir
relatives tKese men use Abadi to communicate ZKen tKe\ come ba
cN. +oZever
ZKile residents in .oupuana and .eveona reported tKat tKe cKild
ren of tKese men
speaN botK Abadi and ToN Pisin respondents in Pinu and MaJavai
ra reported tKat
in Jeneral tKeir cKildr
en spoNe onl\ ToN Pisin.
TKere is no Abadi settlement or area in Port Moresb\ ratKer t
Ke Abadi speaNers
live in separate Komes in various parts of tKe capital.
A feZ men from tKe Abadi area appro[imatel\ tZent\ from tKe fo
ur villaJes
visited) Zere reported to Kave emiJrated to .ainantu GoroNa E
astern +iJKlands)
Mount +aJen Western +iJKlands)
Alotau Milne Ba\) WeZaN Eas
t SepiN) and
Lae Morobe) tKe\ onl\ return for Kolida\s. TKe adults Zere re
ported to speaN
Abadi on tKeir return but tKeir
cKildren Zere reported to spea
Emigration due to marriage
TKere is a limited amount of intermarriaJe ZitK neiJKbourinJ la
nJuaJe Jroups
in Central Province tKis contributes to a small amount of emiJ
ration of Zomen.
Appro[imatel\ five Zomen from eacK Abadi villaJe Ze visited Kav
e emiJrated to
tKe surroundinJ lanJuaJe Jroups in Lala Waima Motu Toura an
d MeNeo. WKen
tKese people return to visit tKeir relatives in tKe Abadi area
ZKicK varies from
occasional to frequent visits) tKe\ communicate in Abadi. TKe
maMorit\ of tKe
cKildren of tKese emiJrants are
reported to speaN tKe lanJuaJe
of tKe area emiJrated
to or ToN Pisin and/or Motu. Onl\ a feZ of tKe cKildren of emi
Jrants to Lala
Waima and Motu areas Zere reported to speaN Abadi Zell.
Several Zomen appro[imatel\ fifteen in total from tKe four vil
laJes visited)
Zere said to Kave married and moved to MadanJ Morobe and West
ern Province.
WKile tKe Zomen Zere said to sti
ll use Abadi on returninJ occas
ionall\ to visit tKe
villaJe tKeir cKildren Zere reported to use Abadi and ToN Pisi
n for tKose in
Morobe) or onl\ ToN Pisin.
TKe maMorit\ of emiJrants from tKe Abadi area are men ZKo move
to ZorN in
Port Moresb\ most of tKem maNe reJular visits to tKeir Kome co
mmunities. About
Kalf of tKe cKildren of tKese emiJrants are able and ZillinJ to
speaN Abadi on
returninJ to tKe villaJe tKe otKers use ToN Pisin.
Men and Zomen ZKo leave tKe area to live in areas otKer tKan Po
rt Moresb\
botK in Central Province and in otKer provinces return less fr
equentl\ to tKe area
tKan tKose ZKo move to tKe capital. WKile tKese emiJrants conti
nue to use tKe
Abadi lanJuaJe ZKen tKe\ return tKe vast maMorit\ of cKildren
of tKese emiJrants
Marriage patterns
TKe vast maMorit\ of Abadi speaN
ers marr\ ZitKin tKe Abadi area
. In Jeneral
Abadi Zomen move to live in tKe man’s villaJe. +oZever a small
number of men in
eacK villaJe Ze visited Zere found to Kave moved to tKeir Zife’
s villaJe includinJ
men from outside tKe Abadi area. See tKe precedinJ section on i
emiJration for details on popula
tion movement due to marriaJe a
nd lanJuaJe use in
Contact with other languages
rs patterns and lanJuaJe use
Traditional trade
What they trade
Bananas, yams, and arm
shells /clay pots and fish
No longer trading
Salt/string bags, bird of
paradise feathers
No longer trading
Kerema Arm shells/sago No longer trading
Lala (with Koupuana
Bananas, yam, wallabies Each use own language
Bananas and other food,
Probabl\ +iri Motu.
Table . Reported contact ZitK ou
Personnel Purpose
Executives Meetings Yes
No, unless
Tok Pisin (if Highlands),
Motu and English (if
Central Province), Abadi
(if Toura or Lala)
Department of
No English, Tok Pisin, Motu
Learned a
CRC Pastors Zere reported to use EnJlisK ratKer tKan Motu.
No data available.
Students from tKe SoutKern Cro
ss Universit\ Australia sta\ed
for several ZeeNs.
Abadi residents did not report frequent visits from outsiders
tKose ZKo do visit
or EnJlisK.

Could be eitKer Motu or +iri Motu.
Material evidence
TKe maMorit\ of information on ma
terial evidence Zas JatKered t
observations durinJ tKe time tKe surve\ team Zas in tKe Abadi a
rea. Some direct
questions Zere asNed of a Jroup for e[ample KoZ man\ Kouses K
ad electricit\ and
ZKo made tKe traditional obMects seen in tKe villaJe.
Evidence of traditional influences
TKe Abadi live in larJe famil\ Komes constructed si[ to ten fee
t off tKe Jround
on larJe Zooden posts ZitK detacKable Zooden ladders. Most Kome
s Kave a veranda
outside tKe front of tKe Kouse ZitK roofs made from saJo-palm
leaves and no Zalls.
Most Komes Kave several rooms leadinJ off tKe veranda. Man\ Kom
es also Kave a
bamboo platform underneatK tKe Kouse e[tendinJ across part or
tKe entire
underside of tKe Kouse providinJ a place for people to sit in
tKe sKade of tKe Kouse.
CooNinJ ma\ be done outside in a separate cooNinJ area small s
Kelter ZKicK ma\
be built from traditional materia
ls saJo-palm roofinJ Zooden
sides or no sides at
all) or in a small area or room to tKe side of tKe veranda.
In addition to tKe platforms underneatK tKe Kouses all tKe Aba
di villaJes visited
Kad freestandinJ platforms ZKicK act as meetinJ places.
EacK cKief Kas Kis oZn platform. TKese platforms are
made ZitK bamboo floorinJ 3 to 4 feet off tKe Jround
usuall\ ZitK a saJo-palm roof. TKe saJo palm ma\ be
A feZ traditional items tKat Zere observed in Abadi
villaJes include Keaddresses arm sKells brooms a sticN
for sKellinJ coconuts and strinJ baJs.
It Zas reported tKat some of tKe \ounJ Jirls Zere learninJ to m
aNe strinJ baJs.
TKe old men NnoZ KoZ to maNe a t\pe of traditional drum called
in ToN
Pisin. It Zas reported tKat a tKirt\ \ear-old man in .oeana Kad
made a Nundu drum
last \ear a li]ard sNin Zas sKoZn ZKicK Zas beinJ dried to ma
Ne tKe top of a
drum). +oZever in Pinu and .eveona it Zas reported tKat tKe c
Kildren do not
NnoZ KoZ to maNe Nundu drums. It Zas reported tKat some cKildre
n ZKo are
interested in
traditional dances and sonJs) NnoZ KoZ to maNe traditional
Evidence of outside influences
TKe maMorit\ of Komes in tKe Abadi area are built from
manufactured materials see accompan\inJ pKoto). TKe vast
maMorit\ of Kouses Kave cor
ruJated-iron roofinJ. Man\
Kouses Kave Zalls of man-made materials tKouJK some Kad
Zalls made from busK materials sucK as bamboo. Man\
ZindoZs Kave fl\Zire over tKem and some Kave Jlass-
louvre ZindoZs. It is common fo
r tKe sleepinJ area of tKe
raditional Chiefs Platform
Kouse to be made from manufactur
ed materials ZKile tKe cooNinJ
area ma\ be
are more traditional.
For cooNinJ man\ Abadi people use a metal Jrill over tKe fire
ZKicK ma\ be
raised off tKe Jround. Several Kouses in Pinu Kad metal steps
ratKer tKan a
detacKable Zooden ladder. Man\ of
tKe cKief’s platforms Kave co
TKe cKurcKes and pastors’ Komes
are made from permanent materia
ls. TKe cKurcKes
ma\ Kave masonite Zalls or corr
uJated-iron Zalls ZitK corruJate
d-iron roofinJ. TKe
cKurcK in MaJavaira is totall\ e
nclosed and built up on posts
liNe tKe Komes. TKe
cKurcK in .eveona KoZever Kas
corruJated-iron Zalls tKat e[te
nd Kalf Za\ up tKe
sides so tKat tKere Zas an open
Zall and tKe roof.
OtKer outside Joods observed in
tKe Abadi area include: n\lon f
isKinJ nets
televisions Jenerators solar panels Jas pressure lamps Zate
r tanNs plastic containers
bic\cles metal pots Nettles pl
ates cups and c
utler\ linole
um and football boots.
Man\ of tKe Komes in tKe Abadi area Kad electricit\ from Jenera
tors or solar
panels. In .oupuana fourteen Kom
es nearl\ Kalf) Kave electric
it\ provided b\ four
In MaJavaira tKe people Kave a solar-poZered Jenerator to draZ
Zater from a
Zell provided b\ AusAID.
People in tKe Abadi area Zear Zestern-st\le clotKinJ t-sKirts
sKirts trousers
sKorts sNirts dresses caps flip-flops and sKoes). All tKe
cKildren Zear clotKes
e[cept tKe ver\ \ounJest. TKe elementar\ scKool in MaJavaira Ka
s a uniform of
ZKite sKirt and broZn sNirt or sKorts. It Zas observed tKat man
\ of tKe cKildren
adKered to tKis dress code.
Information on social practices Zas JatKered ZitK tKe use of in
tervieZs Juided b\ tKe
Culture and Societ\ questionnair
e developed b\ tKe SociolinJuis
tics Section of SIL-PNG. In
most cases tKe maMorit\ of respondents for tKe ¶Culture and So
ciet\’ questionnaire Zere
men or at least tKe men dominated ZKen JivinJ ansZers. TKe tea
m souJKt to Jain
information from Zomen on a more informal basis ZKile ZalNinJ
around tKe villaJes or
sittinJ to eat.
Traditional practice
Land in tKe Abadi area is ultimatel\ oZned b\ tKe cKief of eacK
clan. WitKin
eacK clan tKis land is sKared amonJ tKe men ZKo pass tKe land
on from fatKer to
eldest son tKe son Zill tKen sKare tKe land ZitK Kis brotKers.
If a man does not Kave
an\ sons Ke ma\ pass Kis land on to a dauJKter.
Rites of passage
WKen a cKild is born it is immediatel\ named. Often a cKild Zi
ll be named after
a relative ZitK tKe firstborn beinJ named after a relative on
tKe fatKer’s side of tKe
famil\ and tKe secondborn named after a relative on tKe motKer
’s. A cKild ma\ be

