uchebnik_POIYa_3_kurs_2


Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan
ABLAI KHAN KAZAKH UNIVERSITY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WORLD LANGUAGES
G.S. Assanova, B.E. Tassyrova, Sh.O. Saimkulova, Zh.A. Karmenbaeva, A.A. Aldabergenova
Professional Oriented Foreign Language in the context of Intercultural Communication
(a course book for the 3rd–year students of
University Translation Departments)
Almaty
2015
Gulnar Sairambekovna Assanova, Botagoz Ermekovna Tassyrova, Sholpan Orazgeldievna Saimkulova, Zhanar Askarovna Karmenbaeva, Aiym Aldabergenovna Aldabergenova
«Professionally-Oriented Foreign Language in the Context of Intercultural Communication»
(a course book for the 3rd–year students of University Translation Departments)
Almaty 2015. _196__ pages
The course book has been designed for the tutors and the 3rd year students of University Translation Departments.
The aim of the textbook is to develop students' practical skills and abilities in mastering the English language within the framework of general professional communication area for specific purposes – translation and at the same time to provide the students with the Certificate of Advanced English (CAE) devices and technology and the ways of its training, which corresponds to the European Competence Level –C1.
The target course book is a systematic and methodological presentation of topic units (blocks) that cover social, cultural, professional, public, political, business, economic and intercultural communication areas and are accompanied by the set of the up-to-date teaching approaches adequate to the Advanced Level – C1 of the International Education Standard.
PREFACE
Professionally-Oriented Foreign Language in the Context of Intercultural Communication (a course book for the 3rd year students of University Translation Departments) has been designed to develop the four language skills for providing the professional and intercultural communication on translation sphere within the framework of the general professional area. The course book reflects the requirements, which are adequate to C1 in accordance with the European Competence Level Grade: CAE.
The course book is topical with its up-to-date International (European) standards in teaching English approaches in the context with the translation aspect of the language. Learners are exposed to natural, authentic English language material that has been selected from various sources. The course book will develop the communication skills you need to succeed in a professional environment and will broaden your knowledge on learning English in assistance with precisely created listening, reading, speaking and writing activities as well.
Everybody studying this course book will become more fluent, develop new and innovative approaches to effective communication, have an ability to behave in intercultural communicative situation properly, form an ability to think and speak on their feet and confident in using the language in a variety of contexts appropriately.
The course book consists of 4 units based on several subthemes of great interest to students of Translation Department involved in or studying English language.
Unit 1: Education and Science
Communication area: social
File 1: Global education. International and national scholarship programs. Translation training in Kazakhstan and English speaking countries. Education context, qualification requirements, specializations, training levels
File 2: Science. Recent scientific achievements. Advances in information technology
File 3: Culture. World of music and songs. Theatre, opera, ballet and film. Main trends in the fine arts
Unit 2: Political system
Communication area: political
File 1: Political system of the Republic of Kazakhstan
File 2: Globalization and Kazakhstan
File 3: The priority directions in development of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Unit 3: World of Business
Communication area: business
File 1: Raw materials. Oil and Gas. Exploration, production and refining of oil and gas. Metallurgy (ferrous and non-ferrous metals, mining and metallurgy alloys)
File 2: Manufacturing. Light industry. Food industry. Prospects for the development of car/automotive industry (machinery)
File 3: The development of entrepreneurship in the agricultural sector: problems and prospects. Improving the competitiveness of the products of the agricultural sector in the conditions of accession to the WTO
File 4: The problems of small and medium-sized businesses in Kazakhstan and foreign countries. The problems of small and medium-sized businesses in Kazakhstan: problems and prospects. Problems of financing of small and medium-sized businesses in Kazakhstan. Government programs to sustain small and medium-sized businesses (soft loans)
Unit 4: Economy
Communication area: economic
File 1: Growth of economy in Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA. Sectors and types of enterprises. Economy and globalization. World financial crisis.
File 2: Finance (Taxation system in the Republic of Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA. Banking system in Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA. Securities Market)
File 3: Trade (Free Trade and Protectionism. Regulation of Trade in the Republic of Kazakhstan (Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated 12.04.2004 N 544-II "On regulation of commercial activities"). Trade policy of Kazakhstan. Methods for Trade Policy: 1. Customs-tariff – those based on customs tariff (import and export duties). 2. Non-tariff - all other measures (anti-dumping, countervailing measures, protective measures, prohibitions or restrictions, including quantitative; quotas; the state monopoly on the export and (or) the import of goods, licensing, technical regulation)
Each unit includes:
1. Lead-in (Quotations. Vocabulary zone. Grammar zone.)
2. Main part (Focus on Reading. Focus on Listening. Focus on Speaking. Focus on Writing.)
3. Project Modelling (Projects 1,2.)
4. Wordlist of files
UNIT 1: EDUCATION AND SCIENCE
Communication area: social
1

Global education. International and national scholarship programs. Education context, qualification requirements, specializations, training levels
LEAD-IN

1. Comment on the following quotations and sayings:
Kazakhstan needs an intellectual revolution that will awaken and realize the potential of our nation - Nazarbaev N.A.

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world – Nelson Mandela

“Next in importance to freedom and justice is popular education, without which neither freedom nor justice can be permanently maintained.” – James A Garfield


2. Discuss the following questions
How important do you think education is?
Do you think you had a good education?
What do you think of the idea of all education being online?
What would the world be like if everyone had access to a good education?
Does your government really care about education?
In which country do you think you can receive the best education?
3. Discuss in a group. Read the definitions below for Global Education and give your own interpretation about what global education is.
-38103810 There are many definitions for Global Education
"out there"... 
? Global Education involves learning about those problems and issues that cut across national boundaries, and about the interconnectedness of systems - ecological,
cultural, economic, political and technological. It also involves perspective taking – seeing things through the eyes and minds of others0 and it means the realization that while individuals and groups may view life differently, they also have common needs and wants. The value and utility of Global Education derives from the sense that international events require all societies and their citizens to become knowledgeable about the world beyond their national borders.
... And there are many "Global Education" quotes available...
"Preparing today's students for success and eventual leadership in the global economy is the single most important task facing U.S. education. If young Americans are to take on challenging global leadership roles in the future, they must possess a deep understanding and appreciation for other cultures, geography, history, and languages."  - Stephanie Bell-Rose, President of the Goldman Sachs Foundation
"The answer to most of the world's major problems, from environmental concerns to communicable disease, lie squarely in the hands of an educated citizenry -people across professional, socioeconomic, ethnic, and religious lines with greater knowledge and understanding of world regions, languages, and problems. Increasingly it is these global issues, along with their local and, often, personal repercussions that demonstrate most clearly the need for international education in every American school and that help to make international content seem relevant to young people." -The Asia Society, on Internationaled.org
"Global educators share certain characteristic instructional strategies: they confront stereotypes and exotica and resist simplification of other cultures and global issues; foster the habit of examining multiple perspectives; teach about power, discrimination, and injustive; and provide cross-cultural experiential learning." - Merry M.Merryfield, The Difference a Global Educator Can Make
VOCABULARY ZONE

1. Discuss the following words with your teacher and class. Write down the translation in case you need it.
*** to keep up with your studies *** to meet a deadline ***
Higher (tertiary) Education *** bachelors degree *** Illiterate *** to work your way through university *** distance learning *** Literacy *** face-to-face classes *** to fall behind with your studies *** masters degree *** Secondary Education *** state school
*** to play truant *** private language school *** to sit an exam *** tuition fees *** Graduate *** to give feedback *** subject specialist *** to take a year out
*** Qualification *** Curriculum *** Primary (elementary) Education *** a mature student

2. Fill in the appropriate word from the wordlist above.
______________________ the group of subjects studied in a school, college, etc.
______________________ an official record showing that you have finished a training course or have the necessary skills, etc
______________________ first years of formal education from around age 5 to 11
______________________ education during the time as a teenager
______________________ non-compulsory education after finishing school, such as university, as well as vocational education and training at colleges
______________________ an undergraduate course which usually lasts 3-4 years
______________________ a way of studying where tuition is carried out over the Internet or by post
______________________ as opposed to distance learning the traditional way of studying in a classroom with colleagues and a teacher
______________________ to progress less quickly than others
______________________ to offer guidance on a student’s work
______________________ to not fall behind
______________________ a student who is older than average and who has usually returned to education after a period at work
______________________ a period of study which often follows the completion of a bachelors
degree or is undertaken by someone regarded as capable of a higher-level academic course
______________________ to finish a job or task in the time allowed or agreed
______________________ to stay away from classes without permission
______________________ an independent school run as a business concern
______________________ to take an exam
______________________ a school paid for by public funds and available to the general public
______________________ a teacher who has a great deal of knowledge about the subject they teach
______________________ to spend a year working or travelling before starting university
______________________ to complete a first university degree successfully
______________________ the money paid for a course of study
______________________ the ability to read and write
______________________ to have a paid job whilst studying to support yourself financially
______________________ unable to read and write
3. Make up five sentences using the words above.
4.
Here are some commonly used idioms about education and learning. Have you heard any of them in class before? These are the meanings of the idioms to help you to decide which idiom fits in each sentence. Can you think of any more education idioms?
Idioms
Bookworm - a person who is always studying.
Copycat - a person who copies the words or actions of another.
to live and learn - to learn as you grow older and gain experience.
teacher's pet - the teacher's favourite student.
to pass with flying colours - to pass with a very high grade.
to go back to basics - to return to the beginning.
to cover a lot of ground - to go through a lot of information in class.
to pull an all nighter - to study throughout the night.
Choose the correct idiom to complete the sentence:
1. Eleanor is a ___, her piece for Art lesson looks exactly like mine.2. Michael ___! He got the best grade in his class!3. We have ___ in class today, so make sure you go through your notes when you get home.4. Amy is definitely the ___. Mrs Brown gives her the best grades even when her work isn't very good.5. I think we should ___ as none of you are using the past simple correctly today.6. I'm a ___. I love reading about history and politics.7. I should never have quit my degree. Oh well, we ___.8. I'm so exhausted, I ___ studying for this test.
5 . Translate the following extracts taken from the article ‘Building a global university brand’ into English.

These are unnerving times for higher education worldwide.
After a four-decade rise in global demand, universities are grappling with powerful forces colliding at once: reduced government support, rising public skepticism about the value of a degree, increased institutional competition and the emergence of disruptive technology.
By 2020, about 200 million young people worldwide will have degrees -- 40 per cent of them elite and middle class students from China and India -- according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). By 2025, the number of those travelling abroad for a degree could double from today’s estimate of 4.3 million students.
In response, universities are eager to raise their global profile to ensure their long-term financial viability and create a sustainable business model. Public institutions that once relied on government funding and tuition hikes for revenue now are turning to social media, online learning and new credentials to make their mark with international students.
Technology is being actively promoted through curriculum reform and funding policies around the world as the way to facilitate equity and globalize education opportunities. With the use of technology in middle-income countries, including many North African and Asian countries on the rise, it is expected that better education opportunities through globalization, leading to improved economies, are bound to follow. But the truth of all this depends upon whose values globalization is based.
GRAMMAR ZONE

1. In the following text, some words have been taken out.
To complete the text, choose the appropriate word on the left to each space
STUDYING ABROAD
else
someone
local
should
must
enjoying
Every
on
their
another
While
about
chance More and more young people are 1.__________  the advantage of living in 2.________ country and are deciding to study abroad.
They realise it's the best way to learn 3.__________  the customs and the way of life of other people.
Student exchanges give teenagers the 4.___________ to live somewhere 5.________ for a school year.
6._________ they are living abroad, they will eat new food, experience new traditions and learn the way people 7.__________ own age live from day to day.
Students stay with carefully chosen host families and attend a 8.___________ school.
9.___________ student on the exchange programme has 10.____________ who directly supports them the whole time they are abroad.
To qualify as an exchange student, you 11.___________ be aged between 15 and 18 years and be good at a foreign language.
2. Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.
Second Language Learning
There has been much debate in recent times about when young people should take up a second language. This has been especially fuelled in recent times by the increasing 1.___________ placed on the English language. It is now commonplace to see parents providing a substantial amount of 2.__________ on additional tuition on language lessons to give their children every 3.___________ edge. In the past decade, language institutes have sprung up innumerous centres, all claiming to provide rapid 4._______________ in English. There has been a push by many parents to expose their children to English in their formative years. This, many claim, will make the language more 5._____________ and ensure that all pronunciation errors can be avoided. There is some evidence which points to youngsters who have been raised in bilingual families, where the language spoken at home is different to the one that they 6.__________ with in their external environment. While these children can switch between two languages with greater 7._____________, it remains to be seen whether this is 8._____________ when learning additional languages. IMPORTANT
FUNDING
COMPETITION
ADVANCED
INSTINCT
CONVERSATION
EASY
ADVANTAGE
3. Use appropriate forms of the verbs given to complete this text. In each case, decide whether an active or passive form is needed.
Slowly but surely the coastline of Britain (1) is being worn away (wear away) by an advancing sea. The country which once ‘ruled the waves’ now (2) ………………… (rule) by them, with huge forces threatening to destroy vast areas of human and wildlife habitat. Already some of Britain’s last wild, natural areas (3) ……………………. (disappear), and experts (4)……………….. (fear) that this is just the beginning. It (5) …………………… (estimate) that there will be a 38-55 cm rise in average sea level by the year 2100. According to the Department of the Environment, during the next 50 years at least 10.000 hectares of farmland (6)…………..... (turn into) mud flats and salt marshes by the increase in sea levels. Rather than trying to prevent the erosion, the present government (7)………….. (use) a method of ‘managed retreat’ by creating new defences further inland and allowing low-lying coastal farm land (8)…………….. (abandon) to the sea. However, many of the country’s major cities could also (9)……………… (affect). London, Bristol and Cardiff all (10)……………… (expect) severe flooding as our sea defences (11)………………………. (destroy) by the rising tides.
FOCUS ON LISTENING

I. Listening activity
You are going to listen to the news on the topic ‘Finland has world's best education system’. Do the following tasks.
1. EDUCATION & SCHOOLS: Talk to other students about education & schools. Change partners often and share your findings.
EDUCATION: How can we make it better? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners and share what you wrote. Change and share again.
Improvements What's wrong now? How to make it / them better?
Classrooms    
Technology    
Subjects    
Teachers    
Exams    
2630170137160
1. Make sure you improve your general listening skills. Listen to everything you can. 2. Learn how to spell! 3. It is very important to listen to this information because it gives the topic for what you are about to hear and makes understanding the rest much easier.  4. Use your time well. Read the questions quickly and try to decide which type of word goes in the spaces eg is it a noun, verb or adjective?
Fill in the gaps
Finland has world's best education system
A new report into world education shows Finland has the ______ ______. The global study is called "The ____________ _______" and is from the British magazine "The Economist". It aims to help governments ____________ a better education to students. The 52-page report looked at the education system in __________. Researchers analysed millions of statistics on _________ ________, literacy rates, __________, and university __________ _______. Asia did well in the report, with South Korea, Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore finishing ___________ , third, fourth and fifth. The United States came 17th in the _________, while Mexico, Brazil and Indonesia filled the ________ three positions in the top 50.
The Learning Curve reported on five things that _______ __________should remember. The first is that spending lots of _______ on schools and teachers does not always mean students will __________. Second is that "good teachers are ____________ to __________education". The report said teachers should be "treated as the __________ ____________ they are, not as technicians in a huge, educational machine". Numbers three and four are that a country's culture must have a strong focus on the ___________ of education, and parents have a key part to play. Finally, countries need to "educate for the _______, not just the present." The report said: "Many of today's job ________…simply did not exist 20 years ago."
Discussions
Why do you think Finland's education system is so good?
What do you think of the education system in your country?
What were (are) you happy and unhappy with about your education?
How can universities provide a better education to students?
How different do you think education is in Finland from Asian countries?
How important is education?
What does "educate for the future, not just the present" mean?
FOCUS ON READING

Reading 1
1. Look at the “word cloud” containing the key words that appear more frequently in the article and using the words predict what the article is going to be about.
2. Choose any word from the ‘cloud’ and explain why it can be repeatedly used and what it implies in the article.

3. Create ten word partnerships using the ‘word cloud’ and the article, and then translate them. E.g. critically assess, dominant ideas…
4. Match the words/expressions (1-8) from the article to the definitions (a-h)
initiatives
to marginalize
distorted
mainstream
paradigm
xenophobia
commitment
perspectives
the ideas and opinions that are thought to be normal because they are shared by most people
changed
a particular attitude towards sth; a way of thinking about sth
the willingness to work hard and give your energy and time
a typical example or pattern of sth
new plan for dealing with a particular problem or for achieving a particular purpose
to relegate to the fringes, out of the mainstream; make seem unimportant
a strong feeling of dislike or fear of people from other countries
5. Using the ‘word cloud’ make up five questions you think this article might answer and discuss them with your partner.
Development Education in the era of globalization
Development and global issues have never been more in the public gaze than they have been in 2005.  From Live8 to ‘Make Poverty History’ and the range of initiatives around Africa, development educationalists can no longer argue that ‘development’ and ‘global’ are marginalized. However, much of the debate has been superficial. For those engaged in development education practice, we know that understanding the causes of poverty and the solutions are not easy and straightforward. It could also be argued that all too often the messages communicated are distorted via ‘western perceptions’.  The voices of those directly affected by poverty and inequality are rarely heard.  Development educationalists have a responsibility therefore to ensure that the voices of the marginalised are heard. Many of the observations mentioned above are similar to comments raised about development education more than a decade ago. Whilst many of the arguments might be similar to those of the 1990s, the economic, social and educational climates are different.
            Globalisation is having an increasingly direct impact upon people’s lives. It is also relatively easy to have access to information about global issues.  People are more aware of global issues but how do they decide as to how they will critically assess the information they receive.  This is why development education is so important and why it needs to be part of the mainstream of formal learning opportunities.  In a number of countries, global and development issues are becoming more mainstream within formal education programs, although there is still a long way to go.
            What all this means is that the traditional ‘development education Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO)’ can no longer claim to be the fountain of all knowledge or the ‘experts.’ Yet the principles behind development education, although they might be packaged in different ways depending on the educational framework, cultural situation and political support, are key to addressing the big educational and societal challenges of the twenty first century. Through development education, people can: 
‘understand their own situation in a wider context;
make connections between local and global events
develop skills and knowledge to interpret events affecting their lives
understand causes of global inequality, justice and solidarity
learn from experiences elsewhere in the world
identify common interests and develop solidarity with diverse communities
combat racism and xenophobia
widen horizons and personal development
make a difference to their world by participating in society.’ (DEA 2001).
 There are examples of practice in a number of countries which demonstrate this from projects which make connections to understanding specific African cultural perspectives to local community cohesion and those on subjects such as fair trade, climate change and global citizenship.
            Professor David Selby, a well-known writer on global education, has criticized this author for operating with the dominant ideological paradigm and for critically accepting the dominant ideas of today, linked to education for global competitiveness. “He (Bourn) clearly aligns himself with the liberal technocratic school of thought, while also locating himself squarely within the government-driven culture of compliance that has come to characterize much of British education.” (Selby 2004, 2005, Bourn 2005)
            These comments pose in a wider context the challenges that many development educationalists have today. Do they comment from the side and remain purist, saying that their agenda is really about social transformation? Or do they engage in the ideological debate and aim to make advances and progress within the framework set by globalisation and economic competitiveness? Does development education challenge the status quo and if it does, what alternatives does it offer?
            McCollum stated nearly a decade ago that the tradition of, “development education has been, of a movement, which speaks only to itself, it has not located itself within a broader critical pedagogical discourse.” (1996) Whilst there has been some progress since then, this tradition is still too prevalent in many industrialized countries where development education is delivered by a range of NGOs and social movements.
            It is often where development educationalists have engaged in broader debates that progress has been made. Through a range of international and national educational policies and programs, the term ‘global’ is becoming part of the everyday language of educationalists.  A major opportunity for development educationalists has been the opening of the debates around the need for ‘learning societies and for actively informed citizens’ and social cohesion (Bourn, 2001).
            However, as can be shown from the strategy for international education published by the English Ministry for Education in November 2004, the tensions between the economic and social needs are most evident. It refers to promoting the concept of ‘global citizens’ and to ‘instill a strong global dimension into the learning experience of all children and young people.’ But it also talks about ‘equipping employers and employees about the skills needed for a global economy’. Selby has been right to pose the dilemma but if development education is to engage in the debates then it is recognised that its role is both to secure concessions within the dominant paradigm but also to raise the issues and encourage dialogue.
            In developing its thinking for its work within higher education, the Development Education Association developed a framework for learning around knowledge and learning, cognitive, social and practical skills and values and attitudes. Central to this framework is the interrelationship of these concepts. One cannot learn and understand about the causes of poverty and inequality without the development of critical and analytical thinking, respecting views and having a commitment to social justice. (McKenzie 2003) This initiative has already influenced a radical re-thinking of a number of degree courses in at least five universities in England.
            Development education should also, if it is about learning, offer a range of perspectives and views. This means ensuring perspectives and views from different social and cultural groups around the world but in a form that is debated within a critical framework. It needs to be perceived as making connections between the local and the global within a values base of equity, social justice and human rights. It is about posing fundamental questions about the role of an educator which should be to create a learning environment which enables learners to critically assess in their own way and on their terms the subject under discussion. (DEA 1999)
            Charles Leadbetter in writing recently about the challenge of globalisation suggests that there is a need to create a culture in society that challenges pessimism about what is happening in the world. He suggested there is a need, particularly in education, to respond to the challenges of globalisation, to engage and shape it for the benefit of all. He also suggests that globalisation necessitates innovation and imagination. Development education in the era of globalisation needs to respond in an equally imaginative and innovative way. It needs not to re-trench or retreat within the safe havens of challenging dominant political paradigms. Educational change only comes through social and political interaction. Development education needs to see itself as a power house for ideas, creativity and new thinking about how people in society can be better equipped to create a world which is more just and equal.
            In order to achieve this, development educationalists should see their role as how they can influence societies and empower people to develop the skills, knowledge and value base which can make connections between their own lives and those of people elsewhere in the world. Only then will societies promote learning that creates a better understanding of the causes of inequality in the world and gives people the skills and value base to enable them to create their own voices and forms of engagement to secure real social change.
1. After reading the article answer the following questions.
a) What is the impact of globalization upon people’s lives?
b) What are the advances and progress within the framework set by globalisation and economic competitiveness?
c) Why is development education so important? And why does it need to be part of the mainstream of formal learning opportunities?
d) Why can the traditional ‘development education Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO)’ no longer claim to be the fountain of all knowledge or the ‘experts’? 
e) Does development education challenge the status quo and if it does, what alternatives does it offer?
2. Work in pairs. Discuss with your partner Charles Leadbetter’s opinion about the challenge of globalization.
3. Considering different authors’ statements about development education express your own opinion whether you agree or disagree with them on the issues in the article.
4. Work in small groups. Discuss the impact of development education in the era of globalization on the society and share your findings with the other groups.
5. Summarize the article in 150 words.
Reading 2
1. In groups critically discuss the following statement:
“Today's globalizing economy requires countries to nurture pools of well-educated workers who are able to perform complex tasks and adapt rapidly to their changing environment and the evolving needs of the production system”
2. Work in small groups of four people and discuss the following questions
1. Do you know any international programs that provide prestigious scholarships (grants) for students of any country of the world?
2. Have you applied or would you like to apply for any of them?
3. What motivates you to apply for international scholarships?
4. What is your attitude to Kazakhstan’s Bolashak Scholarship as one example of a long-standing government-sponsored international scholarship program?
3. Read the text and do the tasks
Perceived human capital benefits of the Bolashak scholarship program
Bolashak International Scholarship was established on November 5, 1993 by the Decree of President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. A. Nazarbayev.
At the dawn of independence, the Republic of Kazakhstan needed highly- qualified professionals capable to conduct further reforms and worthily represent the country at the international arena.
For the first time in history of the post-Soviet countries, talented youth of Kazakhstan got a chance to obtain education abroad.
Bolashak Scholarship turned into some kind of guarantor of successful career growth and professional self-realization of its graduates.
Year by year the Program had been gaining pace and was adapted to the implementation of state objectives.
Between 1994 and 2012, the Bolashak program sponsored the undergraduate and graduate education of 9233 Kazakhstani students at universities abroad. Fluctuating over time, the number of Bolashak awards was low in the “formation” years (1993–2000); during this period, the number of new awards ranged from a low of 17 in 1995 to a high of 187 in 1994. Between 1994 and 2004, 785 awards were made for study in 13 nations. In 2005 President Nazarbayev called for the program to expand to support 3000 students at any point in time. About 3000 individuals now study in 200 universities in 24 nations with support from the program.
Despite the relatively small number of Bolashak scholarships awarded, ministry officials, program administrators, employers, and recipients believe that the program has generated many benefits. Some asserted that the program is preparing, in the words of one employer, “the next generation of leaders of the country.”
Employers also perceived other benefits, reporting that foreign-educated individuals tend to have strong communication, self-presentation and leadership skills; are flexible and adaptable; and understand how to network. A financial services employer stated, “Bolashakers are more open-minded. They have lived abroad, are more adaptable. They easily can be exposed to other colleagues, management… They can quite quickly be integrated to organization.”
An employer in the transportation sector described the contributions of foreign study to critical thinking, saying: “For middle management it is preferable to have foreign education… You should have critical thinking. You know, we don’t have a subject “critical thinking” here in Kazakhstan. All universities abroad have elements of critical thinking.” Similarly, an employer in the financial services sector stressed the value of foreign study to developing “judgment,” explaining, “If you studied at a local school, you are exceptional at rule-based subjects… Judgment is the key, and it is very difficult to teach especially the senior level.”
An employer in the construction sector explained that Bolashak recipients possess needed knowledge of international standards. The employer summarized the contributions of a master's degree recipient stating, he “knew our requirements and international requirements. His language proficiency was high and, besides, he knew all requirements regarding standards of international contracting.”
The program may also advance connections to “the global world,” something that requires effective communication and credible relationships with foreign partners. An employer in the financial services sector most clearly states this view:
Bolashak recipients were able to deal with international companies and they started to give contracts and licenses for international products to be made locally. I think that with international education they were able to do that so efficiently, and this also gives them credibility when talking with international company.
For a nation that seeks to establish trading and other relationships with international partners but where most citizens speak only Russian or Kazakh, the program's encouragement of English-language expertise may be especially beneficial. An employer in the information-technology sector praised the English-language proficiency of scholarship recipients, stating, “Usually we don’t have people whose English language is better than that of those from Bolashak.” An employer in the financial services sector explained the value of foreign language skills to his company, stating that, “If some kind of project is initiated and it requires dealing with foreign partners, then we need people that know foreign language. If someone had studied in foreign language than I think it is easier to work with foreign partners.”
Some employers are explicitly capitalizing on the ways the program is perceived to expand participants’ perspectives. A master's degree recipient described the contributions of his international vision to his company, explaining: “My first responsibility is to think like an American. They just ask me: ‘Don’t be a local guy, we are paying you for being an American. Look at things as an American marketer, not the Kazakhstani marketer.”’
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0738059314001503#bib0015
While-reading
1. While reading the text pay attention to the opinions given by different employers about the Bolashak scholarship holders and using “agree or disagree spectrum” say to what extend you agree or disagree with them. Give the reasons and examples to support your ideas.
-4174490167005
Bolashak recipients are the next generation of leaders of the country…
Bolashakers are more open-minded. They have lived abroad, are more adaptable. They easily can be exposed to other colleagues, management… They can quite quickly be integrated to organization…
Bolashak recipients were able to deal with international companies and they started to give contracts and licenses for international products to be made locally. I think that with international education they were able to do that so efficiently, and this also gives them credibility when talking with international company…
Usually we don’t have people whose English language is better than that of those from Bolashak…
2. What does the following statement imply?
“Don’t be a local guy, we are paying you for being an American. Look at things as an American marketer, not the Kazakhstani marketer”.
After reading
Critically discuss the following questions
1. Have you tried or would you like to apply for Bolashak scholarship? Why? Why not?
2. What makes you an interesting candidate for the scholarship?
3. Do you think it is worth applying for Bolashak Scholarship program? Why? Why not?
4. Is Bolashak Scholarship program the embodiment of Kazakhstani students’ dream?
5. Do you think our government can pin hopes on Bolashak recipients?
6. What are the priorities of Bolashak Scholarship program?
Reading 3
1. A. Look at the headline of the article. What do you think this article is going to be about?
B. Read the first and the last paragraphs and the first sentence of the article. What do you think this passage is going to be about?
C. Now quickly scan the passage and circle all the words that have a connection to the title.
D. Scan the passage and cross out all the words you do not know. And try to guess the shortenings and abbreviations which are used in the text for what they stand for.
E. After looking at the headline and the first paragraph, make up some questions you think this article might answer.
F. What kind of article is this? Why would somebody read this? For information? For pleasure or any other reasons?
Early Childhood Education
New Zealand's National Pony spokesman on education, Dr Lockwood Smith, recently visited the US and Britain. Here he reports on the findings of his trip and what they could mean for New Zealand's education policy
A. 'Education To Be More' was published last August. It was the report of the New Zealand Government's Early Childhood Care and Education Working Group. The report argued for enhanced equity of access and better funding for childcare and early childhood education institutions. Unquestionably, that's a real need; but since parents don't normally send children to pre-schools until the age of three, are we missing out on the most important years of all?
B. A 13-year study of early childhood development at Harvard University has shown that, by the age of three, most ordinary conversation for the rest of their lives.
Furthermore, research has shown that while every child is born with a natural curiosity, it can be suppressed dramatically during the second and third years of life. Researchers claim that the human personality is formed during the first two years of life, and during the first three years children learn the basic skills they will use in all their later learning both at home and at school. Once over the age of three, children continue to expand on existing knowledge of the world.
C. It is generally acknowledged that young people from poorer socio-economic backgrounds tend to do less well in our education system. That's observed not just in New Zealand, but also in Australia, Britain and America. In an attempt to overcome that educational under-achievement, a nationwide programme called 'Headstart' was launched in the United States in 1965. A lot of money was poured into it. It took children into pre-school institutions at the age of three and was supposed to help the children of poorer families succeed in school.
Despite substantial funding, results have been disappointing. It is thought that there are two explanations for this. First, the programme began too late. Many children who entered it at the age of three were already behind their peers in language and measurable intelligence. Second, the parents were not involved. At the end of each day, 'Headstart' children returned to the same disadvantaged home environment.
D.As a result of the growing research evidence of the importance of the first three years of a child's life and the disappointing results from 'Headstart', a pilot programme was launched in Missouri in the US that focused on parents as the child's first teachers. The 'Missouri' programme was predicated on research showing that working with the family, rather than bypassing the parents, is the most effective way of helping children get off to the best possible start in life. The four-year pilot study included 380 families who were about to have their first child and who represented a cross-section of socio-economic status, age and family configurations. They included single-parent and two-parent families, families in which both parents worked, and families with either the mother or father at home. The programme involved trained parent-educators visiting the parents' home and working with the parent, or parents, and the child. Information on child development, and guidance on things to look for and expect as the child grows were provided, plus guidance in fostering the child's intellectual, language, social and motor-skill development. Periodic check-ups of the child's educational and sensory development (hearing and vision) were made to detect possible handicaps that interfere with growth and development. Medical problems were referred to professionals.
Parent-educators made personal visits to homes and monthly group meetings were held with other new parents to share experience and discuss topics of interest. Parent resource centres, Located in school buildings, offered learning materials for families and facilitators for child care.
E. At the age of three, the children who had been involved in the 'Missouri' programme were evaluated alongside a cross-section of children selected from the same range of socio-economic backgrounds and Family situations, and also a random sample of children that age. The results were phenomenal.
By the age of three, the children in the programme were significantly more advanced in language development than their peers, had made greater strides in problem solving and other intellectual skills, and were Further along in social development. In fact, the average child on the programme was performing at the level of the top 15 to 20 per cent of their peers in such things as auditory comprehension, verbal ability and language ability.
Most important of all, the traditional measures of 'risk', such as parents' age and education, or whether they were a single parent, bore little or no relationship to the measures of achievement and language development. Children in the programme performed equally well regardless of scio-economic disadvantages.
Child abuse was virtually eliminated. The one factor that was found to affect the child's development was family stress leading to a poor quality of parent-child interaction. That interaction was not necessarily bad in poorer families.
F. These research findings are exciting. There is growing evidence in New Zealand that children from poorer socio-economic backgrounds are arriving at school less well developed and that our school system tends to perpetuate that disadvantage. The initiative outlined above could break that cycle of disadvantage.
The concept of working with parents in their homes, or at their place of work, contrasts quite markedly with the report of the Early Childhood Care and Education Working Group. Their focus is on getting children and mothers access to childcare and institutionalised early childhood education.
Education from the age of three to five is undoubtedly vital, but without a similar Focus on parent education and on the vital importance of the first three years, some evidence indicates that it will not be enough to overcome educational inequity.
2. Discuss with your partner which paragraph contains the following information and state your decision.
details of the range of family types involved in an education programme
reasons why a child's early years are so important
reasons why an education programme failed
a description of the positive outcomes of an education programme
3. Discuss with your partner and classify the following features as characterizing
the 'Headstart' programme
the 'Missouri' programme
both the 'Headstart' and the 'Missouri' programmes
neither the `Headstart' nor the 'Missouri' programme
4. Discuss in a group if the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1 and state your choice.
Most 'Missouri' programme three-year-olds scored highly in areas such as listening, speaking, reasoning and interacting with others.
'Missouri' programme children of young, uneducated, single parents scored less highly on the tests.
The richer families in the 'Missouri' programme had higher stress levels.
5. Mini-Debate: Group A strongly believe higher education will get better in the future; group B strongly believe not. 
II. Watching activity
Watching

http://www.euronews.com/2013/04/18/education-funding-gap-in-europe/
1. You are going to watch a video about Education funding gap in Europe. Now look at the following words which you will hear in the video and anticipate what the video is going to be about.
Europe’s higher education 
cuts and fee
ever-rising costs
new facilities and research
The European Union 
OECD 
public and private funding
budget battle
tuition
privatisation of education
2. What does OECD stand for?
3. Discuss the following issues:
The idea of privatizing education and the right to education in different countries
Policy of privatizing education and the impact of the development of private education on inequalities
The issues of public school teachers teaching in private schools and inequalities being created by privatization.
4. Watch the first two minutes of the video and fill in the gaps.
Europe’s higher education is in a tight squeeze – between students fighting 1. ________ cuts and fee increases, and the 2.__________ costs for teachers, new facilities and 3.___________.
The European Union ranks below the OECD average in both public and private 4.__________ of higher learning, and part of the budget 5. ___________ in the European Parliament is the fight for more money for education.
But there is also a trend toward so-called 6. ___________: an increasing number of EU member states are raising tuition and fees. The OECD has long called for more research 7.___________ with the private sector in Europe, as is done in the US.
Critics say such a solution means 8. ___________ academia to market forces – a 9.____________ of education, which, they say, should be a right for all, not just the 10.__________ few.
5. Watch the whole video again and do the following tasks.
a) While watching the video take notes of precise information as much as possible.
b) Using your notes complete the table below.
What does each speaker think about the following issues?
Issues Doris Pack, Chair of the Parliament’s Culture and Education Committee and a member of the EPP Group Lesley Wilson, General Secretary of the European University Association, representing higher education institutions in 47 countries Barbara Ischinger, Director for Education and Skills at the OECD a forum of 34 industrialised nations
Students’ tuition fee Budget battle at the European parliament Cutting the education funding Privatization of education universities and private funding Web-based learning Panacea for the problem of universities
6. After watching the video answer the questions below?
Should education be a right after all? Is it wrong to make students pay tuition?
Do you think government is giving enough of this priority? Are they changing education?
What about the budget battle at the European parliament? Is there any chance that there could be more money for education?
Is financial crisis a justification to cut education funding?
Is there a danger here that we are selling out privatization of education?
Don’t you think there is a danger that some universities are becoming more reliant on private funding?
What about the web-based learning? Do you think it seems panacea for the problem we are facing now?
Isn’t this making some bricks in modern institutions obsolete?
How much do you think that traffic will bear as far as raising tuition fees?
7. Mini-Debate: Group A strongly believe that Education is a public good, and it’s the responsibility of the government to provide quality education for all; group B strongly believe that a privatisation of education is a good idea. 
6. Give your recommendations relevant to the issue of privatization and the strengthening of the public education system in general
FOCUS ON SPEAKING

Part 1 (3 minutes)
Ask your partner about his or her attitude to education.
Candidate A:
Questions that may be addressed to the partner:
How important do you think education is?
Do you think you had a good education?
Was there a high standard of education at your schools?
Do you think the quality of education is slipping?
What do you think of the idea of all education being online?
What would the world be like if everyone had access to a good education?
Does your government really care about education?
Candidate B:
Questions that may be addressed to the partner:
What is a good education?
In which country do you think you can receive the best education?
Is the level of education in your country good?
What would you like to change about the education system of your country?
What kind of experience and qualifications do you think a government’s education minister/secretary needs?
What do you think Mark Twain meant when he said, “never let school interfere with your education”?
What do you think of the idea of lifelong education?
Part 2 (1 minute)
Candidate A:
Give your points of view on globalization of education. You may talk on:
what globalization is
the concept of a global village and its relation with education practice
what ‘the internationalisation of education’ mean
how globalization improved teaching and learning process
effects of globalization on education
changes education is undergoing under the effects of globalization
Candidate B:
Give your points of view on academic mobility ners faceest sucessful ng processs. You may talk on:
academic mobility in a changing world
impacts of academic mobility on the development of students’ skills and competence
advantages and disadvantages of academic mobility
how well academic mobility of students is organized in your institution
how studying abroad affect students from the educational, cultural, social and religious perspectives
how academic mobility contributes to the cultivation of students’ creativity
Part 3 (3 or 4 minutes)
Share your points of view on the following topic.
Discussion topic:
Some believe that globalization on education is an invaluable opportunity for the people of the developing countries to raise their skills and standards of education. Others fear that it is merely a modern version of cultural imperialism that will lead to the creation of a universal, ultimately Western society. Which view point do you support? And why?
FOCUS ON WRITING

1. Create ten critical thinking questions which you might ask Bolashak scholarship holders about studying abroad and its privileges
-1397001397002. Statement of purpose:

Imagine you are going to apply for Bolashak scholarship
program on the specialty you are interested in. Write your
own statement of purpose about why you would like to
apply for the scholarship following the tips below.
Tips on writing a statement of purpose
Things which all admission committees want to see in the application:
Structure
First paragraph – Describe Academic Background and Work Experience. It would be a mistake to talk about your high school. Start with your undergraduate career. School records may be worth mentioning if there is something extraordinary about them.
Second paragraph – Describe the general areas of research that interest you and why, what you would like to study or research.
Third paragraph – Describe some research projects that you worked on. Tell them what you found, what you learned, what approaches you tried. It’s fine to say that you were unable to prove what you wanted or to solve your problem.
Fourth paragraph – Tell them why you feel you need a Master degree, or Ph.D.. Look back to section what in there appealed to you.
Fifth paragraph – Tell them what would be your contribution to your country after you finish your study abroad.
Pay attention to the following points as well
Continuity. Admission committees are looking for some continuity in what you have done, what you want to do in the near future and what you hope to do in the distant future. So, connect them.
Commitment and Motivation. Rather than simply saying ‘I am committed’, find a way of inferring that you are indeed highly committed and motivated to your proposed field of study.
Communication Skills. They will be looking at your writing skills - how well you can present yourself clearly and intelligently when writing, hence the importance of spending considerable time on the statement.
Writing style
Write simply, not in a flowery and complicated manner.
Write in a straightforward way. In other words don’t be subtle or cute. Write in a clear and logical manner. If you have to be creative, that is fine, but do so in a straightforward way. These people are really interested in your vocation. They don’t want to read something that is in the form of one act plays nor do they want to read three adjectives per noun. They want you to be direct and straightforward.
Be clear in what you are saying. Make sure you are logical. Explain yourself with great clarity. Finally, most important of all, be specific, not vague. Don’t say - ‘My grades were quite good’ but say ‘I belonged to the top 5% of my class’. Don’t say - ‘I am interested in sports’. Say ‘I was captain of my hockey team’. Don’t say ‘I like poetry’. Say ‘I did a study of Shakespeare’s sonnets and wrote a twelve-page bachelor’s degree dissertation on Imagery’.
-402590641353. HOME ASSIGNMENT
VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google’s search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about the higher education issues all over the world. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
Write a magazine article about critical issues of higher education in Kazakhstan.
The research team is conducting a survey among students from different countries on the education system in their country. You are also asked to write a report on the pros and cons of the educational system in your country.

