Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.
1. Good for everyone2. Easy to care for3. Part of culture4. Screen fashion 5. An innovative idea6. Working clothes7. Jeans’ labels8. Clothes to protestA. Jeans are one of fashion's most long enduring trends. Cowboys wear them but so do supermodels, farmers, presidents and housewives. Ask any group of people why they wear jeans and you will get a range of answers. For some they're comfortable and easy – for others they're trendy and cool. Jeans mean different things to different people but they are popular everywhere.
B. Americans do not have a national folk dress with a long tradition. Blue jeans are probably the most recognisable article of American clothing. They have been part of American life for over 125 years. Blue denim jeans became not only an expression of American fashion but also an element of American identity known around the world.
C. Jeans were first designed as trousers for farmers and miners in the states of the American West. They quickly grew popular with common people, including cowboys, factory employees and railroad builders. The new trousers were made from a very strong material which did not wear out easily. However, at the same time jeans were very practical and comfortable to wear.
D. Pockets were the weak point of the miners' clothes – they easily tore away from the jeans. A man called Jacob Davis had the idea of using metal rivets (fasteners) to hold the pockets and the jeans together so that they wouldn't tear. Davis wanted to patent his idea, but he didn't have enough money, so he offered Levi Strauss a deal if Strauss paid for the patent. Strauss accepted and started making jeans.
E. By the middle of the twentieth century, these heavy cotton trousers were a symbol of opposition for young artists and writers. College students started to wear them to show they were against the Vietnam War. The new trousers were banned in American schools from coast to coast and sometimes in theatres and cinemas.
F. Jeans are good because they don't show the dirt. You can easily go a month without washing them and they don't look shocking. They don't need to be washed as often as other trousers and you don't need to iron them. What's more, because of the strong material you can wear your favorite jeans for years. Even the occasional hole or spot doesn’t spoil them at all.
G. In the 30s and 40s many people began to spend their spare time watching movies where adventurous cowboys rode horses, fought bad guys and wore blue jeans. The actors made jeans popular in movies and everyone wanted to wear them. Young people wished to imitate the casual “cowboyish” look they saw in films, and they began to wear jeans as casual wear.
Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений A7–A14 соответствуют содержанию текста (1 – True), какие не соответствуют (2 – False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 – Not stated).
The Art of Campfire Cooking
Pat Mac and Mike Faverman first met when they were comedians going on tour and organising shows around the country. Later their love of food became a new hobby they had in common and a new project.
Before they met in 2005, Mac had grown up cooking in his father’s restaurant in Idaho, and Faverman had worked as a chef in restaurants across the US. They decided to combine their two hobbies – making people laugh and cooking good food – into a travelling road show called Ultimate Outdoor Cooking. The idea of the show was to prove that cooking by campfire out in the woods is exciting but not always simple.
Mac had had a lot of camping experience before he met Faverman and it had taught him that food was extremely important for people on vacation. Interestingly, better food brought more people to the campground. When it was their turn to cook, the new campers started to give up eating hot dogs and hamburgers and started to create new recipes.
Mac and Faverman have tried different types of camping together, each time experimenting with the most suitable recipes. Their favourite dish for car camping, for example, is steak in lemon juice mixed with salt and pepper. To keep the meat fresh, they keep it cool in a car while travelling. Afterwards, when they get to the campsite, the steak is barbecued with red potatoes.
For travelling on foot with a rucksack they suggest either red potatoes with grilled and salted fish or sausages with different vegetables like zucchini, cabbage, carrots and onions. The only secret to keeping the vegetables nice and fresh while walking is to pack them properly and leave them until ready to cook in a pan over the fire at the campsite.