Australian AJenc\ for International Development ZKicK sponsor
s various proMects in PNG.
presented to tKe communit\ tKrouJK baptism at tKe cKurcK as re
ported in Pinu)
ZKen tKe\ Zill also receive a CKristian name. WKen tKe\ are old
er tKe cKild ma\
also taNe an EnJlisK name. In .eveona it Zas reported tKat ZK
en a cKild is one
\ear old a feast ma\ be Keld. +oZever in .oupuana it Zas rep
orted tKat tKere is
TKe motKer of a neZborn bab\ is required to eat onl\ bananas an
d coconut and
drinN onl\ Zater for tZo ZeeNs after tKe birtK.
Rites of passaJe for bo\s to become men and Jirls to become Zo
men are no
lonJer Keld. eeNs and Zould
tKen Kave tKeir noses pierced an
d be initiated. +oZever tKe cu
stom died out over
fort\ \ears aJo. Onl\ tKose presentl\ over si[t\ \ears of aJe o
ld Zere reported to
Kave taNen part in sucK ceremonies ZKen tKe\ Zere \ounJ.
Traditionall\ to arranJe a marriaJe a man Kad to be over 25 \
ears of aJe and
tKe Jirl over 20. If a man Zanted to marr\ Ke Zould Jo to Kis
parents ZKo Zould
tKen Jo to tKe Jirl’s parents and if tKe\ aJreed a bride pric
e Zould be settled on
before tKe marriaJe could taNe place.
NoZada\s \ounJ people Jet married a lot \ounJer betZeen 15 an
d 20 \ears of
aJe for a bo\ and 13 and 1 \ears of aJe for a Jirl. A man is
not alZa\s required to
pa\ a bride price but in most cases tKe parents of tKe Jirl Z
ill request it. Current
bride prices ranJe betZeen 4000 and 14000 Nina but are Jener
all\ around 4000
to 5000 Nina. A man Zill Jo to Kis famil\ and asN tKem to Kelp
Kim collect enouJK
mone\ for tKe bride price part ma\ be required initiall\ and
tKen more after tKe
first cKild is born. Alternativel\ no bride price ma\ be paid
until tKe Zoman Kas
Kad several cKildren. In addition
to mone\ otKer Jifts include
d in tKe bride price
ma\ be arm-sKell bracelets piJs flour and rice. TKe bride pr
ice Zill tend to be
KiJKer if tKe Jirl is more respe
ctful and Zill ZorN Zell for Ke
r in-laZs or if tKe man
is NnoZn to Kave a Jood income.
Bride price is rarel\ affected b\ tKe Jirl’s level of
(traditional dancing)
Feasts are Keld in tKe Abadi area for funerals initiation of n
eZ cKiefs Karvest
times and piJ e[cKanJes. TKe onl\ feast tKat Zas reported as b
einJ Keld in all four
villaJes visited Zas tKe funeral or Keadstone feast. TKis is K
eld tZo to tKree montKs
after a deatK at tKat time a Keadstone Zill be placed on tKe
Jrave. TKe famil\ of tKe
deceased Zill cooN a larJe meal of piJs and cassoZar\ and tKere
ma\ be a
All tKe villaJes visited reported KavinJ Kad a
ZitKin tKe last \ear ZitK
tKe e[ception of MaJavaira ZKere tKe last
Zas said to occur 2 or 3 \ears
aJo. TKe
tKat did taNe place Zere performed in tKe Abadi or old Abadi
lanJuaJe. In MaJavaira it Zas reported tKat tKe
are d\inJ out and are
mostl\ dancinJ ratKer tKan accompanied b\ an\ Zords. In Pinu
it Zas reported
tKat it is mainl\ tKe cKildren ZKo perform tKe
on special occasions. TKe
Zas reportedl\ to brinJ people toJetKer and to entertain.

An elderl\ man a
Zed tKe surve\ team tK
e Kole pierced tKrouJK tKeir noses.
In .oupuana tKe KiJKest bride
price reported Zas for a PMV oZ
ner ZKo Zas required to pa\ 000 Nina.
TKe man\ e[amples of CKristian and EnJlisK names liNe Rose and
-acN) are
evidence of outside practises.
TKe Abadi people participate in a casK econom\ casK is mainl\
tKrouJK tKe sale of Jarden produce and fisK at local marNets an
d in Port Moresb\.
TKe casK is used to purcKase Zestern Joods in tKe capital and f
ood items from local
trade stores. One couple in Pinu said tKat ZKen tKe\ Zent into
Port Moresb\ for
marNet onl\ after tKe\ Kad accu
mulated 200 Nina Zould tKe\ sp
end an\ e[tra on a
meal in a restaurant.
In Pinu one Kouse tKat Kad a TV cKarJed entrance fees and sK
oZed films and
TKe people in tKe Abadi area are Keavil\ e[posed to outside inf
luence due to
tKeir pro[imit\ and ease of acce
ss to Port Moresb\ and relative
l\ KiJK disposable
income. TKis Kas led to an influ[ of Zestern Joods into tKe vil
laJe. People are less
liNel\ to maNe traditional items and more liNel\ to bu\ modern
items from toZn.
Some traditions sucK as initiat
ion rites and traditional arra
nJed) marriaJes are no
lonJer practiced otKers sucK as
are practiced infrequentl\. +oZever tKe
Abadi still maintain a sense of communit\ and belonJinJ and are
traditions sucK as bride price.
Table 10. Consonantal pKones in tKe Abadi lanJuaJe
Pulmonic Bilabial
AlveolarPalatalVelar Glottal
t d
m n

β v s
Lat. approx.

It appears tKat >β] and >v] are in free variation c.f. Jloss n
umber ). TKere also
seems to be free variation betZeen aspirated and unaspirated vo
iceless stops >N] ~
] c.f. Jloss number 64 65) and >p] ~ >p
] c.f. Jloss 107 123 14).
Table 11. Vocalic pKones in Abadi
Front Central BacN
i u
e o