PROJECT MODELLING

In groups of four people conduct a SWOT analysis for shifting to 12-year schooling system using the tips below.
Before conducting a SWOT analysis search for some information about the 12-year education program in Kazakhstan and critically discuss it with your partners
A SWOT analysis for education is a tool that can provide prompts to the top officials, education staff and management teachers involved in the analysis of what is effective and less effective in the schools systems and procedures, in preparation for a plan of some form.
In fact a SWOT can be used for any planning or analysis activity which could impact future finance, planning and management decisions. It can enable you to carry out a more comprehensive analysis.

Definitions
Strengths – Factors that are likely to have a positive effect on (or be an enabler to) achieving the objectives of the 12-year schooling system (project)
Weaknesses – Factors that are likely to have a negative effect on (or be a barrier to) achieving the objectives
Opportunities – External Factors that are likely to have a positive effect on achieving or exceeding the objectives, or goals not previously considered
Threats – External Factors and conditions that are likely to have a negative effect on achieving the objectives, or making the objective redundant or un-achievable.
UNIT 2. EDUCATION AND SCIENCE
Communication area: social

2
Recent scientific achievements. Advances in information technology
LEAD-IN

1. Look at the following quotations given by the people representing different fields of science. What similarities and differences can you find in their opinions about science?
2. Comment on the following quotations:
Science is not only a disciple of reason but, also, one of romance and passion. Stephen HawkingTo raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science. Albert EinsteinScience is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge. Carl SaganScience never solves a problem without creating ten more. George Bernard ShawScience is the great antidote to the poison of enthusiasm and superstition. Adam SmithTo me there has never been a higher source of earthly honor or distinction than that connected with advances in science. Isaac Newton3. Try to create your own quotation about science and technology.
4. Discuss the following frequently asked questions about science and technology?
What is the difference between science and technology?
What are some of the greatest technological achievements?
In your opinion,what is the greatest technological invention? Why?
What do you think are the three most important or interesting inventions since 1991?
Do you think people should be allowed to clone people or organs of people? Why?
What do you think robots should be used for?
Do you think robots will cause unemployment (loss of jobs) in the future or make more work? Why?
VOCABULARY ZONE

1. Look at the words in the box and discuss their meaning
A side effect Genetic Engineering/Modification
Gadget advance device Clone Cyber
innovation computer literate High-Tech/Hi-Tech
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
Breakthrough digital native
2. Fill in the appropriate word from the wordlist above.
1. ______________ An extra, usually bad, occurrence caused by taking a drug
2. ______________ Changing the structure of the genes of a living thing in order to make it healthier or stronger or more useful to humans
3. ________________ A plant or animal which has the same genes as the original from which it was produced
4. ________________ the introduction of new things, ideas or ways of doing sth
5. ________________ Plants, animals or microorganisms that have changed through genetic engineering
6. ________________ A prefix for things related to computers, especially the internet
7. _______________ Using the most advanced and developed machines and methods
8. ________________ progress or a development in a particular activity or area of understanding
9. _________________ an important development that may lead to an agreement or achievement
10. ________________ something fairly small that allows you to complete a task
11. _____________ a small tool or device that does sth useful3. Make up five sentences using the words in ex. 1.
4. Here are some adjectives that can be used with the theme “science and technology”. In pairs discuss their meanings and try to add other adjectives.
Cutting-edge
State-of-the-art
Modern
Labour-saving
Advanced
Outdated
5. a) Look at the most interesting neologisms drawn from the digital world and consider the field of their usage.
b) Discuss the peculiarities of translating these words and try translate them into Kazakh/Russian languages
c) Search for some other news words in science and technology on the Internet



6. Work in small groups. Critically think about technology of the modern world and try to list their advantages and disadvantages
Disadvantages
Advantages

7. Working in small groups discuss the following questions:
Do you think using cell phones too much is bad for our physical or mental health? Why?
If you could copy your brain for future generations, would you?
What social changes have cell phones made?
What are good and bad points of using computers?
Do you think to stop global warming that the amount of car driving should be limited or changed?
In your life time what changes have you seen in your environment for better or worse?
Do you think modern technology reduces or increases stress? Why?
Do you think money should be spent to explore space or is it better spent helping people on earth? Why?
8. Translate the following passages according to the theme into Kazakh/Russian.
Chile’s recent efforts in promoting networks between its think tanks and their foreign peers focused on science and technology is certainly a model that other countries (and international agencies like the TTI, the Think Tank Fund and others) would do good to follow.
The history of science and technology indicates that the latest and newest modes of communication and transportation do not liquidate the need for earlier forms but become a value-added phenomenon.
While supersonic jet travel may make sense at the level of great global distances, conventional jets at subsonic speeds may work more economically at shorter national levels
It is hard to predict just how people will apportion their time in this new world. There is also the problem of how many will be excluded. The new technology provides so many options that a new paradigm will evolve in terms of how an individual makes decisions about apportioning his time and energy, rather than how interests are narrowed down.
The political problem during the final years of the 20th century lies not in the amount of scientific information and material available but in how to recognize and gain access to the value and significance of so much data.
The new technology permits a higher level of interactional involvement. One can confirm or disconfirm exact information, test propositions, and develop comparabilities not envisioned by the author or the original source in the comfort of one’s home. In discussing confirmation we generally are considering factual rather than interpretative information.
FOCUS ON LISTENING

Before listening to the recording about Nanotechnology do the following tasks
1. Walk around the class and talk to other students about nanotechnology. Change partners often.
2. Debate the issue in groups and share with class
Students A strongly believe scientists will solve all of the world’s problems one day; Students Bstrongly believe they won’t.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
3. NANO-MOTOR: What are the best uses for it? Rank these and share your rankings with your partner. Put the best at the top. Change partners and share your rankings again.
Surgery
More powerful computers
Weapons
Miniaturization of household goods Space travel
e-Commerce and shopping
Transport
Robots
4. Listen to the recording about Nanotechnology and discuss with your partner if the following statements are true or false
Scientists have made the second-smallest motor ever invented
The motor was made with just a single molecule
The molecule in the motor has a width of a millionth of a metre
The motor is 200 times smaller than the current world-record holder
Scientists can also make molecules create movement from light
Sykes’ creation is the third molecule device to be accepted as a motor
Dr Sykes’ molecule motor spins at a rate of 50 times a second
Next, Dr Sykes will make cog wheels for the world’s smallest watch

5. Write five GOOD questions about nanotechnology in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper.
When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.
  STUDENT 1
_____________ STUDENT 2
_____________ STUDENT 3
_____________
Q.1.      
Q.2.      
Q.3.      
Q.4.      
Q.5.      
6. Now return to your original partner and share and talk about what you found out. Change partners often.
7. Make mini-presentations to other groups on your findings.
8. Discuss in small groups
When do you think nanotechnology will be a widely used part of our life?
How might nanotechnology help medicine?
Why do you think people are interested in nanotechnology?
How might nanotechnology change things like computers and iPads?
FOCUS ON READING

Reading 1
1. Look at the “word cloud” containing words that appear more frequently in the article and predict what the article is going to be about.

2. Read the first and last paragraphs and say what specific information it gives you
3. Now read the whole article. What extra information did you get?
4. Did it change your idea of what you thought the article was about?
Advocating for U.S. investment in science and technology
To make new scientific discoveries, scientists need two things: time and money. One entity that supports discovery through basic research and the time horizon to accomplish it is the federal government.
“Basic research reveals and explains the natural world, from subatomic particles, to the function of the cell, to the structure of the universe,” says Maria T. Zuber, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Vice President for Research and the E.A. Griswold Professor of Geophysics. “Even when a basic research result enables a breakthrough product or helps humankind, the payoff is far down stream. The possible utility of a discovery is most often not known at the onset.”
Zuber, who oversees more than a dozen of MIT’s largest research centers including the Research Laboratory for Electronics and the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, is also responsible for research administration and policy. She represents MIT’s research interests in Washington, D.C., and advocates for investment in science and technology at the federal level. In 2012 President Obama appointed Zuber to the National Science Board.
Federal agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), offer grants in basic research to universities and research centers through a competitive, peer-reviewed process. Competition for federal grants is increasing; the funding rate for some agencies is now around 10 percent. Even so, federal agencies are able to fund big projects that answer big questions in a way that science philanthropy or foundations are not set up to do.
For example, 75 percent of philanthropic investment in science is toward medical and biological research, with the majority of this support focused on disease-specific cures. But basic biology research may study the fundamental function of a cell and produce a discovery that leads to an understanding of how an array of diseases, like cancer or Alzheimer’s, develop — and then, how they might be cured. With increasing cuts in the federal budget, Zuber appreciates how philanthropy is covering some of the shortfall, but says it is no substitute for federal funding. “Without continued investment our progress in science and technology will surely decelerate, and so will our economy and quality of life.”
Federal investments in basic research have created the technologies and the markets associated with them for many things we take for granted today. Consider smartphone features, such as GPS, touchscreens, speech recognition, LED lighting, all developed out of federally funded initiatives. “Society is now benefiting from investments in basic research made in preceding decades. Knowledge of basic physics led to the development of radar which was crucial in World War II; advances in the life sciences have resulted in a dramatic increase in human life expectancy, almost doubling from the early 1900s,” reports Zuber.
“There are many mysteries in the world around and beyond us — from the deep structure of Earth’s interior to upper reaches of the atmosphere — for science to solve. We should explore the ocean beneath the surface of Europa, the methane lakes of Titan, the endless numbers of planets around other stars, the nature of dark matter and dark energy and how they relate to the origin of the universe. Closer to home, human health, from cancer to the function of the brain, the health of the planet, clean energy, and national security are examples of the many critically important issues MIT researchers are pursuing that will benefit from investments in basic research.”
At MIT, results from basic research can be on a fast track to practical applications. “Our scientists and technologists work side by side,” says Zuber. “Scientific discoveries can be rapidly embraced into engineering solutions. Our research enterprise and innovation ecosystems depend on the foundation provided by basic research.”
5. Answer the following questions.
What is the main idea of the article?
What is the intention of writer?
What scientific developments are mentioned in the article?
Do you agree with Zuber that “We should explore the ocean beneath the surface of Europa, the methane lakes of Titan, the endless numbers of planets around other stars, the nature of dark matter and dark energy and how they relate to the origin of the universe”? Why? Why not?
What does this “There are many mysteries in the world around and beyond us” imply?
5. a) Write five critical thinking questions about the article in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper.
b) When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.
  STUDENT 1
_____________ STUDENT 2
_____________ STUDENT 3
_____________
Q.1.      
Q.2.      
Q.3.      
Q.4.      
Q.5.      
c) Now return to your original partner and share and talk about what you found out. Change partners often.
d) Make mini-presentations to other groups on your findings.
6. Discuss the following questions
What do you think of when you hear the word “science”?
How has technology changed the world in the last ten years?
How do you think things might change in the next ten years?
Does scientific progress scare or excite you?
Theodore Roszak wrote, “nature composes some of her loveliest poems for the microscope and the telescope.” Do you agree?
What technology has changed your life the most?
Are there any famous inventors from your country? What did they invent?
What do you think is the best invention of your lifetime?
Adam Smith wrote, “science is the great antidote to the poison of enthusiasm and superstition.” What did he mean? Do you agree?
Reading 2
Before reading the text do the following tasks.
Answer the questions
What springs to mind when you hear the word ‘uranus’?
What do you know about uranus?
Do you think there is life on other planets?
What should scientists do if they find signs of life?
Look at the title of the text and say what the text might deal with.
Read the article and say if your expectations were right.
Copy out all the unknown words from the text.
Using the ‘word cloud ’ get the gist (main idea) of the text.

THE DISCOVERY OF URANUS
Someone once put forward an attractive though unlikely theory. Throughout the Earth's annual revolution around the sun there is one point of space always hidden from our eyes. This point is the opposite part of the Earth's orbit, which is always hidden by the sun. Could there be another planet there, essentially similar to our own, but always invisible?
If a space probe today sent back evidence that such a world existed it would cause not much more sensation than Sir William Herschel's discovery of a new planet, Uranus, in 1781. Herschel was an extraordinary man — no other astronomer has ever covered so vast a field of work — and his career deserves study. He was born in Hanover in Germany in 1738, left the German army in 1757, and arrived in England the same year with no money but quite exceptional music ability. He played the violin and oboe and at one time was organist in the Octagon Chapel in the city of Bath. Herschel's was an active mind, and deep inside he was conscious that music was not his destiny; he therefore read widely in science and the arts, but not until 1772 did he come across a book on astronomy. He was then 34, middle-aged by the standards of the time, but without hesitation he embarked on his new career, financing it by his professional work as a musician. He spent years mastering the art of telescope construction, and even by present-day standards his instruments are comparable with the best.
Serious observation began 1774. He set himself the astonishing task of 'reviewing the heavens', in other words, pointing his telescope to every accessible part of the sky and recording what he saw. The first review was made in 1775; the second, and most momentous, in 1780-81. It was during the latter part of this that he discovered Uranus. Afterwards, supported by the royal grant in recognition of his work, he was able to devote himself entirely to astronomy. His final achievements spread from the sun and moon to remote galaxies (of which he discovered hundreds), and papers flooded from his pen until his death in 1822. Among these there was one sent to the Royal Society in 1781, entitled An Account of a Comet. In his own words:
 On Tuesday the 13th of March, between ten and eleven in the evening, while I was examining the small stars in the neighbourhood of H Geminorum, I perceived one that appeared visibly larger than the rest; being struck with its uncommon magnitude, I compared it to H Geminorum and the small star in the quartile between Auriga and Gemini, and finding it to be much larger than either of them, suspected it to be a comet.
Herschel's care was the hallmark of a great observer; he was not prepared to jump any conclusions. Also, to be fair, the discovery of a new planet was the last thought in anybody's mind. But further observation by other astronomers besides Herschel revealed two curious facts. For comet, it showed a remarkably sharp disc; furthermore, it was moving so slowly that it was thought to be a great distance from the sun, and comets are only normally visible in the immediate vicinity of the sun. As its orbit came to be worked out the truth dawned that it was a new planet far beyond Saturn's realm, and that the 'reviewer of the heavens' had stumbled across an unprecedented prize. Herschel wanted to call it georgium sidus (Star of George) in honour of his royal patron King George III of Great Britain. The planet was later for a time called Herschel in honour of its discoverer. The name Uranus, which was first proposed by the German astronomer Johann Elert Bode, was in use by the late 19th century.
Uranus is a giant in construction, but not so much in size; its diameter compares unfavourably with that of Jupiter and Saturn, though on the terrestrial scale it is still colossal. Uranus' atmosphere consists largely of hydrogen and helium, with a trace of methane. Through a telescope the planet appears as a small bluish-green disc with a faint green periphery. In 1977, while recording the occultation 1 of a star behind the planet, the American astronomer James L. Elliot discovered the presence of five rings encircling the equator of Uranus. Four more rings were discovered in January 1986 during the exploratory flight of Voyager 2 2 , In addition to its rings, Uranus has 15 satellites ('moons'), the last 10 discovered by Voyager 2 on the same flight; all revolve about its equator and move with the planet in an east—west direction. The two largest moons, Titania and Oberon, were discovered by Herschel in 1787. The next two, Umbriel and Ariel, were found in 1851 by the British astronomer William Lassell. Miranda, thought before 1986 to be the innermost moon, was discovered in 1948 by the American astronomer Gerard Peter Kuiper.
Glossary:  'Occultation' : in astronomy, when one object passes in front of another and hides the second from view, especially, for example, when the moon comes between an observer and a star or planet.   'Voyager 2'  : an unmanned spacecraft sent on a voyage past Saturn, Uranus and Jupiter in 1986; during which it sent back information about these planets to scientists on earth.
Read the text and complete the table below.
6. According to the text what discoveries were made in the following years?
Year Discoveries
1738 1772 1781 1787 1977 1986 7. Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer of the text? If Yes, explain it with examples from the text.
Herschel was multi-talented
It is improbable that there is a planet hidden behind the sun.
Herschel knew immediately that he had found a new planet.
Herschel collaborated with other astronomers of his time.
Herschel's newly-discovered object was considered to be too far from the sun to be a comet.
Herschel's discovery was the most important find of the last three hundred years.
8. Complete each of the following statements (Questions 1-4) with a name from the text.The suggested names of the new planet started with 1. ................, then  2........ ......., before finally settling on Uranus. The first five rings around Uranus were discovered by 3................. From 1948 until 1986, the moon  4................ was believed to be the moon closest to the surface of Uranus.
9. Discuss the questions below
What do you think the chances are of finding a planet similar to Earth?
What kind of people do you think space scientists are?
What other historical landmarks in space exploration do you know of?
Do you think governments should spend money on space exploration?
10. Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.
Share your questions with other classmates / groups.
Ask your partner / group your questions.
11. Work in groups. Critically analyze and discuss the latest news about technology, new trends of robotics and modern inventions. After the discussion prepare a critical review.
FOCUS ON SPEAKING

Part 1
Ask your partner about his or her attitude to the impacts of science and technology, recent scientific advances and problems caused by new technology.
Candidate A:
Questions that may be addressed to the partner:
Do you feel comfortable with the idea of Artificial Intelligence (that robots can think)?
Do you think the stereotype of the 'mad scientist' is true?
Does the potential that science has to change the world scare you?
How will science change the world in the next 100 years?
What changes would you like to see science make to the world?
Candidate B:
Questions that may be addressed to the partner:
Do you think that one day science will find a way to make people live forever? If so, do you think that that would be a good or a bad thing?
How have technological advances affected our life?
Do you think technological advances are always good?
Or can they sometimes be bad and harmful?
How have technological advances affected communication/ how we receive news/ the medical field/ education?
Part 2 (1 minute)
Candidate A:
Give your points of view on science and technology. You may talk on:
the recent scientific discoveries
the greatest technological achievements
the impact of technological achievements on our life
advantages and disadvantages of modern technology
negative effects of technology on climate change
Candidate B:
Give your points of view on translation and technology ners faceest sucessful ng processs. You may talk on:
the impact of information technology on translation profession
benefits and drawbacks of technology for translators and interpreters
risks of unemployment might be caused by technological developments in translation sphere
how to use effectively modern information technology in translation
Part 3 (3 or 4 minutes)
Share your points of view on the following topic.
Discussion topic:
Discuss the following issue
“Importance of promoting investment in the development of science and technology in Kazakhstan”.
Discuss the following issues in groups and share with class.
“Translators will be replaced by computers”
“Nanotechnology: are we ready for that?”
FOCUS ON WRITING

1. Write a magazine article about whether or not it is worth it to spend money on space exploration. Include imaginary interviews with NASA’s space science boss Ed Weiler and some poor people who have little money for food, healthcare and education.
2. Write an argumentative essay on the given statements:
a) Innovation is of importance not only for increasing the wealth of nations in the narrow sense of increased prosperity, but also in the more fundamental sense of enabling people to do things which have never been done before. It enables the whole quality of life to be changed for better or for worse”
b) “Intangible investment in new knowledge and its dissemination are the critical elements, rather than tangible investment in bricks and machines”
3. Write a report on the following topics
“Ten great scientific discoveries in the last 10 years”
PROJECT MODELLING
03810 As a project work get prepared for a Toastmaster’s meeting in which the appointed speakers will be making a speech on the topic “Great scientific discoveries in the last 10 years that have changed our life”
Meeting procedure
Sergeant-at-Arms (SA) (name________________) prepares room for meeting.
SA opens meeting and introduces Presiding Officer (PO).
Presiding Officer (name________________) makes preliminary remarks and introduces guests.
PO introduces Toastmaster of the Evening (TME) (name________________) and explains TME’s duties.
TME introduces the following people, who explain briefly in turn their duties.
(a) Grammarian (name________________)
(b) Ah-Counter (name________________)
(c) Timer (name________________)
(d) General Evaluator (GE) (name________________) and GE introduces Speech Evaluators.
TME introduces prepared speakers, giving brief comments about the speakers
and topic.
Prepared Speakers (three or four) speak on topics, usually for 5 to 7 minutes.
After each speaker is finished, TME introduces Table Topics Master (name________________)
Table Topics Master (TTM) describes topic and selects person who has no role in the meeting to answer.
After that TTM turns control of meeting back to TME.
TME calls for Timer’s (name________________) report on Prepared Speakers’ times.
Speech Evaluators comment in turn on Prepared Speakers. Evaluators have two to three minutes evaluation time
GE calls for Grammarian’s report
GE calls for Ah-counter’s report
GE calls for Timer’s report on Evaluators.
TME calls for vote on Best Prepared Speaker.
GE calls for vote on Best Evaluator.
GE evaluates the evaluators and the meeting.
GE turns control of meeting back over to PO.
PO gives awards to Best Table Topics Speaker, Best Prepared Speaker, and Best Evaluator.
PO asks guests for feedback about the meeting
UNIT 1: CULTURE
Communication area: social
1

World of music and songs. Theatre, opera, ballet and film.
Main trends in the fine arts
LEAD-IN

1. Comment on the following quotations and sayings:
A painter paints pictures on canvas. But musicians paint their pictures on silence. ~ Leopold Stokowski
Music washes away from the soul the dust of everyday life. ~ Berthold Auerbach
All deep things are song. It seems somehow the very central essence of us, song; as if all the rest were but wrappages and hulls! ~Thomas Carlyle
If the King loves music, it is well with the land. ~Mencius
Without music life would be a mistake. ~Friedrich Nietzsche
The best teachers, one hopes, don't shout at their students - because they are skilled at wooing as well as demanding the best efforts of others. For the ancient Greeks and Romans, this wooing was a sufficiently fine art in itself to be the central focus of education. ~ Tom ChatfieldFine art is knowledge made visible. ~ Gustave Courbet2. Discuss the following questions
What springs to mind when you hear the word ‘music’?
What does music mean to you?
What would life be like without music?
How have your musical tastes changed since when you were a kid?
What music can change the way you feel?
Where does the best music come from, the USA, UK or other?
Is the Internet helping or hindering musicians?
Do you agree with Shakespeare that music is the food of love?
Does your government really care about music, theatre, opera and fine art?
3. Work in a group. Students walk around the class and talk to other students about the world of music. Change partners often and share your findings.
VOCABULARY ZONE

1. Discuss the following words with your teacher and class.
accordion
alto
banjo
baritone
bass
bassoon
beat
cello
chord
clarinet
clef
composer
composition
cymbal
drum
flat
flute
guitar
harmonica
harp
horn
instrument
lyrics
mandolin
melody
musician
notes
oboe
octave
opera
organ
piano
piccolo
rhythm
saxophone
sing
singer
song
soprano
tempo
tenor
trombone
trumpet
tuba
tune
viola
violin
xylophone
2. Play the Game: Pass the parcel using the words above
This is 'pass the parcel' with vocabulary - a variation on defining words. This is a good revision activity and helps to foster a lively group atmosphere.
Write down a selection of words the students have learned during the term on pieces of card and put them in a bag.
Ask the students to sit in a circle. Stand outside the circle and control the tape recorder / CD player.
Play the tape / CD. As music plays, ask the students to pass around the vocabulary bag.
Stop the tape / CD at intervals during the song.
When the music stops playing, the student who has the bag has to select a word from the bag and define the word to the other students.
The student who guesses the word keeps the card and the game continues.
The person who has the most cards at the end wins! If the student doesn't know how to define the word, it can be replaced with another or put back in the bag. Obviously the latter isn't a good idea when there are only a few words left!
3. Make up five sentences using the words above.
4. Translate the following extracts taken from the article into Kazakh/Russian.
UNESCO Collection of Traditional Music of the World
4464050 The UNESCO Collection of Traditional Music of
the World included more than a hundred pioneering audio recordings of the world’s traditional music published from 1961 to 2003 on
a number of different recording labels. The series
was launched in 1961 in collaboration with ethnomusicologist Alain Daniélou (1907-1994)
and the International Music Council (created by UNESCO in 1949).
The UNESCO Collection was composed
of several subseries of recordings published on LP vinyl records and produced, published and distributed by different labels and companies:
Musical Sources,
Musical Atlas,
A Musical Anthology of the Orient,
An Anthology of African Music and the
Anthology of North Indian Classical Music.
The recordings in the Collection are mostly field recordings made in situ, in their original context. Each recording was accompanied by scholarly annotations and photographs. Together, these disks are a reflection of the immense variety of music making and of the position music holds within cultures around the globe.
From the beginning of the 1990s, most of these recordings were reissued on CD by the label Auvidis, which later became Naïve. Until 2003, a total of 115 CD titles were released. These reissues, new issues and compilations were made available under five new series:
Music and Musicians of the World,
Anthology of Traditional Music,
Traditional Music of Today,
Celebration Collection and
Listening to the World.
Since the termination of the collaboration with Naïve in 2005, UNESCO established a new partnership with Smithsonian Institution in 2009 to make more than 100 albums of the Collection spanning more than 70 nations on every continent available to the general public. This project will for the first time make these recordings, including 12 previously unreleased albums, available on CD, digital download, streaming services, and library subscription
GRAMMAR ZONE


1. Choose the best word to fill the spaces.
Legal fight hits music pirates
The global recording industry has launched its largest wave of legal  1. __________ against people suspected of sharing music files on the internet. The latest move by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) 2.__________ 2,100 alleged uploaders using peer-to-peer (P2P) networks in 16 nations  3.___________  the UK, France, Germany and Italy. Thousands of people have agreed to pay compensation since the campaign began. In the US, civil lawsuits have been brought against more than 15,597 people 4.____________  September 2003 and there have been 3,590 settlements. 'This is a significant escalation of our enforcement actions against people who are uploading and distributing  5._____________  music on p2p networks,' said IFPI chief John Kennedy. 'Thousands of people - mostly internet-savvy men in their 20s or 30s - have learnt to their 6._____________   the legal and financial risks involved in file-sharing copyrighted music in large quantities.' Individual cases are generally brought by the national associations 7.______________  the recording industry, and in some cases by the labels, as civil complaints. The UK record industry has so far brought 97 cases, with a  8.______________ 65 covered by the latest action. More than 140,000 in compensation has been paid to the British Phonographic Industry by 71 individuals.
Put the correct words from the table below in the above article.
A. action B. activity C. acting D. acts
A. aimed B. targeted C. directed D. pointed
A. such B. with C. including D. throughout
A. during B. throughout C. since D. in
A. copyrighted B. registered C. trademark D. illegal
A. benefit B. charge C. cost D. fortune
A. for B. working C. representing D. inside
A. newly B. addition C. further D. another
2. Write one word in each gap
Music magazine has eye on China
US publication Rolling Stone magazine is to launch in China. The magazine, 1___________ should hit shelves early next year, will focus on China's emerging youth culture as well as foreign arts and entertainment. Rolling Stone 2__________ first published in San Francisco in 1967 to chronicle cultural changes in the US. "We feel Chinese music and arts are maturing rapidly and that a Chinese edition 3___________ be viable," said Jimmy Jung, of One World Publishing. Rolling Stone  4_________   licensed Hong Kong-based One World to publish the Chinese-language edition. Mr Jung said the magazine, to be printed in simplified Chinese characters, will contain a mix of local content 5___________ primarily by Beijing-based staff and translations of articles from the US edition. "We want to make 6___________ that we're faithful to the spirit of the brand," said Jung. He added that while Hong Kong and Taiwan had more developed pop cultures, mainland China was more important. "We feel China offers greater potential and we want to be there from the 7___________," said Jung, whose company also 8____________ Chinese editions of British car magazine, Top Gear and gadget magazine T3.
FOCUS ON LISTENING


You are going to listen to the news on the topic ‘First woman to conduct oldest music festival’. Do the following tasks.
1. Word Search: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words 'music' and 'festival'.
Music festival
 
 
 
Share your findings with your partners.
Make questions using the words you found.
Ask your partner / group your questions.
2. Listen to the news and fill in the gaps
A woman will conduct an orchestra at the world's oldest and biggest music festival for the first time (1) ____________. The BBC Proms started 118 years ago, (2) ____________92 concerts over 8 weeks, but have never had a female conductor. American Marin Alsop will take (3) ____________of the orchestra for the final concert – the (4) ____________Last Night of the Proms. This is a distinctly British (5) ____________to celebrate the "pomp and circumstance" of Britain. Ms Alsop told the BBC: "I think the fact that I'm an American woman, conducting the last night of the Proms is really a (6) ____________." Talking of her achievement, she said: "I'm extraordinarily (7) ____________to be the first woman, but I'm also sad that it's 2013 and there still can be (8) ____________for women."   legendaryfirstschargeeverstatementincludeoccasionproud
The director of the Proms Roger Wright said he was happy to be part of (9) ____________the "man's world" of conducting. He said: "Marin hasn't been (10) ____________because she is a woman conductor. She knows and loves the Proms." Ms Alsop said: "I always enjoy working with the British orchestral musicians and I'm particularly looking forward to (11) ____________with the audience, who play such a (12) ____________role in making this a night that is utterly (13) ____________and special. It is a great honour that I know will be a (14) ____________for me." She added: "The whole world is watching you. You're addressing the biggest (15) ____________of your career. It's the nearest a classical musician gets to an (16) ____________speech at the Oscars."   crucialhighlightchosenacceptancechanginginteractinguniqueaudience
3. After listening to the news answer the comprehension questions
1. How old is the music festival?
2. Which of the 92 concerts will Ms Alsop conduct?
3. How did Ms Alsop describe the occasion?
4. What was Ms Alsop proud of?
5. What was Ms Alsop sad about?
6. What was the director happy to be changing?
7. Why was Ms Alsop selected?
8. What is Ms Alsop looking forward to?
9. Who did Ms Alsop say would be watching her?
10. What did she liken conducting at the Proms to?
4. Work in small groups of 4 people and do the Role-play
Role  A – Traditionalist
You think a man should always conduct the world's oldest music festival. Tell the others three reasons why. Some traditions should never change. There are plenty more chances for women to conduct other orchestras.
Role  B – Normal person
You think it should be normal for a woman to conduct an orchestra. Tell the others three reasons why. You also think tradition is silly – it gets in the way of progress. You think Ms Alsop will do a better job than a man.
Role  C – Ms Alsop
You hate the fact that conducting is so male dominated. Tell the others three reasons why. You are shocked at why there have been so few women conductors and composers in history. You are shocked people want to stick to tradition – that only encourages sexism.
Role  D – Concert goer
You don't care whether a man or woman conducts the orchestra. Tell the others three reasons why. You think it's great Ms Alsop is conducting. You hope she is the first of many conductors. You know women will bring something new and wonderful to conducting.
FOCUS ON READING

Reading 1
Look at the picture and predict what the article is going to be about.
Explain the meanings of the next words: Rock and roll, classical music, jazz ,  Composer, lyricist, performer,  Symphony, concerto, opera ,  Cinemagoer, Jazz fan, dancer 
3. Discuss these questions
What kind of music do you like?
What do you think the world would be like without music?
Do you think your favorite music twenty years from now will be the same as it is today?
Now read the whole article. What extra information did you get?
Modern composers do not always want their music to sound pleasant
Some modern composers do not want their music to be enjoyable
Crossover music is when classical orchestras play modern tunes
Crossover music moves between musical genres
Crossover music is a modern musical genre
Performers, lyricists and composers each have a seperate function
Performers of a song will need to become lyricists
Composers instruct musicians to play their work 'con brio'.
5. Work in pairs. Discuss with your partner about the content of the text.
Brighton parents react with anger to music lesson cuts

In Brighton and Hove City Council said it Parents in Brighton have started a campaign to fight cuts to subsidised music lessons in schools.
Brighton and Hove City Council says it needs to reduce spending by £35m in two years and said the music service is not a priority.
However, parents have argued that children from poorer families will suffer most through by the decision.
The council claims it currently has the highest local authority music subsidy in England.
Keith Turvey, who is leading the campaign, said more than 1,700 people had signed a petition against the cuts.
"The cost of lessons to those who can currently afford it would have to be put up significantly," he said.
"There's a real risk this would simply price out many families from being able to afford lessons. Particularly families with a few children or more."
'Tough choices'
Green Party councillor Jason Kitcat, who is the cabinet member for finance at the council, said: "We completely appreciate what music and the arts does for the city - it's just a very tough decision.
"The government is cutting our budget by 33% over four years and we had to make some tough choices between care for disabled children, respite care for carers and other key services.
"We just couldn't find the cash to keep the subsidy at the current level for the music service."
What is music?
A. Music has probably existed for as long as man has been human, and it certainly predates civilization by tens of millenia. Yet even today there is no clear definition of exactly what music is. For example, birdsong is certainly melodic, but it is not tuneful, and it is not created with the intention of being musical (in fact it is sometimes meant to sound threatening) - therefore does it count as music?B. On the other hand, some modern composers have been challenging the idea that music should be arranged in a pleasant manner with the notes falling in an orderly succession. Others, famously the avant guarde composer John Cage have even used silence and called the result music. As a result there is no one definition of music. Perhaps it should be said that music, like beauty, is what the person who sees or hears it believes it to be.C. Music is divided in many ways. Music itself is split into notes, clefts, quavers, and semi-demi quavers. Ancient and medieval musicologists believed that these notes could be arranged 'horizontally' into melody (making notes that match on the same scale) and 'vertically' (going up and down the scales to create harmony). Another very basic measurement of music is the 'pulse'. This is present in almost all forms of music, and is particularly strong in modern popular music. The pulse is the regular beat which runs through a tune. When you tap your foot or clap your hands in time to a song, you are beating out the pulse of that song.D. Another way of dividing music is by genre. Even a child who does not know that (for example) rock and roll and classical music are different genres will be instantly aware that these are very different sounds; though he will not be aware that one is a percussion-led melody while the other emphasizes harmony over rhythm and timbre. Each genre of music has numerous sub-divisions. Classical music is divided by type - for example symphonies, concertos and operas, and by sub-genre, for example baroque and Gregorian chant. Just to make it more fun, modern musicians have also been experimenting with crossover music, so that we get Beatles tunes played by classical orchestras, and groups like Queen using operatic themes in songs such as 'Bohemian rhapsody'.E. Almost all music is a collaboration between the composer, and the performer, while song requires a lyricist to write the words as well. Sometimes old tunes are adapted for new lyrics - for example the song 'Happy Birthday' is based on a tune originally called 'Have a nice Day'. At other times a performer might produce a song in a manner which the original composer would not recognize. (A famous example is the punk rock band the Sex Pistols performing the British national anthem 'God save the Queen'.)F. This is because the composer and lyricist have to leave the performer some freedom to perform in the way that suits him or her best. While many classical compositions have notes stressing how a piece should be performed (for example a piece played 'con brio' should be light and lively) in the end, what the listener hears is the work of the performer. Jazz music has fully accepted this, and jazz performers are not only expected to put their own interpretation on a piece, but are expected to play even the same piece with some variation every time.G. Many studies of music do not take into account where the music is to be played and who the audience will be. This is a major mistake, as the audience is very much a part of the musical experience. Any jazz fan will tell you that jazz is best experienced in small smoky bars some time after midnight, while a classical fan will spend time and money making sure that the music on his stereo comes as close as possible to the sound in a large concert hall. Some music, such as dance music, is designed to be interactive, while other music is designed to remain in the background, smoothing out harsh sounds and creating a mood. This is often the case with cinema music - this powerfully changes the mood of the audience, yet remains so much in the background that many cinemagoers are unaware that the music is actually playing.H. Music is very much a part of human existence, and we are fortunate today in having music of whatever kind we choose instantly available at the touch of a button. Yet spare a thought for those who still cannot take advantage of this bounty. This includes not only the deaf, but those people who are somehow unable to understand or recognize music when they hear it. A famous example is United President Ulysses Grant, who famously said 'I can recognise two tunes. One is 'Yankee doodle' and the other one isn't.'
6. Answer the following questions.
What is the main idea of the article?
What is the intention of writer?
What scientific developments are mentioned in the article?
7.Make commentary to the following statements.
People can tell genres of music apart even without musical training.Where you hear music can be as important as the skill of the performer.Music has been a part of human existence for many thousands of years.  A piece of music might have more than one set of words to go with it. Some people cannot tell the difference between classical music and birdsong.
FOCUS ON SPEAKING

Part 1
Ask your partner about his or her attitude to music and culture of Kazakhstan and around the world.
Candidate A:
Questions that may be addressed to the partner:
1. Can you name the main features of music?
2. What is the role of music in our experience of being human??
3. What makes a great piece of music??
4. What have been your inspirations?
5. What is the relationship of music to language?
Candidate B:
Questions that may be addressed to the partner:
1. What is the role of different instruments in music?
2. What is the role of the composer in music?
3. Is genre an extension of culture?
4. How do you feel the concepts of aesthetic and beauty exist in music?
5. What is the relationship of music to the wider arts?
Part 2
Candidate A:
Give your points of view on the role of music for the people You may talk on:
- To what extent do you draw influence from areas outside music (such as politics, religion and so on)?
- To what extent does music influence politics, religion and other social phenomena?
- How have the internet and technology impacted music?
- How have the internet and technology impacted music?
- What would the world be like without music?
- Can one musical culture ever be regarded as superior to another culture?
- How do musical cultures interact, influence or interfere with each other?
-Are there different ways of "listening"?
-With training or effort, how differently might we be able to hear music?
-What is the relationship between music and the other arts?
Candidate B:
Give your points of view on music and culture in your country in comparison with other countriesners faceest sucessful ng processs. You may talk on:
Can we hear/understand the music of another culture in the same way as people from that culture do?
How do children become enculturated to a particular music?
Why do cultures or styles change?
How does the specific history of a culture influence future musical developments?
Does a music tell us something about the people who make it?
What role does music play in culture generally?
Are there limits to what music could be?
Part 3
Share your points of view on the following topic.
Role-play
Discuss with your partner on the problems and prospects of art represent in world culture. State out facing problems, and then suggest possible solutions on them.
FOCUS ON WRITING