As they do a lot of cooking, the most useful instruments for Mac and Faverman are plastic bags, knives, a wooden rack to cut the food on and also matches and a lighter. Besides the latter, they use electric things, which can be a little risky at times. For example, a couple of years ago Mac was using an oven to slow-cook meat on a little grill. Suddenly one of the legs of the oven broke; the grill itself and the pot fell to the ground and the meat fell straight onto the dirt. Luckily, Mac used the “five-second rule”: just wash the meat off and put it back on the grill. He said later that it tasted a bit sandy but the campers didn’t notice.
Unlike Mac, at the beginning of the project Faverman was usually unsuccessful at making a fire and putting up a tent because he didn’t have enough experience. Later he became quite a skillful camper who could give a useful tip or two to beginners. The best piece of advice from the pair for cooking in the woods is to design the menu ahead of time and to know exactly what you are going to cook on the first and second days. A good camper should try to make the first meal easy because setting up camp takes a lot of time and effort.
А7 When Mac and Faverman met for the first time, they both were actors.
1) True2) False3) Not stated
А8 Mac’s father approved of the idea of Ultimate Outdoor Cooking show.
3) Not stated
А9 According to Mac’s experience, campers were indifferent to the food at the campsite.
3) Not stated
А10 When Mac and Faverman travel by car, they prefer to cook meat.
1) True2) False3) Not stated
А11 Mac and Faverman recommend buying vegetables from the local farmers.
3) Not stated
А13 From the start Faverman was a better camper than Mac.
3) Not stated
А14 Mac and Faverman think that planning meals is important for camping.
1) True2) False3) Not statedThe Boy and the Door
There was a small shop in a little street in an old town. In the shop there were beautiful things made of silver and gold. The small shop had a door that opened on the little street. The shopkeeper was standing at the open door.
“Come and buy! Come and buy!” called the shopkeeper. “Come into my shop and see all the beautiful things!” again he called. “Come in!
I shall show you beautiful things made of silver and gold.”
One day the shopkeeper had to go away to the king’s palace. The king wanted a beautiful gold ring and a silver cup from the shop. The shopkeeper called the boy who worked for him. “I’m going to the king’s palace,” he said. “You must stay here. Do not leave the door of the shop whatever happens. Do you understand?”
“Yes, I understand,” said the boy.
The shopkeeper went away, and soon he came to the king’s palace. He gave the king the ring and the cup. Then he went home. Soon he was back at his shop. He stopped and looked up in astonishment. “What is this?” he cried. “Why are so many people going into my shop?” Then the shopkeeper saw that the door of the shop was gone and so was the boy who worked for him.
Just then, the shopkeeper saw the boy. He was in the street near the shop. The boy had the shop door on his back. He was standing in the square looking at some men who were doing tricks.
The shopkeeper ran to the boy. “I told you not to leave my shop,” he cried.
“No,” said the boy. “You told me not to leave the door. I did just as you said. I did not leave the door. I have the door here with me.”
Exercise 1. Choose the correct answer to the questions.
What did the shopkeeper sell? food / things
What were the things made of? glass / metal
Where did the shopkeeper go one day? market / palace
What did the shopkeeper tell the boy to do? not to leave the door / not to leave the shop
What did the shopkeeper see when he came back? the shop was closed / the shop was open
Where was the boy standing? in the shop / in the square
Did the boy understand the shopkeeper’s words exactly? yes / no
Exercise 2. Say if the statements are true or false. Correct the false statements.
It was a big new shop.
The shopkeeper usually stood at the open door.
The things in the shop were beautiful and expensive.
The shopkeeper asked the boy not to leave the door.
The shopkeeper went to the king’s palace.
When the shopkeeper came back, his shop was ruined.
The boy took the door with him.
The boy did what the shopkeeper had told him.
Exercise 3. Answer the questions.
What did the shopkeeper do to attract clients to his shop?
Why did the shopkeeper go to the palace?
What was the boy doing when the shopkeeper came back?
Exercise 4. Give your opinion on who was right: the boy or the shopkeeper.
Exercise 5. If you were a boy and wanted to go away, what would you do?