Note tKat >ɑ] is pronounced toZa
rds tKe center ratKer tKan tKe
bacN of tKe
] and it Zould appear to be in free
variation ZitK >e]. TKe scKZa >
] appears to occur in place of >ɑ] betZeen tZo
consonants as part of a d
ipKtKonJ or Zord finall\.
Word order
From tKe tZent\ sentences elicited in tKe Zordlists it Zould a
ppear tKat tKe
Zord order of Abadi is SOV subMect obMect verb).
e.J. from .oupuana Naune burena veJane
man \am eat
¶TKe man eats tKe \am.’
AccordinJ to tKe self-reportinJ of tKe villaJes visited tKe Ab
adi-speaNinJ villaJes
are tKe folloZinJ: .oupuana includes .oeana) .eveona include
s Maobadina)
UNauNana includes Mava) MaJava
ira and Pinu. It Zas also repo
rted tKat Abadi
Zas spoNen in Toutu KoZever tK
outu speaNers mi[ed
TKe respondents in .oupuana and .eveona Jrouped tKemselves as s
peaNinJ tKe
same as eacK otKer tKose in .ev
eona also included UNauNana in
tKeir Jroup. TKese
same respondents considered tKe
speecK of MaJavaira to be sliJK
tl\ different sa\inJ
tKe people tKere spoNe sloZl\ ZKile botK villaJes aJreed tKat
tKose in Pinu spoNe
na residents said tKere Zere so
me le[ical differences
betZeen tKeir speecK and tKat of Pinu e.J. ¶biJ’
.oupuana) and
Pinu). +oZever ZKen elicitinJ tKe Zordlists it Zas stated tK
at in MaJavaira tKe
means KuJe ZKereas tKe Zord
means ¶biJ’.
SpeaNers in MaJavaira reported tKe same dialect JroupinJ as in
tKe previous
paraJrapK perceivinJ tKe speecK of .oupuana and .eveona ZKicK
tKe\ Jrouped
toJetKer) to be sliJKtl\ different from tKeir oZn mainl\ in te
rms of a feZ le[ical
items. An e[ample Jiven Zas tKe Zord ¶deep’ ZKicK is
in MaJavaira but
in .oupuana and .eveona. TKe speaNers in MaJavaira also aJreed
tKat tKe
speecK in Pinu is faster.
Residents in Pinu said tKat tKe\ Kad several le[ical items diff
erent from tKose in
.oupuana .eveona and MaJavaira ZKo tKe\ reported as speaNinJ
different from tKemselves.
None of tKe speaNers Kad an\ different names for tKe various re
ported varieties
of tKeir lanJuaJe. All adults reported tKat tKe\ Zere able to u
nderstand tKe otKer
varieties ZitKout an\ Kindrance. In .oupuana it Zas reported t
Kat even cKildren
Kave no problem understandinJ tKe speecK of tKose from MaJavair
a and Pinu.
+oZever in MaJavaira it Zas stated tKat sometimes little cKil
dren find tKe otKer
varieties Kard to understand. In
Pinu it Zas reported tKat ZK
ile most cKildren can
understand tKe otKer varieties ZitKout an\ problem tKe cKildre
n often speaN ToN
Pisin ZitK cKildren from otKer Abadi villaJes.
TKe apostropKe is an accepted c
onvention in tKe area for repre
sentinJ >ʔ].
from Pinu to UNauNana. TKe residents of .oupuana aJreed tKat a
fter tKemselves
Pinu Zas relativel\ important since it Kad been tKe location o
f tKe initial mission
station in tKe area. TKe residents of MaJavaira and .eveona Kad
a lonJ discussion
about tKis issue ZitKout reacKi
nJ an\ conclusion. It Zas repor
ted in .eveona
KoZever tKat tKe speecK of tKe villaJes alonJ tKe river Zas tK
e standard for tKe
Abadi lanJuaJe i.e. .oupuana .eveona UNauNana and associate
d secondar\
villaJes). TKe residents of .oupuana insisted tKat tKeir variet
\ Zas indeed tKe most
prestiJious tKat tKe\ spoNe ¶correctl\’.
BotK tKe EnJlisK/ToN Pisin version and tKe EnJlisK/+iri Motu v
ersion Zere available fo
r reference durinJ
Zordlist elicitation.
Table 12 is a percentaJe matri[ of similar forms from tKe total
number of
compared Zords betZeen tKe Abadi
 Lala and Toura lanJuaJes co
unted b\
Since all tKe Abadi Toura and Lala Zordlists Jave 100 percen
t le[ical
similarit\ for all tKe Zordlists elicited ZitKin eacK lanJuaJe
area overall
percentaJes Kave been compared ratKer tKan sKoZinJ comparisons
individual villaJes). Table 13 is a variance matri[ ZKicK sKoZs
percentaJes of error
for Table 12 based on tKe reliabilit\ code
tKe total number of forms compared
and tKe similarit\ percentaJes WimbisK 1:5–60.).
Table 12. Le[ical similarit\ matri[
Table 13. Variance matri[
A computer proJram desiJned to anal\]e Zordlists.
TKe reliabilit\ code is entered in tKe cataloJue for eacK Zord
list in WordSurv indicatinJ tKe reliabilit\ of tKe
data on a scale of A to E. TKe code Jiven to tKe Abadi Lala
and Toura Zordlists is C
meaninJ tKe elicitation
situation Zas tKe averaJe surve\ situation ZitK Jood bilinJual
informants and adequate opportunities to
double cKecN.
Childrens language use
As reported
It Zas reported tKat in all four Abadi villaJes Ze visited tK
e cKildren use Abadi
ZKen speaNinJ to tKeir Jrandparents parents siblinJs and pla
In addition to tKe use of Abadi it Zas reported tKat in all t
Ke villaJes Ze
visited tKe cKildren sometimes use ToN Pisin and EnJlisK ZitK
tKeir siblinJs. It Zas
also reported in MaJavaira tKat tKe cKildren occasionall\ spe
aN ToN Pisin to tKeir
Jrandparents. In .oupuana it Zas reported tKat a feZ cKildren
speaN ToN Pisin to
tKeir parents.
Some use of ToN Pisin Zas also reported for cKildren’s pla\ in
all of tKe villaJes
visited. TKe cKildren in MaJavaira said tKat tKe\ mainl\ use To
N Pisin ZKen
pla\inJ but also reported usinJ some +iri Motu. In Pinu it Za
s stated tKat bo\s
mainl\ speaN particularl\ ToN Pi
sin ZKile tKe\ pla\. CKildren i
n .eveona Zere
reported to speaN a lot in ToN Pisin and EnJlisK ZKile tKe\ pla
CKildren in tKe Abadi area Zere said to sinJ in Abadi Motu En
JlisK and ToN
In all tKe villaJes Ze visited it Zas stated tKat Abadi Zas tK
e first lanJuaJe tKat
cKildren learn. In .oupuana Pinu and MaJavaira it Zas Jeneral
l\ aJreed tKat tKe
cKildren spoNe Jood Abadi b\ tKe time tKe\ Zent to scKool. In .
eveona it Zas
tKouJKt KoZever tKat tKe cKildren did not speaN Jood Abadi b\
tKe time tKe\
beJan scKool.
WitK reJard to mi[inJ lanJuaJes tKe cKildren in MaJavaira Zere
reported to
sometimes mi[ some ToN Pisin ZitK tKeir Abadi. Some mi[inJ of T
oN Pisin and +iri
Motu ZitK Abadi Zas also reported in .eveona.
TKe surve\ team observed tKat cK
ildren Zere speaNinJ Abadi most
of tKe time
ZitK tKeir parents Jrandparents and peers. In .oupuana some
bo\s Zere speaNinJ
Abadi ZKile pla\inJ ruJb\. DurinJ recess from tKe scKool in MaJ
avaira tKe
elementar\ students Zere speaNinJ Abadi to eacK otKer. TKe cKil
dren at a Sunda\
scKool sinJinJ practice in Pinu Zere speaNinJ in Abadi to eacK
otKer as Zere some
WKile use of ToN Pisin Zas observed in all tKe Abadi villaJes v
isited its use
amonJ cKildren seemed stronJest in MaJavaira. In tKis villaJe
tKe cKildren
responded ver\ entKusiasticall\ ZKen asNed if tKe\ spoNe ToN Pi
sin and seemed
more conversant in it tKan tKe cKildren in an\ otKer villaJes v
isited in tKe Abadi
area. +oZever even tKese cKildr
en Zere also Keard speaNinJ Aba
di to eacK otKer as

TKere Zas no otKer lanJuaJe tKat tKe\ Zere reported to speaN b
etter tKouJK so it ma\ Zell Kave been tKat
tKe parents Zere simpl\ comparinJ tKeir oZn linJuistic abilitie
s to tKat of a cKild.
TKe use of EnJlisK Zas more Zidespread amonJ cKildren in Pinu
in tKis villaJe
Jirls Zere observed sNippinJ rope to an EnJlisK cKant and otKe
r cKildren Zere
Keard sinJinJ ´London BridJe is fallinJ doZn.µ A little bo\ Za
s Keard \ellinJ at Kis
fatKer in EnJlisK ZKo Zas \ellinJ bacN in EnJlisK too. CKildre
n in Pinu Zere Keard
scoldinJ eacK otKer and speaNinJ to tKe pastor in EnJlisK. TKe
Sunda\ scKool
teacKer conductinJ tKe sinJinJ/marcKinJ practice Jave certain c
ommands in EnJlisK
ForZard marcK At ease MarN time)
and all tKe cKildren r
TKe team did not Kear an\ cKildren speaNinJ +iri Motu but did K
ear cKildren
sinJinJ some +iri Motu sonJs in .eveona and in Pinu. TKe pastor
’s Zife in
.oupuana a Motu speaNer report
ed tKat tKe vast maMorit\ of cK
ildren do not
understand Motu Ker Kusband called out to some bo\s in Motu an
d tKe\ ansZered
in Abadi sKoZinJ tKat tKe\ at least understand some Motu.
NotKinJ Zas observed to contradict tKe reports tKat all cKildre
n are learninJ tKe
Abadi lanJuaJe and speaN Abadi in more domains more frequentl\
tKan ToN Pisin
EnJlisK or Motu. TKe Jreatest amount of EnJlisK use Zas observ
ed in Pinu but
even tKere tKis EnJlisK use Zas restricted to scoldinJ arJuin
J and situations ZKere
tKe domain or tKe people involved Zould necessitate tKe use of
a lanJuaJe otKer
tKan tKe vernacular.
As reported
Tables 14 and 15 sKoZ reported lanJuaJe use for men and Zomen r
in four villaJes: .eveona .oupuana MaJavaira and Pinu. TKe n
umbers in tKe
cKarts are tKe number of villaJes out of tKe previousl\ mentio
ned four) tKat
indicate a specific aJe Jroup uses a lanJuaJe to talN to certai
n people. TKe numbers
are not e[clusive i.e. one villaJe could report use of more tK
an one lanJuaJe in an\
Jiven conte[t. For e[ample tKree of tKe villaJes reported tKat
\ounJ men use ToN
Pisin ZKen speaNinJ to tKeir brotKers and sisters. TKe aJe Jrou
ps are abbreviated as
\m = \ounJ men unmarried \
Z =\ounJ Zomen unmarried
mm = married men cKildren at Ko
me mZ =married Zomen cKildren
at Kome
om = old men oZ =old Zomen
Abilit\ to speaN a lanJuaJe reported as ¶a bit’ ¶feZ’ ¶a litt
le’ or ¶some’ is
indicated b\ a star after tKe number e.J. 3 means tKat abilit
\ to speaN tKe
lanJuaJe Zas reported in tKree villaJes one of ZKicK reported
abilit\ as ¶a bit’
Table 14. Men’s lanJuaJe use b\ number of villaJes
In tZo villaJes Pinu and .oupuana tKis Zas recorded as +iri
Motu. In tKe otKer tZo villaJes visited it Zas
noted as Motu but since most reports Zere of use of Motu for t
radinJ it is possible tKat tKese reports Zere also
of +iri Motu.
TKis number 3 includes tKe villaJe of .eveona ZKere use of ToN
Pisin b\ \ounJ men to tKeir siblinJs Zas onl\
reported as ¶sometimes’.
TKis number 1 includes tKe vill
aJe of .oupuana ZKere use of E
nJlisK b\ \ounJ men Zas reported for MoNinJ onl\.
In Pinu tKis Zas qualified Zit
K tKe statement tKat appro[imat
el\ 50 percent of tKe time married men spoNe to
tKeir cKildren in ToN Pisin.
Table 15. Women’s lanJuaJe use b\ number of villaJes
In tZo villaJes Pinu and .oupuana tKis Zas recorded as +iri
Motu. In tKe otKer tZo villaJes visited it Zas noted as
Motu but since most reports Zer
e of use of Motu for tradinJ i
t is possible tKat tKese reports Zere also of +iri Motu.
In Pinu and MaJavaira tKe lanJu
aJe-use questions Zere not asN
ed of tKe \ounJ Jirls so tKe results in tKis and
consequent columns for
\ounJ Zomen are onl\
In .eveona it Zas reported tKat onl\ Zomen married to men fro
m otKer areas Zould use ToN Pisin to tKeir
Kusbands KoZever in Pinu it Zas reported tKat even Zomen mar
ried to Abadi men occasi
onall\ used ToN Pisin
Use of EnJlisK b\ botK married Zomen and older Zomen to scold
tKeir cKildren/JrandcKildren Zas reported to
be restricted to tKe use of tKe Zord ¶stupid.’
As previousl\ noted or alternativel\ ¶idiot.’
Abadi Tok Pisin English
your parents 4 4
0 0
0 0
0 0
your brothers & sisters 4 4 4
4 4
1 0
1 0
1 0
teach your (grand) kids
4 4