1. Get introduced with the given instructions “How to write an art essay”
Examining Creativity
The thing that makes an art paper different than any other writing assignment you may encounter may also present you with your greatest writing challenges: when you are tested with how to write an art essay, you will be required to write an account of what you see and to justify your analysis of that art. Essentially, your task is to use words to explain images. From the beginning of learning how to write an art essay, you must be able to grapple with the language of the craft – you must be knowledgeable of the terms and precepts if are to learn how to write an art essay.
More significantly, when you are have become skilled at the task of how to write an art essay, you will be able to properly describe the image before you but also to offer a complete description, offering a valid defence for your perspective of the art. Your paper cannot contain just a random description of the various aspects of the artwork, whether it is a sculpture, building or painting. You need to know exactly what you will say regarding your particular topic, using your ability to both analyse accurately and to properly describe the artwork which you have selected to describe.
Types of Art Writings
If you following the writings of Sylvan Barnet, you will see that he has identified five primary types of art papers. When learning how to write an art essay, it is beneficial to use these different categories to best understand your instructor’s expectations with any of your possible assignments. Of course, if the assignment is at your discretion you may chose to utilise these writing types as a means of brainstorming or exploring the some ideas for the topic of your assignment.
The Sociological Essay examines a specific era in history and suggests how that particular era may have influenced the topic of your discussion. It is possible that your discussion will also raise some more generalised questions regarding social influences, including such topics as the impact of economics on the art, the challenges facing woman seeking recognition in the field, and so on. As an example, your essay may focus on the way the rural farm photography of Walker Evans may have influenced Roosevelt’s desire to develop the Farm Security Administration.
Image Writing (better known as iconography) is the type of writing that chooses to define images through the in depth exploration of the various symbols noted in an artwork selection. For instance, the author points to the subjects in Rembrandt’s “The Assassin” as likely citizens of Holland. But through a more critical examination of the symbols in the painting may actually reveal that the characters in the painting may indeed be recognised as saints.
Formal Analysis will ask the student who has decided to learn how to write an art essay to examine the more formal aspects of a piece of art, and from that to develop a dialogue regarding these parts in a unique or creative fashion to help others see and understand the artwork being examined.
Biographical Essays will allow the writer who has learned how to write an art essay to examine the artist’s personal life and how it influences his or her work. Barnet gives the example of how Ansel Adams had influenced the photographic career of Harry Callahan.
The Iconological Essay (study of an image) uses a variety of texts and literary examples to completely interpret a selected piece of art. As an example, the person who has learned how to write an art essay may chose to use ancient renditions of various Greek mythological tales to enlighten readers on the images representations of that myth as depicted in archaic forms of Greek art.
Strategies Prior to Writing the Essay
Examine the medium – Determine the rationale of the artist for selecting a certain medium, including its advantages and even its limitations.
Use of lines – Did the artist use heavy or light lines? Do the lines run vertically or horizontally? Are the lines curved or straight? Is there a specific goal or outcome achieved by the use of these lines?
Coloration – Does the artist use realistic colours, or are the colours more expressive in nature? Does the colour give the sense of being warm or cool? Perhaps the colours are bright or subdued. If so, what is the overall effect of those colours?
Light – How does the artist employ light? Does the artist use shadows? Perhaps there is a play or interaction between the two, and what message is communicated to the audience of the work?
Space – Is there any sense of space within the work you have selected? Does the visual plane show great depth or is it shallow? What is the arrangement of the shapes used within the space of the work? How does the application of sense impact the artist’s subjects? How might that use of space influence your own response to the art?
Style – Are there any elements within the work which identifies the artists’ specific style, whether it is unique to that artist or common to a specific period?
Composition – Are there any formal aspects or elements of the work which interact with each other? Does the composition of the work convey the theme or idea of the artwork? Does it make your eye travel in a consistent manner across the piece of art? Does the composition of the art influence that movement?
One must always examine the context of the work. Consider when the work was painted, who is the artist and where was the work completed? How have culture or history influenced the work? Does it address any specific historical or cultural matters? As you are learning how to write an art essay, consider writing down questions that you may chose to answer within the scope of your essay. These questions will likely guide your examination of existing library sources. You may also desire to examine and keep any documentation or brochures that the gallery or museum may have available.
Advice for Writers
The student who desires to learn how to write an art essay can approach the work in much the same way he or she may write any other paper. You will need to stay focused on the topic, which includes creating a thesis sentence. You also need to settle on a specific structure. As always, you need to employ proper grammar and organisation, including writing clear and understandable paragraphs.
Yet, when you have learned how to write an art essay, you will also need to understand the conventions utilised in the world of art If you are finding it difficult, take a look at our assignment writing service. However, here are a few tips you may consider when writing your own art essay.
Don’t just describe your work – analyse it as well. One common complaint from university professors is that their students frequently describe the artwork without taking any consideration of the argument which they hope to make. Always consider the final purpose of your writing and then choose to outline the details of your description, allowing them to illustrate both the artwork and your analysis.
One of the common formats used by students who have learned how to write an art essay is to construct the paper so that the actual theme or topic sentence is located at the end of the essay. The traditional student is trained from early on to construct their compositions with the opening paragraph as the holder of the topic sentence. When you know how to write an art essay, you will recognise that it is important to ensure that your details are logical and selected with care and that they help to build to the main point you are attempting to make.
Consider the structure of your writing. If you are discussing a specific art movement, you may desire to use a chronological format. However, if you are discussing the specific elements you see in a piece of art, consider a spatial format for your writing.
And with any piece of quality writing, avoid using “I”. Any student who has mastered the art of how to write an art essay can ensure you that using “I” will detract from your efforts to create a formal piece of writing. That doesn’t mean that your opinion isn’t important, but that your opinion must be stated in a critical and scholarly fashion. You explain your response to the artwork, not your opinion of it.
For further information see http://www.academicsciences.co.uk/how-to-write-an-art-essay/Task 2.
Choose the following themes and write an essay at least 250 words taking into consideration the above writing rules.
The Internet helping or hindering musicians.
Shakespeare told that: “Music is the food of love”
PROJECT MODELLING
Find out about world projects on art.
World Projects aims to present music events for instrumental & choral ensembles that provide students with not only a unforgettable tour but more specifically inspirational performance opportunities, first hand cultural exchange and to further sharing through music across the globe. Each festival is created specifically for music ensembles, and World Projects caters for this accordingly.
On the following pages, you will find detailed information on the following 2014/2015 World Projects Festivals:
- Australian International Music Festival (Sydney Opera House) Sydney Australia- Chicago International Music Festival (Chicago Symphony Center) USA- Los Angeles International Music Festival (Walt Disney Concert Hall) USA2. Make presentation to the theme” Role of art in human society”
3. Give exact tips how to become successful singer or composer and artist.
UNIT 2: POLITICAL SYSTEM
Communication sphere: political

FILE 1. Political System of the Republic of Kazakhstan
LEAD-IN

LEAD-IN
-205105142240Comment on the following quotations:
“The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their Constitutions of Government.” George Washington, George Washington's Farewell Address
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194945012065
“There are two characteristic welfare of state: wealth and trust in the state.”Demosphen,ancient orator.

Elections are won by men and women chiefly because most people vote against somebody rather than for somebody.
 Franklin Pierce Adams

“The only phenomenon with which writing has always been concomitant is the creation of cities and empires, which is the integration of large numbers of individuals into a political system, and their grading into castes or classes. It seems to have favored the exploitation of human beings rather than their enlightenment.” Claude Levi-Strauss,
French Philosopher, b.1908


Comment these questions in the class:
Why do you think that we need in a policy?
What is the structure of the political system of Kazakhstan?
Who are presented the informal and formal subjects?
What is involved in term "political consciousness of society"?
What captures the political consciousness of the civilians?
Components of political organization in this state.
What is the legal consciousness?
The political role of information and communication system in the development of the political system of Kazakhstan?
Stages of development of the political system.
What are the functions of the political system of the Republic?
What are the types of political systems there and the conditions in which they develop?
Discuss in a group. Read the definitions below for Necessity of Politics.
The Necessity of Politics Harry C. Boyte It is a time of tumultuous changes and dangers but also democratic possibilities. The crazy-quilt diversity of humanity roils with violence, growing inequalities, and mounting problems, from HIV/AIDS to two billion people in areas of insufficient or unsanitary water. Politics, in the deepest, richest meaning of the concept—negotiation of diverse, sometimes clashing interests to accomplish some public purpose—is a necessity if we are to create a more democratic, just, and peaceful world. The New Student Politics makes a major contribution by speaking to the necessity of politics. Here, I argue that the insights of The New Student Politics are important. I also bring "the new student politics" into conversation with long traditions of thinking about what "politics" means and with the body of practice wisdom from grass roots organizing, and I conclude with a contrast between a "service" approach to curriculum change in higher education and what can be called an "organizing" approach. The New Student Politics "We view democracy as richly participatory.. .we see the work of negotiating difference as the work of democracy." From the Introduction, The New Student Politics The New Student Politics, in its best insights, draws attention to politics (not simply democracy), in the deepest sense, as an evolving, contested, turbulent, and messy work that negotiates differences for the future of our world. Here, it recalls Wynton Marsalis, interviewed by Ken Burns on a 1999 PBS television documentary on jazz: In American if, you have and these different agendas. You have conflict. And we're attempting to achieve harmony through conflict. It's like an argument with the intent to work something out.. .that's what jazz music is. It's exactly like democracy. Jazz gives us a glimpse into what America is going to he when it becomes itself. This emphasis on negodadng difference marks a significant advance over the polidcs of my activist generation in the 1960s.
VOCABULARY ZONE

Get introduce with the following words then translate if its necessary.
Amendment b) Anarchy c) Authoritarian
Ballot e) Bureaucracy f) Candidate
Congress h) Constitution i) Constitutional Monarchy
Democracy k) Dictatorship l) Election
Parliament n) Political party o) Prime minister
Complete the sentences with the appropriate word from the given words above.
___________the process of formally altering or adding to a document or record, such as the constitution
___________an authoritarian regime is one that is characterized by or favoring absolute obedience to authority, as against individual freedom.
___________ 1. the act, process, or method of voting, especially in secret or a sheet of paper or 2. a card used to cast or register a vote, especially a secret one.
___________an administrative system in which the need or inclination to follow rigid or complex procedures impedes effective action.
___________ seeking or nominated for election to a position of authority such as president, prime minister, member of parliament...
___________the national legislative body of a nation, especially a republic. It is formal assembly of representatives.
___________a system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribes the nature, functions, and limits of a government.
__________ in which the powers of the ruler are restricted to those granted under the constitution and laws of the nation.
__________ comes from the Greek words dêmos (people) and Kratos (power). In its literal meaning, democracy means the "rule of the people". In fact it is a form of government in which all eligible people have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy as a political systems existed in some Greek city-states, notably Athens following a popular uprising in 508 BC.
___________ refers to an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by an individual, the ____.It is a form of government that has the power to govern without consent of those being governed
___________ is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy operates.
____________ is a form of government in which the office of head of state (a king or a queen) is usually held until death or abdication and is often hereditary.
____________is a national representative body having supreme legislative powers within the state.
_____________ is a political organization that typically seeks to influence government policy, usually by nominating their own candidates and trying to seat them in political office. Parties participate in electoral campaigns, educational outreach or protest
_____________ is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system.
3. Search for the key words political system from the internet. Then translate them into Kazakh/Russian languages.
4. Game “Crossline”
Join the following phrases and collocations with line. If you are not sure make predictions. After try to explain them.
Legislative powerfull authority over the society
Executive authority Queen
MonarchyNurOtan
Totalitarian regime Parliament
Political partyGovernment
5. Translate the following text according to the theme into English.
Multi – vector policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Since obtaining independence Kazakhstan’s foreign policy has been based on a principle of multi-vector relations that was declared by NursultanNazarbayev as soon as he was elected the country’s president on 1 December 1991. President Nazarbayev believes that the multi-vector policy means “the development of friendly and predictable relations with all states that play a significant role in global politics and represent practical interest for our country. Kazakhstan, because of its geopolitical position and economic potential, cannot limit itself to narrow-regional problems. This would not be understandable to not only our multiethnic population but the entire international community. Kazakhstan’s future is both in Asia and Europe, in East and West. By pursuing exactly this policy will we be able to avert any manifestations of threats to Kazakhstan’s security. We will be able to strengthen favorable external conditions by economic and political transformations in our country.” This position has largely been defined by the country’s geopolitical position, its multiethnic and religiously diverse population and the level of economic development as a whole. Taking into account the current international realities the main emphasis in Kazakhstan’s foreign policy strategy has been placed on ensuring an efficient security system in Central Asia which is aimed at preventing unconventional threats and challenges (international terrorism, religious extremism and drug trafficking and illegal migration) posed by Afghanistan and other countries bordering the region. In order to solve this problem the Republic of Kazakhstan found it expedient to focus on the following priority foreign policy aspects: involvement in interstate associations – the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA), the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO); strategic cooperation with Russia and China; friendly relations with Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; constructive cooperation with the USA, European Union countries and international organizations, such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation Organization (the OSCE) and NATO. cooperation with the countries of the Islamic world; and partner relations with Asia-Pacific countries.
GRAMMAR ZONE

The Passive Voice
We use the active form to say what the subject does. For example:
I speak English every day at work.
I repaired the flat tire on the car.
We use the passive form to say what happens to people and things, to say what is done to them. For example:
English is spoken here.
The car is being repaired.
We use the passive form when we don't know who did the action. For example:
The car was damaged while it was parked on the street.
The shirts were made in Turkey.
We use the passive form when what was done is more important than who did it. For example:
It was approved by Gerry last week.
I was informed by the Human Resources Manager only two days ago.
1. Complete the sentences in the text. Use the active or Passive forms of the verbs in parentheses.
Judidicial system (set)______ of all courts of Kazakhstan. The judicial system (incluse)_____ the Supreme Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the local courts (establish)_______ according to the Constitution of RK and the Constitutional law. The supreme body of the authority is two-chamber Parliament that consists of the Senate and the Mazhilis. Kazakhstan — the constitutional parliamentary-presidential republic. The president is the head of the state and chief supreme commander. The President of Republic Kazakhstan (vote)______ by full age citizens of Kazakhstan on general, equal, direct and secret vote basis. The President of Republic Kazakhstan is Nursultan Nazarbaev. The Presidents terms of limit are 5 years. The executive authority (carry out)_______ by the government. The system of the executive branch of the government (consist) _______of the ministries, services and agencies. The head of the government — the prime minister Karim Masimov . Legislature( bring)_______ into action the Parliament that consists of two Chambers: the Senate and the Mazhilis working on a regular basis. The Senate (form) _____ by the deputies represented in order of constitution law for two person out of each region, city of republican value and capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan (14 regions, 2 cities). Fifteen deputies of the Senate(appoint) _______by the President in order to fulfill the representation for the Senate of national-cultural and other significant interests of a society. The Mazhilis consists of the 107 deputies (select) by the constitutional law. Terms of limit of deputies in Senate are six years, for deputies of Mazhilis – five years.
Work in small groups. Take turns choosing a word the list in any order you wish. Say the simple past. Yor partner will write that word in the correct column.
Refer agree elect
Establish initiate met
Affect impeach preside
Pass vote represent
\t\ \d\ \ed\
FOCUS ON LISTENING

You are going to listen to Nursultan Nazarbayev’s talk about radical reforms to Kazakhstan’s political system.

1: Talk to other students about political reforms. Change partners often and share your findings about advantage and disadvantages of reforms which were made after having independence of Kz.
2. Discuss these questions: 1) Which of the changes are concerned with the strengthening a role of Parliament? 2) What are the constitutional reforms talking about?
3) What does it mean proportional election system?
4) What political innovations did impact to new procedures on appointing the Prime Minister and forming the entire Government?
3. Debate the issue in groups and share with class.
“The value of Kazakhstan's membership in the SCO, OSCE and the UN”.

4. Express your attitude on the following themes:
Why Kazakhstan conducts to a multi-vector foreign policy?
Is the multi-vector policy justified itself?
Is it favorable to Kazakhstan its geographical position?

5. Express your agreement or disagreement about the following situations
Globalization is the result of national economies’ going beyond the state borders.
Over the last few years Kazakhstan has implemented foreign policies aimed to improve relations with a vast array of new geopolitical actors, besides common partners such as Russia, on which the Central Asian country was formerly heavily dependent
Nazarbayev’s support for globalization partly results from his perception that insufficient integration has prevented Kazakhstan and its neighborhood from resuming their natural status as a linchpin of global commerce.
However, Kazakhstan has received some positive advantages from globalization in economy and culture. 
Kazakhstan accession to WTO is determined by economic, political and social development of the republic.
6. Debate the issue in groups and share with class.“Kazakhstan in the global world: Challenges and preservation of identity”.
FOCUS ON READING

Reading 1
1. A. Look at the headline of the article. What do you think this article is going to be about?
2. Read the first and the last paragraphs and the first sentence of the article. What do you think this passage is going to be about?
3. Now quickly scan the passage and circle all the words that have a connection to the title.
4. Scan the passage and cross out all the words you do not know. And try to guess the shortenings and abbreviations which are used in the text for what they stand for.
The Almaty meeting of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) raised the status of Kazakhstan as a regional leader
A big wave of economic and political events took place in Kazakhstan last month: an investment summit, the II CICA summit, and then there was the round-date SCO summit in China…
But even among all these important events the OSCE conference on promoting tolerance, inter-cultural, inter-religious and inter-ethnic understanding looked very special.
It was the first such event in Almaty, which is a significant fact in itself. So far the most "Oriental" point was Istanbul and there have never been such all-OSCE event in the former Soviet Union.
We cannot ignore the fact that it corresponds to the wish of Kazakhstan to chair the OSCE, which President Nazarbayev openly stated in his speech at the meeting.
Noting that the Kazakhstani experience of tolerance "represents big interest for the entire OSCE community" and that that was the reason why Kazakhstan wished to chair the OSCE in 2009, he expressed a hope that the OSCE member states would support that initiative.
We will not make predictions on how the Almaty meeting will influence this initiative, but we cannot avoid marking that the position of Kazakhstan is becoming really unique in Eurasia.
The Almaty meeting must be regarded in the context of the SCO summit, the CICA summit, and the investment forum. This way the place occupied by our country in the current geopolitical and economic processes becomes clear.
If we take a look at the vast political geography of the Eurasian continent, we can see that even despite the present integration processes, the countries remain divided by different lines. And the position of Kazakhstan is really unique. It is the only country making part of all integration structures in the post-Soviet area (apart from the GUAm, which can hardly be regretted.)
Kazakhstan participates in all other structures: CIS, SCO, CSTO. The relations within these structures provide constant contacts on the basis of common interests with Russia, China, Central Asian countries.
However, there is also Europe. And here the OSCE membership is extremely important for Kazakhstan and ambitions to chair it are even more important.
This way, Astana is creating a configuration of motives and relations in the region, which makes its leadership doubtless and unquestioned. Is there any other Central Asian country that would be able to aspire for the OSCE chairmanship? No there is not. And doing it, which one of them has the biggest weight in the integrating structures? It is Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan's leadership emerges from the complicated picture, of which both the CIS and the SCO are making part, and this regional leadership is perceived objectively and seriously.
The theme of inter-religious and inter-ethnic understanding is almost the main political argument. The Kazakhstani leader in his speech observed that there is "an optimal system of maintaining international understanding, the main principle of which is a dialogue between the state and the society" in the country.
Despite all the PR-content in this statement, it is based on a wide experience, the fact that there have not been any obvious, sensational inter-ethnic scandals or problems in Kazakhstan during the last few years.
With such ideological and political luggage we can travel to all negotiations at the level of the SCO, the CICA, and other structures. The widely declared experience of tolerance is becoming a political factor, taken into consideration by other countries within political organizations.
So, Kazakhstan approached the round-date SCO summit, the II CICA summit, and other such events of the last month as a country, whose candidacy is discussed for the OSCE chairmanship; moreover, an important OSCE event was carried out in Almaty.
Kazakhstan is also a member of the CICA and the SCO, even the chairing country in the latter.
And an investment summit in Almaty was important as well.
All these republic's achievements in geopolitical processes show that Kazakhstan today is a really important country as a partner in any format of integration or alliance in Eurasia.
5. Work in pairs. Discuss with your partner about the content of the text.
6. Do you agree or disagree with the author’s point of view relating to the article? Prove your answer by using detailed examples.
7. Prepare 1-2 minutes briefing about globalization, present and record yourself for analysis
8. Role-play. Work on groups of three. The first group is the representatives of Kazakhstan. The second group is the representatives of Great Britain. And the third group is the representatives of the USA. As the representatives and observer countries of OSCE discuss with your partner the ways of resolving the crisis and develop a strategy to eliminate conflicts in the region.
Reading 2
1. Discuss the following features bellow.

2. Explain the meanings of the word phrases like hybrid system, local administration, approval parliament, regional assemblies, presidential election, presidential system.
Kazakhstan Government
Kazakhstan has a hybrid system of government that combines aspects of both parliamentary and presidential systems.
The principle of independence and the political system were formulated in the first Constitution of Kazakhstan of January 1993, which was approved by referendum on 30 August 1995.
Kazakhstan has a parliamentary system with a president as head of the State. Kazakhstan last presidential election was in January 2006 for a seven-year term. Kazakhstan president serves as commander-in-chief, sets foreign policy, can initiate legislation, and appoints Kazakhstan prime minister, subject to Parliamentary approval.
Kazakhstan parliament is the supreme legislative body and consists of two chambers, the Senate (Upper House) and the Mazhilis (Lower House). The 47 members of Kazakhstan Senate are indirectly elected representatives of regional assemblies and appointees of Kazakhstan president. The Mazhilis is composed of 67 elected deputies. Kazakhstan parliament is elected for a four-year term.

1

Kazakhstan prime minister is the head of the executive branch of government and is appointed by Kazakhstan president, with the approval of Kazakhstan parliament. He chairs the Cabinet, which, as of January 2006, consists of three Deputy Prime Ministers, the Ministers of the 14 State Ministries and the 5 Chairmen of the State Agencies.
The heads of the local administrations (Akims of 14 oblasts and 2 cities) are appointed by Kazakhstan president. Since December 1997, the capital of Kazakhstan has been Astana. From 1929 to 1997 the capital of Kazakhstan was the city of Almaty, founded in 1854.
While-reading
3. After looking at the headline and the first paragraph, make up some questions you think this article might answer.
4. What kind of article is this? Why would somebody read this? For information? For pleasure or any other reasons?
Post-reading
5. Find out information about executive authority in Kazakhstan and then in Great Britain and the USA and share with the class.
6. Make a report to your class on Government of Kazakhstan in comparison with the USA and Great Britain. Define similarities and peculiarities.
FOCUS ON SPEAKING

Part 1
Ask your partner about his or her attitude to the problems and prospects of political system of Kazakhstan and around the world: judicial branch, legislative power, executive authority and election system.
Candidate A:
Questions that may be addressed to the partner:
1. What countries have got perfect political system?
2. Can you name countries which have monarchy, theocracy, totalitarian regime?
3. What is the role of the political institutions in social life? What do they include?
4. How do you usually try to follow to political events in your country?
5. What are pros and cons of having democratic political way of development?
Candidate B:
Questions that may be addressed to the partner:
1. What kind of information do you have about judicial branch in this state?
2. What is your advice for development of improving the judicial system?
3. Who execute judicial authority in Kazakhstan?
4. If you compare judicial branches of Great Britain, US or Kazakhstan, what is better?
5. Who is responsible for executive authority of the country?
Part 2
Candidate A:
Give your points of view on the role Parliament and Government for the improvement stable situation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. You may talk on:
- the role of legislative power and executive authority in political system of Kazakhstan?
- the possible problems, ways of solution on the given field
- the level of transparency these subjects in the country
- thesignificance of judicial branch in political system of the state
- the ways of strengthening the requirements of Constitution
Candidate B:
Give your points of view on election system and political parties of Kazakhstanners faceest sucessful ng processs. You may talk on:
- the level of transparency of election procedures in Kazakhstan
- theactivity of political parties in the state
- thetypes of parties which take place in political arena of Great Britain, US and Kazakhstan
- the ways to develop the political consciousness of the civilians
- the specific features of Kazakhstan election system
Part 3
Share your points of view on the following topic.
Role play:
Imagine that you are going to be an akim of a town who will decide how a large sum of money that was given him to spend on new issues. Create a dialogue and youshould discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a list of possible new resources for your town and try to come to a decision about the importance of the items. You should try to choose priorities. If it is too difficult for you to order them all, choose the top three. Prepare a list of items.
Example list:
A new sports centre
More specialists
A new computer technology 
………………..
………..
…..
FOCUS ON WRITING

1. Read the following brief news on election authorities of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
After reading the given information write down an opinion essay about “The possibility of coexistence of the two forms of governance (monarchy and Parliament)”expressing your own personal position as one of the citizen of your country. Show your civic position or opinion as if you are much more involved on the topic.

Election Authorities of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Election commissions are state election bodies in charge of preparations for and conduct of elections in the Republic. The term of election commissions is five years.
The single system of election commissions is formed of:
The Central Election Commission of the Republic of Kazakhstan (hereinafter referred to as CEC);
380111018415Territorial election commissions;
District election commissions;
Divisional election commissions.
CEC is in charge of the single system of election commissions of the Republic of Kazakhstan and acts as a permanent body.
2
Territorial, district and divisional election commissions act on a pro bono basis and are selected by the relevant maslikhats based on recommendations of political parties. Each political party has a right to nominate one candidate to the relevant election commission.
If political parties fail to give any recommendations within the term specified by the maslikhats, the latter has a right to nominate the election commission based on the recommendations of other public associations and higher election commissions.
Higher election commissions have a right to nominate a member of election commission to replace the member withdrawn before his/her nomination to the election commission by maslikhat, which is responsible for formation of election commission in accordance with the procedures established by the election law.
A political party has a right to recommend to the election commission candidates who are not members of this political party.
A political party with no representative in election commissions has a right to delegate to the relevant election commission its representative in an advisory capacity for the period of preparation for and conduct of the election.
2. Debate the issue in groups and share with class on the topic “Transparency of elections”.
Think over the best way of election in democratic society. Write down your election model to include theoretical and practical parts.
PROJECT MODELING

Project 1. TV Broadcast
Your assignment is to write and perform a full news broadcast on the political situation in Kazakhstan with commercial breaks. Your broadcast should include:
International news
National news
Local news
A special report on oil, gas and metallurgy sectors
2-3 commercials
The interview
You will be expected to design props and other visual aids to enhance your performance. You will perform the report from memory or from limited notes. You are encouraged to incorporate interesting and humorous, yet appropriate elements into your broadcast. Please demonstrate a synthesis of course material in your presentation. Participants speak clearly, in complete sentences with limited use of note. Did each participant memorize their lines?
Project 2. Round table discussion
In the process of round table discussion you have to work out a report on the topic of “Advantages and disadvantages of Kazakhstan’s political system in comparison with the International Government”. You should put your mind on such organizations as: UN, OSCE, NATO and other organizations of regional cooperation. To sum up the decisions make up a long-term strategy of economic and political enhancement of the state in the progress of globalization.
UNIT 2: POLITICAL SYSTEM
Communication sphere: political

FILE 2. Globalization and Kazakhstan
LEAD-IN

“Globalization is not just about changing relations between the ‘inside’ of the nation-state and the ‘outside’ of the international system. It cuts across received categories, creating myriad multilayered intersections, overlapping playing fields, and actors skilled at working across these boundaries. People are at once rooted and rootless, local producers and global consumers, threatened in their identities yet continually remaking those identities.” Philip G. Cerny
Comment on the following quotations:

“It is both a sad and a happy fact of engineering history that disasters have been powerful instruments of change. Designers learn from failure. Industrial society did not invent grand works of engineering, and it was not the first to know design failure. What it did do was develop powerful techniques for learning from the experience of past disasters. It is extremely rare today for an apartment house in North America, Europe, or Japan to fall down. Ancient Rome had large apartment buildings too, but while its public baths, bridges and aqueducts have lasted for two thousand years, its big residential blocks collapsed with appalling regularity. Not one is left in modern Rome, even as ruin. ”Edward Tenner, 1997


“Without doubt, our inability to design and implement a sustainable economic framework has resulted to our present ranking on the globalization index; a precious market to the productive countries.” Tony Osborg, Can Nigeria Bake Her Own Bread?

2. Discuss these questions:
1. What was the main problem of Kazakhstan when it gained its independence?
2. What does the success of the begun transformations directly depend on?
3. How do you think about the multi-vector foreign policy? Was it fruitful policy?
4. Which the geopolitical prospects of development of our state were predetermined?
VOCABULARY ZONE

Discuss the meaning of the words and phrases in bald in sentences 1-5 below.
Poverty is still an issue in many developing countries.
Many less developed countries suffer from a poor transport infrastructure.
It is the responsibility of the industrialized world to provide financial support.
Richer nations exploited the natural resources found in Africa and asia in colonial times.
While the USA was the great economic superpower of the twentieth century, it seems likely that the world economy will be dominated by China and India in the twenty first century.
Complete some of the lines with a word formed from the word in capitals. There is an example at the beginning (0).
Domestic (0) lenders that global banks have long sneered at are LEND doing far better. In Britain, Lloyds has ________ smartly over the RECOVER past two years. In America the most ____ rated banks—based on HIGH their share price relative to their book value—are Wells Fargo and a host of midsized firms. The panic about global banks_____ REFLECT reflects their weak recent results: in aggregate the five firms mentioned above reported a return on equity of just 6% last year. Only JPMorgan Chase did ______ well (see chart). Investors worry PASS these figures betray a _______strategic problem. There is a DEEP _______ fear that the costs of global reach—in terms of regulation GROW and complexity exceed the potential _____. It all seemed far rosier BENEFIT 20 years ago. Back then banks saw that globalisation would lead to an explosion in trade and capital flows. A handful of firms sought to capture that _____. Most had inherited skeleton global networks of GROW some kind. European lenders such as BNP Paribas and Deutsche Bank had been active abroad for over a century. HSBC and Standard Chartered were _____ to the British empire. Citigroup embarked on a BANK big international _______ a century ago; Chase, now part of EXPAND JPMorgan Chase, opened many foreign _____ the 1960s and 1970s BRANCH
3. Search for the key words globalization from the internet. Then translate them into Kazakh/Russian languages.
4. Make some sentences with the following word collocations: the priorities of future,
a state innovation program, growth of smart generation.
5. Translate the following text according to the theme into Kazakh/Russian.
Geopolitical Location of Kazakhstan
With finding of the state independence in front of Kazakhstan there were problems of definition of the position on the international scene, developments of an independent strategic course of development in foreign and domestic policy. The success of the begun transformations directly depends on a set of the factors characterizing inside - a foreign policy situation in the republic — economies, ecology, a condition of defense capability, social and interethnic consensus, etc. All listed is included into uniform system of national security of the state which, in the standard understanding, consists of military, economic, ecological, information security.
Owing to features of geopolitical position of our country, its economic potential Kazakhstan conducts to a multi-vector foreign policy. A geopolitical arrangement on a joint of Asia and Europe, economic and military-political interests, and also the existing potential defined a place of Kazakhstan in system of the international relations as the large regional state interested in creation in the environment of a zone of neighborliness on the principles of mutual safety, respect of the sovereignty, territorial integrity. Formation of our country in system of the modern international relations was predetermined still by history. Kazakhstan is "East-West-South", it increased on a joint of world cultures and civilizations, was the meeting place of three powerful cultural and historical layers. The previous historical development of Kazakhstan predetermined some theoretically possible geopolitical prospects of development of our state:
• Eurasian integrative (polynational);
• confederative (i.e. occurrence over time into confederation with participation of
Russia);
• pan-turan (pan-Turk);
• the pan-Islamic;
• China centrist;
• neutral, i.e. finding of the status of the neutral state.
GRAMMAR ZONE

Read a given extract. Underline and define function of sentences. The Globalization user interface was designed to be simple and efficient to make globalizing your applications as easy as possible. Use the information in this guide to learn how to use the IBM Globalization interface to translate your Bluemix applications. For information on translating your applications by using the RESTful API, see the API Reference.The IBM Globalization service works by first creating a project and then uploading a source file. The source file can be of any of the following formats and must contain the key / value pairs that represent the UI strings from your application.
Make analyze to the functions of sentences whether are they simple, compound, compound-complex sentences. Prove your answer.
FOCUS ON LISTENING

1. Explain the meaning of the term civilization.
2. What is the difference between world globalization from civilization?
While-listening
3. Listen to the first part of a lecture
- «Kazakhstan in the global world: calls and preservation of identity»
- «World globalization»
And answer the questions:
1) What is a role of Kazakhstan in the global world?
2) What do you know about world globalization?
3) What opportunities does World globalization take to Kazakhstan?
4. Debate the issue in groups and share with class.“Kazakhstan in the global world: Challenges and preservation of identity”.
Post-listening
5. Make notes on the following points of listening and make a brief summary.
Why Kazakhstan conducts to a multi-vector foreign policy?
Is the multi-vector policy justified itself?
Is it favorable to Kazakhstan its geographical position?
6. Express your agreement or disagreement about the following situations
Globalization is the result of national economies’ going beyond the state borders.
Over the last few years Kazakhstan has implemented foreign policies aimed to improve relations with a vast array of new geopolitical actors, besides common partners such as Russia, on which the Central Asian country was formerly heavily dependent
Nazarbayev’s support for globalization partly results from his perception that insufficient integration has prevented Kazakhstan and its neighborhood from resuming their natural status as a linchpin of global commerce.
However, Kazakhstan has received some positive advantages from globalization in economy and culture. 
Kazakhstan accession to WTO is determined by economic, political and social development of the republic.
FOCUS ON READING

Reading 1
1. Mini group work. Comment with your partner.
1.Why is important to visit such kind of places?
2. What extra information do you know about canyons?
3. What the role of Charyn in tourism in Kazakhstan?
4. What kind of ways could you offer to increase the level of tourism in our country?
2. Read the text and fill the gaps
Impressive valley decks slopes compact
3. Discuss the questions:
How do you understand the principle "at first economy, then policy"?
In your point of view why Kazakhstan chose such principle?
In your opinion did the principle "at first economy, and then the policy" proved the viability?
4. Prepare 1-2 minutes briefing about tourism, present and record yourself for analysis
5. Role-play.
You are the most famous scientist. All citizens need your professional opinion. Give possible ways or methods to raise national economy and to advance technology in manufacturing. Then discuss with the class.
6. Discuss with your partner, then compare.
What do you know about national economy of the USA? What technological advances are used to improve manufacturing in the USA?
90805057785
3
What Kazakhstan Thinks About Globalization?
After independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Kazakhstan rapidly opened its door to the world, unlike its neighboring countries, Uzbekistan or Tajikistan. In 21st century, owing to its rich 1.____________ and high world price of oil, Kazakhstan has enjoyed the benefits of globalization. Now, Kazakhstan is a leading country in Central Asia, and trying to secure its role as a bridge between Europe and Asia.
The Republic of Kazakhstan is a 2.______________, which is surrounded by five countries: Russia, China, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan. Kazakhstan was a part of USSR until its collapse.
Because of its vast territory and abundant natural resources, especially oil from Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan was a major supplier of energy to Soviet Union. 3. ___________ kept growing in the post-Soviet era. The World Bank estimates that exports of natural resources account for seventy percent of Kazakhstan’s total exports in 2007. Now, the world is paying attention to Kazakhstan as one of the most important 4. _____________outside the Middle East.
Globalization was not always beneficial to Kazakhstan. Being highly dependent on world economy made the economy of Kazakhstan 5._________ to wild fluctuations. Kazakhstan also struggled to avoid the traps of ‘Dutch disease,’ as a rentier state.
Since Kazakhstanits exporting oil worldwide, people who are both inside and outside the country are indifferent to its 6.______________. NursultanNazarbayev, the president of Kazakhstan has been in president for eighteen years (since Kazakhstan declared its independence.) The country did not struggle much during the transition from communist to ‘democratic’ regime because of the abundant natural resources, giving the country an allusion of wealth. The oil wealth has allowed Nazarbayev to suppress media from opposition parties.
Reading 2
1. Discuss these questions in a small group.
1 What kind of the state programs do you know?
Can you share your opinion about development of transport and logistics infrastructure in Kazakhstan?
How do the Republic approve energetic infrastructure?
What does it include program of industrialization?
How does the state deal with world economic crisis?
2. Comment on the sayings with your partner.
1) Globalization is the another word for Americanization.
2) Education systems must be fundamentally altered to accommodate this new, global market.
3) Supranational governance through the UN and other international organizations hold more promise than US leadership
The US Role in globalization
As the United States enters the 21st century, it stands unchallenged as the world's economic leader, a remarkable turnaround from the 1980s when many Americans had doubts about U.S. "competitiveness." Productivity growth—the engine of improvement in average living standards—has rebounded from a 25-year slump of a little more than 1 percent a year to roughly 2.5 percent since 1995, a gain few had predicted.
Economic engagement with the rest of the world has played a key part in the U.S. economic revival. Our relatively open borders, which permit most foreign goods to come in with a zero or low tariff, have helped keep inflation in check, allowing the Federal Reserve to let the good times roll without hiking up interest rates as quickly as it might otherwise have done. Indeed, the influx of funds from abroad during the Asian financial crisis kept interest rates low and thereby encouraged a continued boom in investment and consumption, which more than offset any decline in American exports to Asia. Even so, during the 1990s, exports accounted for almost a quarter of the growth of output (though just 12 percent of U.S. gross domestic product at the end of the decade).
Yet as the new century dawns, America's increasing economic interdependence with the rest of the world, known loosely as "globalization," has come under attack. Much of the criticism is aimed at two international institutions that the United States helped create and lead: the International Monetary Fund, launched after World War II to provide emergency loans to countries with temporary balance-of-payments problems, and the World Trade Organization, created in 1995 during the last round of world trade negotiations, primarily to help settle trade disputes among countries.
The attacks on both institutions are varied and often inconsistent. But they clearly have taken their toll. For all practical purposes, the IMF is not likely to have its resources augmented any time soon by Congress (and thus by other national governments). Meanwhile, the failure of the WTO meetings in Seattle last December to produce even a roadmap for future trade negotiations—coupled with the protests that soiled the proceedings—has thrown a wrench into plans to reduce remaining barriers to world trade and investment.
For better or worse, it is now up to the United States, as it has been since World War II, to help shape the future of both organizations and arguably the course of the global economy. A broad consensus appears to exist here and elsewhere that governments should strive to improve the stability of the world economy and to advance living standards. But the consensus breaks down over how to do so. As the United States prepares to pick a new president and a new Congress, citizens and policymakers should be asking how best to promote stability and growth in the years ahead.
3. Read the text about the US role in globalization and compare with your country. Speak on the level of geopolitics, economy in your country.
4. Make a report to your class on Kazakhstan in world globalization. While making a report keep on the points into consideration: achievements and problems of Kazakhstan.
5. In the final analysis, will globalization lead to more peace or more war? Explain.
6. List three specific things that we can do to maximize the potential of globalization while minimizing its deleterious effects.
7. Make commentary to these questions.
In the field of disarmament and non-proliferation of missiles.
After the collapse of the USA, Kazakhstan has become, according to experts, the owner of the 4th largest nuclear arsenal.
The presence of Kazakhstan's nuclear missiles would sober any aggressor.
On 29th August, 1991 a decree to close the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site is issued.
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8