1 1
2 1
scold your (grand) kids
4 4
1 0
2 0
0 0
4 4
2 0
2 0
0 0
Your parents to your kids
Your parents to you 4 4
0 0
0 0
0 0
Abadi Tok Pisin English

your parents 2 4
1 0
1 1
1 0
your brothers & sisters 2 4 4 2* 1 0 1* 1 1 0 0 0
your husband
4 4

1 1
0 0
teach your (grand) kids
4 4
3 0
2 1
0 0
scold your (grand) kids
4 4
1 0
0 0
Your husband to your kids
4 4

1 0
1 1
Your parents to your kids
Your parents to you 2 4
1* 0
1* 0
0 0
In tKe precedinJ tables Abadi is presented as tKe most Zidel\-
used lanJuaJe
across all aJe and Jender Jroups. TKe KiJKest use of ToN Pisin
Zas reported b\ tKe
folloZinJ: married men and Zomen ZKen teacKinJ tKeir cKildren
and \ounJ men
ZKen speaNinJ to tKeir siblinJs. If Abadi speaNers Zere underJo
inJ a sKift to ToN
Pisin or to EnJlisK as tKeir primar\ lanJuaJe one miJKt e[pect
to see more villaJes
reportinJ ToN Pisin/EnJlisK use and a decrease from old aJe mi
ddle aJe to \ounJ
in tKe number of villaJes reportinJ Abadi use. +oZever all vil
laJes reported Abadi
use in all famil\ interactions NB questions to \ounJ Zomen Zer
e omitted in tZo
villaJes tKus tKe results Jiv
en still represent 100 percent p
ositive response to Abadi
use in tKe villaJes in ZKicK tKese questions Zere asNed of \oun
J Zomen). Because
Abadi is still tKe main lanJuaJe
used in tKe Kome ZKatever tKe
aJe of tKe speaNers
involved and because parents are still teacKinJ Abadi to tKeir
cKildren tKe situation
seems to be tKat of stable bilinJualism ratKer tKan tKat of la
nJuaJe sKift tKe Abadi
Table 16 compiles tKe responses for tKe four Abadi villaJes rep
ortinJ lanJuaJe
use in certain domains. TKese questions Zere asNed of a Jroup a
nd tKe results as
sucK represent tKe Jroup consens
us. TKe fiJures represent tKe n
umber of villaJes
respondinJ positivel\ out of four visited).
Use of a lanJuaJe reported as ¶a bit’ ¶feZ’ ¶a little’ or ¶s
ome’ is indicated b\ a
star after tKe number e.J. 2 means tKat use of tKe lanJuaJe Z
as reported in tZo
villaJes one of ZKicK reported use as ¶a bit’ ¶some’ or ¶feZ
Table 16. LanJuaJe use b\ domain
What languages do you use
EnglishMotu Waima Lala
Arguing with family 4 1* 2* 0 0 0
Praying at home 4 2
0 0 0
Organizing wedding or funeral
4 0 0
Joking 4
2 4 0 0
Playing sports 4 2
2 0 0
Outsiders who know your language 4 1 0 0 0 0
Outsiders who dont know your
4 0 0
Do you go to town? 2 4 4 3 0 0
Speaking to people on the
way to town
3 3 1 2 0 0
Buying or selling at the
Transactions in
Buying something in a
0 4 4 0 0 0
In Pinu it Zas commented tKat cKildren ZKo Kave JroZn up tKere
do not NnoZ Zords relatinJ to God in
If tKe orJani]ation of tKe feast
involves tKe CKurcK tKen Motu
Reportedl\ in Pinu tKe use of T
oN Pisin EnJlisK and Motu for
MoNinJ is restricted to \ounJ people.
In .oupuana use of EnJlisK in sport Zas e[emplified b\ tKe sKo
utinJ of ¶Come on Maroons’ and perKaps is
restricted to sucK sloJans.
In all villaJes visite
Ke surve\ team comm
unicated in EnJlisK.
TKis question Zas not asNed in .oupuana.
In Table 16 all of tKe villaJes reported tKat Abadi is used in
ever\ domain ZKere
it is possible to communicate usinJ Abadi. TKere Zere tZo domai
ns tKat could Kave
been restricted to Abadi onl\ but Zere not: Pra\er ZKere EnJli
sK is used) and
MoNinJ ZKere Motu is used) KoZever botK of tKese cKoices of
lanJuaJe use Zere
said to pertain onl\ to \ounJ people or cKildren and neitKer ar
e indicators of
In situations ZKere tKere is con
tact ZitK non-Abadi speaNers t
Ke use of ToN
Pisin EnJlisK and Motu is prevalent. DependinJ on tKe situati
on participants
people reported selectinJ an\ of tKe tKree lanJuaJes. TKe\ repo
rted use of ToN Pisin
ZitK +iJKlanders use of Motu and EnJlisK ZitK otKer people fro
m Central Province
and use of EnJlisK ZitK foreiJners in Port Moresb\ sucK as tKe
CKinese trade-store
In all tKe Abadi villaJes visited tKe surve\ors observed a pre
ference for Abadi in
all domains ZKere it Zas possible to use tKe vernacular. Use of
Motu Zas Keard
ZKen tKe Abadi people Zere speaNinJ to tKe Motu-speaNinJ pastor
s. DurinJ tKe
meetinJ ZitK cKurcK leaders in MaJavaira tKe pastor translated
ZKat tKe surve\or
said in EnJlisK into Motu tKe people responded in Abadi and t
Ken tKe pastor
translated bacN into EnJlisK. WKen tKe pastor left a \ounJ mot
Ker tooN Kis place
SKe translated directl\ into Aba
di and all discussion amonJ rem
aininJ cKurcK
leaders Zas in Abadi. DurinJ Zordlist elicitation in eacK villa
Je discussion of tKe
most appropriate Zord for eacK Jloss Zas conducted in Abadi.
WKile Zomen Zere Keard speaNinJ Motu to tKe pastor’s Zife in .o
upuana not
ever\one could speaN Motu one lad\ needed an interpreter to t
ranslate into Motu)
in order to speaN to tKe pastor’s Zife. TKe \ounJ people appear
ed to be more fluent
in ToN Pisin tKan in Motu or EnJlisK ZitK tKe e[ception perKap
s of Pinu ZKere tKe
\ounJ people spoNe Jood EnJlisK.
In ever\ Abadi villaJe visited tKere Zere a siJnificant number
of people in tKeir
20s–40s ZKo could communicate fluentl\ in EnJlisK KoZever cla
rification of
questions asNed in EnJlisK b\ tKe surve\ team Zas often souJKt
in Abadi b\ older
people and discussion durinJ tKe questionnaires Zas carried ou
t in Abadi tKouJK
ansZers Zere Jiven in EnJlisK. A fatKer Zas Keard \ellinJ at Ki
s cKild in EnJlisK in
Pinu. TKe famil\ ZKo Kosted tKe surve\ team in Pinu Kad previou
sl\ lived in Port
Moresb\ and spoNe ver\ fluent EnJlisK tKe\ used EnJlisK to spe
aN to tKeir
JranddauJKter. +oZever even in
Pinu Abadi Zas Keard most of t
Ke time.
vaira ZKo onl\
spoNe Abadi.
In conclusion ZKile some members of tKe Abadi ma\ use some ToN
Pisin +iri
Motu and EnJlisK in domains ZKere it Zould be possible to sole
l\ use Abadi it Zas
noted tKat in Jeneral tKeir la
nJuaJe of cKoice in tKe vast ma
Morit\ of settinJs
ZitKin tKeir speecK communit\ Zas Abadi. ToN Pisin EnJlisK an
d +iri Motu are
mainl\ used as lanJuaJes of Zider communication for scoldinJ
or MoNinJ.
Table 17 sKoZs tKe reported level
of bilinJualism b\ Abadi spea
Ners. TKe
numbers in eacK cKart are tKe number of villaJes ZKere it Zas r
eported tKat an aJe
Jroup ¶Kears’ is pass
Table 17. Reported bilinJualism
EacK number is Jiven out of a total of 4 for tKe four villaJes
visited). Abilit\ to speaN a lanJuaJe
reported as ¶a bit’ ¶feZ’ ¶a little’ or ¶some’ is indicated
b\ an asterisN after tKe number. e.J. 3
means tKat abilit\ to speaN tKe lanJuaJe Zas reported in tKree
villaJes one of ZKicK reported abilit\
as ¶a bit’ ¶some’ or ¶feZ’).
4 4 4 4 4 4 4

4 4 2* 4 4 1 4*

4 4 2* 3 4 4*

4* 4* 4 2 3 2 2*

4 1*
2 3* 1
1* 2 1 1
1* 4 2
2* 1 1

One lad\ in .oupuana could spea
N Lala because Ker fatKer Zas f
rom Lala.
From tKe precedinJ cKart one can see tKat tKe \ounJer Jenerati
on of Abadi
speaNers report bilinJualism in
ToN Pisin and EnJlisK ZitK lim
ited NnoZledJe of
Motu. In contrast older men more commonl\ reported tKe abilit\
to speaN or at
least ¶Kear’ otKer local lanJuaJes sucK as Lala Toura and Wai
ma. +oZever amonJ
married \ounJ men and Zomen of all aJes tKese lanJuaJes are on
l\ NnoZn on an
individual basis.
At AJevairu station a man from Pinu claimed tKat all Abadi spe
aNers understand
Roro Waima). +oZever ZKen tKe .ims ZKo Zere accompan\inJ tKe
surve\ team
and Kave been ZorNinJ in tKe Waima area for 14 \ears attempted
to speaN to
people in Waima tKere Zere ver\ feZ ZKo understood particular
l\ amonJ tKe
\ounJ people. TKe team met a feZ older men ZKo spoNe Waima and
some Zomen
ZKo Kad married in from Waima. TKe teenaJe Jirls ZKo Kelped tKe
team carr\ tKeir
baJs across tKe river to .oupuana did not understand ZKen addre
ssed in Waima.
Abadi seems particularl\ stronJ ZitKin tKe confines of tKe Abad
communit\ in all domains. It is tKe first lanJuaJe tKat cKildre
n learn and speaN Zell
before beJinninJ to speaN ToN Pisin and EnJlisK ZKen tKe\ start
scKool. WKile
cKildren are reported to speaN Abadi ZitK famil\ members and pl
a\mates cKildren
in all villaJes are reported to use some ToN Pisin in pla\. Alt
KouJK some ToN Pisin
EnJlisK and Motu is used in villaJe life tKe maMorit\ of inte
ractions are carried out
in Abadi tKere are no Kome doma
ins ZKere Abadi is not tKe domi
nant lanJuaJe
used. WKile tKe older Jeneration are often able to speaN man\ o
f tKe surroundinJ
vernaculars as Zell as Motu tKe \ounJer Jeneration are more co
nversant in ToN
Pisin and EnJlisK and onl\ reported limited NnoZledJe of Motu a
nd tKe surroundinJ
vernaculars. WKen interactinJ ZitK outsiders Abadi speaNers pr
imaril\ use ToN
Pisin EnJlisK and Motu. TKere
is no lanJuaJe tKat tKe Abadi u
se or understand
As reported
Table 1 displa\s responses in tKe four Abadi villaJes visited
 to questions
revealinJ lanJuaJe attitudes. TK
e lanJuaJes Zere recorded in tK
e order Jiven b\
speaNers ZKicK could be an indication of preference).
Table 1. LanJuaJe attitudes
Keveona Koupuana Magavaira Pinu
What languages do you
want your children to
know well?
What languages do you
think they will use when
Tok Pisin Abadi
What languages will they
use to their children?
Will your language still be
used in 20-years time?
No No - Yes
WitK tKe e[ception of MaJavaira respondents in all villaJes be
lieve tKeir
cKildren Zill still speaN Abadi ZKen tKe\ JroZ up and Zill spea
N Abadi to tKeir
cKildren. In Pinu it Zas tKouJKt cKildren Zould onl\ use Abadi
 because tKe\ are
learninJ it ¶properl\’ in elementar\ scKool. In MaJavaira it Z
as tKouJKt tKatZKen
tKe current cKildren are adults tKe\ Zill speaN onl\ ToN Pisin
and EnJlisK. TKe use
of ToN Pisin and EnJlisK to tKe cKildren of tKe ne[t Jeneration
 in addition to Abadi
Zas also predicted in .oupuana and .eveona.
+oZever Kalf of tKe villaJes be
lieved tKeir lanJuaJe Zould not
be used in 20-
\ears time. TKe rationale for tKis tKinNinJ Zas tKat at presen
t tKe cKildren pla\ a lot
in EnJlisK and ToN Pisin so Zould primaril\ use tKese lanJuaJe
ZKen tKe\ JroZ up.
TKere Zas also a feelinJ tKat tKe\ are Zesterni]inJ tKe influe
nce from Port Moresb\
is increasinJ and in 20-\ears ti
me tKeir livinJ standards Zill
be liNe tKe cit\.
TKere Zas clearl\ a desire for cKildren to NnoZ EnJlisK Zell i
n fact in one Kalf
of tKe villaJes it Zas put before Abadi as tKe most important a
nd beneficial
lanJuaJe for tKem to NnoZ. +oZever no one seemed to believe tK
at tKeir cKildren
Zould onl\ NnoZ EnJlisK and teac
K onl\ EnJlisK to tKeir cKildre
n. TKere Zas a clear
preference on tKe part of tKe adults for EnJlisK over ToN Pisin
. In fact in Pinu
several parents said tKe\ didn’t liNe tKeir cKildren speaNinJ i
n ToN Pisin ZKicK tKe\
reJarded as ¶broNen EnJlisK.’ Grade 2 students in MaJavaira spo
Ne in EnJlisK ZitK
JlisK Zas tKeir favorite lanJua
TKe precedinJ information appears to be conflictinJ because tK
e question asNinJ
about ¶20-\ears time’ Zas perKaps sliJKtl\ misleadinJ in a cult
ure ZKere e[act time
references are uncommon. It Zould be fair to sa\ tKat tKe predi
ction of ¶20-\ears
time’ Zas tKe lonJ-term prediction for tKeir lanJuaJe ZKereas
ZKen asNed about
tKis Jeneration becominJ adults
tKis Zas considered tKe sKort-
term prediction so
tKe people did not predict tKe deatK of tKeir lanJuaJe in tKe l
ifetime of tKeir
cKildren but ma\be after tKat.
PerKaps one of tKe reasons for
tKis prediction is a
misunderstandinJ tKat borroZinJ Zords and usinJ anotKer lanJuaJ
e for MoNinJ and
scoldinJ are indicators tKat tKe
tKis is not necessaril\
In tKree out of four villaJes visited people responded to tKe
question ¶WKat
lanJuaJe Zould \ou liNe to read booNs in’ ZitK EnJlisK first.
TKis ma\ be due to tKe
fact tKat at present no booNs e[ist in Abadi so tKe question
Zas sliJKtl\ confusinJ
for people to imaJine a scenario ZKere tKe\ could read in Abadi
. +oZever in Pinu
Abadi Zas Jiven as tKe response and in .eveona Abadi Zas also
listed after EnJlisK