Kazakhstan - nuclear non-proliferation
Policy of Kazakhstan in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is determined by the foreign policy of the Republic, based on commitment to strengthening international security cooperation between states and the role of international organizations in resolving global problems and conflicts.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan has become, according to experts, the owner of the 4th largest nuclear arsenal. By this time, the world is already well aware of the destructive power of nuclear weapons and international status of countries possessing them. Of course, that the new state could be a strong temptation to get their hands on such a powerful tool to ensure its security.
First of all, the arsenal, and it is hard not to agree, would be an effective tool for deterring potential ambitions of potential enemy. The only presence of Kazakhstan's nuclear missiles would sober any aggressor. Secondly, the arsenal would compensate the imbalance of military capabilities in the field of conventional arms and number of armed forces - and this argument was also logical for a difficult period.
Thirdly, the idea that nuclear weapons by itself will give the Kazakhstan the status of a regional superpower was widely circulated. The importance of maintaining high nuclear complex for the development of scientific and technical potential, fundamental and applied science is stressed.
Nuclear-free choice of Kazakhstan after the collapse of the USSR was made in extremely difficult circumstances. On 29th August, 1991 a decree to close the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site is issued. Kazakhstan became the first country in the world to show the world that the regime of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is the norm.
FOCUS ON SPEAKING

Part 1
Ask your partner about his or her attitude to conditions, problems and the future of globalization and society of Kazakhstan and around the world.
Candidate A:
Questions that may be addressed to the partner:
1. Can you name the main features of strengthening of Kazakhstan?
2. Who makes investments to economy in our country?
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the way of development the Republic?
4. What is about Strategy-2050: Kazakhstan should join the club of 30 most competitive countries of the world? Share your suggestions.
5. Are you satisfied with the current situation in global world?
Candidate B:
Questions that may be addressed to the partner:
1. Is it possible to make inventions on medicine?
2. What do you suggest to improve the industry?
3. What obstacles you might face working as an interpreter on military sphere?
4. How do you understand “historical layers” and “domestic policy” industries?
5. What makes special “multi-vector” and “interethnic consensus” politics? What are their characteristic features?
Part 2
Candidate A:
Give your points of view on the role of globalization for the improvement economic situation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. You may talk on:
- the role of economy, medicine, education, military spheres
- the possible problems, ways of solution on the given field
- the ways of investing this field of business
- the ways to attract foreign investors to the country
- the list of countries by alternative sources of energy production
- the development ways of innovations in Kazakhstan
Candidate B:
Give your points of view on globalization process in your country in comparison with other countriesners faceest sucessful ng processs. You may talk on:
- the level of economy in Kazakhstan
- the conditions and problems of medicine, education, military spheres in other countries
- the salary structure of employees on the given sphere
- the ways to develop worker’s skills on the given sphere
- the facilities to share experiences abroad and in home country
- the ways of contribution for the country’s economy
Part 3
Share your points of view on the following topic.
Role-play
Discuss with your partner on the problems and prospects of Kazakhstan represent in world globalization. State out facing problems, and then suggest possible solutions on them.
FOCUS ON WRITING

Task 1. Debatethe issue in groups and share with class about "The ways of occurrence of Kazakhstan to the world community" .Prepare a written report.
4


Task 3. Write the essay not less than 250 words about the “Culture and globalization" state about the impacts of the global world on these processes and express your point of views about its improvements.
1.Before writing your essay think of the following actual questions to arrange your thoughts to write.
Has globalization gone too far, not far enough, or has it been heading in the wrong direction?
Are globalization’s characteristic interactions and institutions exploitative, and, if so, does this generate moral duties?
Do well-off peoples have to give up advantages and luxuries for the benefit of the global poor?
What practical challenges and constraints do states and individuals face in responding to their global moral duties?
Use specific examples from your background knowledge and experience.
PROJECT MODELLING

Project 1. Radio Broadcast
Your assignment is to write and perform a full radio broadcast on Kazakhstan in the world globalization with commercial breaks. Your broadcast should include:
1. International news
National news
Local news
A special report on oil, gas and metallurgy sectors
2-3 commercials
The interview
You will be expected to design props and other visual aids to enhance your performance. You will perform the report from memory or from limited notes. You are encouraged to incorporate interesting and humorous, yet appropriate elements into your broadcast. Please demonstrate a synthesis of course material in your presentation. Participants speak clearly, in complete sentences with limited use of note. Did each participant memorize their lines?
Project 2. Round table discussion
In the process of round table discussion pay attention to the actual issues of current educational system of Kazakhstan. Draw up an educational project which allows bringing up a competitive specialist against the background of world globalization. Make a note about International Credit System and Line Educational System.
UNIT 2: POLITICAL SYSTEM
Communication sphere: political

FILE 3. The Priority Directions in Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan
5

LEAD-IN

Comment on the following quotations:
The causes which destroyed the ancient republics were numerous; but in Rome, one principal cause was the vast inequality of fortunes. Noah Webster, American editor and writer (1758-1843)

“An imbalance between rich and poor is the oldest and most fatal ailment of all republics.” Plutarch-ancient Greek biographer (c. 46 – 120 CE)

Now the legislator should determine what is to be the limit of poverty or of wealth.” Plato-Greek philosopher (427-347 B.C.)

“So distribution should undo excess, and each man have enough.”[King Lear, Act 4, Scene 1]–William Shakespeare-English playwright (1564-1616))

2. Discuss these features:
The "Kazakhstan-2030" Strategy for development provides implementation of seven long-term priorities:
How do you suppose about the level of national security?
Do you agree with that economic growth based on an open market economy with high level of foreign investments and internal savings?
How do you consider is to be able to make standards for health, education and well-being of Kazakhstan citizens?
Does it possible to build a professional country, why/why not?
VOCABULARY ZONE

Look at the following words and discuss their meanings.
balance of trade , budgetary deficit, capacity, civic culture, civil society, collective responsibility,
extractive policies, fiscal policy, industrial policy, monetary policy, political economy
Complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the list above.
______the degree to which a government or state is able to implement its policies
______all those organizations outside of government and commercial arenas which provide avenues of public participation in society
______in a parliamentary system, the concept that all cabinet members agree on policy decisions and that all will be responsible for the results
_______a government's decisions and actions, which define goals and methods for the manufacturing sectors of an economy
______domestic government policies affecting interest rates and the supply of money available within an economy
______the interaction of political and economic systems and policy making of a state
government efforts to gather valuable resources for public use (i.e. taxes)
government decisions about total public spending and revenue that result in budgetary deficits or surpluses
9)______a political culture in which citizens widely share a belief in the legitimacy of their regime and a trust in the government; therefore the citizens demonstrate restraint in their demands on the government
comparison between the value of exports and the value of imports for a nation-state; usually figured by subtracting the value of imports from the value of exports (positive means that exports were worth more than imports; negative means that the value of imports exceeded the value of exports)
the result of government spending in any one fiscal year exceeding the government revenue in that year (national debt is the total of yearly deficits)
2. Search for the key words the priority directions in development of a republic from the internet. Then translate them into Kazakh/Russian languages.
3. Translate the following text according to the theme into Kazakh/Russian.
These priorities served as a basis for building country’s development plans for medium-term and long-term periods. The Strategic plan for development of the Republic of Kazakhstan until the year 2010, approved by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan in December, 2001 became the first long-term stage of implementation of the "Kazakhstan-2030" Strategy. The next stage of implementation of the "Kazakhstan-2030" Strategy is the Strategic plan for development of the Republic of Kazakhstan until the year 2020.
GRAMMAR ZONE

1. Read the text about GEOGRAPHIES OF GLOBALIZATION.
Globalization, its meaning and conceptual value, has long been contested within human geography. As probably the most fashionable concept of the 1990s and now the new millennium, the rhetoric surrounding academic and media uses of the term ‘globalization’, make it easy to lose sight of its multifarious meanings. As Dicken (2004) argues, globalization is inherently geographical. Understanding globalization as a process requires us to consider the way space, place and time are configured and reconfigured as a result of contemporary changes in technological, economic and political practices. For Taylor et al. (2002), this is why ‘geography and globalization’ are so intimately related: all processes of globalization have geographical dimensions. They expand on this idea in three further ways: • The ‘geography in globalization’. • The ‘geography of globalization’. Processes of globalization create new geographical patterns of flows and activity. For example, the New International Division of Labour reconfigures both the geography of manufacturing activities, but also, as a side-effect, geographies of uneven development, poverty and wealth. • ‘Geography for and against globalization’. Needless to say the concept of globalization has caused great debate within human geography and many other social sciences. But why do geographers have so much to say about globalization, good, bad or indifferent?
GLOBALIZATION: INTERCONNECTED WORLDS of globally interconnected, shrinking world many associate with globalization (Allen and Hamnett, 1995). Together, these different actors mean the interconnection between places has increased in recent times as a ‘space of flows’ has emerged that many suggest was unparalleled in previous eras (Castells, 2000; Thrift, 2002). In the following sections we examine two case studies of different forms and impacts of globalization: in economic globalization, the phenomenon of offshoring and call centres; and in cultural globalization, the transnationality of commodity cultures. Throughout these we draw attention to the geography in and of globalization, and the changing processes that have produced new forms of interconnected worlds. In the conclusions, we then reflect critically upon these discussions and consider why such examples have led to debates between those for and against suggestions that we live in a newly globalized world.
2. Find out where are an independent words are shaded or not. Prove your answer.
3. Make your own sentences according to independent clause.
FOCUS ON LISTENING

1. Listen to the paragraph and complete the sentences. Oil and gas industry
The oil and gas branch is strategically important link of ______ _____ the Republic of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan, part of the international economic community, certainly, couldn't remain unaffected. However, with the adoption of the ____ _____ _______ for the implementation of anti-crisis measures, many of the problems that have arisen in a number of developed countries have been avoided. Most importantly, _____ ___ ______ of the national economy as oil and gas companies are able to maximize the use of their technological, _____ and intellectual resources to keep stable economic growth. The continuous influx of injections in the oil and ___ ______ of Kazakhstan confirms not only the confidence of foreign investors and authority enjoyed by the ____ ______ of the Republic at the international level, but also that all obligations taken before the international _______ are carried out.

Debate the issue in groups and share with class.
“Construction and architecture.The housing problems in the Republic of Kazakhstan”.
3. Express your attitude on the following themes:
“Economic revolution”
“Nano-technology»
«Architecture”
“Recreation resources”
FOCUS ON READING

Reading 1
1. What is a tourism? Who is a tourist?
2. Why do people make tourism?
3. Discuss the questions:
1. Why is important to visit such kind of places?
2. What extra information do you know about canyons?
3. What the role of Charyn in tourism in Kazakhstan?
4. What kind of ways could you offer to increase the level of tourism in our country?
4. Comment on the fooling statements:
1.Different type of people engage in cultural tourism?
2.Culture plays in people’s decision to visit a particular place.
5. Role-play.
Work on groups of three. The first group is the representatives of touristic bureau in Kazakhstan. The second group is the representatives of touristic bureau in Great Britain. And the third group is the representatives of touristic bureau in the USA.
As the representatives and specialists in recreation sphere discuss with your partner about the ways of resolving the crisis and develop of tourism in the region.
6. Make report on your visited foreign country.
Charyn canyon- one of the most impressive places of Kazakhstan. It is located in the valley of the river Charyn approximately in 200 kilometers to the East from Alma-Ata, towards border with China. On the most part of a way the route goes steppes, and already near turn on a canyon passes through the picturesque gorge. The Charyn canyon was stretched on 154 kilometers along the valley of the river Charyn (inflow Ili). And the most picturesque and the place of a canyon which is often visited by tourists is "the Valley of Locks". It is compact - at only 2 kilometers in length, and it it is possible to look in a day. From above, on a canyon crest, there are some observation decks, it is possible to go down and take a walk in a gorge bottom also. The Charyn canyon - very beautiful place! Looking at it, parallels with the well-known Grand Canyon involuntarily arise. As approaching the river Charyn height of slopes increases. Depth of a canyon reaches 150-300 meters. The river Charyn bears the turquoise waters from Ridges Tien Shan in the steppe, to the river Ili. In the Charyn canyon it is very prompt and powerful. Even at the coast the stream knocks down. There are also helicopter walks on the Charyncanyon .
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Reading 2
1. What do you know about EXPO-2017?
2. What reforms do you think would be beneficial for the further development of your country?
3. Discuss the questions:
What kind of the state programs do you know?
Can you share your opinion about development of transport and logistics infrastructure in Kazakhstan?
How do the Republic approve energetic infrastructure?
What does it include program of industrialization?
How does the state deal with world economic crisis?
4. Read the article devoted to State Program “Nurly Zhol”. Compare the state programs in Great Britain, in the United Sates and make notes about differences.
Nurly Zhol is a way to the future
Taking into account the new external risks for economic development, we need new initiatives to stimulate economic activity and employment. The core of the new economic policy will be a plan of infrastructure development.
First.Development of transport and logistics infrastructure. It will be implemented through the formation of macro-regions on the basis of hubs. In this framework infrastructure will connect with Astana and interconnected macro-regions trunk road, rail and airlines from the radial principle. First of all, you need to implement major road projects. This Western China - Western Europe; Astana-Almaty; Astana-Ust-Kamenogorsk; Astana-Aktobe, Atyrau; Almaty - Ust-Kamenogorsk; Karaganda - Zhezkazgan - Kyzylorda; Atyrau-Astrakhan.
Second. Development of industrial infrastructure. Implementation of infrastructure projects will cause a great demand for building materials, products and services for transport and communication, energy and housing and communal services.
In this regard, firstly, it is necessary to finish the work on the formation of the existing infrastructure in the special economic zones. Government and governors need to take prompt measures to fill the real projects. Secondly, you should study the issue of construction in regions new industrial zones aimed at the development of industries and SMEs to attract additional investment. Separate direction - the infrastructure for tourism. Its main advantage is the ability to create more jobs. Here creation of one job costing 10 times cheaper than in industry.
Third.Development of energy infrastructure. In the energy sector over the past 5 years, the program of industrialization much has been done. However, the limitation of backbone networks is the shortage of electricity in the southern regions of the country, natural gas - in the central and eastern regions. We must focus on two projects. Build a high-voltage line in the direction of "Ekibastuz-Families-Ust-Kamenogorsk" and "Semey-Aktogai-Taldykorgan-Almaty".
Fourth.Modernization of infrastructure and utilities networks and water supply systems. The total investment requirement is at least 2 trillion tenge with an annual allocation of up to 2020 from all sources of at least 200 billion tenge.
Today is a big interest in investing in the modernization of utilities show the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Asian Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank, as well as private investors. It is necessary to ensure their maximum involvement by providing long-term investment rates.
This creates pressure on the labor market and infrastructure of cities, including on housing. Therefore it is necessary to revise approaches to the construction of rental housing. The state will build social rental housing and submit it to the public in the long-term lease with option to purchase. Provision of housing directly, without intermediaries and under the lowest possible interest for the loan, will reduce the cost of its acquisition.
Sixth.Development of social infrastructure. First of all, it is the solution of problems of emergency three-shift schools and learning. This is one of the main indicators of our election platform.
The program of industrialization identified 10 high schools, on the basis of which will be provided between science and economic sectors and training. I charge the form of material and technical base of educational institutions, for these purposes to 10 billion tenge until 2017.
Seventh. Further work is needed to support small and medium-sized business and business activity. This allowed the creation of 4.5 thousand jobs.
Post –reading
Read the given text below and try to guess its purpose in connection with the first text.
6. Discuss the questions and find the reasons concerning to the reading text 2.
1. In the field of disarmament and non-proliferation of missiles.
2. After the collapse of the USA, Kazakhstan has become, according to experts, the owner of the 4th largest nuclear arsenal.
3. The presence of Kazakhstan's nuclear missiles would sober any aggressor.
4. On 29th August, 1991 a decree to close the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site is issued.
9
8

Kazakhstan - nuclear non-proliferation
Policy of Kazakhstan in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is determined by the foreign policy of the Republic, based on commitment to strengthening international security cooperation between states and the role of international organizations in resolving global problems and conflicts.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan has become, according to experts, the owner of the 4th largest nuclear arsenal. By this time, the world is already well aware of the destructive power of nuclear weapons and international status of countries possessing them. Of course, that the new state could be a strong temptation to get their hands on such a powerful tool to ensure its security.
First of all, the arsenal, and it is hard not to agree, would be an effective tool for deterring potential ambitions of potential enemy. The only presence of Kazakhstan's nuclear missiles would sober any aggressor. Secondly, the arsenal would compensate the imbalance of military capabilities in the field of conventional arms and number of armed forces - and this argument was also logical for a difficult period.
Thirdly, the idea that nuclear weapons by itself will give the Kazakhstan the status of a regional superpower was widely circulated. The importance of maintaining high nuclear complex for the development of scientific and technical potential, fundamental and applied science is stressed.
Nuclear-free choice of Kazakhstan after the collapse of the USSR was made in extremely difficult circumstances. On 29th August, 1991 a decree to close the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site is issued. Kazakhstan became the first country in the world to show the world that the regime of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is the norm.
FOCUS ON SPEAKING

Part 1
Ask your partner about his or her attitude to problems and prospects of agriculture of Kazakhstan and around the world.
Candidate A:
Questions that may be addressed to the partner:
10

What is the role of development of construction in our country?
What are the ways for making construction more qualitatively?
What are the problems we might face with in the development of construction?
What is the importance of construction and architecture in Kazakhstan?
What kind of the main housing problems do you know?
Candidate B:
Questions that may be addressed to the partner:
11

What kind of unique objects in our capital do you know?
What are their features?
Why is it important to build such kind of objects?
What is your advice for the development of Astana?
Can you name the most well-known architects in Kazakhstan?
Part 2
Candidate A:
Give your points of view on improving the competitiveness of the Nano-technology products of the industrial sector in the Republic. You may talk on:
- the growing role for government
- the policies adopted by government to increase industrial sector
- the possible problems, ways of solution on the given field
- the types of payments and credits to support
- the ways of investing this field of business
- the ways to attract foreign investors to the field
- the steps to enter WTO on Nano-technology products
Candidate B:
Give your points of view on agriculture today in your country and around the worldners faceest sucessful ng processs. You may talk on:
- the level and status of industrial sector in Kazakhstan
- the conditions and levels of industry in other countries
- the innovations are used in the given sphere
- the ways to develop worker’s skills on the given sphere
- the ways or methods to attract the workers and workplaces
- the facilities to share experiences abroad and in home country
- the ways of contribution for the country’s economy
Part 3
Role play
Make an interview between a journalist from one of the well-known Russian magazine “Arguments and Facts” and representative of Customs Union in Kazakhstan using the questions below.
What were the positive aspects for the tourism in our country?
In what level the quality of tourism will be?
What you dislike most in tourism and give an advice?
How the tourism in Kazakhstan organized in compare with other countries?
FOCUS ON WRITING

1. Read the following brief news on“The strategic directions of long-term development of Kazakhstan till 2050”. After reading the given information write down an opinion essay expressing your own personal position as one of the citizen of your country. Show your civic position or opinion as if you are much more involved on the topic.
STRATEGY “Kazakhstan-2050”
Today we are a successful state with our own characteristics, perspectives and identity. We have paid a great price to achieve these milestones.  For over 20 years our country has worked to strengthen its sovereignty and political influence - a goal which we have accomplished. The formation of our nation has been successfully completed. 21st century Kazakhstan is an independent and self-confident state. We are not afraid of the ongoing changes in the world caused by the prolonged global financial crisis. Indeed, we are prepared for them. Our goal is to continue our sustainable development into the 21st century while maintaining and building on our existing achievements. By 2050 we want to have created a society based on a strong state, a developed economy with universal labor opportunities.
I. Established Kazakhstan - trial by crisis of our statehood, national economy, civil society, social harmony, regional leadership and authority in the international community.In 1997 we adopted the Development Strategy of Kazakhstan 2030.
That was fifteen years ago when the post-Soviet chaos has not been overcome, there was an economic crisis in South East Asia and Kazakhstan faced a difficult period too.
As we faced these challenges and others our strategy served as a beacon to guide our way forward and keep us focused on our target. We set ourselves an enormous task – to reverse the downward trend Kazakhstan faced and continue on the road to developing a new country. Only with the objective in mind can we set targets that will lead us to success. Today I’m honored to announce that we made the right decisions all those years ago. Our resilience through the 2008-2009 global financial crisis has proved that. Kazakhstan has withstood. The crisis has not destroyed our achievements, but has made us stronger. The political, socio-economic and foreign policy model of development that we chose proved to be the right one.
1. A Strong and Successful State
We have implemented historically important constitutional and political reforms that have established a system of public administration based on the division of branches of power.
We have built a new capital – Astana. It is a modern city that has turned into a symbol of our country that we take pride in. We have unleashed the potential of the capital to showcase our country’s capabilities to the entire world. This is exactly why the international community elected Kazakhstan to host the EXPO 2017 international exhibition. This would be impossible without Astana. Very few cities have received such an honor. It’s enough to say that our country turned out to be the first post-soviet nation to chair the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, host the Summit of the Organization, and the EXPO 2017 – a world-scale event.
2. Sustainable Process of Democratization and Liberalization
We have a clear formula to follow: “Economy first, then politics”. Every step of our political reforms is closely tied to our level of economic development. The only way to modernize our country and make it competitive is to progressively follow the path of political liberalization. Step-by-step our society is approaching the highest standards of democratization and human rights. We have secured fundamental rights and liberties in our country’s Constitution. Our citizens have equal rights and opportunities.
3. National Economy. Our Role in International Division of Labor. 
We were the first in the Commonwealth of Independent States to develop a modern market economy based on private property, free competition and openness. Our model is based on a proactive role of the government in attracting foreign capital. To date we have attracted over $160 billion of foreign investment. We have established basic conditions for entrepreneurship, as well as a modern taxation system. We have systematically diversified our economy. I set forward a clear task to accelerate the industrialization program – to help transform the shape of our economy, make it immune to global commodity price fluctuation within the decade. Over the 15 years following the adoption of the 2030 Strategy, our state joined the top five dynamically developing countries of the world. There are recognized rankings which countries use to track their development. By the end of 2012, Kazakhstan will enter the top 50 largest global economies and is already ranked 51st in terms of economic competitiveness.
4. Globally Recognized Country 
In world politics, our country is a responsible and reliable partner with an indisputable weight in the international arena. We play an important role in strengthening global security and supporting the international community in its fight against terrorism, extremism, and illicit drug trafficking. Our initiative to convene a Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) has seen CICA grow into an organization with 24 member countries that have a combined population exceeding 3 billion people. CICA is a critical element of Kazakhstan’s security. For the last 2-3 years the Republic of Kazakhstan chaired the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Organization of Islamic Cooperation and Collective Security Treaty Organization. At the Astana Economic Forum we proposed a new dialogue format – G-Global. The initiative has been designed to combine the efforts of all to establish a fair and secure world order.
PROJECT MODELLING
2.Debate the issue in groups and share with class.“The priority directions of enhancement medical sphere in this state”. Focus on prospects of general medical insurance of citizens. Write your recommendations.
Project 1. Briefing
You are a member of press center of Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The given mission includes making a briefing between officials of Ministry and journalists of a local newspaper. The briefing structure should be created with accordance of the following project.
Stage 1: The process of briefing arrangement contained the place and time of conducting it
Stage 2: Make the list of participants of the event.
Stage 3: Arrange the meeting with the journalists.
Stage 4: Organize the appropriate order of questions, answers.
Project 2. Round table discussion
In light of recent events World society became anxious about world terrorism and religious extremism. In the process of round table discussion you have to make decisions for escaping these social disasters.
Two students reject.
Two students support.
Two students criticize.
Two students make commentary.
Two students evaluate situation.
Two students judges.
UNIT 3: WORLD OF BUSINESS
Communication sphere: Business
FILE 1. Raw materials. Oil and Gas. Exploration, production and refining of oil and gas. Metallurgy (ferrous and non-ferrous metals, mining and metallurgy alloys)
LEAD-IN

Comment on the following quotations:
1. “First rule of oil – addicts never tell the truth to their pushers. We are the addicts, the oil producers are the pushers – we’ve never had an honest conversation with the Saudis.”Thomas Friedman, writer (1953–)
2. “The use of solar energy has not been opened up because the oil industry does not own the sun.”
Ralph Nadar, activist (1934–)
3. Gold is where you find it, according to an old adage, but judging from the record of our experience, oil must be sought first of all in our minds.”
Wallace Pratt, geologist, (1885–1981), Oil in the Earth (1944)
4. “My formula for success? Rise early, work late, strike oil.”
Jean Paul Getty, oil magnate (1892–1976), As I See It (1976)
5. “Oil prices have fallen lately. We include this news for the benefit of gas stations, which otherwise wouldn’t learn of it for six months.”William Tammeus, writer, The Globe and Mail (Toronto), 1991
VOCABULARY ZONE
1. Game “Balderdash”
A. Take a sheet of paper and write down the meaning of the following words and phrases, if you are not sure try to guess or make predictions.
B. then the teacher collects all your papers and reads the definitions you have written and asks everybody what answer is correct.
First students guess, if cannot the teacher gives correct answers.
C. Then together with the teacher you try to understand the meanings, discuss and learn the words by heart.
environmentally sound/friendly exploration
carbon fuels drilling
non-ferrous metals well
green economy landscape
petroleum oil tank
2. Brainstorm and discuss these questions:
1. Does Kazakhstan have any short-, mid-, long-term agreements to supply of oil or gas to other countries?
2. What professions can be involved in the sphere of business, oil and gas, metallurgy?
3. Can you suggest ways or methods how to turn the world’s climate away from disaster?
4. What is the opinion of government on lowering the prices of oil and gas, ferrous and non-ferrous metals?
5. What countries would have favored the status of oil and gas, metallurgy industries around the world?
6. What metals belong to ferrous and which of them belong to non-ferrous ones?
7. What parts of Kazakhstan is famous in production of ferrous and non-ferrous metals?
8. Do you know the process of getting oil and gas from crude oil?
3. Search for the key words oil and gas, metallurgy from the internet. Present your findings in class. Then translate them into Kazakh/Russian languages.
4. Translate the following text according to the theme into English.
Природный (нефтяной) газ, состоящий из метана и других легких насыщенных углеводородов, - весьма дешевое и удобное топливо. Природный газ называется "сухим", если почти не содержит бензина (менее 1 л на 25 м3 газа). "Жирный" газ может содержать бензина в 10 раз больше. Смесь жидких углеродов может быть получена как путем сжатия и охлаждения газа, так и путем его абсорбции нефтью. Полученные жидкости называются сжиженным нефтяным газом (газоконденсатом) и имеют разнообразное применение. Природный газ широко распространен в мире, главным образом как попутный нефтяной газ. Ведущими странами-производителями газа являются США, Россия и Канада, но большие перспективы открытия потенциально значительных месторождений дают поисково-разведочные работы в море, особенно у побережья Африки, Азии, Южной Америки, в Северном и Каспийском морях. Главное использование природного газа - в качестве топлива в промышленности и быту. В промышленности он применяется при выплавке металлов и стекла, производстве извести и цемента, приготовлении хлеба и другой пищи и во многих других случаях. Он используется также в производстве бензина, сажи и некоторых важных химических продуктов, таких, как метиловый спирт, формальдегид, синтетический аммиак. В домашнем хозяйстве газ служит горючим в печах, нагревательных приборах, газовых плитах и т.п.
GRAMMAR ZONE
1. Read the following text and decide whether the active or passive forms are the most appropriate. Then explain your choice.
In recent years (1) a great deal of research has been done/they have done a great deal of research into motivation in the workplace. Yet misconceptions (2) are persisted/persist. Not only (3) do many employees believe/is it believed by many employees that money is the main source of motivation, but also that motivation must come from outside. This external, or extrinsic, motivation might be in the form of rewards for (4) the achievement of a specific degree of success by employees/ employees who have achieved a specific degree of success. While (5) such rewards may be wanted by employees/employees may want such rewards, they might not be aware that a different kind of motivation is equally powerful. (6) Intrinsic motivation plays a major role/ A major role is played by intrinsic motivation in getting workers on task and on the road to success. This kind of motivation comes from within and (7) external rewards do not affect it/ is not affected by external rewards. Finally, employees (8) can help themselves/ can be helped by individually drawing up a personalized plan involving self-motivational techniques.
2. Interview an experienced person who works on oil and gas sphere about his/her career, education and training path over the last few years. What he/she has been doing and what has he/she achieved? Include to your interview the questions using the passive constructions.
3. Rewrite the questions in the active voice as passive constructions. Then answer the questions using the passive voice or use the questions in the passive in your own business situations.
1) Should somebody do it right now?
_____________________________
2) Will you deliver the goods by the next week?
______________________________
3) Did Robert give you any options?
_____________________________
4) Could we postpone the product launch?
_____________________________
5) Do they do dozens of quality checks every day?
_______________________________
6) Did the bank give them more credit last month?
________________________________
7) Will they pay all senior managers a bonus at the end of the year?
_______________________________
8) Are they going to completely redesign the product?
_____________________________
9) Will a health and safety officer visit the factory next week?
_____________________________
10) Is the garage servicing his car on Friday?
______________________________

FOCUS ON LISTENING

I. Listening activity
You are going to listen to Anthony Fitzgerald’s talk about current trends and developments in the industry. After listening to the talk, do the following tasks.
1. Discuss these questions:
1) Which sources of energy are generally considered to be environmentally friendly? Why (not)?
2) What are the effective ways of saving energy?
3) What innovations are being invented to EXPO-2017 on clean energy?
4) What are the main energy companies in your region or country?
2. Correct the eight errors in the summary of the interview. Try to give the correct answer and justify what made you think so.
Natural gas is far less environmentally friendly than other fossil fuels like oil and coal, but it is also being replaced by newer sources of energy, as it will probably run out in 50 year’s time.
The gas sector is unlikely to continue doing well for some time to come, and the opening up of markets, together with deregulation, has created more competition in the industry.
Changes in how the sector is regulated mean that gas suppliers can now sell from anywhere. New regulations have also forced some companies to bundle their activities, dividing their companies into separate areas of business.
Apart from competition, other factors that have affected the sector include a fall in the use of natural gas, as well as attracting a wider customer base. This has led to mergers between gas and oil companies, as seen in Germany, and the creation of energy giants.
Other concerns in the gas sector include security of supply and diversification: the Middle East relies heavily on certain countries and regions for its gas supply, so countries like Spain now import gas from a variety of countries.
3. Express your attitude on the following themes.
First, think of appropriate things to say, organize what you will say. Make notes during the preparation time. And then present your ideas and prepared talk according to the given themes.
Gas business
Environmentally friendly sources
Green economy
EXPO-2017 innovations
Green business
II. Video activity
You are going to watch a video on the title “The world’s dependence on oil and gas”.
1. Before watching the video can you say if you know the meaning of the following words, terms or phrases which are related to the topic?
dependence on oil and gas, fuel, drilling a well, the rig, radar operations, piper, the hole, the crew, tubing, hydrocarbons, fractured zone, bottom line, supply for oil and gas
2. Prepare three or four local/international news on oil and gas sphere and present to class. Bring different mass media issues related to the topic and present them in the class. Then try to inform the students about:
What are the key points of the article/issue? Why are they important? What have you found out new or old from the issues and why? What is the main vocabulary of the issues? Before inform the title or headline of your article/issue, then ask the others to guess what about the article/issue going to be about.
3. Explain the following processes related to oil with the help of the net and discuss with your class:
Origin of oil and gas
Theories of oil and gas origin
Exploring of oil and gas
Drilling a well
Well testing
Main jobs in oil and gas industry
Storage system
Transportation of oil and gas
Processing of oil and gas
Development level of oil and gas in different countries
4. Answer the questions about the video:
1) Does the people’s belief once about oil come true?
2) Why does producing oil and gas take so much time and money?
3) Why is the location so important?
FOCUS ON READING

Reading 1
1. A. Look at the headline of the article. What do you think this article is going to be about?
B. Read the first and the last paragraphs and the first sentence of the article. What do you think this passage is going to be about?
C. Now quickly scan the passage and circle all the words that have a connection to the title.
D. Scan the passage and cross out all the words you do not know. And try to guess the shortenings and abbreviations which are used in the text for what they stand for.
E. After looking at the headline and the first paragraph, make up some questions you think this article might answer.
F. What kind of article is this? Why would somebody read this? For information? For pleasure or any other reasons?
IS THIS THE YEAR?
Warren R. True Chief Technology Editor. –LNG/Gas Processing. From Oil and Gas Journal.
Oil and Gas Journal, January 11, 2010. Volume 108.1. www.ogjonline.comEnergy prognostications at this time of the year are as common as weather forecasts but often less accurate. In either case, the future becomes history more rapidly and painfully than we like, reminding us how myopic and ignorant we remain.
So it is for 2010 and it is likely to role in the evolution of energy sources to fuel global economic activity.
Not everyone agrees this activity and the human-derived carbon fuels that now run it are at fault for the current climate crisis – or even that such a crisis exists. This is not the place for that debate. For better or worse, consensus among world governments and scientists is pushing toward less dependence on carbon fuels.
It is possible that 2010 may stand in history a bit more brightly than other years, as a time when human efforts toward reducing carbon fuels turned a corner and thereby turned the world’s climate away from disaster.
Certainly, the past year yielded examples of such efforts. And it is important for oil and gas companies that many of these efforts employed natural gas as the fuel to reduce carbon emissions.
Skies and roads
In October, a Qatar Airways Airbus A340-600 completed the first commercial passenger flight using a fuel made from natural gas. Flying from London to Doha in 6 hr, the aircraft used Rollse-Royce Trent 556 engines.
Shell developed and produced the equal blend of synthetic gas-to-liquids kerosine and conventional oil-based kerosine, says the company.
Prospects for a cleaner burning should hearten ship owners and operators as well as airlines, given the pressures on ocean-trading vessels to reduce emissions.
Shell says Qatar will lead the world in producing GTL kerosene starting in 2012, when the first commercial quantities from Pearl GTL are to be produced. Pearl will produce about 1 million tones/year “enough to power a typical commercial airliner for half a billion kilometers,” the company says.
In the US in November, a joint venture of Waste Management Inc. and Linde North America began producing a clean motor-vehicle fuel at Waste Management’s Altamont landfill near Livermore, Calif.
The process employs a scaled-down version of a mixed-refrigerant LNG technology Linde installed at Statoil’s Snohvit 4.1 – tpy LNG plant near Hammersmith off Norway. The Altamont plant converts landfill gas-mostly methane-to more transportable LNG that is then revaporized and burned in Waste Management’s collection trucks.
Built and operated by Linde, the plant can produce up to 13,000 gpd of LNG, enough to fuel 300 of Waste management’s 485 LNG waste and recycling collection vehicles in 20 California communities, says Linde. Since commissioning in September, the plant had produced 200,000 gal of LNG by November.
Steve Eckhardt, the head of business development, alternative energy, for Linde, told for OGJ that the process eliminates the need for methane flaring at the landfill and reduces overall carbon emissions, compared with diesel fuel, by 20-30%/year. The site continues to operate the small carbon dioxide flare, he said.
Finally, last month AT&T awarded Clean Energy Fuels Corp. a contract to convert 463 Ford E -250 vans to run on CNG. Clean Energy’s subsidiary BAF Technologies Inc. will do the work for delivery in second-quarter 2010. BAF was already converting 600 vans for AT&T that were to be delivered by January 1.
In December, Clean Energy said AT&T had requested BAF to obtain CNG cylinders for 463 more conversions to be completed in third-quarter 2010, “although no formal order “had been made.
In addition to its CNG capacity, Clean Energy owns and operates two LNG production plants with combined capacities to produce 260,00 gpd of LNG with capacity to expand to 340,000 gpd.
The future?
Do projects such as these represent the future? That seems beyond question. More importantly, will they merge with a growing flood of similar projects to contribute to global reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions?
If they do and 2010 becomes the privotal year for such a wave of cleaner fuels, OGJ editors stand in a unique and enviable position to observe this evolution. Their mission is to cover oil and gas operations in the context not only of the integrated industry segments but also the wider world.
Cleaner hydrocarbon fuels-such as those mentioned above – promise that industry has many decades of life left.
2. Answer the following questions about the article.
1) What is the topic of the article?
2) What was the author’s purpose in writing this article?
3) If the article is an analysis: What are the main ideas about the topic?
4) Give at least two examples or pieces of evidence from the text which support the author’s thesis or main idea.
5) Is the author mainly objective or mainly subjective? What clues led you to your conclusion?
6) What new fact or idea did you learn from this article?
3. Retell the article expressing your attitude towards the facts or points mentioned in the article.
4. Bring articles from a newspaper on the topic discussed in the article and share ideas with your groupmates.
5. Write a letter to government officials offering suggestions to deal with problems of the article and responses to the newspaper.
Reading 2
1. Discuss these questions:
1. What part of Kazakhstan is famous in ferrous and non-ferrous metals?
2. There are given the key development directions of the non-ferrous metallurgy industry. Which of them do you support and what is your attitude to them?
3. What do you know on “Gold of Kazakhstan” program? How it realized and what is the benefit for the country?
2. Read the text about non-ferruos metallurgy sector in Kazakhstan. Find out information about ferrous mettalurgy in Kazakhstan and then in Great Britain and the USA and share with the class.

METALLURGY
http://prosites-kazakhembus.homestead.com/index.htmlIn the Republic of Kazakhstan chemical 50 elements are produced from extracted ores and the final products comprise of metals, alloys and chemical products including refined copper and lead, zinc, titanium, magnesium, rare metals, rare earth elements and their compounds, rolled cop-per, and lead.
The main branches of the non-ferrous metallurgy in Kazakhstan are copper, lead and zinc and, more recently, aluminum, titanium and magnesium. Each of these branches is of interstate importance and is represented by open cast mines, pit mines, and ore processing plants, which sometimes are combined under the ownership of different groups of enterprises. This organizational form of non-ferrous metals production in Kazakhstan is related to the low content of pure metal - from 1% up to 5-6 % and scattered metals - even less than 1%. Therefore ores of non-ferrous metals undergo repeated dressing and only then are concentrates with high metal contents produced. Usually ore contains some useful components and each of them is derived separately through different operations, depending on the complex processing the raw materials.
Kazchrome JSC, Aluminum Kazakhstan JSC, the Shymkent lead plant, Balkhashmys JSC, and the Kazakhmys corporation are the industry leaders. The products of these companies have frequently been accepted as the standard at the London non-ferrous metals exchange.
The non-ferrous metallurgy sector it is vitally necessary to ensure the development of a raw material base, to deepen processing, to diversify the nomenclature of products, to continue realization of the "Gold of Kazakhstan" program and to keep and expand Kazakhstan's position in the world market.
The main development directions of the non-ferrous metallurgy industry include:
- The development of a steady market (both domestic and international);
- The restoration of the raw material base of the country, which has rich internal resources;
- The creation of a system of enterprises involving independent manufacturers and the organization of independent business operations;
- The maintenance of a reliable power supply - essential for such power-intensive industries;
- The maintenance of a rational ratio between raw materials and manufactured products; and
- The development of measures to prevent environmental pollution Non-Ferrous Metallurgy
3. Find out three governmental or non-governmental organizations which deal with ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy business. Compare the fees, benefits and the main development directions of these industries. Report your findings back to your class.

Reading 3

1. Read the introduction to oil and gas in Kazakhstan. Explain the meaning of the bold words and say if you know the translation of these words.
Kazakhstan recently completed a new assessment of its oil reserves and estimated proven and probable oil reserves at approximately 29 billion barrels. Kazakhstan is no longer a minor world oil exporter as it was during the late 1990’s, it is now an important player in global energy market. There are several giant oil fields in Kazakhstan. There are three oil refineries in Kazakhstan.
2. Match the oil and gas terms with their appropriate translations. Make up a sentence or situation using them.
Accumulation of petroleum Acid rains Appraisal well Associated gas
Attainable potential Availability of oil Benchmark crude Combustible gas
Enhanced recovery Environmental safety Fossil fuels Giant field
Low gravity oil Oil pollution Refinery stocks
1) Запасы нефтезаводского сырья
2) Кислотные дожди
3) Доступные ресурсы
4) Экологическая безопасность
5) Нефтяное загрязнение
6) Горючие полезные ископаемые
7) Наличие нефти
8) Тяжелая нефть
9) Повышенное извлечение нефти
10) Крупное месторождение
11) Оценочная скважина
12) Горючий газ
13) Попутный газ
14) Базисный сорт нефти
15) Скопление углеводородов
Начало формы
Конец формы
KAZAKHSTAN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

www.kazenergy.comMaulen Namazbekov
Enormous carbohydrates resources have helped Kazakhstan to develop effective energy policy which has formed basis for accelerated national economic growth.
During the last few years Kazakhstani Oil and Gas industry has been transformed from centralized state-owned organization into fragmented free market enterprise which has abruptly increased its pull of investments and let Kazakhstan to become a leader in terms of its estimated quantity of carbohydrates deposits not only among post-Soviet states but also among major oil producing nations. On Kazakhstani national territory is present virtually all the major companies in the world carbohydrate business. Kazakhstan holds the largest proven oil reserves in Caspian region. According to statistical data carbohydrate reserves confirmed by British Petroleum on land and continental shelf are estimated within 5.5 bin tones or 39.8 bin barrels. However, estimated oil reserves located only within Kazakhstani part of Caspian Sea amount to more than 17 bin tones or 124.3 bin. barrels. Oil and gas rich regions of the Republic which contain 172 oil and 42 gas resources among which over 80 are being already developed occupy around 62 % of Kazakhstani territory. Major oil reserve in Kazakhstan (over 90 %) are concentrated in 15 major resources: Tengiz, Kashagan, Karachaganak, Uzen, Zhetybai, Zhanazhol, Kalamkas, Kenkiyak, Karazhanbas, Kumkol, Northern Uzachi, Alibek Molla, Central and Eastern prorva, Kenbai, Korolevskoye; out of all these resources half of combined oil reserves is contained just within Kashagan and Tengiz recourses. Such concentration of geological resources lessons their cost of production, however, geological peculiarities of the resources such as geological formations of oil basins, higher content of chemically aggressive crude oil admixtures. Require extra careful project planning concerning resource development and considerable initial investment.The resources are located on the territory of 6 out 14 Kazakhstani oblasts. These are Aktyubinsk, Atyrau, Western Kazakhstan, Karaganda, Kyzyl Orda and Mangistau oblasts. About 70 % of total carbohydrate reserves are located West Kazakhstan oblast.
For Kazakhstan more and more valuable export is becoming natural gas explored and estimated reserves of which - including new-found resources on Caspian shelf - amount nearly to 3.3 trillion cubic meters, whilst potential reserves reach a figure of 6-8 trillion cubic meters. It is worth noting that peculiar feature of the explored gas reserves in the Republic is that virtually in all the resources and particularly in newly producing largest resources gas production is conducted along with production of crude oil and condensate. Therefore, active development of these resources and abrupt growth of oil production volume for the last years require utilization of ever increasing volume of concurrently produced gas. For the last years an average growth of natural gas production stood at 6-8% per annum, meanwhile, however, for 2007 increased volume of gas production was 9.7% reaching total figure of 29.6 billion cubic meters that more than three times has exceeded level of gas production for 1991. Major production of natural gas is conducted in Aktyubinsk, Atyrau, Western Kazakhstan, Kyzyl-orda and Mangystau oblast of Kazakhstan. Taking into account oil and gas reserves as well as ever increasing volume of production for the foreseeable future Kazakhstan will remain one of the world leading producers. In 2010 forecasted volume of oil production in Kazakhstan will be 80 million tons p.a., by 2015 -120-130 million tons. It is also expected that production of unstripped gas by 2010 will increase to 40 billion cubic meters and by 2015 - up till 70 billion cubic meters. Accordingly there will be an increase in production of liquefied gas and by 2015 it will reach level of 2 million tons. Experts forecast that within the nearest future Kazakhstan may enter the ranks of "top ten" oil producing nations being on a par with Kuwait. Growth of Kazakhstani oil production volume is closely tied to two factors: Firstly, considerable increase in foreign investments: in particular, direct foreign investments into oil producing industry. Secondly, favorable carbohydrate market conditions in the world exercise considerable influence on situation of oil industry in Kazakhstani economy.It is worth noting that one of the most important aspects of reform process in Kazakhstan was creation of favorable investment climate for national and foreign investors which is one of the most attractive business climates not only in CIS countries but also across countries of Central and Eastern Europe as well as Baltic states.Yet oil production growth in Kazakhstan is happening somewhat slower than was initially anticipated due to technical difficulties encountered during Kashagan and Tengis resource development.Project delays during development of Kashagan resource due to technical issues and overexpeniture have led to a situation where upon beginning of oil production accumulated sum total of compensatory payments to Kazakhstani government would amount to 4.5 billion USD. The production stage of development has been transferred from 2007-08 as was initially planned to 2012-13 while estimate of expenditures has been reviewed from $57 billion USD to $136 billion USD. Raising of production rate Tengiz resource by company Tengiz Shevron Oil should happen during the second half of 2008 even though it was planned initially for the beginning of 2007.As a consequence in 2008 it is planned to produce 67.8 million tons of oil in Kazakhstan which somewhat smaller that was planned initially, namely 69 million tons. However, these delays should significantly affect long term development targets of Kazakhstani oil and gas producing industry and will be compensated by increased production during 2012-15.At the same volume of internal oil consumption in Kazakhstan is relatively not high - about 226 thousand barrels per day or 17 % of total volume of national production - and stable. Kazakhstan exports major part of produced oil mainly via pipelines. Kazakhstan has three major oil refinery plants: in Pavlodar which supplies oil products to the Northern regions of the country, Atyrau in the Western region and Shymkent in the Southern region. Their combined estimated output is 21 million tons per annum.As a result Kazakhstan will export almost all production increase and this is precisely why key significance is attached to investments made to develop routes of export: mainly pipelines which are very effective and reliable means of carbohydrates transportation.Oil export from Kazakhstan which does not have access to sea ports was traditionally dependent upon transit via Russia; however, degree of dependency was considerably lowered over the last years. Since the President Nursultan Nazarbayev has declared on several occasions that energy related partnerships of Kazakhstan are based on pragmatic economics.Kazakhstani pipeline system is comprised of three autonomous areas interconnected with system of Russian company ОАО NK Transneft. Major part of exported oil is piped along Atyrau-Samara route. Kazkhstan exports significant amount of oil by rail transport which is more costly. Over the last decade there were built two new large pipelines to export oil. Firstly, Caspian pipeline consortium (KTK): pipeline 1580 km long connecting Tengiz resource nearby Caspian Sea shore with Russian Black Sea port Novorossiysk.Along KTK built in 2001 during last year there was transported around 260 thousand barrels per day or 32.6 million tons of oil mainly produced by Tengiz Shevron Oil and АО Exploration Production KazMunayGas. Volume of transit turned out to be somewhat higher its initially planned capacity: around 28 million tons per annum - anticipated increase of production.Secondly, through pipeline connecting Kazakhstan with China 200 thousand barrels are transported each day or 10 million tons. The pipeline connects Central Kazakhstan and eastern section of pipeline system of АО KazTransOil with Chinese rapidly growing energy market. Pipeline construction was completed in 2006 and it is not yet used to its full capacity because it is not connected to Kazakhstani Caspian resources. These new pipeline projects as well as high prices of oil have weakened dependency on oil transit and made cost effective even expensive rail transportation. There was also oil supply to Iran in accordance with swap agreements. Nevertheless, within few years after start of development of Karashagan resource and increased production from Tengiz Kazakhstani pipelines transmission capacity will be obviously insufficient to transport increasing volume of production in the country. For example, already in January 2008 the largest oil producing company in Kazakhstan –Tengiz Shevron Oil - announced 90 thousand barrels per day increase in production reaching total figure of 400 thousand barrels per day. Upon launch of second queue facilities planned for the second half of 2008 Tengiz Shevron Oil is set to increase production up till 540 thousand barrels per day. On the whole, given national oil production is above 90 million tons per annum - including 21 million tons per annum produced in Kazakhstani part of Caspian Sea - since 2009 it will be necessary to build a new pipeline to export oil. Upon reaching oil production growth of 140 million tons per annum including 61 tons per annum from Kazakhstani part of Caspian Sea by 2012 it will be necessary to build another pipeline. So it seems the major projects in terms of developing oil transit will be the following: Firstly, Kazakhstan - China pipeline throughput capacity double increase up to 20 million tons and its connection to major part of national pipeline system.Secondly, KTK pipeline throughput capacity double increase up to 1.3 million barrels per day or 67 million tons per year of around two billion USD value. Common agreement with Russia concerning this has already been reached. Thirdly, Yeskene-Kuryk pipeline and oil terminal in Kuryk port construction worth around 1.6 billion USD as a part of Kazakhstani Caspian pipeline system. This pipeline is a part of largest scale scheme of transportation allowing to supply Kazakhstani oil mainly from Kashagan resource from Caspian Sea basin through Caucasian region to Mediterranean markets via Baku-Tbilisi-Dzheikhan.It is important to note that in May 2008 Kazakhstan has ratified a treaty with Azerbaizhan about support of oil transit from Kazakhstan through Caspian Sea and territory of Azerbaizhan to international markets via pipeline system Baku-Tbilisi-Dzheikhan which considerably strengthens common prospects and significant of Yeskene-Kuryk pipeline.Direction to Iran is also of interest to the Republic. According to preliminary research Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran route is economically one of the most attractive options to export Kazakhstani oil to the Persian Gulf markets. According to the project oil pipeline route starts in Western Kazakhstan goes through Western Turkmenistan and follows further alone Iran territory up to its Northern region.
3. Answer the questions about the text giving your points of view.
- Do you agree that Kazakhstan will enter to “top ten” oil producing nations? Give your points of view. What makes you think so?
- What are the factors or common reasons that growth of Kazakhstani oil production volume?
- Would you like to connect your working life with oil and gas sphere and explain why?
4. Pair work.
Student A begins retelling the text in English dividing the text into logical parts.
Student B translates the retold part of the text in English into Kazakh/Russian.
Student A continues retelling the text in Kazakh/Russian.
Student B continues translating retold part of the Kazakh/Russian text into English.
FOCUS ON SPEAKING

1. Share your points of view on the following topic.
Discussion topic:
Discuss with your partner on the problems and prospects of oil, gas and metallurgy sectors of Kazakhstan. State out facing problems, and then suggest possible solutions on them. Recommend how to improve the given sectors and to contribute to home country’s economy.
2. Give your points of view on the role of oil and gas sector for the improvement economic situation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. You may talk on:
- the role of oil and gas sectors
- the possible problems, ways of solution on the given field
- the level of oil and gas sector in the country
- the production and refining ways of oil and gas
- the ways of transportation of oil and gas
- the process of making contracts/agreements to supply with oil and gas
- the ways of investment of this sector
3. Give your points of view on metallurgy, ferrous and non-ferrous metalsners faceest sucessful ng processs. You may talk on:
- the level of metallurgy sector in Kazakhstan
- the ways of refining and production of metals
- the salary structure of employees on the given sphere
- the ways to develop worker’s skills on the given sphere
- the ways or methods to attract the workers and workplaces
- the facilities to share experiences abroad and in home country
- the ways of contribution for the country’s economy
FOCUS ON WRITING

1. Follow the tips how to write a report and then write an appropriate report on the given situation.
Writing reports:
Remember that this is a report – don’t start the piece of writing as if it were a letter.
Decide on the level of formality according to the target reader. The report will almost always be formal, but if, e.g., you are asked to write a report for your group, you can be more informal.
Ensure that you fully understand the purpose of the report.
Include an introduction that summarizes the content of your report.
Use section headings for clarity.
State any recommendation clearly in the final paragraph.
The format which is suitable for most formal reports:
Title
Executive summary
Introduction
Findings
Conclusion
Recommendations
You recently spent two months working as a translator/interpreter in Atiray on your internship. You have witnessed on exploration, production and refining process of oil and natural gas there. Write a report on describing the process. Your writing should include not less than 250-300 words.
2. Follow the tips how to write a business letter and then write an appropriate letter on the given situation.
Parts of a Business Letter
1. Date (three or four lines below the last line of the letterhead)
In the USA and various other countries
(full name of the month, the day, the year)
August 18, 2009
In Europe and many other countries
(day, the month, the year)
5 November 2009
2. Attention line (two or three lines below the dateline)
“Personal” or “Confidential” is placed two or three lines below the dateline.
3. Inside Address (two lines below the date or the attention line)
-the name of the person
-the name and address of the company or organization to whom the letter is addressed
Mr. Kenneth Maxwell
Corporate Planning Department
XYZ Company, Inc.
20 Highwood Avenue
Midland Park, MA 2040
College or University
Admissions Office
New York, AL 2040
USA
4. Subject or reference line (two lines below the inside address)
This line is used if you want to include or refer to a file or reference number (of an order, the name of a special project or a certain date) in the letter. The word “Reference” is often abbreviated as Ref, or Re:.
Subject: Holiday Schedule for 2009
Ref.: Your order No. 2338A
Re: Insurance Policy No. B444-AvZ-MA33-35
5. Salutation (two or three lines below the subject)
a colon (:); a comma (,)
Dear Sir: Dear Sirs: Dear Robert, Dear Madam:
Dear Professor Brown: Dear Mr. Johnson:
6. Body of the letter (two lines between the paragraphs)
The body of the letter is the main part of the business letter.
7. Complimentary closing (two lines below the last line of the body of the letter)
This ends the letter.
(formal closing) Yours truly, Respectfully yours,
(less formal closing) Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Cordially,
(personal closing) Regards, Personal regards, Kindest regards,
8. Signature line (three or four lines below the closing)
The handwritten signature is placed between the closing and the signature line.
Joseph L. Cotton
Director, Marketing Services
You are very alarmed on the ecological situation of your country. As one of the citizen of your country you would like to make your own contribution in writing a formal letter to the heads of Oil Company, stating that they are making some disaster to local people. In your letter state out the problems they are causing, climate crisis and health matters.
PROJECT MODELLING
Project 1: TV Broadcast
Your assignment is to write and perform a full news broadcast on the oil and gas, metallurgy industries with commercial breaks. Your broadcast should include:
International news
National news
Local news
A special report on oil, gas and metallurgy sectors
2-3 commercials
The interview
You will be expected to design props and other visual aids to enhance your performance. You will perform the report from memory or from limited notes. You are encouraged to incorporate interesting and humorous, yet appropriate elements into your broadcast. Please demonstrate a synthesis of course material in your presentation. Participants speak clearly, in complete sentences with limited use of note. Did each participant memorize their lines?
Project 2: Toastmaster International. Public speaking
Your assignment is to make up a public speaking according to the roles. Your speaking should include three parts table topics, prepared speeches and evaluations. Table topics give us a chance to learn how to think on our feet. Prepared speeches teach us to master specific speaking objectives. Evaluations help us to improve our listening skills and to be supportive in our feedback and recommendations. The roles to be distributed: Toastmaster (1 student); Grammarian (1 student); General Evaluator (1 student); Ah Counter (1 student); Table topic Master (1 student); Speakers (several students); Evaluators (depends on the number of speakers).
Stage 1: Distribute the roles beforehand. According to roles the students should fulfill their tasks.
Stage 2: The speakers (ice-breakers) should get prepared to the given topic of discussion on the theme “Oil and gas. Ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Problems and the future of this sector”. Then present their talks.
Stage 3: The evaluators should assess the speakers speeches according to the evaluation sheet.
Stage 4: Table topic discussion. The Table topic Master prepares questions on the chosen theme and ask the participants to answer on feet.
Stage 5: Toastmaster makes a conclusion.
UNIT 3: WORLD OF BUSINESS
Communication sphere: Business
FILE 2. Manufacturing. Light industry. Food industry. Prospects for the development of car/automotive industry (machinery)

LEAD-IN

Comment on the following quotations:
1. “I have long aspired to make our company a noble prototype of industry, penetrating in science, reliable in engineering, creative in aesthetics and wholesomely prosperous in economics. ”
Edwin Herbert Land, 2005
2. “Industry is best at the intersection of science and art.”Edwin Herbert Land, 2005
3. “It is both a sad and a happy fact of engineering history that disasters have been powerful instruments of change. Designers learn from failure. Industrial society did not invent grand works of engineering, and it was not the first to know design failure. What it did do was develop powerful techniques for learning from the experience of past disasters. It is extremely rare today for an apartment house in North America, Europe, or Japan to fall down. Ancient Rome had large apartment buildings too, but while its public baths, bridges and aqueducts have lasted for two thousand years, its big residential blocks collapsed with appalling regularity. Not one is left in modern Rome, even as ruin. ”Edward Tenner, 1997
4. “There is no use asking the cow to pour you a glass of milk.”
American proverb
5. “Patience is the most necessary quality for business, many a man would rather you heard his story than grant his request.”
Philip Standhope
VOCABULARY ZONE
1. Brainstorm and discuss these questions:
1. What are the fastest-growing sectors of the food market in recent years in Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA?
2. What are important manufacturing industries in Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA?
3. What are the main manufacturing companies in your region or country?
4. What initiatives is the government taking to improve light and food, automobile industries in your country?
5. What are the recommendations to develop the manufacturing of your country?
6. What food and light industries are well-known on different parts of Kazakhstan?
7. What are the main characteristic features of heavy and light industries?
2. Search for the key words manufacturing around the world from the internet. Present your findings in class. Then translate them into Kazakh/Russian languages.
3. Translate the following text according to the theme into Kazakh/Russian.
An analysis of Kazakhstan’s mining and metallurgy complex testifies to that the country boasts of sufficient mineral resources, which are profitable to produce. 38 deposits of lead and zinc have been considered active (88.7% of total reserves of zinc and 66.8% of total reserves of lead), as well as 15 deposits of ferrous ore (26.1%), 46 copper fields (58.8%), 90 goldfields and 39 complex auriferous fields (86.0%). The supply of active reserves of lead and zinc will last no more than ten or fifteen years, therefore it is crucial to further increase funding of geologic exploration. At the same time, the supply of minerals in the ferrous ore, manganese and chromite industries is nearly 80 years given that the current production level goes up by 1.5 times.
The privatization of the sector is nearly completed as a result of economic and legal reforms. Major companies such as Kazzinc, Corporation Kazakhmys, SSGPO, Ispat Karmet and Kazchrome united mining and concentration enterprises and metallurgic works into single industrial complexes.
GRAMMAR ZONE
1. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using one of the reporting verbs below.
apologized claim advised announced explained
accuse complain congratulate offer apologize suggest
1. “I am so sorry for forgetting to meet you yesterday” Maria said to Peter.
2. “There is nobody here to answer your questions now,” the secretary said to them.
3. “We’ll be getting married in July,” Katherine told her friends.
4. “I was nowhere near the scene of the crime,” said the suspect.
5. “I think you should relax a bit,” the doctor told her.
6. “Well done, David. You’ve won first prize! ”
7. “I’m sure you scratched my car yesterday, Tim.”
8. “Why don’t we go in my car?” said Steve.
9. “We’re sorry we’re late,” they said.
10. “Let me get you a drink,” Jessica said to us.
11. “That test wasn’t fair,” the students said.
2. Think of the last question you were asked by the following people:
your best friend
your parents
a stranger
your teachers
your colleague
Now report to the class what they said.
My teacher of English asked me if I could link my working life with oil and gas.
3. Make indirect questions from these Wh-questions. Then write five indirect questions about things in your city or country connected with industry. Take turns asking your questions. Answer the questions using the reported speech.
1) How much does a gasoline cost in your city?
2) Where are some good restaurants around here?
3) When do government offices open?
4) What type of industry is popular in your country?
5) what kind of advanced technologies are used to improve car industry?
FOCUS ON LISTENING

1. Listen to the first part of listening a lecture about Monosodium Glutamate which is used in Chinese and Japanese cooking. And answer the questions:
1) What type of flavour is used in food industry and why?
2) What do you know about Chinese and Japanese cooking? Have you ever tried them? Did you like or not?
3) Do you like fast food? How often do you eat?
2. Debate the issues in groups and share with class. “Color and flavour have been used to striking effect in the marketing of consumer products”, “Innovations which are used in food technology”, “Production technology of food”.
3. Make notes on the following points of listening and make a brief summary.
General information on MSG
Reason of using MSG in cooking
Work of MSG
Brief history of MSG usage
Usage of flavour enhancer in other countries
4. Listen to the second part of the listening text and express your attitude to the next points:
1) Restaurant business
2) Advantages and disadvantages of restaurant business
3) Problems and prospects
4) Development of restaurant business in your country
FOCUS ON READING

1. There are given the definitions of some words, try to find out from the text the words.
1. the amount of something that a person, organization, system etc produces
2. the rate at which goods are produced, especially in relation to the time, money and workers needed to produce them
3. the production of goods, especially those made in factories, hard work and effort
4. work that you are paid regularly to do for a person or company
5. a lack of a quality, skill, or ability that you should have
6. someone whose job is to sell food and other goods for the home in a small shop
7. someone whose job is to sell large quantities of goods to shops or small businesses
2. Discuss with your partner, then compare.
What do you know about agriculture and manufacturing of the USA? What technological advances are used to improve agriculture in the USA?

200,000 UK manufacturing jobs could be created if the skills shortage is addressed, says report
THE MYTH ABOUT MANUFACTURING
http://cerasis.com/2014/06/05/manufacturing-revival/
The U.S. Census Bureau reports that 2011 manufacturing output grew by 11 percent, to nearly $5 trillion. Were our manufacturing sector considered a nation with its own gross domestic product, it would be the world’s fourth-richest economy. Manufacturing productivity has doubled since 1987, and manufacturing output has risen by one-half. However, over the past two decades, manufacturing employment has fallen about 25 percent. For some people, that means our manufacturing sector is sick. By that criterion, our agriculture sector shares that “sickness,” only worse and for a longer duration.
In 1790, 90 percent of Americans did agricultural work. Agriculture is now in “shambles” because only 2 percent of Americans have farm jobs. In 1970, the telecommunications industry employed 421,000 well-paid switchboard operators. Today “disaster” has hit the telecommunications industry, because there are fewer than 20,000 operators. That’s a 95 percent job loss. The spectacular advances that have raised productivity in the telecommunications industry have made it possible for fewer operators to handle tens of billions of calls at a tiny fraction of the 1970 cost.
For the most part, rising worker productivity and advances in technology are the primary causes of reduced employment and higher output in the manufacturing, agriculture and telecommunications industries. My question is whether Congress should outlaw these productivity gains in the name of job creation. It would be easy. Just get rid of those John Deere harvesting machines that do in a day what used to take a thousand men a week, outlaw the robots and automation that eliminated many manufacturing jobs, and bring back manually operated PBX telephone switchboards. By the way, if technological advances had not eliminated millions of jobs, where in the world would we have gotten the workers to produce all those goods and services that we now enjoy that weren’t even thought of decades ago? The bottom line is that the health of an industry is measured by its output, not by the number of people it employs.
When Americans buy more goods from Canadians, Chinese and Mexicans than they buy from us, it’s a problem. Or is it? Let’s explore whether buying more from a person than he buys from you is a problem, and let me give a personal example. I buy more from my grocer than he buys from me. In turn, he buys more from his wholesaler than the wholesaler buys from him. But sticking to my grocer and me, let’s see whether there’s a problem – what some people might call a trade deficit.
When I spend $100 at the grocery, my capital account (money) goes down by $100, but my goods account (groceries) increases by $100. My grocer’s goods account decreases by $100, while his capital account increases by $100. There’s a trade balance, whether my grocer is down the street, in another state or in another country.
Say Japan’s Sony Corp. sells me a $1,000 television. My capital account goes down by $1,000, but my goods account rises by $1,000. Suppose Sony doesn’t buy any wheat, corn, cotton or cars from Americans. People are tempted to say that there’s a trade deficit. Not true. Instead of using that $1,000 to buy goods from us, Sony might purchase stocks and U.S. Treasury bonds from us – in other words, invest in America. When Sony sells me a television, the corporation’s goods account (called “current account” in international trade) goes down by $1,000, but its capital account (stocks and bonds) rises by $1,000. Lo and behold, again a balance of trade.
By the way, it would be great if foreigners didn’t buy anything from us and just gave us cars, computers, televisions, clothing and other goods in exchange for slips of paper with pictures of past presidents such as George Washington, Andrew Jackson and Ulysses Grant. We could live the life of Riley. The world would bestow all manner of goods and services upon us, and all we’d have to do is have a few Americans employed printing dollars that foreigners would hold precious and keep.
3. Give possible ways or methods to raise working productivity and to advance technology in manufacturing. Then discuss with the class.
4. Your parents have leather-shoe manufacturing industry in one of the biggest cities of Kazakhstan. But now they are facing some kinds of problem. Read the problems about shoe manufacturing and give possible solutions on the given items:
The industry is now in crisis.
Cheap imports from overseas have had a major impact on sales.
Many factories have already closed down.
There is widespread industrial unrest.


Reading 2
1. Read the text about manufacturing in GB and compare with your country. Speak on the level of biotechnology, food and drink, mechanical engineering in your country. What other manufacture types is your country popular with?
2. Make a report to your class on manufacturing in Kazakhstan. While making a report keep on the points into consideration: achievements and problems of Kazakhstan on medicine, ready-cooked meals, food and drink, machine-building.
MANUFACTURING IN GREAT BRITAIN
Focus on Britain. Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London. February, 2000.
About 250 British industrial companies each have an annual turnover of over $500 million. Sixteen are among the top 25 European companies in terms of profitability. Among the biggest British-owned companies are BP, ICI, Glaxo Wellcome, British Aerospace, BT and GEC. However, small firms with fewer than 100 staff provide over 50 per cent of the private sector workforce.
Biotechnology
The British biotechnology industry, which contains a third of Europe’s biotechnology firms (220 in all), is second in importance only to that of the United States. It employs over 10,000 people and achieves yearly sales of $700 million.
The most important sectors served by biotechnology include chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food, agriculture and medical diagnostic devices. For example, biotechnology has improved the specificity of pharmaceuticals through greater understanding of disease at the molecular level. British Biotech is developing an anti-cancer drug, Marimastat, which can be taken orally and is claimed to have few serious adverse side-effects. A second generation of vaccines based on recombinant DNA technology includes SmithKline Beecham’s Engerix-B vaccine against hepatitis. Agricultural products include infection-resistant crops; while biotechnology is also providing new tools for the selection and design of microbes and enzymes in food production.
Food and Drink
Britain has a comprehensive food and drink manufacturing industry. Frozen foods and chilled convenience foods are among the fastest- growing sectors of the food market in recent years. The range of ready-cooked meals has expanded rapidly, and companies have introduced many new low-fat and fat-fat items. There has been a large rise in sales of vegetarian foods, and genetically modified foods and drinks are gradually being brought onto the market.
The soft drinks industry, which had a turnover of $6,500 million in 1996, produces carbonated drinks, concentrates, fruit juices, and natural mineral and bottled waters. Scotch whisky is one of Britain’s top export earners. Scotland has 92 distillers. There are also 410 vineyards and 120 wineries in Britain, mostly in southern England, producing about 1.8 million litres of wine a year.
Mechanical Engineering
The mechanical engineering sector has about 29,000 firms employing some 560,000 people. Output includes machine-building (Britain is one of the world’s major producers of tractors); machine tools (purchased by the engineering, aerospace, automotive and metal goods industries); mechanical lifting and handling equipment; textile and printing machinery; and mining and tunneling equipment. Britain is also a major producer of industrial engines, pumps, valves and compressors, and of pneumatic and hydraulic equipment.
3. You have faced with different figures and data about manufacturing in Great Britain. Explain what they refer to and compare with Kazakhstan. Are they the same or different? Explain the correspondences or differences.

FOCUS ON SPEAKING

Share your points of view on the following topic.
1. Role play
The deputies of the Majilis have listened to the report of the Prime-Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the issue “Machinery of Kazakhstan: current condition, facing problems and prospects for improvement”. At the end of the report the deputies ask questions and find out common solutions to improve the given sphere.
2. Give your points of view on the role of light, food and car industries for the improvement economic situation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. You may talk on:
- the role of light, food and car industries
- the possible problems, ways of solution on the given field
- the level of manufacturing in the country
- the ways of investing this field of business
- the ways to attract foreign investors to the field
- the list of countries by motor vehicle production
- the development ways of manufacturing in Kazakhstan
3. Give your points of view on light industry of your country in comparison with other countriesners faceest sucessful ng processs. You may talk on:
- the level of manufacturing in Kazakhstan
- the conditions and problems of light industry in other countries
- the salary structure of employees on the given sphere
- the ways to develop worker’s skills on the given sphere
- the ways or methods to attract the workers and workplaces
- the facilities to share experiences abroad and in home country
- the ways of contribution for the country’s economy
FOCUS ON WRITING

Follow the useful tips how to write opinion and comparison-contrast essay. Then create your own writing according to the given situations.
1. An opinion essay is an opportunity to express your feelings on an issue or topic you feel passionately about. You can make your argument even stronger by substantiating your opinions with logical arguments and credible evidence. Structure: In the introductory paragraph, explain the statement and give your opinion about it. In the next one or two paragraphs, give reasons for your opinion. In the last paragraph, summarize your opinions. Introduce each paragraph with a topic sentence, outlining the main ideas.
Content: Give simple facts and examples to support your ideas. As well, give specific reasons to support opinions. Do not write about advantages and disadvantages or points for or against.
“Colour and flavor have been used to striking effect in the marketing of consumer products.”
2. A comparison-contrast essay can be organized in several ways. However, you may write in block organization.
In block organization, the similarities are discussed together in one block (which can be one or several paragraphs). Then the differences are discussed together in one block. You may, of course, discuss the differences first and then the similarities. Thesis statement in a comparison-contrast essay should clearly name the topics of the comparison. It should also indicate tha this is going to be a comparison-contrast analysis. The thesis statement sometimes also names the points on which the topics are going to be compared and contrasted. The concluding paragraph of a comparison-contrast essay can follow the same pattern as other conclusions: concluding sentence(s) followed by the writer’s final thoughts.
2. Follow the tips to write an essay and then write comparison and contrast essay about “light” and “heavy” industries, their characteristics. Below it is given short characteristics of light industry, find out more information about heavy industry and write an essay.
Light industries require only a small amount of raw materials, area and power. The value of the goods is low and they are easy to transport. The number of products is high. While light industry typically causes little pollution, particularly when compared to heavy industries, some light industry can cause significant pollution or risk of contamination. Electronics manufacturing, itself often a light industry, can create potentially harmful levels of lead or chemical wastes in soil due to improper handling of solder and waste products (such as cleaning and degreasing agents used in manufacture).
PROJECT MODELLING
Project 1: Toastmaster International. Public speaking
Your assignment is to make up a public speaking according to the roles. Your speaking should include three parts table topics, prepared speeches and evaluations. Table topics give us a chance to learn how to think on our feet. Prepared speeches teach us to master specific speaking objectives. Evaluations help us to improve our listening skills and to be supportive in our feedback and recommendations. The roles to be distributed: Toastmaster (1 student); Grammarian (1 student); General Evaluator (1 student); Ah Counter (1 student); Table topic Master (1 student); Speakers (several students); Evaluators (depends on the number of speakers).
Stage 1: Distribute the roles beforehand. According to roles the students should fulfill their tasks.
Stage 2: The speakers (ice-breakers) should get prepared to the given topic of discussion on the theme “Oil and gas. Ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Problems and the future of this sector”. Then present their talks.
Stage 3: The evaluators should assess the speakers speeches according to the evaluation sheet.
Stage 4: Table topic discussion. The Table topic Master prepares questions on the chosen theme and ask the participants to answer on feet.
Stage 5: Toastmaster makes a conclusion.
Project 2: Job interview
You have noticed an advertisement of a big company in Almaty from one of the famous newspapers. The given company is searching a suitable person for a position as a bilingual secretary (English-Kazakh, English-Russian), an interpreter and a sales manager for international marketing and promotions department.
Make a job interview following the next steps:
Stage 1: Write an application letter (cover letter) in response to an advertisement in a newspaper for a particular position.
As you know, a job application letter must be sent with an accompanying resume. Write a chronological resume including the following information:
- Your full name, mailing address and telephone number.
- Employment Objective or Career Objective.
- Previous Employment and Work Experience.
- Special skills.
- Educational Background.
- Business and Personal References.
Stage 2: Ask your colleagues or boss to write you a letter of recommendation. Ask him/her to write a letter of recommendation about you to support the application. You should include relevant information both about the business skills and the character of a person.
Write a letter of reference about your colleague.
Stage 3: Make up possible job interview questions to ask according to the suggested positions.
Make the list of questions to be asked.
Stage 4: Interview the applicants using your questions.
Stage 5: Prepare a case-study or business situation to test the applicant.
Stage 6: Give him/her business situations or case-study tasks to test his/her skills, abilities.
UNIT 3: WORLD OF BUSINESS
Communication sphere: Business
FILE 3. The development of entrepreneurship in the agricultural sector: problems and prospects. Improving the competitiveness of the products of the agricultural sector in the conditions of accession to the WTO

LEAD-IN

Comment on the following quotations:
1. “Oh farmers, pray that your summers be wet and your winters clear.”
Proverb
2. “I know of no pursuit in which more real and important services can be rendered to any country than by improving its agriculture, its breed of useful animals, and other branches of a husbandman's cares.”
George Washington
3. “This leads to the further reflection, that no other human occupation opens so wide a field for the profitable and agreeable combination of labor with cultivated thought, as agriculture. I know of nothing so pleasant to the mind, as the discovery of anything which is at once new and valuable -- nothing which so lightens and sweetens toil, as the hopeful pursuit of such discovery. And how vast, and how varied a field is agriculture, for such discovery. The mind, already trained to thought, in the country school, or higher school, cannot fail to find there an exhaustless source of profitable enjoyment.
Abraham Lincoln, Address before the Wisconsin State Agricultural Society, September 30, 1859”
4. “Advances in medicine and agriculture have saved vastly more lives than have been lost in all the wars in history.”
Carl Sagan
5. “Agriculture is our wisest pursuit, because it will in the end contribute most to real wealth, good morals, and happiness.”
Thomas Jefferson
VOCABULARY ZONE
1. Brainstorm and discuss these questions:
1. What are the main agricultural products in your country?
2. Does your country import or export agricultural products?
3. What are the innovations in the field of agriculture in your country or around the world?
4. What do you suggest to improve efficiency and output in agribusiness?
5. What problems is Kazakhstan facing today on the given sector? What are the solutions?
6. What are the scientific approaches to develop agricultural sector?
2. Search for the key words innovations in agriculture from the internet. Present your findings in class. Then translate them into Kazakh/Russian languages.
3. Translate the following text according to the theme into Kazakh/Russian.
Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk) -city, eastern Kazakhstan. It lies in the foothills of the Rūdnyy Altai Mountains and at the junction of the Ulba and Irtysh rivers.. Oskemen is now a major centre of nonferrous metallurgy (lead, zinc, titanium, and magnesium) in Kazakhstan, with important associated research institutes and laboratories. Other industries include food processing and machine building. The city is also an important transport junction. Population of region - around 1,708 432  people.
According to taxation committee data incomings to state budget from small business for 1st quarter 2007 amounted 2009138 thousands tenge, the growth formed 33.9% to the same period of previous year, including to local budget 699 443 thousands tenge, the growth formed 34.3% to the same period of previous year, including to city budget 406 611 thousands tenge, the growth formed 37.5% to the same period of previous year.
There are several institutions in the city for business development, among them: Ust-Kamenogorsk branch of JSC “Small business development fund in East Kazakhstan”, “Regional Scientific-technological park “Altai”” LLP, “Innovative center “Zhardem”” LLP, Woodworking association, construction association in East Kazakhstan, small business trade union, also there are wide bank center and 9 micro-credit organizations.
In the region prepared Conception of creation Industry Zones. There are four ground areas determined total area of 278 hectares, including Kamenni Karyer (110 hectares), Samarskoe Shosse (35 hectares), JSC “UMZ” (Eastern area) (36 hectares) and Ovechi Kluch (97 hectares). Nowadays there is a process of preparation and concordance of documents for allotment of lands.
GRAMMAR ZONE
1. In the following sentences, there are some mistakes in the relative clauses. Find them and correct them.
1) The island of Malta that is situated south of Sicily and which used to be a British colony gained its independence in 1964.
2) A man to whom I was talking to recently told me a joke, which was very funny, but that I’ve unfortunately forgotten.
3) The Inuit who we used to call “Eskimos” are an ancient people.
4) Pete the guy who’s car I borrowed last week is visiting his mum that’s ill.
5) You need a passport for the countries to where you’re travelling.
2. Rewrite the sentences using present or past participle. And explain your choice.
1) She put on her coat, then went out.
2) He got run over as he crossed the road.
3) If you view the cliffs from this angle, they look very tall.
4) I walked down the road and I hummed to myself at the same time.
5) If the weather permits, we can go on a tour of the island tomorrow.
6) She’d eaten earlier so she wasn’t hungry.
7) I live near the sea so I get plenty of opportunities to go swimming.
8) When I’d visited Zanzibar I flew on to the Seychelles.
9) David has been rejected by his peers and lacks confidence, so he would certainly benefit from a change of school.
10) She split wine on her dress and completely ruined it.
3. Read these incomplete sentences and discuss whether they should be completed with a defining or non-defining relative clause, or whether both are possible.
1) I don’t like children……
2) The journey from work to home…. took over two hours yesterday.
3) Politicians …. aren’t worth listening to.
4) The Taj Mahal … is built from exquisitely carved white marble.
5) These are the photographs…..
6) We docked at the small port on the coast of East Africa.
7) My cousin … went hang-gliding at the weekend.
8) We went on a cycling holiday in Wales ….