d tKat listeninJ to stories in
As inferred from behaviour
If lanJuaJe attitude supports lanJuaJe beKaviour and lanJuaJe b
substantiates lanJuaJe attitude tKen tKere seems to be at lea
st in practice a
relativel\-positive attitude toZard tKe Abadi lanJuaJe. OtKer t
Kan interactions ZitK
tKe surve\ team ZKile some use of EnJlisK and ToN Pisin Zas ob
served amonJ
cKildren in tKe Abadi villaJes visited tKe primar\ lanJuaJe ZK
icK Zas Keard tKe
maMorit\ of tKe time Zas Abadi. It is interestinJ to note tKat
ZKile Pinu Zas tKe
onl\ villaJe tKat predicted tKe sole use of Abadi b\ tKe curren
t Jeneration to tKeir
future cKildren tKe\ Zere tKe villaJe ZKere tKe Jreatest use o
f EnJlisK amonJ
cKildren Zas observed. +oZever even in Pinu Abadi appeared to
be tKe lanJuaJe
of cKoice for discussion and famil\ interaction.
A positive attitude toZard EnJlis
K Zas evident particularl\ in
relation to
education. +oZever tKe surve\ team Zondered ZKetKer tKe respon
se of EnJlisK
and seeminJ entKusiasm Zas in part sometimes fuelled b\ a des
ire to please tKe
EnJlisK-speaNinJ surve\ team.
If tKe Abadi people continue Zit
K tKeir current trends in lanJu
aJe use ZKile tKe
ne[t Jeneration ma\ be more fluent in EnJlisK tKan in Motu or o
tKer vernaculars it
seems unliNel\ tKat EnJlisK Zill replace Abadi. In addition tK
e actual economic
situation reported in all tKe Abadi villaJes visited is tKat
it is more lucrative to live
outside tKe capital and sell Jard
en produce in tKe cit\ marNets
tKan it is to taNe a
Mob and Kome in Port Moresb\. Be
cause livinJ and ZorNinJ in tKe
villaJes is tKe
preferred patK to economic success for tKe Abadi people tKere
is incentive to
continue speaNinJ Abadi tKe lanJuaJe most Zidel\ used in tKe v
illaJes. TKus tKe
linJuistic vitalit\ for Abadi.
TKe Abadi lanJuaJe is currentl\ vital KoZever indicators suJJ
est tKat tKis
vitalit\ ma\ decrease in cominJ \
ears. WKile Abadi is used e[te
nsivel\ in tKe
communit\ cKildren are increasin
Jl\ usinJ ToN Pisin especiall
\ in pla\ an area
indicative of potential lanJuaJe
sKift. Abadi speaNers Jenerall
\ Kave a positive
attitude about tKeir lanJuaJe but also indicated tKat tKe\ bel
ieve tKeir lanJuaJe
Because of tKe current vitalit\ of Abadi and communit\ leaders
interest in lanJuaJe development it appears tKat a lanJuaJe-de
velopment proJram
Zould be appropriate and viable in tKe Abadi area. +iJK levels
of education
material resources available in tKe Abadi area and tKe interes
t on tKe part of tKe
local cKurcK means tKat tKe Abadi people Zould be able to contr
ibute to a lanJuaJe-
development proJram in tKeir area.
If an outsider ZisKed to live in an Abadi villaJe for tKe purpo
se of lanJuaJe
learninJ .eveona Zould be tKe most ideal because: 1) EnJlisK
and ToN Pisin are
used less frequentl\ tKere tKan in MaJavaira and Pinu addition
all\ 2) tKe river
near .eveona provides an e[cellent source of Zater ZKicK contr
ibutes to better
livinJ conditions.
A.1 Materials published in or about the language
Currentl\ tKere are no publisKed
materials available in tKe Ab
adi lanJuaJe
some old men in Pinu remembered tKat a lonJ time aJo tKere Zas
an Abadi primer.
Materials Zritten about or mention
inJ tKe Abadi lanJuaJe are as
BluKme +ermann. 170. ´TKe pKoneme s\stem and its distribution
in Roro.µ In
Wurm and La\cocN eds. Pacific LinJuistic Studies in +onour of
Capell. Series C-13. 67–77. Ca
Capell A. 143. TKe linJuistic position of SoutK-Eastern Papua
. S\dne\: Australian
Capell A. 162. A linJuistic surve\ of tKe SoutK-Western Pacif
ic. Nouméa: SoutK
Dutton T. E. 173. A cKecNlist of lanJuaJes and present-da\ vi
llaJes of Central and
SoutK-East Mainland Papua. Series B-24. Canberra: Pacific LinJu
Dutton T. E. ´Austronesian lanJuaJes: Eastern part of SoutK-Ea
stern Mainland
Papua.µ In Wurm S. A. ed. 176. NeZ Guinea area lanJuaJes and
stud\ vol 2: Austonesian lanJuaJes. Series C-3. 321–333. Canb
erra: Pacific
Dutton T. E. ´MaJori and similar lanJuaJes of SoutK-East Papua
.µ In Wurm S. A.
ed. 176. NeZ Guinea area lanJuaJes and lanJuaJe stud\ vol 2:
lanJuaJes. Series C-3. 51–636.
Gabadi Primer. 150. Issued b\ autKorit\ of tKe Papua District
Committee. London
Missionar\ Societ\ Australia an
d NeZ =ealand Committee CKalme
rs +ouse
Grimes -osepK E. 15. LanJuaJe surve\ reference Juide. Dallas
: SIL.
National Statistical Office. 2002
. 2000 National Census: Commun
it\ Profile S\stem.
Pastor Timoteo. 17. Notes on tKe .abadi dialect of NeZ Guinea
. NeZell -.E.
editor and translator. Pol\nesian Societ\ -ournal 17 #6. 201
PaZle\ AndreZ. ´Austronesian La
nJuaJes: Western part of SoutK-
Eastern Mainland
Papua.µ In Wurm S. A. ed. 301–31.
Pfant] Darr\l. 2000. Four cateJo
ries for lanJuaJe proMects. Ma
nuscript. UNarumpa:
QuiJle\ Ed and Susan. 13. SociolinJuistic surve\ of tKe .uni
lanJuaJe Jroup.
Ross Malcom. 13. TKe Jenetic relationsKips of tKe Austronesi
an lanJuaJes of
Papua. Australian National Unive
rsit\: FifteentK Pacific Scienc
e ConJress.
Ross M. D. 1. Proto oceanic and tKe Austronesian lanJuaJes
of Western
Melanesia. Series C-. Especiall\ cKapter 6 pp. 10–212. Canb
erra: Pacific
StronJ W. MersK. 112. Notes on tKe lanJuaJe of .abadi Britis
K NeZ Guinea.
AntKropos 112 #7. 155–160.
Ta\lor A. -. ´+istor\ of resear
cK in Austronesian lanJuaJes: W
estern part of SoutK-