FOCUS ON LISTENING

You are going to listen to the interview about the history of banana growing in Australia. Do the following tasks:
Do you know the meaning or translation of the following words or phrases? If no, try to guess their meanings.
primary industry, to be domesticated, nourishing food, to cultivate, to bear fruit, to ripen, domestic market.
Fill in the gaps with appropriate words from the listening text:
And I wanted to tie it in to the work I’ve been doing on _____ and the _____. Well, it’d be a good _____ run for my _____ next week. According to my _____, the _____ banana, which is a type of banana and the first type to be _____ here, actually _____ in China but they had a fairly _____ before they got to _____.
I suppose they would have made a welcome addition to the _____. But to grow them _____ you need to know what you’re doing. Well, bananas are normally grown from _____ which spring up around the ______, usually just above the plant. They tend to _____ or at least that’s the common _____.
Answer the questions according to the listening text:
- What did you know and didn’t know about bananas?
- Where were bananas first domesticated?
- Is it hard to grow bananas?
- How do the growers stop the bananas going bad before shopping?
Compare and contrast banana growing process with any domestic product you would like to describe. Tell in brief its history, growing technology, climate conditions, selling and storing process. Then present your findings in class.
FOCUS ON READING

Reading 1
1. Discuss the questions:
1. Compare American agriculture with GB and KZ today. What are the differences and correspondences?
2. What are the dark and bright sides of American agriculture?
3. What is agribusiness?
4. What innovations are used to improve the agricultural sector today?
5. Give your points of view on living standards of farmers in KZ, GB and the USA.
2. Read the following thesis sentences of the text paying attention to bold phrases and express your attitude what they refer to and then compare with Kazakhstan:
1) As the 20th century nears its end, many Americans have been contemplating the successes and shortcomings of the country’s agriculture.
2) American agriculture is, by any standards, big business.
3) However, American agriculture has a dark side as well as a bright side.
4) The readiness of many farmers to adopt new technology has been one of the strengths of American agriculture.
5) A period of economic difficulty began and agricultural exports declined.
6) Many farm owners –especially owners of smaller farms – do not work on the farms full-time.

AMERICAN AGRICULTURE TODAY
Collection of texts about the USA.
As the 20th century nears its end, many Americans have been contemplating the successes and shortcomings of the country’s agriculture. They have found much to be proud of, but they have also raised some nagging questions.
The successes of American agriculture are easy to see – and many farmers are quick to boast of them. In parts of the Midwest, signs along major highways remind motorists that “one farmer feeds 75 people.” Thanks to nature’s bounty and to the effective use of machines, fertilizers and chemicals, American farmers are virtually unrivaled in producing crops cheaply and in quantity. The United States produces as much as half of the world’s soybeans and corn for grain, and from 10 to 25 percent of its cotton, wheat, tobacco and vegetable oils.
American agriculture is, by any standards, big business. Indeed, the term “agribusiness” has been coined to reflect the large-scale nature of agricultural enterprise in the modern US economy. The term covers the entire complex of farm-related businesses, from the individual farmer to the multinational maker of farm chemicals. Agribusiness includes farmer cooperatives, rural banks, shippers of farm products, commodity dealers, firms that manufacture farm equipment, food-processing industries, grocery chains and many other businesses.
Both American and foreign consumers benefit from the American farmer’s low-cost output. American consumers pay less for their food than the people of many other industrial countries. Moreover, one-third of the cropland in the United States is planted in crops destined for export – to Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. Agricultural exports were 35.6 thousand million in 1989.
Agricultural imports lag far behind, leaving a surplus in the agricultural balance of trade.
The standard of living of American farmers is generally high. Incomes of farm families average about three-quarters of those nonfarm families, but because farm families’ living expenses are lower, their standard of living is close to the national average. Although farm living once meant isolation from comforts life, this is no longer the case.
The readiness of many farmers to adopt new technology has been one of the strengths of American agriculture. Computers are but the latest in a long line of innovations that have helped American farmers to cut costs and improve productivity. Yet farmers have been traditionalists as well as innovators. They preserve a deep conservatism and respect for tradition that has helped to lend stability to rural communities in times of rapid change.
However, American agriculture has a dark side as well as a bright side. Farmers in the United States go through alternating periods of prosperity and recession and some farm practices have raised environmental and other concerns.
While the high productivity of American agriculture has kept food prices low for consumers, farmers have been perhaps too successful. Crop surpluses and low prices have made it hard for many farmers to make a profit. The cost of the products farmers buy –tractors, fertilizers, pesticides – has risen faster than the prices they receive for their crops. High interest rates have added to the farmer’s burden. A period of economic difficulty began and agricultural exports declined, partly due to the high value of the United States dollar. Crop prices fell and interest rates rose. Many farmers found themselves hard-pressed to keep up payments on loans and mortgages taken earlier when prices were higher. Some farmers lost their farms and equipment, which were sold off to satisfy the farmers’ debts. In dozens of farm communities, the crisis caused the closing of banks, farmer cooperatives and small businesses. A variety of governmental and private programs helped to ease the suffering, but many farmers wondered whether the good times had finally come to an end.
Many farm owners –especially owners of smaller farms – do not work on the farms full-time. Forty-five percent of the people we call farmers actually have other occupations. And not all farmers own their land. Some 240,000 are tenant farmers-who either rent their land for cash or pay the owner a share of the crops they grow. On large farms, many of the workers are hired only for a specific chore-such as picking crops. Many of these seasonal workers travel from farm to farm, staying only until the crops are picked. They are known as migrant workers. Some are housed under poor conditions, have inadequate health care, and are paid low wages. In recent years, there has been an effort on the part of government and others to improve the lives of these workers.
As they face the future, American farmers can be sure of only one thing-that more changes lie ahead. Ambitious programs of research and development now going on in university, corporate and government laboratories promise to continue the trends of recent years. Though responding to innovation and evolving with the passage of time, agriculture remains the foundation upon which American well-being and prosperity are based. This bond linking past, present and future is fundamental to the American way of life.
3. Role-play
Work on groups of three. The first group is the representatives of Kazakhstan. The second group is the representatives of Great Britain. And the third group is the representatives of the USA. Your issue to discuss is the future of agriculture in these countries. In what ways the agricultural sector in Kazakhstan differs from that in GB and the USA? Discuss with your partner.
Reading 2

1. Match the beginning of the phrases with their correct endings. Explain your choice and the meaning of the phrases.
agricultural crops
farming documents
private sector
long-term conditions
sale regulations
market ownership
new infrastructure
confirmation objective
climatic areas
industrial of land
2. Your teacher has asked you to bring to class current news or issues about agricultural sector of Kazakhstan. Prepare two or three brief news about agriculture of Kazakhstan today and then report to class.
AGRICULTURE IN KAZAKHSTAN
For more information visit the website of the Ministry of Agriculture of Kazakhstan at www.agrikaz.kzThe agricultural sector is one of the key elements of the country's economy. Kazakhstan is one of the major producers of marketable grain, meat, and wool. Farming areas occupy more than 220 million hectares and grain growing areas occupy about 13-14 million hectares. Farming areas comprise 74% of the country's total area. The pasture area totals 185.7 million hectares - 68% of all the farming areas. Individuals, collective farms and organizations utilize 81% of all farming areas and 98 % of all pastures.
Kazakhstan has embarked upon agricultural sector restructuring through the establishment of new corporate entities and privatization. Private ownership is now the dominant organization for agricultural production.
The farming law provides the following rights:
Private ownership of property (land, real estate),
Free separation of land and property from any collective farming to establish the private farms,
Property protection from illegal expropriation,
Freedom of the choice concerning the type of activity followed and product operations,
Equal access to markets, materials, information and finance.
There are 70,000 farms, of which 99,6 % were in the private sector. 61,000 farms were transferred on the basis of long-term tenure, involving 27.2 million hectares of land, 4300 farming cooperatives, over 4,000 partnerships 505 JSC and other entities. Large farms account for 73,5 % of land, small farms 18,6%, state-owned firms 4,0 %, and individuals 0,2%.
Land regulations
The 1st stage will involve the adoption of the law "On land." Private ownership of unoccupied farming lands or state reserve lands will be introduced. This will cover arable land, or land identified as being available for sale to local residents only.
The 2nd stage will complete the process of land privatization.
The land law of the Republic of Kazakhstan already allows different operations to exist, with the right to inherit ownership, or to sell, grant, lease, pledge and transfer rights to joint-stock companies, associations and cooperatives (including those with the foreign participation).
In order to attract foreign capital the period of land lease available to foreign investors was extended up to 99 years.
According to state statistical data, more than 2.3 million people are landowners.
More than 1.9 million transactions in the abatement, lease, sale and purchase of land use rights were arranged and 93% of all private farms received their land ownership confirmation documents.
The new market infrastructure is being developed in accordance with the agricultural plan, adopted by the President.
All the country's new regulations are designed to assist the development of a market infrastructure. 167 wholesale markets, 22 commodity exchanges and 13 credit associations are already functioning and associations of commodity producers and other services organizations are also established.
Currently there are 34 grain producing companies-members of the grain union of Kazakhstan. This is a NGO, acting on a voluntary basis in order to combine efforts and to coordinate the grain market activity.
Characteristics of the country's agricultural production
The territory of Kazakhstan includes forest-steppe, steppe, half-deserted and deserted zones. The natural climatic conditions determine the low natural efficiency of agricultural arable lands that require significant volumes of investments.
These investments should be distributed among the following nine agricultural production zones.
Grain-animal farming zone occupies large territories of dry temperate steppe and covers 64 agricultural districts of the country.
This zone covers 32.8 million hectares of agricultural arable land, including 14.0 million hectares occupied by grain fields (42.7%), with a per capita distribution of 51 hectares of arable lands. This is the country's highest indicator. Soils are black and dark chestnut, the annual precipitation level totals nearly 300 mm.
The large areas of arable land provide cost-effective opportunities for private grain producing industry and animal farm development. Conditions in this zone are favorable for the production of large amounts of high-quality grain as well as meat and dairy farming.
Plant Growing
Non-irrigated agriculture is practiced in north, northeastern and central Kazakhstan - areas characterized by high precipitation levels. This area covers 34 million hectare - 12% of the total land area of Kazakhstan. The growth in non-irrigated areas in these regions was caused by the development of virgin and disused lands. According to the research data, 12 million hectares of ploughed land in Kazakhstan requires erosion protection and over 5 million-hectare are washed away areas.
The productive soil layer (humus) loss over the last 25-30 years has totaled 20-25%.
According to quality analysis 4.7% of the soil has a high level of humus (23.9%), 46.5% has a low level (2-4%) and 24.9% a very low level (below 2%).
Irrigated agriculture is developed mainly in southern and southeastern regions and is determined by low precipitation levels and hot climate conditions. The total irrigated land area is 2 million hectares.
The application of new water saving methods of soil irrigation and the reconstruction of land used for rice and other forms of crop growing is very costly and demands substantial investment.
A reduction in fertilizer usage has occurred in Kazakhstan due to their high cost. Increasing consumption will require investment in the mineral fertilizer production industry and the introduction of cost reducing technologies.
Grain crops
Kazakhstan is one of the world's largest grain producers and exporters. Soil and climate provide ideal conditions for growing wheat, barley, rice, corn, millet and buckwheat.
The main grain crop is wheat. Kazakhstan wheat is high-class with a high protein content.
The average annual export of grain crops for the period of 1995-1998 was 3 to 3.4 million tons, with major customers including the CIS states of the Russian Federation, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Belorus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and the Ukraine.
There is a growing tendency to export Kazakhstan grain to other international markets. The list of Kazakhstan grain importers now includes Austria, Afghanistan, the UK, Venezuela, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Turkey, Switzerland, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Iran, China, Korea and Mongolia.
Industrial crops
The main industrial crops grown in Kazakhstan include beet, cotton and oil crops. Cotton is the most important industrial crop grown on the irrigated soils of southern Kazakhstan. The oil crops grown in Kazakhstan include sunflower, flax, soybean, mustard, etc. The most widespread crop is sunflower.
3. Work in groups of three or four. Choose each topic related to the text issues and then discuss with your group. Suggest possible solutions, recommendations to improve the agricultural sector of the country. If in the future you will accidentally run your own business in agricultural sector what points you will chose? Imagine and share with your business plan.
Reading 3
1. K-W-L chart
Divide into three groups and before reading the text fill in the “K” column to share as a group what you KNOW about the subject/issue. After fill in the “W” column what you WANT TO KNOW about the given topic/issue. After having read the article fill in the “L” column to share what you LEARNED about the topic/issue.
KNOW WANT TO KNOW LEARNED
2. LEA (language experience approach) task
A. Work in pairs. Dictate the whole text or the parts of text to each other in your own words.
B. Your partner should write down what the first student has said and later read the text what you have written.
C. Your partner should ask questions about the text, the second student should answer them.
D. Partners will retell the text to each other in brief.
3. FIND A SENTENCE
Read the text and do the following tasks. Find from the text that you think ….
a beautiful sentence
a very interesting sentence
a surprising sentence
a sentence that contains the main idea
a sentence the student doesn’t understand
a sentence that reminds the student of smth
a sentence that makes great sense to student
a sentence the student agrees or disagrees with
a sentence that upsets the student
4. Discuss the questions:
1) What is the aim of agricultural sector accession to WTO?
2) What are Blue Box payments?
3) What agricultural product is beneficial in world market?
Impact of Trade Liberalization on Agricultural Sector in Jordan AMIR Program
WTO Doha Round Negotiations
USAID from the American people. Document/contract No: 278-C-00-02-00210-00. Antonio Cordella/The Services Group. June 2006.
Background
The primary objective of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture is to reduce distortions in world trade in agricultural products. Trade distortions targeted for elimination at the WTO include border measures such as tariffs, domestic support for agriculture, and export-related subsidies, which confer competitive advantage on farmers who receive them.
The WTO Fourth Ministerial Conference, held in Dohain November 2001, concluded with an
agreement on the launch of a new round of negotiations to further liberalize world trade, known as the Doha Development Agenda. The Doha Declaration commits WTO members to substantial cuts in market protection and trade-distorting domestic subsidies as well as reductions of, with a view to phasing out, all forms of export subsidies. At the same time, it committed members to take account of non-trade concerns (e.g. environment, rural and social development, animal welfare) and to negotiate special and differential treatment for developing countries. The Doha Round negotiations on agriculture have focused on three main pillars: domestic support, market access, and export competition. Below are the most recent developments.
Domestic support
The overall base level of all trade-distorting domestic support, as measured by the final bound total aggregate measure of support (AMS) plus permitted de minimis level and the level for the so-called Blue Box payments will be reduced according to a tiered formula. Under this formula, members having higher levels of trade-distorting domestic support will make greater overall reductions in order to achieve a harmonizing result. As the first installment of the overall cut, in the first year and throughout the implementation period, the sum of all trade-distorting support will not exceed 80 percent of the sum of Final Bound Total AMS plus permitted de minimis plus the Blue Box. The latter level should not exceed 5 percent of a member’s average total value of agricultural production during an historical period to be yet agreed on. There will be three bands for reductions in Final Bound Total AMS and in the overall cut in trade-distorting domestic support, with higher linear cuts in higher bands. In both cases, the member with the highest level of permitted support will be in the top band, the two members with the second and third highest levels of support will be in the middle band and all other members, including all developing country members, will be in the bottom band.
Market access
To ensure that a single approach for developed and developing country members meets all the
objectives of the Doha mandate, tariff reductions will be made through a tiered formula that takes into account their different tariff structures. To ensure that such a formula will lead to substantial trade expansion, the following principles will guide its further negotiation:
- Tariff reductions will be made from bound rates. Substantial overall tariff reductions will be
achieved as a final result from negotiations.
- Each member (other than least developing countries (LDCs)) will make a contribution.
Operationally effective special and differential provisions for developing country members
will be an integral part of all elements.
- Progressivity in tariff reductions will be achieved through deeper cuts in higher tariffs with
flexibilities for sensitive products. Substantial improvements in market access will be achieved for all products.
- There will be four bands for structuring tariff cut.
The number of bands, the thresholds for defining the bands, and the type of tariff reduction in each band remain under negotiation. The role of a tariff cap in a tiered formula with distinct treatment for sensitive products will be further evaluated.
Members may designate an appropriate number, to be negotiated, of tariff lines to be treated as
sensitive, taking account of existing commitments for these products. The sensitive products listing should not undermine the overall objective of the tiered approach and the principle of ‘substantial improvement’ shall apply to each product.
Some most-favored nation (MFN)-based tariff quota expansion will be required for all such sensitive products. A base for such an expansion will be established, taking account of coherent and equitable criteria to be developed in the negotiations. In order not to undermine the objective of the tiered approach, for all such products, MFN based tariff quota expansion will be provided under specific rules to be negotiated taking into account deviations from the tariff formula.
Export competition
In the Doha Round, the discussions on export competition on the negotiating agenda include explicit export subsidies, export credits, food aid and state trading enterprises. The negotiating mandate calls for ‘the parallel elimination of all forms of export subsidies and disciplines on all export measures with equivalent effect by a credible end date’. At the Sixth WTO Ministerial Conference held in Hong Kong in December 2005, the WTO membership agreed to end export subsidies in agriculture by 2013, with a substantial part realized by the mid-point of the implementation period (around 2010). The declaration makes clear the agreed date is conditional. Loopholes have to be plugged to avoid hidden export subsidies in export credit, food aid and the sales of exporting sales enterprises. For cotton, the elimination of export refunds is accelerated to the end of 2006. In addition, cotton exports from least-developed countries will be allowed into developed countries without duty or quotas from the start of the period for implementing the new agriculture agreement.
FOCUS ON SPEAKING

Share your points of view on the following topic.
Role play
1) A journalist from one of the well-known TV Company has been interviewing the owner of a big farm to share his experience, to tell about profits, problems, prospects, competitiveness of this sector, and to give some tips for beginners, etc.
2) Look at the topic, issues for discussion and expected results of agricultural sector in Kazakhstan in conditions of WTO membership. You are the representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan to make a presentation on the given topic at the international conference of member countries of WTO. Then role play the situation.
Topic: “Prospects of agro-industrial sector in Kazakhstan in conditions of WTO membership”
Issues for discussion:
Impact of the accession of Kazakhstan to the WTO on agro-industrial sector development and food security;
Experience of other countries for the development of agro-industrial sector in conditions of WTO membership.
Expected results:
Recommendations on the development perspectives of agro-industrial sector in conditions of WTO membership;
Proposals on development of agro-industrial sector in Kazakhstan and competitiveness of agricultural products based on international experience.
3. Give your points of view on improving the competitiveness of the products of the agricultural sector in the conditions of accession to the WTO. You may talk on:
- the growing role for government
- the policies adopted by government to increase agricultural sector
- the possible problems, ways of solution on the given field
- the types of payments and credits to support
- the ways of investing this field of business
- the ways to attract foreign investors to the field
- the list of innovations and new technologies to improve agriculture
- the steps to enter WTO on agricultural products
4. Give your points of view on agriculture today in your country and around the worldners faceest sucessful ng processs. You may talk on:
- the level and status of agricultural sector in Kazakhstan
- the conditions and levels of agriculture in other countries
- the innovations are used in the given sphere
- the ways to develop worker’s skills on the given sphere
- the ways or methods to attract the workers and workplaces
- the facilities to share experiences abroad and in home country
- the ways of contribution for the country’s economy
FOCUS ON WRITING

1) Read the following brief news on Kazakhstan’s WTO entry. After reading the given information write down an opinion essay expressing your own personal position as one of the citizen of your country. Show your civic position or opinion as if you are much more involved on the topic.
Kazakhstan's WTO entry means more competitive agricultural sector: Nazarbayev N.

ASTANA. June 26. KAZINFORM The Head of State Nursultan Nazarbayev received Minister of Agriculture of Kazakhstan Assylzhan Mamytbekov on Tuesday (June 26) at the presidential residence in Astana.
A. Mamytbekov reported on the current situation in Kazakhstan's agricultural sector, Kazinform has learnt from the President's press service.
The Kazakh leader stressed the importance of continuing the implemented reforms in that sector.
"The development of agriculture is the key priority for the country. The economic integration with Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) make the competitiveness of the domestic agricultural sector the cornerstone.
The modernization of the cattle-breeding sector is also of paramount importance. We need to join efforts and adopt a package program on the agriculture development to solve these problems successfully.
Currently we need not only to increase the volumes of agricultural production but also to improve its quality dramatically. We possess all necessary resources. KZT 115 trillion was allotted for the agricultural sector in 2011," President Nazarbayev said.
Minister of Agriculture also told about the provisions of the new Program on Agro-Industrial Complex Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2020.
In this light Nursultan Nazarbayev gave instructions to work out those provisions together with all stakeholders of the agricultural sector.
2) Choose one of the headlines and make up an interesting article about it. Then bring your writings to class and take turns reading your articles. Which student has the best article?
1. Kazakhstan’s accession to the WTO in agricultural sector
2. Countries will have to increase state support of their farming sector in entering WTO
3. Agricultural trade and the World Trade Organization
4. The impact of the WTO reform on the agricultural sector in Kazakhstan
5. Possible negative impacts from WTO accession to the agricultural sector
6. Agricultural sector and WTO: advantages and disadvantages
7. Making the most of WTO accession: Agricultural sector commitments and liberalization
8. WTO agricultural conditions
9. Agricultural policy and the WTO Agreement
10. Kazakhstan and the WTO
PROJECT MODELLING
Project 1: Students’ scientific-practice conference
Kazakh Ablai khan university of international relations and world languages is going to hold annual students’ scientific-practice conference on the theme: “Impact of the accession of Kazakhstan to the WTO on agro-industrial sector: Pros and cons.”
The conference is organized under the patronage of the chair of translation and intercultural communication of translation and philology department on the 4-5 March 2015.
The aim of the conference is to provide a meeting of senior course students, where the participants can share their research knowledge and ideas on the recent and latest research and map out the directions for future researchers and collaborations. Researchers and graduate students are welcomed to participate in the conference to exchange research findings in the frontier areas of Business, Agriculture, Manufacturing.
Stage 1: Get common knowledge about the discussed issue.
Stage 2: Write down an article on the given topic.
Stage 3: Make up a slide-show presentation on your report.
Stage 4: Present your findings.
Project 2. Findings and presentations.
Project 2: Making formal presentations
Work in groups and find out as much information about parts of Kazakhstan on manufacturing, business, agriculture, and other information concerning the field of research. Then make a presentation of your findings in class. You are given a sample how to make your research and findings.
Semey (former name of Semipalatinsk) is a city  in the northeastern part of Kazakhstan. Semey was center of big region province- Semipalatinsk oblast. Near the 500 000 people live in city and around 200 000 in region.
The main directions of the economy: - Mining - Metallurgy - Construction Industry - Mechanical engineering and metal working - Energy - Food processing, light industry - Timber Industry - Flour and cereals and feed mill.   Core enterprises: JSC "Cement Plant" families ", LLP" Kazpoligraf "AB" ICF "Alel, Inc." AEC Shulbinsk HPP " The main types of manufactured industrial products: coal, electricity, heat, raw gold, silica brick, vodka, liquor-vodka products, canned meats, bread and bakery products. Availability of agricultural producers as of January 1, 2008: 11 farms, 388 operating farms, 33,2 thousand personal subsidiary farms. Sown area of crops for harvest in 2007 amounted to 5.4 thousand hectares., Including cereals occupy 0.7 hectares., Potatoes - 2,5 thousand hectares., Vegetables - 1,1 thousand hectares. For the year 2007 produced 0.4 thousand tons of grain, 41.8 tons of potatoes, 20.4 thousand tons of vegetables, melons, 13,1 thousand tons of meat (live weight), 30.5 tons milk 110,886.6 thousand eggs. According to preliminary data at the beginning of January 2008 number of cattle amounted to 39,6 thousand heads, sheep and goats - 158,4 thousand heads, pigs - 9,2 thousand heads, -12.9 thousand head of horses, birds - 899.3 thousand heads. Scheduled number of workers for large and medium-sized enterprises, including branches, and regardless of the number of all health care organizations, government, public, banking and insurance for January-December 2007 amounted to an average of 59,301 people, average nominal salary/wages amounted to 38,839 tenge. The volume of industrial production (without the data of the household sector) for 2007 amounted to 60,165.4 million tenge. There are more than 8 micro-credit organizations to provide financial support to consulting and financial services to small and medium-sized businesses. Over 2007 micro-credit organizations of the city prokreditovano 5611 borrowers in the total amount of 1598.0 million tenge. During 2007, issued 65 permits for the reconfiguration of apartments in residential buildings under the organization of business, including 21 granted permission to open shops, 4 - computer shops, 13 - Offices, 9 - pharmacies, 3 - cafe 5 permits issued for health clinics, 7 permits issued for the interiors, one permit shall be issued for the opening of the bank and the notary's office. Small businesses were granted 35 government acts for the right to use land. To organize the business small businesses transferred 3 object of public property, 2 sites in trust with the subsequent transfer of property, and 1 object - for rent. As at 1 January 2008 recorded 3047 small business, which is 5,0% more than the corresponding date last year. For the year 2007 set up 2400 new jobs, or 133.3% compared to 2006. And at the end of 2007 in the small and medium-sized businesses employ over 30 000 people.
During January-December 2007, small businesses produced goods (works, services) in the amount of 10,2 billion tenge, which is 15,7% higher than in 2006, including small businesses produced industrial products in the amount of 4,1 billion tenge, which amounted to 119,9% by 2006. Expanded their production activities: - LLC «Alkon» - is mounting and installation of technological equipment for processing of crops; - Security agency «Salang» - a production of garments LLP «garment factory« Salang »; individual entrepreneur Ismagambetov-ES - Manufacture of ceramic bricks in TOO «Irgis», which produced experimental batches of ceramic bricks; - PC «Corund» - a new production line for dressing sheepskin. Work is under way to introduce international quality standards ISO 9000 in partnership with limited liability «Murager», «Aser», «Intelkabel», «Valeas», «Semipalatinsk Plant oils», «EAST INDUSTRU COMPANY LTD». In order to improve the infrastructure of small business and in accordance with the akimat of East Kazakhstan region of 18 April 2007 ¹ 88 «On establishment of the East-Kazakhstan regional center for business development» in g.Semey 9 August 2007, a presentation of the industrial zone «Өíä³ð³ñ». Economic Council of East-Kazakhstan region approved three investment projects for inclusion in the industrial zone, including: - The construction of greenhouses for the production of vegetable products »IP« Imanov GT »; - Construction of production for production of building materials and the Automobile »FE« Kazangapov BT »; - Organization of production and wall cladding material from vitrofira power 100,0 thousand cubic meters per year »Ltd.« Saule ». In the insurance business there are 9 insurance companies ( «UlarUmyt», «Kurmet», «People's savings», «Atameken», «Dynasty», «Dynasty Netvort», «Trade Alliance», etc.). To provide information services (Internet) operates in two Business Center. In March 2007, the city opened Family Business Center ul.Internatsionalnaya, 23 where 10 small businesses provided space and sales area for business. In order to prevent the illegal inspections of business entities controlling bodies providing oversight and monitoring functions, seminars, round tables, meetings of entrepreneurs and managers of the controlling bodies.
The order of akim of the city of 5 February 2007 a working group for removing administrative barriers to enterprise development. Developed and approved a plan for the working group. In 2007, four meetings of the working group Decision akimat city from 1 September 2006 number 1085 set up the Expert Council on Entrepreneurship. A 6 of the Expert Council. A commission to enhance the association of private enterprise. An accreditation of a public association of small and medium-sized businesses «Adlet». For information and training for small business on the basis of existing infrastructure facilities are conducted training seminars and courses for entrepreneurs and emerging small businesses.
UNIT 3: WORLD OF BUSINESS
Communication sphere: business
FILE 4. The problems of small and medium-sized businesses in Kazakhstan and foreign countries. The problems of small and medium-sized businesses in Kazakhstan: problems and prospects. Problems of financing of small and medium-sized businesses in Kazakhstan. Government programs to sustain small and medium-sized businesses (soft loans)

LEAD-IN

Comment on the following quotations:
1. “A friendship founded on business is a good deal better than a business founded on friendship”John Rockfeller, American oil magnate (1839-1937)
2. “A business that makes nothing but money is a poor kind of business”Henry Ford, US industrialist (1863-1947)
3. “Whenever you see a successful business, someone once made a courageous decision”Peter F. Drucker, writer and management consultant
“In trade there is no frinedship, in salutation there is no obligation.
Kazakh proverb
Lend your money and lose your friend.” “There is no friendship in the trade. Eat and drink with relatives, do business with strangers.”
Kazakh proverb
VOCABULARY ZONE
1. Brainstorm and discuss these questions:
1. Would you like to run your own business? In what sphere you would like to do it?
2. How is small and medium-sized business developed in your country?
3. What might be some of the issues to bear in mind when starting up your own business?
4. What are the problems and prospects of small-sized and medium-sized business in Kazakhstan in comparison with other countries?
5. How does the government support the start up businesses?
6. What are some of the problems and risks facing small businesses generally?
7. What are the barriers and challenges for someone starting a new business in your country?
2. Search for the key words new business from the internet. Present your findings in class. Then translate them into Kazakh/Russian languages.
3. Translate the following text according to the theme into English.
Деятельность субъектов малого и среднего предпринимательства в России регулируется принятым 24 июля 2007 года Федеральным законом 209-ФЗ «О развитии малого и среднего предпринимательства в Российской Федерации», в котором указаны критерии отнесения предприятия к малому предпринимательству.
К субъектам малого и среднего предпринимательства относятся внесённые в единый государственный реестр юридических лиц потребительские кооперативы и коммерческие организации (за исключением государственных и муниципальных унитарных предприятий), а также физические лица, внесённые в единый государственный реестр индивидуальных предпринимателей и осуществляющие предпринимательскую деятельность без образования юридического лица (далее — индивидуальные предприниматели), крестьянские (фермерские) хозяйства, соответствующие перечисленным ниже условиям.
23 сентября 2009 года тогда ещё премьер-министр РФ В. В. Путин огласил начинания Правительства РФ по содействию развития малого и среднего предпринимательства России:
Сохранить для высокотехнологичных предприятий ставку отчислений в Пенсионный фонд на уровне 14% (с 2011).
Освободить предприятия, внедряющие энергоэффективное оборудование, от налога на имущество на срок до трёх лет.
Отменить налог на прибыль от продажи ценных бумаг — при условии, что срок владения ими превышает пять лет и они не обращаются на биржевом рынке.
Освободить компании, работающие в сфере образования и здравоохранения, от уплаты налога на прибыль на срок до девяти лет.
Передать в местные бюджеты большую часть дохода от продажи патентов на осуществление предпринимательской деятельности.
Продлить на три года льготный порядок приватизации арендуемой у государства недвижимости. Освободить все сделки по приватизации от НДС.
Сделать действие лицензий на предпринимательскую деятельность бессрочным (сейчас — нужно продлевать каждые пять лет).
Пакет госпомощи малому и среднему предпринимательству в 2010 г. — 13 млрд руб.
GRAMMAR ZONE
1. Look at the examples and write similar sentences about yourself.
1) My father, who is 70 years old, has now retired.
My father, who is …
2) The city where I live has a population of one million.
The town where ….
3) My friend Trever, whose Dad is an architect, wants to be an engineer.
My best friend, who …
4) I don’t like people who don’t listen to my opinion.
I don’t like people who …
5) I am very interested in texts which describe traveling.
I very like … which ….
2. Join these sentences together with relative pronouns. If the information is not essential to the sentence, add commas.
1) Sir David Lovall was speaking at the meeting last night. He is a politician.
2) The shop is having a sale. I buy all my clothes there.
3) Pauline was telling me about her eldest daughter. She lives in Australia.
4) I need the newspaper. I threw it away last night.
5) Kate is coming to stay for Christmas. Her son is married to my cousin.
3. Rewrite the sentences, using a word from the box and a participle clause with –ing.
after by on since when while
1) He finished work and went home.
2) He ate his supper and read a book at the same time.
3) He invested wisely so he made a lot of money.
4) I came to live in the country a few years ago. I now realize how much I hated living in town.
5) He graduated from university and went off to work in Australia.
6) When you go abroad, it is advisable to take our travel insurance.
7) I came across a wonderful book. I was browsing in our local bookshop.
8) I worked hard and I managed to pass all my exams.
9) When you open a tin, be careful not to cut yourself.
10) When we heard the weather forecast, we decided not to go camping in the mountains.
FOCUS ON LISTENING

I. Listening activity
1. Everywoman is a UK consultancy which provides advice and support to women running their own businesses. You are going to listen to a conversation about running business for women.
If you start running your own business, it does not matter small, medium or big business which of the following problems you might face and explain why. And suggest any other problems that a person will face.
Loneliness
Lack of business skills
Money/Investment
Discrimination
Self-confidence
Networking
And others
2. Listen to the text and tick the main types of businesses that attract women entrepreneurs in the UK. Listen for examples of jobs and note them down. After ticking the correct one, discuss with your partner how the situation is different in your country. And tell if you would like to run your own business what sectors you would like to run and why. Explain your choice.
Travel and tourism
Health and personal care
Retailing
Computer consultancy
Catering services
Training and development
Financial services
Publishing and printing
3. Discuss these questions:
1) What advice or recommendations do you give to start-ups?
2) What business or work-related skills can you name?
3) What is important for men and women to start their own businesses?
4) What kind of new businesses are doing well in the UK, the USA and Kazakhstan today?
5) What are the typical problems facing new businesses in these three countries? Are they the same or different?
4. Imagine that you are going to organize the Helpline for start-ups in business. What information or any other help would you provide?
II. Video activity
http://vk.com/interclass_school?z=video173198387_165451522%2F7ca66d7fac4012dc9c
You are going to watch a short video how several experts from Washington University in Saint Louis Olin Business School are giving useful tips how to be successful in job interviews.
1. Before watching the video can you say if you know the meaning of the following words, terms or phrases which are related to the topic?
cover letter, resume, job interview, culture of the company, competitive advantage, to demonstrate passion, face-to-face communication, the best fit candidate, a big day, background, knowledge of the organization, challenges, staff, to communicate effectively, an indicator, interaction.
2. Make a list of three short, three medium – and three long-term objectives. Make sure they are SMART. Read and compare your lists in small groups and give feedback to each other on how realistic or idealistic these goals could be. Be prepared to outline, defend or change your decisions!
3. How do you know what other people think of you and your behavior? In small groups make a list of all the possible ways you can find out. Which kinds of feedback do you feel are most reliable, most sensitive, and most difficult to obtain?
Then give character sketch of your partner, colleague or parents. Explain what you like or dislike most in them and why. In order to be in the top of your job what character or behavior should be needed, explain your version.
4. Listen to different experts and answer the question. What are the key features for successful job interview according to:
1) Mark Brostoff – Associate Dean and Director of Weston Career Centre
2) Clarissa Okpaleke – University Recruiter, Talent Acquisition/Monsanto
3) Jeniffer Shappley - Senior Manager, corporate and Talent Acquisition Express Scripts
4) Ed Loullard – Vice President of SAFC Supply Solutions/Sigma-Aldrich
5) Melissa Azar – Senior Recruiter Edward Jones
6) Bill Behr – University Recruiter IBM/Global Business Services
5. Listen to each speaker attentively and read the following useful tips, then role play a job interview for the position of bilingual translator.
Student A – HR manager
Student B – a candidate
A brief summary of your personal details: You have to give your name, where you are from and a brief review of your resume. You may also provide any other personal detail that you choose to provide.
Education: You should tell the interviewer about your educational qualifications and any relevant miscellaneous educational qualifications that you might have amassed.
Professional experience: Standard questions during a job interview are “tell me about your professional experience”. Depending on whether you are a novice or an experienced professional, you should share your previous job experiences. If you are a novice, then, you could tell anything that you think would be relevant for the job. You may provide a scope of your educational capabilities and strengths or any of your hobbies, etc.
What are Your weaknesses and strengths: One of the tricky interview questions that you might be asked is “tell me about your weaknesses and/or strengths”. Therefore, you should prepare for such questions. A common mistake is to take strength and present it as a weakness. You should be honest. You may share one-two of your weaknesses and the way you have (successfully) corrected or handled these weaknesses. On the other hand, do not boast your strengths. Tell about some of your strengths as having a positive impact on your professional capabilities.
Types of interview questions: about your abilities, about leaving your job, about salary, about strengths and weaknesses, about yourself, about your work history, about your behavior, about communication skills, about company culture, competency based interview questions.
FOCUS ON READING

Reading 1
1. Match the words in the box with their correct definitions. And then use them making up business situations.
Coaching pressure goal marketing
employment project customer Production
delivery management resources
1) the process of bringing goods or letters to a place
2) work that you are paid regularly to do for a person or company
3) a person or company that buys goods or services
4) the ways in which a company encourages people to buy its products by deciding on price, type of customer and advertising policy
5) to teach someone a special skill, especially one connected with performing in public
6) the process of making or growing things in large quantities, especially in a factory or in a farm, so that they can be sold
7) attempts to persuade, threaten or force someone to do something
8) something that you can use to help you to achieve something or the qualities and skills that someone has and can use for dealing with problems
9) a planned piece of work that has a particular aim
10) something you hope to achieve, aim
11) the control and operation of a business or organization
2. There are given a number of things that a small and medium sized business owner needs to think. Look at the things and say your agreement or disagreement. Then add your own points to the list. And explain why you suggest these things as important issues.
Strategic Tasks for a small and medium sized business owner to think about
Posted by Peter Dickinson.net
I am in the process of redesigning my business coaching and facilitation web site and I was thinking of all the areas that the managing director or owner of a small and medium sized business needs to think about.
A small and medium sized business owner needs to think about a great deal of things and these include:
Building a vision. What turnover, what profit margin, what markets do I need to serve in 3 years time? You need a business goal; otherwise failing to plan is planning to fail.
Values. In my experience not many small and medium sized business owners think about the values that the business needs to embody in order to be successful. Businesses run by genuinely nice people (i.e. do unto others as you would do for you) and great values. They treat people with respect.
6 months objectives. It is great to have a vision of where you need to be in 3 years’ time but with so much pressure on a small and medium sized business owner it is also necessary to have a list of 3 or 4 items that need to be completed in 6 months’ time so that progress is made to the longer term goal.
Marketing system. The business needs a regular source of new leads or enquiries. A lot of small and medium sized business owners tend to focus on what they are good at and often struggle with spending time and money developing a coherent marketing strategy and system that generates regular leads or enquiries.
Sales process. Some small and medium sized business owners employ a sales person. This can be a fraught time for both the owner and the sales person as all the faults and problems faced by the business through poor sales are dumped on the poor sales person. That said, finding good productive sales people is hard for a small and medium sized business owner as good hunter sales people are hard to find and therefore don’t come cheap. What does seem to work is if the marketing process or system can be made to work then a good telesales person can often develop the leads. Most small and medium sized business owners can then convert the larger projects as they have the benefit of “the owners’ eyes”. That is that deep engrained passion and knowledge for the product or service that will beat a sales person every time.
Customer services. When a customer places an order with your business there is an expectation that the order will flow through the business without a problem. For standard orders this should always be the case and if it isn’t then you need to flow chart your processes and remove any blockages or places where it can get lost. However, customers have a habit of wanting things that you can do but are not standard in some way. The larger the customer they are, the more likely that this will be the case.
Operations or Production. Whether you deliver a service or make things, you need to make sure that your processes are both efficient and effective. That is, you deliver what the customer has asked for and without wasted time, effort and resources. The principles of lean can be applied to all areas of the business, not just manufacturing. So as a small and medium sized business owner you need to understand and apply the principles of lean throughout your business whether you make products or supply services.
Accounts. I haven’t seen it for a while but quite often I have been into a business that is having cash flow problems, only to find that they invoice late. If the customers receive the invoice late then they are going to pay late and that will affect the cash flow. An order isn’t a sale until you have been paid. Cash is king. The small and medium sized business owner needs to ensure that every system in the business is geared to ensuring that customers’ orders are processed and delivered as effectively and efficiently as possible and that the associated paperwork is processed in the same manner so that the money can be collected quickly and put back into the business.
Human resources. This has now become one of the most difficult areas that a business owner faces. Getting the right people doing the right things and keeping compliant with the law is no easy task. It has grown so complex that I now recommend that a small and medium sized business owner takes a retainer with a specialist who can provide all the policies and resources needed in order to keep the business legal and less likely to be taken to an employment tribunal.
Health and Safety. Human resources. Along with human resources, this has now become one of the most difficult areas that a business owner faces. It has grown so complex that I now recommend that a small and medium sized business owner takes a retainer with a specialist who can provide all the policies and guidance needed in order to keep the business legal and safe.
Management accounts. Monthly management accounts are key to keeping on top of the business. If the customers are being invoiced in a timely fashion then it should be relatively easy to produce the monthly management accounts by the middle of the following week. For those businesses with a steady sales stream then weekly or even daily sales figures should be possible together with figures for gross profit by product.
Key performance indicators. From having worked with a large number of small and medium sized business owners, getting non-financial key performance measures in place has got to be one of the hardest tasks. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to measure non-financial measures of performance. These include marketing statistics (web site visitors, enquiries, quotations), sales activity (e.g. orders, average order value, conversion ratios), production stats (e.g. WIP, stock turn, waste, process times), even accounts such as profitability per job, customer or product.
The role of a business coach is to work with a small and medium sized business owner on all these issues and to help identify actions that the owner can carry out in order to progress and complete them.If you would like a free half hour coaching session then please go to: www.kub-uk.net/free-business-coaching 3. Discussion
Work with a partner. What advice or recommendations would you give to a person who runs his own business for the first time and how to make well in start-ups.
4. Behavioural competences are observable skills and qualities required for effective performance in a job. Look at the list of behavioural competences and discuss with your partner which of them the most important for small and medium sized businesspeople. If you think there are other behavioural competences which are necessary for businesspeople, you may add to the list and explain why.
analytical thinking client focus decision making
effective communication innovation flexibility intercultural competence leadership networking results orientation self-awareness
self-development time management managing change
holding people accountable
Reading 2
1. Discuss the questions:
1. To what extend do you think an entrepreneur’s personal qualities are as important as their ideas?
2. Who are the leading entrepreneurs in your country? Why have they been successful?
3. What is the role of experience on running a business?
4. What business or work-related skills and abilities do you have?
5. How do you understand the term “innovations in business”?
THE BRUISES OF THE BANDWAGON
Market Leader, Iwonna Dubicka, Margaret O’Keeffe. Pearson Longman, 2006.
Paul Tyrrell. Financial Times.
Is there a way to tell whether a business idea will fly rather than die? Everyone, it seems, wants to run their own business, but many are failing to prepare thoroughly before scrambling on to the bandwagon. The most widespread trait is a failure to appreciate that an entrepreneur’s personal qualities are just as important as their ideas.
Venture capitalists and business angels have always been more inclined to back a great team with a mediocre idea than a mediocre team with a great idea. They attach a lot of importance to what they term “scar tissue” – evidence that the person has learned from experience. Even high-street banks now focus more on individuals than their convertible assets when assessing applications for business loans. If a prospective entrepreneur applies for less than $50,000 – enough for about 90 per cent of UK start-ups – the lending decision is likely to depend on an analysis of their account history, and to a lesser extent on the cashflow predictions for their business, rather than the value of their property.
Ultimately, the success of a business idea rests on the ability of the entrepreneur. They must have basic business skills or acquire them via personal development or hiring. They must also have leadership qualities and, of course, their chances of success will also improve in proportion to the level of relevant knowledge they bring to their chosen market. This is particularly clear in product development situations – for example, where an engineer takes the knowledge he gains at a large company and uses it to set up a rival.
Research led by Dr. Rajshree Agarwal, associate professor of strategic management at the University of Illinois, suggests “spin-outs have a survival edge in the market over other entrants, as the result of a combination of entrepreneurial flexibility and inherited knowledge”. Dr. Agarwal surveyed the diskdrive industry between 1977 and 1997 and found that 25 per cent of new entrants were started by individuals leaving larger companies in the same sector.
Ultimately, though, what distinguishes successful entrepreneurs is their ability to spot commercially exploitable patterns where others cannot. Herbert Simon, winner of the 1978 Nobel Prize in economic sciences, suggests this process is intuitive: a good business idea stems from the creative thinking, or cross-association of know-how and contacts.
Radicalism has always been the domain of small businesses because they can move faster than larger rivals, and venture capitalists talk of looking for opportunities that are “disruptive” because they offer the best growth opportunities. The idea of the entrepreneur as a disruptive force dates back to 1934, when the economist Joseph Schumpeter argued that entrepreneurs were essential to long-term economic growth because they subjected monopolies or oligopolies to what he called “creative destruction”. Innovation – whether in the form of a new product type, production method or marketing medium – is a temporary source of market power that erodes the profits and position of old companies. This creates a new, competitive market that draws in their entrepreneurs until consolidation is required.
Subsequent research by Dr. Agarwal, in collaboration with Professor Michael Gort, has shown that timing is critical for entrepreneurs wishing to benefit from such a market: “Early entry during the growth phase helps survival, but is disadvantageous during the mature phase,” the pair suggest. In other words, jumping on a bandwagon is almost always a bad idea. Entrepreneurs should, in fact, be encouraged when they find there is very little data available about their chosen market. “It is frequently inversely related to the real potential of an opportunity,” says Jeffry Timmons, author of New Venture Creation.
This idea of combining ideas to find new solutions has become important over the past 20 years. As it has become harder to launch genuinely different products, consumers have become more value-conscious and less brand-loyal, while retailers have become increasingly powerful. “Many entrepreneurial ventures – derived from customer knowledge – can be considered as the “consolidators” of goods and services, suggests Richard Scase, a UK futurologist. Today, consumers want to be different … Meeting these more focused consumer needs gives small firms greater competitive advantage over their larger counterparts.
So if you have an idea that you think is sufficiently ground-breaking, how should you assess it? Popular benchmarks include an annual growth potential of at least 20 per cent; gross margins of at least 35 per cent; and free cashflow characteristics. Other positive qualities include: clear routes to market, the ability to create “post-entry barriers” (measures that prevent competitors from imitating your idea once it is commercialized); and comparatively low capital requirements.
Yet nothing is as important as demonstrable value to customers. As Daniel Muzyka, dean of the Sauder School of Business in Vancouver and a commentator on entrepreneurship, has written: “Opportunities are about creating value, not necessarily lowering cost … the failure of some entrepreneurs who believe they haven’t come in at the right cost is that they have not communicated value.”
2. After reading the text debate on the following issues:
- Leadership qualities
- Success of a business
- Running your own business
- Importance of ideas in business
- Customer knowledge in business
- Problems/failure in business
3. According to some business experts, to be a start-up entrepreneur you need to have huge self-confidence. You also have to be willing to risk your capital and, to an extent, your career. Do you agree with this view? What other qualities might you need?
4. Find out information from the books of internet on failure businessmen in your country. After finding out information about them, survey the type of business they have run; the problems they have faced; attempts they have made to save their business and give possible solutions or recommendations to them to overcome the obstacles in running business.
Reading 3
1. K-W-L chart
Divide into three groups and before reading the text fill in the “K” column to share as a group what you KNOW about the subject/issue. After fill in the “W” column what you WANT TO KNOW about the given topic/issue. After having read the article fill in the “L” column to share what you LEARNED about the topic/issue.
KNOW WANT TO KNOW LEARNED
2. LEA (language experience approach) task
A. Work in pairs. Dictate the whole text or the parts of text to each other in your own words.
B. Your partner should write down what the first student has said and later read the text what you have written.
C. Your partner should ask questions about the text, the second student should answer them.
D. Partners will retell the text to each other in brief.
3. FIND A SENTENCE
Read the text and later do the following tasks. Find from the text that you think ….
a beautiful sentence
a very interesting sentence
a surprising sentence
a sentence that contains the main idea
a sentence the student doesn’t understand
a sentence that reminds the student of smth
a sentence that makes great sense to student
a sentence the student agrees or disagrees with
a sentence that upsets the student
4. Make a list of three short, three medium – and three long-term objectives. Make sure they are SMART. Read and compare your lists in small groups and give feedback to each other on how realistic or idealistic these goals could be. Be prepared to outline, defend or change your decisions!
5. Discuss the questions:
1) Why is the development of small and medium businesses important issue today?
2) What is effective to run small or medium businesses in rural or urban places?
3) What favorable conditions should be offered for start-ups from the government of Kazakhstan?
4) How to attract foreign investors to develop small and medium-sized businesses in Kazakhstan?
5) What sectors of business are key to run small and medium businesses in Kazakhstan today?
Complex support of small and medium-sized businesses in Kazakhstan continues
http://kp.kazpravda.kzYevgeni Hong, research associate of the KISR under RK President
Realizing the importance and necessity of small and medium enterprise (SME) development in Kazakhstan, every year in his address the President makes a special emphasis on creating favorable and attractive conditions for strengthening the position of domestic entrepreneurs. The state-of-the nation address-2012 in which President Nursultan Nazarbayev noted positive results of the program "Business Road Map 2020", and set the goals and directions for future is no exception.Today in developed countries small and medium business is the foundation and guarantee of rapid socio-economic growth due to the fact that this sector is characterized by flexibility, and ability to quickly adapt and reorganize itself in the face of changing trends. In the EU and the U.S., SME provides about 50-60% of total GDP. Moreover, the industry occupies a key position in the formation of new jobs. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), two-thirds of the total economically active population works in companies with fewer than 250 employees. In Kazakhstan, on the results of last year 2.7 million people or 31.8% were engaged in the activities of SME, but their contribution to the total output of goods and services remains relatively small. Over two decades of sovereignty Kazakhstan economy continues to grow mainly in a "raw" way, and growth rates are determined by the world prices for commodity exports. Under the circumstances of increasing competition and Kazakhstan's long-term goal to become one of 50 most competitive countries we need to accelerate the process of economic diversification and development of strategically important industries. Here the great role should be given to the SME sector.
Today for that a large-scale state program for accelerated industrial-innovative development of RK for 2010-2014 was adopted in Kazakhstan, within the frames of which the program "Business Road Map 2020" is being implemented to strengthen the position of domestic enterprises. The main objective of this mechanism is to ensure sustainable and balanced growth of regional businesses in non-oil sectors of economy, as well as to maintain existing and create new permanent jobs. Particular emphasis is placed on the support of the most pressing business initiatives and export-oriented enterprises, improvement of the business sector. The program provides a partial guarantee and subsidies for interest rate on bank loans for new and existing projects, development of production (industrial) and infrastructure, service support to business, training, organization and social practices of youth employment. These measures are especially necessary in the light of Kazakhstan's membership in the Customs Union and the creation of the Single Economic Space.It should be noted that today favorable conditions for SME development have been created in the country and the adopted programs and reform are successful. In the annual evaluation report of the World Bank's “Doing Business” Kazakhstan in 2012 shifted by 11 positions - from 58th to 4th place among 183 countries that indicates the country’s more attractiveness for establishing and conducting business. Moreover, comparing the positions of the neighboring states, we see a significant advantage of Kazakhstan in the sphere of improving the systems of legal regulation of business.Detailed analysis shows that on seven out of ten key indicators of conditions for SME, Kazakhstan is ahead of the average figure of the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Particularly should be noted the success in investors’ protection (10th place in 2012 to 44th in 2011), which strengthened due to the change of requirements related to the approval of transactions between interested parties.
Another important aspect of the developing domestic business is favorable tax climate in Kazakhstan (13th place), which in comparison with other post-Soviet countries is recognized more attractive and soft. For example, the VAT in Kazakhstan today is 12%, in Russia - 18%, in Belarus - 20%. Improvement of tax climate is particularly important in the Customs Union and Single economic space. One more positive example is relatively low interest rate on business profits for medium-sized businesses, which is 28.6%, while in OECD states this figure is 42.7%.Despite significant achievements in creating attractive business environment, Kazakhstan as a young and developing country should continue work in these directions.Especially we need to strengthen diversification of SME sector through creation of enabling environment and providing financial assistance, as it is done in developed countries. The low diversification of the SME poses a threat to Kazakhstan's economy in the long term. The sectoral structure shows the SME subjects operating in trade have the lion share of the specific weight - 41.5%, which is also confirmed by the high proportion of lending to this sector by the second tier banks - 30.9%. In this situation, the provision of tax incentives and preferential financing of priority sectors of the economy will be most effective "leverage" of the state. No less important for SME subjects is the limited access to financial resources connected with the inefficiency in the distribution of funds. One of the major reasons is the refusal of commercial banks, which directly consider an application for credit, to participate in highly risky and poorly thought-out business projects, as well as the lack of borrower collateral base. In this regard, it is necessary to consider the opportunity to create a separate specialized financial institution (bank), which will focus on lending and review of projects exclusively for small and medium-sized businesses. Creating a specialized state institution will allow to concentrate attention on the financing of SME and will increase the efficiency and speed of funds’ distribution.In addition, the situation in the field of administrative barriers, corruption and unfair competition also requires urgent measures. First of all it is necessary to reduce administrative burden and this policy should become systematic and strategic. They should establish contacts with employers, primarily in order to take into account their wishes and views on the proposed reforms.
Conducting joint activities by the authorities and entrepreneurs, where the latter will be able to voice their concerns and to evaluate the effectiveness of taken measures, as well as the effectiveness of the responsible authorities, must be also systematic. For example, such events should be held every six months, and their results must receive extensive coverage in media. The results of these meetings should be necessarily taken into account in future development plans and programs. Along with that it’s necessary to organize the work of analytical structures of "Damu" Fund, involving representatives of SME for the continuous monitoring and analysis of the business climate in Kazakhstan and its problems.At present, the government should pay attention to the problem of providing the SME with professional and technical personnel, and the need to reorganize and improve the system of vocational education is obvious. One of the incentives may be reduction of the tax rate to enterprises engaged in supervising and training of college students, as well as providing space for practice.In parallel to this, we should create a commission on educational reform and monitor the quality of vocational education, which should include both officials from the Ministry of Education of RK, and business representatives.The most important mechanism is the increase of funding for colleges to upgrade equipment, paying competitive wages to qualified teachers, and increase the number of grants and scholarships to attract young people.In conclusion, it should be noted that success of small and medium-sized businesses is largely determined by the conditions created by the state. Over two decades of independence Kazakhstan has made significant steps in creating an attractive business climate, which is confirmed by the international assessment and significant growth in the sector of small and medium business. The government should continue to provide comprehensive support, which takes into account first of all wishes of the participants, in order the SME sector will become a real "engine" of economy.
FOCUS ON SPEAKING

1. Discussion
Discuss with your partner or group on “Small or medium businesses are generally family businesses. Family businesses are like family weddings – and we all know how difficult they can be.” Express your attitude to the challenges and problems of family businesses and in which cultures family-run businesses are common.
2. Round-table discussion
The participants of round table discussion share their ideas on the topic: “The development rates of small and medium-sized businesses in Kazakhstan and around the world.”
There are a lot of TV broadcasts about problems and prospects of small and medium businesses.
3. Give your points of view on them and give tips or recommendations after the experience. You may talk on:
- the role of the government to support such businesses
- the pilot programs adopted by government to increase small and medium-sized businesses
- the possible problems, ways of solution on the given field
- the types of businesses which are run in Kazakhstan for this purpose
- the ways of investing this field of business
- the ways to attract foreign investors to the field
- the list of innovations and new technologies to improve small businesses
- the types of small and medium businesses in urban and rural places
4. Give your points of advantages and disadvantages of starting up your business, small or medium business.ners faceest sucessful ng processs You may talk on:
- if it is profitable to run business in Kazakhstan
- the conditions and levels of small business in other countries
- the possible problems the beginners faces in running business
- the ways to develop work-related, leadership or other skills, qualities
- the ways or methods to attract the workers and workplaces
- the facilities to share experiences abroad and in home country
- the ways of contribution for the country’s economy
FOCUS ON WRITING

1. You work for Head-hunter and you have a number of years of experience on hiring people for certain positions. One analytical survey company has asked you to write key behavioral competences for certain positions, for example, an interpreter, a sales manager, a HR manager, a coach, or any other job you are interested in.
Behavioral competences are observable skills and qualities required for effective performance in a job. While writing these competences for certain types of jobs, you may use these words.
Analytical thinking, client focus, decision making, effective communication, innovation, flexibility, intercultural competence, leadership, networking, results orientation, self-study, self-development, time management, etc.
2. Read the useful information about writing reference and recommendation letters then write them.
A letter of recommendation is a favorable statement by a former employer concerning an employee’s qualifications, performance, character, dependability, and endorsing or recommending that employee as being suitable for a particular job or position.
A letter of reference usually verifies facts about past employment (for example, dates of employment and job descriptions) of a person, although it often provides information about that person’s capabilities, character, and performance
They usually say nice and positive things about a former employee without any reservation.
They do not contain negative or derogatory information or remarks.
In writing avoid the use of once popular salutation “To Whom It May Concern”. Instead, entitle such letters as “””
Imagine that you work in a company. A colleague of yours at company has applied for a job in the export sales department of a large multinational company. Since you’ve known and worked with this person for over four years, you’ve been asked to write a letter of recommendation about her/him to support the application. You should include relevant information both about the business skills and the character of your friend.
Write a letter of recommendation about your colleague.

PROJECT MODELLING
Project 1: Presentation of own business
Imagine that you have opened a small coffee shop or other organization next to a university. First brainstorm a list of possible risks that you may need to manage. Try to sort your list into categories. Secondly, make a business plan of the organization you would like to open, or run your own business. Make a presentation of your business plan.
Stage 1: Think over the type of business you would like to run.
Stage 2: Brainstorm a list of possible risks that you may need to manage.
Stage 3: Suggest possible solutions to manage facing problems.
Stage 4: Think over the stages of your business plan.
Stage 5: Make a presentation of your business plan.
Project 2: Applying for a job
The biggest companies in Kazakhstan require qualified interpreters and translators to their workplaces. There are given some vacancies for translators in different countries on different spheres. And try to apply for these jobs.
Stage 1: Read the following job vacancies carefully and first write a cover letter how you have found out about vacancy, then write an appropriate and effective CV.
Stage 2: Write down a motivation letter.
Stage 3: Prepare a possible job interview questions to be a translator.
Stage 4: Role play a job interview with your group.
Stage 5: Role play a situation checking your translation skills. You will be given a part of a contract or text to translate from Kazakh/Russian into English or vice versa. Translate the part of a text.
Stage 6: Debate and prove why you are suitable for that position.
Trilingual translator
Type: Contract
Location: Kazakhstan
Region: Atyrau
Town: Tengiz
Required Residency: Kazakhstani
Posted By: KISOrion
Date Posted: 26 Dec 2014
Expiry Date: 30 Dec 2014
Job Description
Experience:
A minimum of 2-3 years experience in capital investment projects.
An experience in Oil and Gas industry is preferable.
Be a team player with good communication, interpersonal and leadership skills, and demonstrate strong team and project management capabilities.
Experience and understanding of Capital Project Drivers (Safety, Project processes and procedures).
Position Description:
The Interpreters are responsible for Kazakh-English-Russian and Russian-English-Kazakh written and verbal translation of project documents: contracts and agreements, legislative acts, judicial and arbitration awards, deeds of state agencies; official and confidential documents, letters, minutes, and other work papers of meetings (seminars, conferences, workshops and other forums).
Translator for sports project (online)
We are looking for a skillful and experienced Russian-English translator to work for a developing international online sports project.
Our requirements:
Нigher education
Fluent English is a must
Translation experience — at least 1 year
Reasonable knowledge of football, tennis, basketball (NBA), understanding of sports terminology
Our candidate must be sociable and responsible, and is expected to have strong teamwork skills
Candidate will to go through intensive training under tough schedule within trial period, but it’s paid.
Key duties and responsibilities:
Translation and rewriting of analytical articles and reviews in sports area; writing style should be adapted for foreign target audience (US-UK)
Translate up to 10,000 signs daily
Do translations within concise deadlines (due to project’s nature)
Fast typing and continual improvement of sports knowledge (various sports)
Work conditions:
Official record
Flexible schedule
Young yet experienced team of professionals
Office in downtown Kiev (Pechersk district), next to subway
Benefits package (medical insurance)
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is an international, independent, medical humanitarian organization that delivers emergency aid to people affected by armed conflict, epidemics, healthcare exclusion and natural disasters. We offer assistance to people based on need and irrespective of race, religion, gender or political affiliation. MSF is looking for :
Translator
Main Duties:
Consecutive and simultaneous interpretation into English, Russian and French
• Translate documents from / to mission language into a local one upon request.
• Translate discussions / meetings as requested
• Always keep respect towards patients, collaborators, authorities, military factions and MSF staff participating in discussions.
• Ensure confidentiality of all translation is maintained as directed by the Mission/Project coordination team.
• Ensure neutrality and accuracy when translating.
• Declare any «conflict of interest» when asked to translate (e.g. personal involvement) which would necessitate using other staff members for translation.
• Inform international staff about local customs, tradition, etc., that will help understand better the context and better communicate.
Participate in team meetings and possible trainings.
Requirements:
• Bachelor degree in translation and/or languages
• Excellent command of Russian, French and English languages is a must
• Good computer skills (Word, Excel, Power Point)
• At least 2 years of experience in the relevant position
• Working experience in international organizations or with international team is an asset
• Willingness to frequent travel, working in the facilities of the penitentiary system
Flexibility and willingness to take additional duties in his/her area of competence, assigned by supervisor
Candidates with disabilities are welcome to apply.
Unit 4: ECONOMY
Communication sphere: economic
File 1: Growth of economy in Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA. Sectors and types of enterprises.Economy and globalization.World financial crisis.
LEAD-IN


1. Work in groups. Read the well-known sayings about money. What do they mean? Think of as many arguments as you can for and against each idea.
‘Money makes the world go round’
‘Neither a borrower nor a lender be’
‘Money is the root of all evil’
‘Take care of the pennies and the pounds will take care of themselves’
‘In life, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer’
‘Money can’t buy happiness’
2. Find the Russian and Kazakh equivalents to these sayings.
3. Add your own proverbs and sayings and make up situations on them.
VOCABULARY ZONE
1. Discuss the meaning of the words and phrases in bald in sentences 1-8 below.
She came into a fortune when her father died.
They haggle over the price to get a good deal.
The stock market is a little unpredictable at the moment.
The employees have asked for a rise.
The taxes will affect high-income families.
Dali’s paintings are priceless.
The sales team is paid on commission.
He’s been in a bad way since his business went bankrupt.
2. Discuss the following statements in pairs.
Art belongs to people. Priceless paintings should be available for all to see.
It’s rude to haggle when you buy something. You should pay the asking price.
Paying people on a commission basis makes them work hard.
High-income families should pay higher taxes.
Gambling on the stock market is a sure way to go bankrupt.
The best way to get a rise is to be nice to your boss.
3. Complete some of the lines with a word formed from the word in capitals. There is an example at the beginning (0).
A recent study carried out by (0) researchers at the University of WarwickRESEARCH
claims to show (1) __________ that money can buy you happiness. ThereCONCLUDE
has always been an (2) _________ that the more money you have, theASSUME
happier you are, but until now it has been (3) __________ difficult toSURPRISE
prove. The study, which is based on the (4) __________ of 9,000 familiesRESPOND
in the 1990s, looked at the effects of windfalls – such as a lottery win or
the receipt of an (5) ___________ - on people’s wellbeing. It found thatINHERIT
receiving just £1,000 is sufficient to change the average person’s
(6) _________ on life, though it would take at least £1 million to jumpLOOK
from being very unhappy and (7) __________ to being very happy andSATISFY
contented. And of course, a millionaire would require (8) ___________CONSIDER
more to make the same leap. However, it seems the happiness gained from
money does not last and the (9) __________ wears off as you get used toPLEASE
it. Professor Andrew Oswald, who led the research, also points out that
money is not the only source of (10) __________, and other factors, suchCONTENT
as a strong marriage, play an important role.
4. Translate the following text from English into your own language.
Kazakhstan is important to world energy markets because it has significant oil and natural gas reserves. With sufficient export options, Kazakhstan could become one of the world's largest oil producers and exporters in the next decade. But Kazakhstan's strategic aspiration is to become a modern, diversified economy with a high value added and high-tech component, well integrated in to the global economy.
The energy sector is viewed as a good basis to achieve this goal.The perspective of the Economy of Kazakhstan is closely connected with further integration into international economic relations, utilization of unique reserves of energy and mineral resources, vast possibilities to export industrial and agricultural products, optimum employment of country's transit potential and also with availability of highly qualified specialists in different spheres.
During the Soviet period Kazakhstan was an agrarian, raw materials supplier of the former Soviet economy, where the military industry played the major role. The main economic content of more than 10 years of independence has become transition from the central command planning to a market system. During these years, Kazakhstan has made considerable progress in implementing complex political, economic and social reforms to establish a democratic state with a market economy. While the country has not experienced political disturbances during the transition period, it has faced numerouseconomic, social and environmental challenges.
Work in pairs. How many questions in the quiz can you answer without using a dictionary?


Quiz In the money
£ 10
What were first minted in ancient Lydia (part of what is now Turkey) about 2.600 years ago?
Automatic cash machines
Coins
One-armed bandits
Credit cards
£ 25
Someone who has no money at all is often described as …
Broke
Broken
Bust
Shattered
£50
Which of these might a child receive his/her parents?
A fee
A pension
Pocket money
A subsidy
£100
Something so valuable it cannot be bought can be described as …
Valueless
Priceless
Worthless
Pricey
£ 250
If a company goes out of business because it cannot pay its debts, it …
Is in the black
Breaks even
Is in the red
Goes bankrupt
£ 500
Which of these is money given to someone in authority to get them to do something dishonest?
A tip
A bribe
A deposit
A ransom
£ 1,000!
Which of these is not a way of describing someone who hates spending money?
Flashy
Stingy
Tight-fisted
Miserly
A) Underline the phrases relating to money in the quiz.
Write the words under the heading below.
3. Answer as many questions as you can individually, then compare answers in groups.
In what circumstances might someone
…receive a subsidy?
…expect a tip?
…pay a deposit?
…demand a ransom?
…go bankrupt?
Have you ever
…been completely broke?
…bought something “valuable” that turned out to be worthless?
…won money from a one-armed bandit?
…paid or been offered a bribe?
Do you know anyone who is
… reallystingy?
… alwaysin the red?
… reallyflashy with their money?

B) Look at the mind map given above and discuss it. Draw your own map and compare with other students. Your teacher will choose one student to talk for two minutes about one of the headings.
5. a) Match the words (1-9) on the left with their definitions (a-i) on the right.
1. interesta) a bank account with minus money in it
2. mortgageb) money paid towards the cost of raising a family
3. an overdrawn accountc) money given by the government for education, etc.
4. savings accountd) an account that is used mainly for keeping money
5. current accounte) money paid to people after a certain age
6. pensionf) an account that cheques are drawn on for day-to-day use
7. disability allowanceg) more chargeable on a loan
8. child benefith) money paid to people with a handicap
9. granti) a loan to purchase property
b) Make up your own sentences using the words from Ex. 5 a.
6. Match the idioms (1-23) with their definitions (a-w) and use them in the sentences of your own.
1.on the breadline2.to burn your fingers3. a cash cow4. to cost an arm and a leg (to cost the earth)5. to have deep pockets
6. down payment7. to go Dutch8. to feather your nest
9. to feel the pinch10. golden handshake11.on the house
12. to lose your shirt13. to make a killing14. to look/ feel like a million dollars15. money burns a hole in your pocket
16. money spinner17. money talks18. to be paid peanuts
19. to turn up like a bad penny20. from rags to riches21. to scrimp and save
22. to splash out on23. to suit every pocket
to suffer from having meddled or been rash
be extremely expensive
an initial payment made when something is bought on credit
living at subsistence level
share the cost of something, especially a meal, equally
a business, investment, or product that provides a steady income or profit
make money illicitly and at someone else's expense
to be very rich, wealthy
a payment given to someone who is made redundant or retires early
a drink or meal in a bar or restaurant at the management's expense; free
experience hardship, especially financial
have a great financial success
look or feel well
to be very economical or sparing in the use of something
lose all one's possessions
to be affordable for everyone
to bring revenue, income
from poverty to great wealth
wealth gives power and influence to those who possess it
someone has a strong urge to spend money as soon as they receive it
to work for less money
someone you can’t get rid of
to waste money on something regardless the price
GRAMMAR ZONE
1. Check how well you know conditionals. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense.
If you go into business with relatives, it tends to (tend to) put a strain on your relationship.
If you happen to _______ (see) Tom, could you tell him I need some money?
I wish I ________ (not gamble) with the money, or I might still have some left.
She wouldn’t have been able to pay her debts if she ________ (not come into) large amounts of money.
Supposing Post had been killed, his brother ________ (inherit) some of the winnings.
They wouldn’t have __________ (be able) to buy the house if it hadn’t been for her father.
Provided the business ventures ___________ (be) successful, he shouldn’t have to declare bankruptcy.
If you _________(like) to follow me, I’ll show you to your rooms.
We’d be rich now if we __________ (not lose) the ticket.
_________ (Shall) you have any queries, please do not hesitate to contact me.
If only he _________ (stop) pestering me, I’d try to help.
2. Match the phrases in the box to their uses in 1-7 below.
a) if it hadn’t been for …. b) should you ….. c) provided (that) …../as long as…..
d) if only … e) happen to / should happen to … f) supposing ….. g) if you will / would ….
__________ can be used with First Conditional sentences to emphasise that something is unlikely to occur.
__________ can be used instead of if to show that specific conditions should be met for something to happen.
__________ can be used instead of if to emphasise the imaginary. This is especially common in everyday speech.
__________ is often used to show how a negative result would have occurred without a certain person or event happening.
__________ can be used to express a wish or regret.
__________ is often used in formal business communication.
__________ can be used as a polite form.
FOCUS ON LISTENING

1. In a macroeconomic perspective, levels of employment and unemployment depend on levels of economic activity (broadly measured by GDP) and on intensity of labour per unit of product (productivity). Do you agree with such inferences? Extend your answer by giving relevant examples.
2. You will hear three students in a study group working on a class assignment for their Economics class. Listen to the conversation and as you listen, answer the following questions by choosing the options A, B, C or D.
1) The students
A. Are meeting each other for the first time
B. Are friends
C. Are from different classes
D. Decided on groups themselves
2) Magda doesn’t like the idea of the business cycle because:
A. It’s too difficult
B. It hasn’t been covered in class
C. Too many groups will want to choose it
D. It’s not related to local events
3) They decide on employment because
A. They have done a lot of work on it in class
B. They can relate this topic to local events
C. They think it will be popular with the other students
D. They have recently lost their jobs
4) Stone’s Throw is a company which
A. Makes inexpensive clothes
B. Makes locally made clothes
C. Makes designer clothes
D. Sells second-hand clothes
5) The main reason people bought the clothes from Stone’s Throw was because
A. They wanted to protect the environment
B. They wanted to cut back on shipping costs
C. They wanted cheap clothing
D. They wanted to develop the local economy
6) Stone’s Throw started losing money because
A. They laid off 1/3 of their workforce
B. Customers did not like the quality of their clothes
C. Customers couldn’t afford their clothes
D. The company decided to start importing clothes
7) Henry likes the idea of a case study because
A. He knows people who work at Stone’s Throw
B. He thinks local issues are more important than abstract theories
C. He thinks using a local example will complement what has been studied so far
D. He thinks using a local example will help revive the local economic condition
8) Joe opposes doing interviews of staff at Stone’s Throw because
A. It would be too difficult to do
B. It would not be ethical to do
C. It would not be useful
D. It would not be focused on the course topics
9) The first step in preparing the presentation is
A. Reading local newspapers
B. Interviewing staff at Stone’s Throw
C. Creating a questionnaire
D. Doing background research
10) Why do they need to speak to the professor?
A. They need to inform him of their topic
B. They need his approval for their topic
C. They need his help deciding their topic
D. They need his help in researching their topic
3. With your partner, discuss the situation in Kazakhstan. What further steps can be undertaken to decrease the level of unemployment?
FOCUS ON READING