Eastern Mainland Papua.µ In Wurm
 S. A. ed. 176. NeZ Guinea a
lanJuaJes and lanJuaJe stud\ Vol. 2 Austronesian lanJuaJes. S
eries C-3.
141–14. Canberra: Pacific LinJuistics.
WalNer Roland W. 11. ´MeasurinJ lanJuaJe attitudes and lanJu
aJe use.µ In
Notes on Literature in Use and L
anJuaJe ProJrams 2. 12–1. Dal
las: SIL.
Wurm S. A. ed. 176. NeZ Guinea area lanJuaJes and lanJuaJe s
tud\ Vol. 2
Austronesian lanJuaJes. Pacific LinJuistics Series C-3. Canbe
rra: Pacific
Wurm S. A. and SKiro +attori. 11. LanJuaJe atlas of tKe Paci
fic Area. Series C-
66. Canberra: Pacific LinJuistics.
A.2 Lexicostatistical data explanation
Affi[es from tKe data JatKered ZKicK could be considered speci
al marNers Zere
separated from tKe root of tKe Z
ord before tKe similarit\ crite
ria Zas applied tKese
included tKe folloZinJ as sKoZn in Table A.1:
Possible function Abadi Lala Toura
Prefix Suffix Prefix Suffix Prefix Suffix
-nɑ -ʔu / -ʔɑ
-nɑ -nɑ
e- / ɛ- e- / ɛ- e-
-do -ti -tio
-ə / -ɑ
-u / -o /
Verb markers might
be person, tense, or
-u -ʔu
Adjective marker
-ʔɑ / -ʔi -nɑ -nɑ
Table A.2. CoJnate sets not conf
ɡ t
54, 141, 138
ɡ d
155, 156, 54, 92
ɾ l ɾ
11, 25, 26
n l
s N N
12, 58, 62
68, 69, 101
TKe correlation of >#] in Abadi to >K] in Toura is most probabl
\ linNed to tKe
correlation of >β] and >K] in tKe former case tKe >β] Kas bee
n lost completel\ from
Gloss numbers Explanation
128, 144, 153,
154, 155, 156,
157, 158, 168
The root of these words are clearly the same in Lala, Toura, and Abadi.
The remaining phones, while not
occurring as frequently or
consistently as those listed in Tabl
e A.1, are also considered to be
affixes, though their meaning or function was uncertain.
TKe folloZinJ Abadi Zordlists Zer
e elicited in .oupuana .eveon
a MaJavaira
and Pinu villaJes:
Koupuana Keveona Magavaira Pinu
(his) head
ɾoʔonɑnɑ ɾoʔo ɾoʔo ɾoʔonɑ
(his) hair
iMɑnɑidunɑnɑ idu idu idu
(his) mouth
iMɑnɑɑɡenɑnɑ ɑɡe ɑɡe ɑɡe
(his) nose
iMɑnɑiduNuɑnɑnɑ iduNʰuə iduNuɑ iduNʰuɑ
(his) eye
iMɑnɑmɑNʰɑnɑnɑ mɑNʰɑ mɑNʰɑ mɑNʰɑ
(his) neck (all or nape)
iMɑnɑɑɡoɡemonɑnɑ ɑɡo eɡu eɡu
(his) skin (human)
iMɑnɑβɑɾeɑnɑnɑ βɑɾeə bɑiɾɑ βɑeɾɑ
(his) knee
iMɑnɑʔoʔiβɑnɑnɑ oʔivɑ ʔoʔivɑ oʔivɑ
(his) ear (external)
iMɑnɑNʰɑMnɑnɑnɑ Nʰɑinɑ Nʰɑinɑ Nʰɑinɑ
(his) tongue
iMɑnɑmɑɾɑnɑnɑnɑ mɑɾɑ mɑlɑ mɑɾɑ
(his) tooth
iMɑnɑniseʔnɑnɑ nise nise nise
(her) breast
(his) hand
(his) foot
(his) back
puɾipuɾinɑnɑ puɾipuɾi puɾipuɾinɑ pʰuɾipʰuɾi
(his) shoulder
ɑɾobɑNunɑnɑ ɑɾobɑNu ɑɾobɑNunɑ ɑɾobɑNʰu
(his) forehead
bɑʔunɑnɑ bɑʔu pɑʔunɑ bɑʔu
(his) chin
(his) elbow
ʔoduʔodu oduʔodunɑ ʔoduʔodu
(his) thumb
oɾɑbɑɡɑ oɾɑbɑɡɑnɑ ʔorɑbɑɡɑ
(his) leg
ɑʲənɑnɑ ɑe ɑenɑ ɑe
(his) heart
(his) liver
(his) bone
Nuliɑnɑnɑ Nuɾiə Nuɾiə Nʰuriə
(his) blood
ɾɑɾɑnɑnɑ ɾɑɾɑ ɾɑɾɑ ɾɑɾɑ
old woman
old man
(his) father
ɑuɑnɑnɑ ɑuɑ ʔɑuɑnɑnɑ ʔɑuɑ
(his) mother
ɑMdənɑnɑ ɑidə ʔɑidənɑnɑ ʔɑidɑ
brother (older of man)
sister (older of man)
ʔɑʔobɑnɑnɑ ʔɑʔobɑ ɑubɑʔunɑ ɑʔobɑ
ʔɑɡɑnɑnɑ ɑ৸ɡɑ ɑɡɑnɑ ɑɡɑ
mɑnumɑnunɑ mɑnumɑnu mɑnumɑnu mɑnumɑnu
A.3 Abadi wordlists (continued):
Koupuana Keveona Magavaira Pinu
oβeNɑnə oβeNʰɑ oβeNɑ oβeNʰɑ
boɾomɑnə boɾomɑ boɾomɑ boɾomɑ
βionɑ βio βiMo βio
mɑnuboʔinə mɑnuboʔi mɑnuboʔi mɑnuboʔi
Nɑuɑnɑ Nɑuɑ Nʰɑuɑ Nʰɑuɑ
ɑɾɑmosəmosɑnɑ ɑɾɑmotɑ ɑɾɑmotɑ ɑrɑmotɑmotɑ
bɑMbɑMnə bɑibɑi
bɑibɑi bɑibɑi
Nɑunɑ Nʰɑu NʰɑunɑNʰɑ Nʰɑu
iMɑnɑeMɑβɑβɑ ɑβɑ eɑβɑβɑ eɑβɑ
eʔenodoβə ʔɛnodo enodoβɑ eʔɛnodo
eʔenoβə ʔɛnodo enodoβɑ ʔɛno
eɡɑnəɡeɾeɑβɑ Nɑnɑɡoɾi eɡɑnɑɡoriβɑ eɡɑnɑɡeɾeʔɑ
eɑɾəsɑβə ɑɾɑsɑ eɑɾɑsɑβɑ eɑɾɑsɑ
eɑniɑniβɑ ɑniɑni eɑniɑniβɑ eɑniɑni
eβeniuβɑ eβeniuvɑ eβɛniuβɑ eveniɑ
esɑnɑβɑ esɑnə esɑnɑβɑ eisɑnɑ
he comes
emɑMβə emɑi evɑ emɑeβɑ emɑi
eonɑβɑ eono eonoβɑ eonoβɑ
he knows
esɑʔɑNu esɑʔɑNu esɑʔɑNu esɑʔɑNu
eʔinuɾɑβɑ einu eʔinuβɑ einu
eNɑɾɑMɑβɑ Nʰɑɾɑiə eNʰɑɾɑiəβə eNɑrɑiə
eMɑNunɑβɑ eɑNʰunɑ eɑNunɑβɑ eɑNʰunɑ
eɡeoβɑ eɡeo eɡeoβɑ eɡeo
it burns (fire is burning)
eMɑɾɑβɑ eɑɾɑ eɑɾɑβɑ eɑɾɑsɑ
eɾooβɑ elo eɾooβɑ eɾoo
enɑuβɑ ɛnɑu enɑuβɑ enɑu
eβeɑuβɑ eβeɑu
eβeɑuβɑ eβeɑu
ɛbidonɑβɑ bidonɑ ebidonɑβɑ ebidonɑ
he coughs
ɛnodivə nodi enodiβɑ enodi
ɛvɑMnɑMβɑ βɑinɑi eβɑinɑiβɑ eβɑinɑi
ɛβɑɾiɑβɑ βɑɾiə eβɑɾiɑβɑ eβɑɾiə
mɑɾɑʔi mɑɾɑʔi mɑlɑʔi mɑɾɑʔi
nonoɑ nonoə nonoɑ nonoɑ
ɡɑɡɑʔɑ ɡɑɡɑʔɑ NɑNɑʔɑ ɡɑɡɑʔɑ
mɑ৸βɑ mɑ৸βɑ mɑβɑ mɑ৸βɑ
A.3 Abadi wordlists (continued):
Koupuana Keveona Magavaira Pinu
sinɑʔɑ sinɑʔɑ sinɑʔɑ sinɑʔɑ
ɾɑiʔɑ ɾɑiʔɑ ɾɑiʔɑ ɾɑiʔɑ
cold (water)
imɑɾi imɑɾi imɑɾi imɑɾi
siɑusiɑu siɑu siɑusiɑu siɑusiɑu
mɑNəmɑNə mɑNʰɑmɑNʰɑ mɑNɑmɑNɑ mɑNʰɑmɑNʰɑ
ɡuʔo ɡuʔo ɡuʔou ɡuʔouɡuʔou
A.3 Abadi wordlists (continued):
Koupuana Keveona Magavaira Pinu
ɾuə ɾuə ɾuɑ ɾuɑ
NoM Noi Noi Noi
βɑni βɑni βɑni βɑni
imə imɑ imə imɑ
ouNə ʔouNɑ ouNɑ
ɑNenə ʔɑNe ɑNe ɑNʰe
A.3 Abadi wordlists (continued):
Koupuana Keveona Magavaira Pinu
uidəɾuɑ uidɑɾuɑ uidɑɾuɑ uidɑɾuɑ
we (plural exclusive)
nɑMdə nɑidə nɑidɑ nɑidɑ
uidə uidə uidɑ uidɑ
TKe folloZinJ Lala Zordlists Zere elicited in Ala’ala .aiau O
roi and Vanuamai
tKe Toura Zordlists Zere elicited in ANuNu and ToromoNu:
Alaala Kaiau Oroi Vanuamai Akuku Toromoku
1 (his) head
olɑ olɑʔu olɑ olɑʔu ʔɑɾɑ ɑlɑ
2 (his) hair
βui βoiu βui βui Kui Kui
3 (his) mouth
nutʰu nutoʔu nutu nutʰuʔu utu utu
4 (his) nose
idu iduʔu idu iduʔu uɾuʔuɾunə uɾuʔuɾu
5 (his) eye
mɑNɑ mɑNɑʔu mɑNʰɑ mɑNɑʔu mɑNɑnɑ mɑNə
6 (his) neck (all or nape)
ɛtu etuʔu etʰu ɑtʰoʔu ʔɑtubunɑ ɑtobu
7 (his) belly
8 (his) skin (human)
ɑβɑ ɑvɑʔu ɑβɑ ɑβɑʔu vɑKɑ vɑKə
9 (his) knee
Nui Nuiʔu Nʰui Nuiʔu Nui৹nɑ Nʰui
10 (his) ear (external)
Nʰɑiə Nɑiɑiu Nʰɑiə Nʰɑiɑiu Nɑiɑnɑ NʰɑMə
11 (his) tongue
mɑlɑ mɑlɑʔu mɑlɑ mɑlɑʔɑ mɑɾɑnɑ mɑɾɑ
12 (his) tooth
niNe niNeʔu niNʰe niNeʔu iNenɑ iNe
13 (her) breast
14 (his) hand
15 (his) foot
16 (his) back
Nʰɑbe Nɑbeʔu Nʰɑbe Nʰɑbeʔu tɑiɾɑ tʰɑiɾɑ
17 (his) shoulder
βou βouʔu βou βouʔu pʰɑʔɑ fɑʔɑ
18 (his) forehead
bɑʔu bɑuʔu bɑʔu bɑuʔu pɑunɑ bɑu
19 (his) chin
20 (his) elbow
diu diuʔu diu diuʔu imɑNZivɑʔi NZivɑʔi
21 (his) thumb
olubɑtɑ olubɑtɑ olubɑtʰɑ
ɑɾubɑtɑ ɑlubɑtɑ
22 (his) leg
ɑe ɑeʔu ɑe ɑeʔu ɑe ɑe
23 (his) heart
24 (his) liver
25 (his) bone
Nʰuliə Nuliɑ Nʰuliə Nʰuliɑ Nuɾiə Nuɾiɑ
26 (his) blood
lɑlɑ lɑlɑ lɑlɑ lɑlɑ ɾɑɾɑ ɾɑɾɑ
30 old woman
31 old man
34 (his) father
Nʰɑmɑ Nʰɑmɑʔu Nʰɑmɑnɑ Nʰɑmɑ Nɑmɑnə Nʰɑmɑ
35 (his) mother
sinɑ sinɑu sinə sinɑ sinɑnə sinə
36 brother (older of man)
37 sister (older of man)
loβu loβuʔu loβu loβuʔu ɑbɑtoɑʔu ɑbɑtoə
βɑ βɑu βɑ βɑnɑ ɑtɑ ʔɑ৹tɑ
mɑnumɑnu mɑnumɑnu mɑnumɑnu mɑnumɑnu mɑnu mɑnu
A.4 Lala and Toura wordlists (continued):
Alaala Kaiau Oroi Vanuamai Akuku Toromoku
oβeNʰɑ oveNɑ oβeNʰɑ
oβeNɑ sisiə sisiə
bolomɑ bolomɑ bolomɑ bolomɑ boɾomɑ boɾomɑ
vio vio βio βio uɑKu uɑKu
44 flying fox
boʔɑlɑmɑ boɑlɑmɑ boʔɑlɑmə boʔɑlɑmɑ vɑriboʔi vɑɾiboʔi
uduβe uduve uduβe uduβe biNɑ biNə
ɑlɑbɛto ɑlɑbɛto ɑlɑbɛtʰo ɑlɑbɛto
Nʰɑuʔɑsi Nʰɑuɑsi Nʰɑuʔɛsi Nʰɑuʔɑsi bɑibɑi bɑibɑi
Nʰɑu Nʰɑu Nʰɑu Nʰɑu Nʰɑu Nʰɑu
50 he sits
51 he stands
iɑelɑlɑβɑ elɑlɑβɑ ɛlɑlɑβɑ elɑlɑβɑ einiNo einiNo
52 he lies down (reclines)
iɑenodiβo enodiβo ɛlodiβo enodiβo eNotioNo eNotioNo
53 he sleeps
ieɑmɑuinɑi emiunɑi ɛmuinɑi emuinɑi emunɑiNo ɛmunɑiNo
54 he walks
iɑedɑdɑʔɑ edɑdɑʔɑ ɛdɑdɑʔɑ edɑdɑʔɑ etɑɾɑvɑɾiNo etɑlɑvɑɾiNo
55 he bites (a dog)
iɑeɑlɑlɑ eɑlɑlɑ eɑlɑlɑ eɑlɑlɑ eæfuɑNo eɑfuɑNo
56 he eats
iɑeɑniɑni eɑniɑni eɑniɑni eɑniɑni eæniæniNo eɑniɑniNo
57 he gives it to me
iɑeβeniʔu eβeniʔu eβɛniʔu eβ
eniʔu eKɛniʔuNo eKeniʔuNo
58 he sees
iɑeiNʰɑlɑ eiNʰɑlɑ eiNʰɑlə
eiNɑlɑ eNɑMɑNo eiNɑiɑNo
59 he comes
iɑeʔɑsi eɑ৸ɑsi eʔɑsi eʔɑsi eʔɑuNo eʔɑuNo
60 he says
61 he hears
eʔiNʰɑ lɑilɑiɑiNʰɑ eʔiNʰɑ le
leʔeʔiNɑ eKɑʔeNo eKɑʔeNo
62 he knows
iɑeNɑβɑsi eNɑbɑsi eNʰɑbɑsi eNɑbɑsi iɑeNɑʔɑNu eiNɑʔɑNu
63 he drinks
einuɑ βeieinu einuɑ einuɑ einuɑNo einuɑNo
64 he hits
eɑNʰuɑ eɑNuɑ eɑNʰuɑ eɑNuɑ eɑNuɑNo eɑNuɑNo
65 he kills
eɑNubɑlɑ eɑNubɑlɑ eɑNʰubɑlɑ eɑNubɑlɑ eɑɾɑMɑNo eɑɾɑMɑNo
66 he dies
ebɑ ebɑ ebɑ ebɑ emɑNeNo emɑNeNo
67 it burns (fire is burning)
eʔɑni eəɑni eʔɑni eʔɑni eɑɾɑNo eɑɾɑNo
68 it flies
eloloβo elolovo eloloβo
eloloβo eɾoKoNo eɾoKoNo
69 he swims
enɑnɑʔu enɑnɑu enɑnɑʔu enɑnɑʔu enɑKuNo enɑKuNo
70 he runs
eβeɑu eveɑu eβeɑu eβeɑʔu eKeuNo eKeuNo
71 he falls down
72 he catches
ebitoə ebitoɑ ebitʰoə ebitoɑ enɑʔeɑNo enɑʔeɑNo
73 he coughs
enonodi enonodi enonodi enonodi enotiNo enotiNo
74 he laughs
emɑmɑi emɑmɑi emɑmɑi emɑmɑi ememɑiNo emɑmɑiNo
75 he dances
eneneβɑ eneneβɑ eneneβə eneneβɑ e৸vɑNo e৹vɑNo
NʰiNʰinɑ NʰiNʰinɑ NʰiNʰinɑ NʰiNʰinɑ mɑɾɑKinə mɑlɑKi
mediɑnɑ mediɑnɑ mɛdiɑn
ɑ mediɑnɑ nɑmɑnɑ nɑmɑ
siɑβɑnɑ siɑuβɑnɑ siɑβɑnɑ siʔɑβɑnɑ tiʔɑnɑ tiʔɑnɑ
lɑNɑʔenɑ lɑNɑʔenɑ lɑNɑʔenɑ ɑulɑNɑnɑ ɾɑNɑKonə lɑNɑKonɑ
A.4 Lala and Toura wordlists (continued):
Alaala Kaiau Oroi Vanuamai Akuku Toromoku
meNʰɑu meNɑunɑ meNʰɑu meNɑunɑ uɾuʔɑnɑ uɾuʔɑnɑ
βeɑβeɑ βeɑβeɑnɑ βeɑβeɑnə βeɑβeɑnɑ ɾɑiKɑnɑ lɑiKɑnɑ
84 cold (water)
elu ʔelu elu ʔelu imɑri imɑrinɑ
siɑβu siɑβusiɑβu si
aβu siɑKu siɑKuna
mɑNʰɑmɑNʰɑ mɑNɑmɑNɑnɑ mɑNɑmɑNɑnɑ
otʰoinɑ otoinɑ otʰoi otʰoinɑ oboɾunɑ obolunɑ
A.4 Lala and Toura wordlists (continued):
Alaala Kaiau Oroi Vanuamai Akuku Toromoku
luɑ luɑ luɑ luɑ ɑuɾuə ɑuɾuɑ
Noi Noi Noi Noi ɑuNui ɑuNui
βɑni βɑni βɑni βɑni ɑuKɑni ɑuKɑni
imɑ imɑ imɑ imɑ ɑuimɑ ɑuimɑ
ouNʰɑ ouNɑ ouNʰɑ ouNɑ ouNɑɾɑ ouNɑɾɑ
mɑbuɑ mɑbuɑ mɑbu mɑbuɑ Nebɑ Nebɑ
132 banana
o৸ o৸ o৸ o৸ e৸ e৸
ɑsiʔi ɑsiʔi ɑsiʔi ɑsiʔi ɑsiʔə ɑsiʔə
161 not (he is not standing)
iɑsiɑelelɑβɑ siɑelɑlɑβɑ
siɑelɑlɑvɑ iɑseiniNo iɑseiniNo
lɑu lɑu lɑu lɑu nɑu nɑu
163 you (singular)
oni oni o৸ni oni oi oi
iɑ iɑ iɑ iɑ iɑ iɑ
165 we two (exclusive)
lɑilɑluɑnɑ lɑilɑluɑnɑ lɑilɑluɑnɑ lɑilɑluɑnɑ
A.4 Lala and Toura wordlists (continued):
Alaala Kaiau Oroi Vanuamai Akuku Toromoku
166 you two
oilɑluɑnɑ oilɑluɑnɑ oilɑluɑ oilɑluɑnɑ
umuiɑulusimui umuiɑulusimui
167 they two
168 we (plural exclusive)
lɑe lɑi lɑi lɑi nɑmɑi nɑmɑi
169 you (plural)
oi oievɑ oi oi umui umui
170 they (plural)
Blair FranN. 10. Surve\ on a sKoestrinJ: a manual for small-
scale lanJuaJe
surve\s. Dallas: SIL.
Grimes Barbara F. 1. "WK\ te
st intelliJibilit\?." Notes on
LinJuistics 42: 3–64.
Grimes Barbara F. ed. 2000. EtKnoloJue Volume 1: LanJuaJes o
f tKe World
FourteentK Edition. Dallas: SIL.
Sanders Arden G. 177. ´Guidelines for conductinJ a le[icostat
istic surve\ in Papua
NeZ Guinea.µ In RicKard LovinJ and Gar\ Simons eds. LanJuaJe va
and surve\ tecKniques. 21–41. WorNpapers in Papua NeZ Guinea La
21. UNarumpa: SIL.
TauberscKmidt GerKard and MarN OnNen. 1. OrJani]ed pKonolo
J\ data: Abadi.
WimbisK -oKn S. 1. WORDSURV: a proJram for anal\]inJ lanJua
Je surve\
Zordlists. Occasional Publications in Academic ComputinJ 13. D
allas: SIL.
Wurm StepKen A. and .ennetK A. McElKanon. 175. "Papuan lanJua
classification problems." In StepKen A. Wurm ed. Papuan lanJuaJ
es and tKe
NeZ Guinea linJuistic scene: NeZ Guinea area lanJuaJes and lanJ
uaJe stud\
vol. 1. 145–164. Series C-3. Canberra: Pacific LinJuistics.

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