Reading 1
1. Discuss these questions:
- What do you know about the economic situation in Kazakhstan?
- Does Kazakhstan economy suffer from inflation?
Read the text and outline the facts concerning the economic situation in Kazakhstan.
Make a comparative analysis of different numbers used in the text.
KAZAKHSTAN ECONOMY OVERVIEW
Kazakhstan is an upper-middle-income country with per capita GDP of nearly US$13 thousand in 2013. Kazakhstan’s real GDP growth slowed from 6 percent in 2013 to 3.9 percent during the first half of 2014, due to internal capacity constraints in the oil industry, less favorable terms of trade, and an economic slowdown in Russia. The contribution of net exports to GDP growth improved materially followed by a sharp devaluation of the Kazakhstan tenge in February 2014, leading to a strong drop in imports of goods that became more costly. As a result of the devaluation, domestic inflation, as measured by the consumer price index (CPI), increased from 4.8 percent year-on-year in December 2013 to 6.9 percent in August 2014, due to higher imported input prices.
Income growth in the country had a positive impact on poverty indicators, with prosperity shared broadly. The share of the Kazakhstan population living in poverty went down from 47 percent in 2001 to about 3 percent in 2013, as measured by the national poverty line. Similarly, at the international poverty line, as measured by the purchasing power parity (PPP)-corrected US$2.50 per capita per day, poverty in Kazakhstan fell from 41 percent in 2001 to 4 percent in 2009. However, against a benchmark of a higher poverty line at the PPP-corrected US$5 per capita per day (which is more appropriate for countries with a higher level of income per capita), some 42 percent of Kazakhstan’s population were still living in poverty in 2009, though down from 79 percent in 2001. Kazakhstan’s performance in the World Bank’s indicator of shared prosperity also shows progress, with growth rate of consumption per capita of the bottom 40 percent of households of about 6 percent, while the average consumption growth for all households was about 5 percent during 2006-2010.
Trade policy will remain a central instrument to help the country integrate into the global economy, but Kazakhstan will face a complex trade policy environment in the medium-term. The economy is adjusting to the Eurasia Customs Union which it joined in 2010 and is pursuing an accelerated schedule of further integration into the Common Economic Space by 2015. Kazakhstan is also expected to join the World Trade Organization in the near future while its trade strategy lists several free trade agreements to be negotiated.
Looking forward, despite the short-term vulnerabilities accentuated by the uncertain regional economic outlook, Kazakhstan's medium-term prospects look promising. In the medium term, the economy will continue to grow on the back of the expanding oil sector, while growth of the non-oil economy will be lower due to lower domestic demand. In the longer run, Kazakhstan’s development objective of joining the rank of the top 30 most developed countries by 2050 will depend on its ability to sustain balanced and inclusive growth. Enhancing medium- to long-term development prospects depends on Kazakhstan’s success in diversifying its endowments, namely, creating highly skilled human capital, improving the quality of physical capital, and more importantly, strengthening institutional capital—all of the necessary ingredients for the development and expansion of the private sector in the country.
4. Can you say what the following words and phrases from the article mean, in your own words? Use these words in the sentences of your own.
internal capacity constraints (paragraph 1)5. Integrate (paragraph 3)
strong drop in imports (paragraph 1)6. Trade strategy (paragraph 3)
benchmark (paragraph 2)7. Domestic demand (paragraph 4)
average consumption (paragraph 2)8. Expansion (paragraph 4)
5. Discuss in small groups:
What can you suggest that should be improved in the economic situation of Kazakhstan?
Reading 2
1. Work with your partner on the following questions:
What is the Free Market?
Which are the benefits of the Free Market?
Are there any disadvantages of liberalisation?
Read the text, copy out the words in bald and give their definitions.
Divide the text into logical parts and entitle them. Justify your choice.
The notion of a "free market" where all economic decisions regarding transfers of money, goods, and services take place on a voluntary basis, free of coercive influence, is commonly considered to be an essential characteristic of capitalism. Some individuals contend, that in systems where individuals are prevented from owning the means of production (including the profits), or coerced to share them, not all economic decisions are free of coercive influence, and, hence, are not free markets. In an ideal free market system none of these economic decisions involve coercion. Instead, they are determined in a decentralized manner by individuals trading, bargaining, cooperating, and competing with each other. In a free market, government may act in a defensive mode to forbid coercion among market participants but does not engage in proactive interventionist coercion. Nevertheless, some authorities claim that capitalism is perfectly compatible with interventionist authoritarian governments, and/or that a free market can exist without capitalism.
A legal system that grants and protects property rights provides property owners the entitlement to sell their property in accordance with their own valuation of that property; if there are no willing buyers at their offered price they have the freedom to retain it. According to standard capitalist theory, as explained by Adam Smith, when individuals make a trade they value what they are purchasing more than they value what they are giving in exchange for a commodity. If this were not the case, then they would not make the trade but retain ownership of the more valuable commodity. This notion underlies the concept of mutually-beneficial trade where it is held that both sides tend to benefit by an exchange.
In regard to pricing of goods and services in a free market, rather than this being ordained by government it is determined by trades that occur as a result of price agreement between buyers and sellers. The prices buyers are willing to pay for a commodity and the prices at which sellers are willing to part with that commodity are directly influenced by supply and demand (as well as the quantity to be traded). In abstract terms, the price is thus defined as the equilibrium point of the demand and the supply curves, which represent the prices at which buyers would buy (and sellers sell) certain quantities of the good in question. A price above the equilibrium point will lead to oversupply (the buyers will buy less goods at that price than the sellers are willing to produce), while a price below the equilibrium will lead to the opposite situation. When the price a buyer is willing to pay coincides with the price a seller is willing to offer, a trade occurs and price is determined.
However, not everyone believes that a free or even a relatively-free market is a good thing. One reason proffered by many to justify economic intervention by government into what would otherwise be a free market is market failure. A market failure is a case in which a market fails to efficiently provide or allocate goods and services (for example, a failure to allocate goods in ways some see as socially or morally preferable). Some believe that the lack of "perfect information" or "perfect competition" in a free market is grounds for government intervention. Other situations or activities often perceived as problems with a free market may appear, such monopolies, monopsonies, information inequalities (e.g. insider trading), or price gouging. Wages determined by a free market mechanism are also commonly seen as a problem by those who would claim that some wages are unjustifiably low or unjustifiably high. Another critique is that free markets usually fail to deal with the problem of externalities, where an action by an agent positively or negatively affects another agent without any compensation taking place. The most widely known externality is pollution. More generally, the free market allocation of resources in areas such as health care, unemployment, wealth inequality, and education are considered market failures by some. Also, governments overseeing economies typically labeled as capitalist have been known to set mandatory price floors or price ceilings at times, thereby interfering with the free market mechanism. This usually occurred either in times of crises, or was related to goods and services which were viewed as strategically important. Electricity, for example, is a good that was or is subject to price ceilings in many countries. Many eminent economists have analyzed market failures, and see governments as having a legitimate role to mitigate these failures, for examples through regulation and compensation schemes.
However, some economists, such as Nobel prize-winning economist Milton Friedman as well as those of the Austrian School, oppose intervention into free markets. They argue that government should limit its involvement in economies to protecting freedom rather than diminishing it for the sake of remedying "market failure." These economists believe that government intervention creates more problems than it is supposed to solve. Laissez-faire advocates do not oppose monopolies unless they maintain their existence through coercion to prevent competition, and often assert that monopolies have historically only developed because of government intervention rather than due to a lack of intervention. They may argue that minimum wage laws cause unnecessary unemployment, that laws against insider trading reduce market efficiency and transparency, or that government-enforced price-ceilings cause shortages.
4. Work in groups of 3 or 4 to answer the following questions:
How should government act in an ideal free market?
How do you understand the concept of mutually-beneficial trade?
How is the price determined?
What is a market failure?
What is the best known externality?
Reading 3
1. In pairs, answer the following questions:
What is a Green Economy?
What does a Green Economy look like?
How does Green Economy differ from previous efforts to promote sustainability – what is new?
What are some of the concerns and tensions with the concept of a Green Economy?
What are the challenges to a transition to a Green Economy, and what will make it possible?
Our Challenge – Developing an Eco-Mind
By Frances Moore LappéMarch 2012
We need to change the way we frame problems if we want to come up with real solutions to our environmental challenges.
Bombarded almost daily with news of “food scarcity,” “energy scarcity” and “resource scarcity,” it’s sure easy to absorb the scary notion that there’s just not enough of anything: from food to fuel to parking spaces. In fact, modern economics, now the dominant world religion, defines itself as the science of allocating scarce goods. Looking at the world through the lens of lack, we see it everywhere. Perceiving ourselves in endless competitive struggle over scarce goods, no wonder depression has become a global epidemic. But we shouldn’t be too surprised, for a defining trait of our species is that we each see the world through culturally formed frames that determine, literally, what we can see and what we cannot—even including what we can see in our own nature, and therefore what we believe is possible for our species. Philosopher Erich Fromm called them our “frames of orientation.” Yet, the hard fact of human existence is that if our mental frame is flawed, we’ll fail no matter how hard and sincerely we struggle.
Remaking Our Mental Map
So the central problem I address in my latest book EcoMind, is that, sadly, much of humanity today is stuck in precisely this “hard fact”—trapped in a mental map that defeats us because it is perversely aligned both with human nature and with the wider laws of nature. So, the question is, Can we remake our mental map? Can we learn to see through a different lens? I believe we can. Current research by neuroscientists on the extent of neuroplasticity shows that new thoughts actually create new neural pathways in our brains. Breaking free of the dominant but failing mental map thus starts, for me, by identifying its “thought traps” that reinforce fear and feelings of powerlessness and then replacing them with evidence-based, freeing “thought leaps.” Below I offer seven widely believed ideas shaping our culture’s response to the global environmental and poverty crises, ideas that seem self-evidently true to many of us. Yet, they may in fact be blocking us from real solutions.
Mental Myths
One: Endless growth is destroying our beautiful planet, so we must shift to no-growth economies.
Two: Because consumers always want more stuff, market demand and a growing population drive endless exploitation of the earth.
Three: We’ve had it too good! We must power down and learn to live within the earth’s limits.
Four: Humans are greedy, selfish, competitive materialists. We must overcome these aspects of ourselves if we hope to survive.
Five: Because humans—especially Americans—naturally hate rules and love freedom, we have to find the best ways to coerce people to do the right thing to save our planet.
Six: Now thoroughly urbanized and technology-addicted, we’ve become so disconnected from nature that it’s pretty hopeless to think most people can become real environmentalists.
Seven: It’s too late! Human beings have so far overshot what nature can handle that we’re beyond the point of no return. Democracy has failed—it’s taking way too long to face the crisis. And because big corporations hold so much power, real democracy, answering to us and able to take decisive action, is a pipe dream.
In seven blogs to follow in this series, I’ll ask you to suspend disbelief and entertain the idea that even seemingly obvious truths might need reframing if we are to grasp the roots of our crises and to release the energy we need now to turn our planet toward life.
I’ll suggest that as we reframe each of these thought traps, we can move from the scarcity-mind to the eco-mind, and, in so doing, our way of seeing life—and our place in it—moves from the premise of…separateness to connection.…stasis to continuous change. … scarcity to co-creation.
From Scarcity Mind to Eco Mind
The scarcity-mind, for example, focuses narrowly on quantities, and through my life’s work on food and hunger that means a fixation on bushels grown or calories produced. It ignores the quality of human relationships that ultimately determine whether people have power to access to what is grown. In this world created by the scarcity-mind, we continue therefore to produce more food and yet more hunger at the same time. Fortunately, we can leave behind the lens fixed on quantities and choose to see through the lens of ecology—one incorporating the relationships among organisms and their environment.
Visionary German physicist Han-Peters Düerr once reminded me that in biological systems, “There are no parts, only participants.” We are therefore all co-creators. From this ecological worldview the only choice we don’t have is whether to change the world. Every act we take, or don’t take, shapes the world around us. Through an ecological lens, we can rethink the thought traps that keep us in scarcity-mind and make the “leaps of the mind” that release us from the paralysis of fear. We discover we can move forward creatively with our fear, for in developing our eco-minds we realize our power to create the world we really want.
(Adapted from EcoMind: Changing the Way We Think, to Create the World We Want by Frances Moore Lappe).
2. Group Discussion. Comment on the following quotation.
Past sustainability efforts have not focused sufficiently on fixing the failures of economic policies. But we now have a chance to tackle these challenging problems given the policy openings created by the response to the financial crisis.
FOCUS ON SPEAKING

International conference on major economic issues is to be held in Almaty. The topic is: “Economic growth in Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA”. Suppose you are the representatives from Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA, who are taking part in this event. In groups of three or four, discuss the problems and further perspectives of the economic growth of Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA. Point out the problems, their reasons, suggest the possible ways of solution.
Round table discussion: «Development of the main sectors and enterprises in Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA as the key factor of economic growth».
Discuss the following: «Role of banking sector in economic growth of Kazakhstan».
FOCUS ON WRITING

Writing 1.Essay writing
Key points:
When writing an essay, make sure you are using an appropriately formal register
Clearly separate paragraphs that helps with organization
Introduce topic and describe tendencies
Use appropriate phrases for a discursive-type essay (e.g.,It is probably true to say that…., It is also the case that…..)
Use formal linking devices (e.g., On the other hand…., In conclusion…..)
Use impersonal language in preference to first person pronouns
Task
Your class has recently been doing a project on major economic issues. Your teacher has asked you to write an essay, giving your opinion on the following: “Economic progress is often used to measure a country’s success. However, some people believe that other factors are more important. What other factors should also be considered when measuring a country’s success? Do you think one factor is more important than others?”Write your essay in 250 words.
Writing 2
Submit a brief individual reflection on the following:
• What are your own views on a Green Economy? Is it another weakly defined catchphrase to maintain the status quo? Can it be a meaningful and valuable concept to alter the course of the Global Economy? Is it a term worth promoting, criticizing, or forgetting?
Your writing should be not less than 250 words.
Unit 4: ECONOMY
Communication sphere: economic
File 2.Finance(Taxation system in the Republic of Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA. Banking system in Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA. Securities Market)
LEAD-IN


1. Read the quotations below and interpret them. Express your attitude.
Many people feel that the recent global crisis was caused by the banks - who then, for some reason, had to be bailed out with taxpayers' money. As a consequence of these bailouts some banks made enormous profits.
As consequence of the crisis many people are now unable to pay the money lent to them by the banks. In these cases the banks repossess the houses in to recover part of the debt. What do you think of this practice?
If banks were unable to repossess people's houses then it is possible that more people would stop paying for their mortgages.
If people in general come to believe that banks have insufficient money then they may all decide to withdraw their money from the banks.
2. Which factor do you think most influences favourable financial climate in a country:
Corruption
Taxes
The regulatory burden and extent of red tape in general
Factor markets (labor, intermediate materials and capital)
The quality of infrastructure
Technological and innovation support
The availability and cost of finance
VOCABULARY ZONE
For questions 1-15, read the text below and think of the words which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
Online Banking
The new frontier of electronic banking is the online bank, (0)where customers can access many banking functions (1)______the Internet, including balance queries, transfers, automatic payments, and loan applications. (2)_____the consumer, online banking offers greater convenience and access to information than even the ATM, albeit (3) ______ the ability to obtain cash. From the bank’s point of (4) ______, online banking offers a new way to reach and serve customers (5) ______relieving the strain on the ATM hardware and network. (6) ______, use of the Internet increases vulnerability to hackers and raises issues of privacy and the handling of personal information (7) ______ to those found in other e-commerce venues. In 2006 a Pew Center survey (8) ______that 43 percent of Internet users were banking online—a total of (9) _____63 million American adults. Other (10) ______have found about a third of Internet users now pay bills online. There are also a relatively small but growing (11) ______of Internetonly banks, many of which are affiliated with traditional banks. A particularly attractive feature of (12) ______ banking is the ability to integrate bank services (13)_____ popular personal finance software such as Quicken. As impressive (14)_____it has been, the growth in online banking may have (15)______ inhibited by a perceived lack of security.
2. Idioms to speak about money
Match each idiom (a-i) with a sentence (1-9), which has a similar meaning.Thinkof your own examples using these idioms.
We have to haggle. _ 5__1. We have a high expenditure.
We have nice little nest-egg. ___2. We are very thrifty.
We spend a lot. ____3. We let people borrow from us.
We are in debt. ____4. We earn according to what we sell.
We don’t waste money. ___5. We argue about the price.
We are paid on commission. ___6. We have a high income.
We want a rise. ___7. We need higher wages.
We lend money. ___8. We owe money.
We earn a lot. ___9. We have some savings.
3. Complete some of the lines with a word formed from the word in capitals. There is an example at the beginning (0).
When the United States emerged from the Civil War, Congress
continued to (0) repeatedly increase tariff duties and thus stimulate REPEAT
business, even though the (1) ______ experienced many years of GOVERN
fiscal surpluses. As a result, big business flourished. Individuals
such as Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and J. P. Morgan
operated businesses (2) ____ without the threat of foreign competition. FREE
However, abuses experienced by (3) ____ during this period eventuallyLABOUR
created a backlash against business that pushed Congress into (4) _____PASS
such acts as the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Clayton Anti-Trust Act.
Even with government (5) _____of monopolies, the tendency remained PROHIBIT
to encourage big business, (6) _____ up to 1913, when a large portionSPECIAL
of government revenue shifted from the tariff to a graduated personal
income tax. (7) ______ in 1913 of the Sixteenth Amendment, whichRATIFY
authorized a personal income tax, (8) ____ a large portion of the burdenTRANSFER
of taxation from the business community to individuals. However,
business continues to constitute a large portion of the taxes. During the
Great (9) _____, despite the fact that the government now collected DEPRESS
the personal income tax, tariff rates again increased as a result of the
Hawley-Smoot Tariff—(10) _____an average level of about 50 percentREACH
onmany items.
4. Translate the following text from English into your own language.
Annual account summaries have failed to spur banking competition and the use of text messages and mobile device apps is more effective in changing behaviour of Britain's middle classes, a top financial regulator said on Wednesday.Martin Wheatley, chief executive of the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), announced new research showing that annual summaries had failed to persuade more people to switch banks and said the watchdog is now looking at new ways to increase the impact of information provided by banks to their customers."Statistical analysis ... shows that annual summaries have no influence at all on consumer behaviour in terms of avoiding overdraft charges, improving balance levels or prompting switching between providers," Wheatley said in a speech in Scotland.However, text alerts and mobile banking apps seem to reduce the amount of unarranged overdraft charges incurred by customers, he added."The other great advantage seems to be that text alerts and banking apps also encourage customers to shift their balances from no, or low, credit interest accounts," Wheatley said.Analysis showed it was typically middle-aged consumers with higher incomes who tend to pay the most overdraft charges, switch the least and, in turn, benefit most from text alerts and mobile device apps."This is not just a low-income policy challenge, although the personal impact here on poorer consumers will clearly be felt more keenly. Overdraft charges are actually affecting swathes of middle-Britain," Wheatley said.The research will be used by the FCA to shape future policy.
5. Fill each of the blanks in the following text. Use one word only in each space.
Financial futures
Futures trading is spreading worldwide
A financial futures contract is an agreement to buy or sell, on an organized exchange, a standard quantity of a specific financial instrument or foreign currency at a future date. The price has to be (1) ______ between the two parties. Although contracts are traded between (2) _______ and seller on an exchange floor, these brokers do not have an obligation to each other, (3) ________ to a clearing house. This ensures that the futures market is free from credit (4) ________ to a large extent. Growth in (5) ______ futures trading has (6) ________ enormous since it (7) _______ in the United States in 1972. Financial futures have (8) _______ increasingly popular since then. Financial futures can (9) ______ traded by people willing to assume price risk and (10) ______ to profit from the rises or (11) ______ they expect to occur in interest rates or the share (12) ______. Financial futures offer opportunities for the control of interest rate risk which are not possible in the cash market.
GRAMMAR ZONE
1. Choose the correct alternatives to complete this summary of the text.
Britain is/isn’t a member of the EU, but a lot of British people feel that their country is quite separate from/similar to the rest of Europe. The metric system of currency/measurements has been used in Britain since the 1970s, but many Britons especially older/younger people, prefer to use the old imperial system. Food sold in Britain is usually priced using both types of measurement, but it is legal/illegal to price products using imperial measurements only. Britain uses the euro/pound as its currency, like/unlike all of the other counties in the EU. A date for a referendum in the UK on the euro has already/hasn’t yetbeen fixed.
2. Rewrite as one sentence using a relative clause.
Ex: My friend, Simon, plays the guitar. He has just released a CD.
My friend, Simon, who has just released a CD, plays the guitar.
The euro replaced a number of national currencies. It was introduced in 2002.
Private Banks have a lot of power in the world of economy. That annoys some people.
The bank tried to persuade me to put my money into a share. It lost everything when it collapsed.
My old aunt Jessie is very generous person. Every time I go to see her she gives me £100.
Most students have to take evening or weekend jobs. They made an insurance claim.
3. Read the text and rewrite the sentences in passive constructions.
Kazakhstan & the WTO
As Kazakhstan is not yet a member of the WTO, bilateral or autonomous agreements govern trade in a certain number of key products between the EU and Kazakhstan.
In November 2011, the EU and Kazakhstan opened the negotiations of a new, enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement replacing the 1999 Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, with the aim to further strengthen the bilateral relations.
The enhanced agreement, once concluded, will bring about better conditions for the trade and investment relations between the two parties.
Since the expiry of the EC-Kazakhstan steel agreement at the end of 2006, autonomous measures have based on the bilateral trade in steel.
Once signed, a new agreement will replace these measures.
Following the expiry of the EC-Kazakhstan textiles agreement at the end of 2004, the two sides concluded an additional Protocol to the existing Partnership Co-operation Agreement, thus extending its provisions on trade in textiles established in 2006.
4. Use the bold words for passive constructions
1. Now trade __ largely _________ by electronic money, takes place between a wide range of businesses, consumers and governments and involves an immense variety of products ranging from a synthetic rubber shoe sole to a passenger jet(facilitate).
2. Products can ___ _______ and ________ from the same country before delivery to the marketplace(export, import).
3.For example, logs __ _________ from the United States to countries such as Japan, Mexico and Germany to be processed and shipped back to the United States to be sold (export).
4.Products as seemingly simple as shoes can __ _________ piece by piece in a variety of places and countries, assembled in another nation and shipped to yet another (produce).
5. The virtues of free trade versus protectionism ____ ____ _____ by a central debate for many years (concern).
6. Free trade is dominating trade policy in the 90s as more and more agreements ___ ____ ________ or_________ to increase trade among countries (negotiate, consider).
7. Through several rounds of talk since then, tariffs _____ _______ significantly ______among the over 70 member nations that account for over 80% of world trade (reduce).
8. In the 1990's, almost all trade barriers among its member nations ____ ________ by the European Union (EU) (remove).
9. The World Trade Organization (WTO) _____ ________ in 1995 to administer and enforce agreements made at the Uruguay Round of GATT (establish).
10. Many recent rulings by the WTO ___ _______ _____ at removing non-tariff barriers, in particular health and environmental standards on imports, claiming that these represent unfair trade barriers (aim).
FOCUS ON LISTENING

1. Discuss the following questions in pairs. Use emphasis where possible.
What are the three most important elements of a successful business?
Would you consider starting your own business? Why/why not?
Who would you choose for a business partner? Why/why not?
2. As you listen, complete the notes.
The speaker warns against doing business with (1) _______________.
The only way to get rid of bad business partner legally is to (2) _____________.
Successful partnerships will combine two types of people: (3) ___________ and (4) __________.
It’s a good idea is partners have complementary (5) ____________.
One may be good in the area of product design, the other in marketing. If your business is lacking in a particular area, you may need to (6) ________.
Good (7) __________ is essential to ensure that arguments do not interfere with the success of the business.
Ideally, your business partner will be committed to the (8) ____________ success of the business.
3. Listen again in sections. As you listen, notice how the speaker uses the following phrases. Take notes on what you hear.
Section 1 fifty-fifty partners/family-owned business/make someone a partner/buy someone out of the business/an expensive proposition
Section 2 a strategic ‘big picture’ thinker/business model/plan/roll up their sleeves/execute the strategy/strike the right balance/strategy and tactics
Section 3 make the business work/product design/marketing background/crunch the numbers/contract negotiation/bookkeeping/hire a consultant
Section 4 communicate directly and honestly/business may suffer/hold back information/jeopardise the friendship
Section 5 start-up phase/ an attractive job offer/a life-changing event/the going gets tough
4. Check you understand the meaning of the words/phrases. Reconstruct what the speaker says using the words/phrases and your notes.
5. Discuss in small groups.
Do you agree with what the speaker says? Do you know people in successful/unsuccessful partnerships? Why in your view the relationship does / doesn’t work?
Are you a ‘visionary’ or an ‘operations’ person? What skills, experience and qualities would you bring to a business partnership? In which areas are you lacking? Would you work well with the other students in your group?
FOCUS ON READING

Reading 1
Discuss the questions:
1) What do you know about the work of banks? What are their functions?
2) What do you think the role of banking in modern society is?
Look at the title of the text and say what the text might deal with.
Read the article and say if your expectations were right.
Copy out all the unknown words from the text.
Get the gist (main idea) of the text.
Modern Banking Is a Global Enterprise
Allan D. Grody and Peter J. Hughes
APR 7, 2014 12:00pm ET

The banker that James Stewart memorialized in "It's a Wonderful Life," the 1930s classic that depicted the small-town-lending and deposit-taking bank is gone, never to be resurrected. However, regulators are still trying to put the genie back in the bottle and return to our earlier model of banking.
Regulators cannot seem to understand that the changes effected by technological advances and modern risk management techniques have evolved banking practices and banking institutions into a new profession. Banking is not conducted locally. It is conducted globally, whether or not local branches serve a small rural community or operate in the City or on Wall Street.
Banking's traditional lending and deposit taking businesses are interrelated to global funding, syndication and intermediation. Banking must be placed in the context of a global financial industry of which it is but a part. Banking has evolved over a generation in which new technologies enabled the globalization of financial services and facilitated business consolidations through successive mergers and acquisitions.
A new category of financial institution, the systemically important financial institution has been recognized, formalized in regulations and placed at the apex of responsibility for facilitating regulatory implementations that will risk adjust the financial system. These banks are capital and contract markets participants as well as commercial and retail lenders and deposit takers. This complexity, overlaid on an increasingly technological infrastructure is a fundamental and foundational change in banking that must be considered when promulgating new regulations intended to separate "traditional" banking within the global financial system.
Whilst technological and infrastructure change was underway, the nature of banking was changing primarily due to declining credit spreads brought on by competition. Banks engaged increasingly in wholesale funding markets, in risk distribution syndications and securitizations, in risk management and in-balance-sheet leverage brought about by off-balance-sheet derivatives and special-purpose entities.
The dramatic change in the risk landscape characterized by burgeoning complexity of financial products, deregulation and escalating business consolidations occurred in little more than a generation and provided the backdrop to the most recent financial crisis. Such change occurred at a pace that did not allow regulators, accountants, auditors, risk managers and technologists time to design and implement sufficiently robust risk control, monitoring and reporting systems. This resulted in massive accumulations of exposures to risk in the global banking system that escaped timely identification and quantification.
The short-term regulatory response to the crisis, primarily driven by the Basel Committee and the Financial Stability Board was the mandate for banks to enhance the quantity and quality of their capital and liquidity reserves with the aim of increasing their capacity to buffer unexpected losses, and the introduction of mechanisms to counter model risk and measurement error in capital adequacy calculations. This was done primarily through the introduction of an accounting-based leverage ratio. The medium-term response placed emphasis on implementing more robust risk management frameworks and infrastructures. Fivesuchmandatesareworthyofparticularmention:
Principles for effective risk data aggregation and risk reporting (Basel)
The regulatory framework: balancing risk sensitivity, simplicity and comparability (Basel)
A Global Legal Entity Identifier for Financial Markets (FSB)
Principles for an effective risk appetite framework (FSB)
Supervisory interaction with financial institutions on risk culture (FSB)
We highlight these mandates as we believe they provide the cornerstone for a future global banking system that will provide the improved conditions in which the new profession of banker can evolve.
As a final observation we note that the above five initiatives are interdependent. For example, an effective risk appetite framework is dependent on the ability to aggregate risk data; the ability to aggregate data is dependent on defining participants in transactions consistently through common identification standards; the development of a positive risk culture is dependent on the implementation of an effective risk appetite framework; and none of this will be possible if we do not achieve a greater degree of simplicity and comparability in the regulatory framework.
Banking is a global enterprise. Its professional competency and credentialing should recognize the mobility of the profession and the multi-disciplined nature of the craft. The global banker in our future will be prepared to enter into a socially responsible global banking culture comporting to high standards of professional behavior.
Allan D. Grody is president of Financial InterGroup Holdings Ltd. Peter
J. Hughes is executive director of the U.K.'s Financial InterGroup and research fellow at Leeds University.
6. In small groups, discuss the banking system in Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA.
7. Have you or your relatives ever dealt with banking in your country for any purposes?
Reading 2.
1. K-W-L chart
Divide into three groups and before reading the text fill in the “K” column to share as a group what you KNOW about the subject/issue. After fill in the “W” column what you WANT TO KNOW about the given topic/issue. After having read the article fill in the “L” column to share what you LEARNED about the topic/issue.
KNOW WANT TO KNOW LEARNED
2. LEA (language experience approach) task
A. Work in pairs. Dictate the whole text or the parts of text to each other in your own words.
B. Your partner should write down what the first student has said and later read the text what you have written.
C. Your partner should ask questions about the text, the second student should answer them.
D. Partners will retell the text to each other in brief.
3. FIND A SENTENCE
Read the text and do the following tasks. Find from the text that you think ….
a beautiful sentence
a very interesting sentence
a surprising sentence
a sentence that contains the main idea
a sentence the student doesn’t understand
a sentence that reminds the student of something
a sentence that makes great sense to student
a sentence the student agrees or disagrees with a sentence that upsets the student
4. Pair up to discuss the questions below.
1. What images spring to mind when you hear the word “tax”?
2. Do you think that paying taxes is a vital necessity?
3. Do you know what taxes are spent on in your country?
4. What do you think of sales/consumption tax put on the things you buy?
5. Would you like to be involved in the decisions how your taxes are spent?
6. Would you look for ways to avoid paying tax?
7. How do the tax rates in your country compare with those in neighbouring countries?
Business Taxes, Payroll Taxes and Trust Fund Recovery Penalty
     By Mehdiyoun Law Firm 

Начало формы
Конец формы
When the business faces a cash flow problem, many business owners use the payroll taxes collected but not yet turned over to the IRS.
Many small business owners are not familiar with their payroll tax obligations. Such ignorance may result in serious negative consequences not only for the business but also for the business owner and other employees of the business. Both the IRS and the state tax agencies in Maryland, Virginia and Washington, D.C. require regular and full payment of the employer portion of the employment and payroll taxes. In addition, the federal government and the state tax authorities also ask that the business remit the income taxes withheld from the employees' paychecks by the employers on a regular basis. Failure to do so may have civil and criminal tax consequences. When the business faces a cash flow problem, many business owners use the payroll taxes collected but not yet turned over to the IRS or Maryland, Virginia and Washington, D.C. governments as general business funds and hope that when the cash flow problem is resolved to pay it back with penalty to the government. However, in many cases the cash flow problem persists and unpaid payroll taxes pile up. Federal law as well as state laws in Maryland, Virginia and District of Columbia allows the government to assess part of the delinquent payroll taxes as trust fund recovery penalty against specific individuals within the business. Once these individuals are identified as potentially responsible for the delinquent employment and payroll taxes, the IRS and state tax agencies notify them of such identification. Taxpayers have limited time to challenge such findings by the government. Maryland tax lawyers in our law firm frequently hear from business owners whose ignorance of payroll tax laws results in imposition of trust fund recovery penalty against them and also against other employees of the business. The law allows the IRS and state tax authorities in Maryland, Virginia and Washington D.C. to force the business to close if the government concludes that the business is no longer able to comply with its tax obligations. Payroll tax liability may be assessed against responsible people in the company if certain conditions are met. Federal tax law allows the IRS to impose payroll and employment tax liability if the targeted individual held specific responsibilities in the business and failed to pay the tax willfully. Willful failure is a term of art and has a much broader meaning than 'intentional refusal'. The test for assessment of the trust fund recovery penalty is similar but not identical under Maryland, Virginia and Washington, D.C. tax laws.
Discuss in small groups:
Do you think cigarettes and alcohol should be outlawed, taxed heavily, or left for market forces to decide?
Should "sin taxes" be added to sugary sodas and other fatty foods?
FOCUS ON SPEAKING

1. Debating
"The system of corporate taxation"
2. Polemical discourse on the theme: "The impact of the banking system on the welfare of the citizens of Kazakhstan"
3. Discussion on the topic: "The role of the banking sector in the economic development of the Republic of Kazakhstan (with interpreters’ participation)
4. Describe and give your comments on the news on the securities market in the Republic of Kazakhstan
5. Round table discussion on the topic: "What is the stock market?" Participants demonstrate their awareness of the topic. Moderator stimulates, corrects, makes generalization for discussion.
FOCUS ON WRITING

Writing a Proposal
Key points:
Write in a register that is suitably formal for the target reader – your college principal, a senior colleague, etc.
Think about the language function needed. These may include suggestion. Explanation, persuasion, justification, recommendation.
Remember that a proposal is forward-looking, so will require a range of future tenses and time references.
State your aims briefly in the opening paragraph.
Include a strong justification for your proposal at the end.
Task
The local authority of the city where you are studying has announced its intention to increase the annual budget for the improvement of the learning environment in your university. As a member of the Students’ Committee you have been asked to submit a proposal for the authorities giving your suggestions. You should give details of how the money should be spent in at least three areas, including clear reasons for your recommendations.
Write your proposal. You should write not less than 250 words.
Writing an essay
Key points:
When writing an essay, make sure you are using an appropriately formal register
Clearly separate paragraphs that helps with organization
Introduce topic and describe tendencies
Use appropriate phrases for a discursive-type essay (e.g.,It is probably true to say that…., It is also the case that…..)
Use formal linking devices (e.g., On the other hand…., In conclusion…..)
Use impersonal language in preference to first person pronouns
Task
Your class has recently been doing a project on taxation issues. Your teacher has asked you to write an essay, giving your opinion on the following:
“Once a state makes "sin taxes" a significant part of its revenue stream, it has an incentive to keep people smoking and drinking. If everyone quits smoking, the state does not get any cigarette tax revenue. Is it really a good idea to fund public services on the back of citizens' addictions?”
Write your essay in 250 words.
Unit 4: ECONOMY
Communication sphere: economic
File 3.Trade(Free Trade and Protectionism. Regulation of Trade in the Republic of Kazakhstan (Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated 12.04.2004 N 544-II "On regulation of commercial activities"). Trade policy of Kazakhstan. Methods for Trade Policy: 1. Customs-tariff – those based on customs tariff (import and export duties). 2. Non-tariff - all other measures (anti-dumping, countervailing measures, protective measures, prohibitions or restrictions, including quantitative; quotas; the state monopoly on the export and (or) the import of goods, licensing, technical regulation)
LEAD-IN


1. Read the quotations below and comment on them. Express your attitude.
"Governments influence the patterns of imports and exports by tariffs, quotas and other trade restrictions. Students should learn the reasons for these policies." – California History/Social Science Framework
“World can run without money and currencies but not without business and trade.”  - AmitKalantri“People willing to trade their freedom for temporary security deserve neither and will lose both” ― Benjamin Franklin“A day will come when there will be no battlefields, but markets opening to commerce and minds opening to ideas.” ― Victor Hugo“A fair bargain leaves both sides unhappy.” ― George R.R. Martin, A Dance with Dragons"I know at last what distinguishes man from animals; financial worries." – RomainRolland
Split up into small groups and discuss the following topics:
“Developing countries need Trade, not Aid”
“Increasing commerce makes war less likely”
“Free trade reduces poverty”
“Free trade in raw materials retrogrades development”
VOCABULARY ZONE
1. For questions 1-5, think of one word only which can be used appropriately in all three sentences. Here is an example (0).
0. He’s going to buy a season ticket for United so he can go to all the home games without having to queue all night.
Add the vegetables to the frying pan and season well with pepper and salt.
It’s the rainy season there between May and July, so book your holiday for later in the year.
1. The director of the play chose to keep the ____________ simple so that the focus would be on the actors.
Taylor won the first _____________, but the Belgian fought back to win the next two and claim her fourth championship in a row.
There’s a ______________ of instructions in the box that are written in German, but there’s no English version.
2. There’s no ______________ in turning back now, as we’ve already walked over half way.
Ian is creative but he has no business ______________, which is why his restaurant went bankrupt.
Some young people become gang members in order to gain a _____________ of identity.
3. Farmers are worried about the ____________ winter that has been predicted for this year.
We need to think ____________ about how we’re going to compete with our rivals.
Tom finds it ______________ to follow orders, so I don’t think he’s going to enjoy the army.
4. As a child I used to _____________ apples and pears from the fruit trees in my neighbour’s garden.
I suggest you go to a street market if you want to _____________ up some really good bargains.
Be careful on the metro because that’s where thieves go to ____________ pockets.
5. It is said that everyone has their _____________ but Senator Jacobson never accepted a bribe in his life.
Erica paid the ______________ for her constant lateness when she was turned down for a promotion.
Most of the stock in that shop is being sold at half _____________ today because it’s closing down.
2. a) Complete each of the gaps with an appropriate adverb from the box.
hard heavilyfreelygenerously

1. ‘Top sportspeople bring enjoyment to millions and deserve to be paid _________.’
2. ‘There’s no point being frugal when you’re young – you should spend ________ and have fun.’
3. ‘Save __________, put down a deposit on a flat and leave home as soon as possible.’
4. ‘The government in my country needs to invest ___________ in technology for schools.’
b) Do you agree with each of the statements in exercise 2 a)? Give reasons for your opinions.
3. In 1 and 2 below, match each phrase a-d with an appropriate sentence 1-4. The first one has been done for you.
1. The paid …….
a) in advance1. They made regular payments over two years.
b) in arrears2. They paid all the money that owed.
c) in instalments3. They paid for the hotel room before the holiday.
d) in full4. They settled the bill after the work was finished.
2. She bought it ……..
a) on impulse1. Everything in the store was reduced
b) on hire purchase2. She offered the higher price for the painting.
c) at auction3. She saw the hat and immediately decided to buy it.
d) in the sales4. She hasn’t finished paying for her new fridge yet.
4. Translate the following text from English into your own language.
AN ENGLISHMAN’S home, it is said, is his castle. Little surprise then that the prospect of a “mansion tax” on British property worth over £2 million ($3 million) has rich homeowners up in arms. Even celebrities are voicing their opposition; stars like Sol Campbell, an ex-footballer, and MyleeneKlass, a singer, have lambasted the proposal. But they could not deter both the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats from including the tax in their election manifestos. Labour says the tax (which they reckon would raise about £1.2 billion a year) will be progressive. Those with homes just over the threshold would only pay about £3,000 per year, and owners of affected homes with low incomes would be able to defer the tax payments until their property was sold. The threshold would also rise over time in line with the average increase in high-value property prices. But opponents of the tax object that it will primarily hit residents of modest homes in pricey London, rather than “mansions”. That, they say, is unfair to long-term residents who, though paper millionaires, did not ask for their homes to soar in value. Who will pay the mansion tax?
5. Fun Time. Game “BELOW THE BELT”
Here are twenty articles of clothing, arranged in alphabetical order. Sort them into 2 groups: clothing worn above the belt and clothing worn below the belt.
blousegartersporran
broochkilttiara
clogsleggingstie
collarmittenstights
cravatpop-sockstrunks
cuffshawlwaist-coat
flip-flopsslippers
Worn above the belt Worn below the belt
GRAMMAR ZONE
Language focus: Inversion
1. Comment on the word order in sentences 1-4. What effect is the writer hoping to achieve by placing the words which are written in bold at the beginning of the sentence?
1) Rarely, if ever, do we sit down in our own home to listen to a full performance of a piece of music.
2) No sooner have we settled into our armchair than we think of something else we could be doing.
3) On no account should you kiss your children once the concert has started.
4) When travelling by bus, I do not sing arias from Handel’s Messiah. Nor do I whistle along to the music at weddings.
2. Rewrite the sentences 1-4 in exercise 1 so that the words in bold do not appear at the beginning of the sentence.
Example: We rarely, if ever, sit down in our own home to listen to a full performance of a piece of music.
3. Rewrite the following sentences, beginning with the words given.
1. We only very rarely go to the cinema these days.
Only very rarely ________________________________________________ .
2. I have never seen such a terrible performance of Hamlet before.
Never before __________________________________________________ .
3. Bags must not be left unattended at any time.
At no time ___________________________________________________ .
4. The identity of the murderer is not revealed until the very last page.
Not until ______________________________________________________ .
5. They only realized the painting had been hung upside down when someone complained at reception.
Only when _____________________________________________________ .
4. Rewrite sentences 1-5, beginning with the word in italics.
1. He would never play in front of a live audience again.
2. She had hardly sat down to watch her favouriteprogramme when the phone rang.
3. You will not be allowed to enter the auditorium under any circumstances once the play has started.
4. We not only went to the National Gallery, but we also saw a West End musical.
5. Amy had not enjoyed herself so much since she went to the circus as a child.
5. Complete the following sentences so that they are true for you.
a) Only very rarely do I __________________________________________ .
b) Under no circumstances would I __________________________________ .
c) Never again will I ______________________________________________ .
d) Not once in my life have I _______________________________________ .
e) Not since _________________ have I _______________________________ .
f) Not until _________________ did I _________________________________ .
6. Comment on and discuss your sentences with your partner.
FOCUS ON LISTENING

1. In pairs, discuss the following questions
What do you know about International Trade? What forms of international trade do you know?
What is the role of International Trade in the world economy?
What do the terms ‘export’ and ‘import’ mean?
What do you know about the methods of payment?
production efficientinput traderesourcesallocatecapabilitiesproducts absolute advantageprovideexchange
2. While listening, complete the following passage from‘Theories of Trade’ by inserting the words in the box:
Theories of Trade
To explain why countries (1) ________, we must look at a little economic theory. The first concept we consider is called a theory of (2) ___________. If a country has the absolute advantage in a (3) __________of goods or services, it means it’s the most (4) _______ producer of that product. In other words, if all countries use the same (5) _______ in their production process, this country would be able to make more better quality products than all the others.
Let’s construct a simplified theoretical example to illustrate the point. Imagine for a moment that we live in a world where there are only two countries: South Africa and Japan. And both countries have different (6) _________ to produce two products: wheat and DVDs. And over a certain period of time South Africa can either produce 55 bags of wheat or 11 DVDs, using all their (7) ________. Japan, on the other hand, can either produce 18 bags of wheat or 72 DVDs, using all the available inputs that they have. So, knowing that each country must choose how to (8) ________ its resources between the production of these two goods, does it make sense for South Africa to produce any DVDs. The answer is ‘no’. Japan is obviously much more efficient in the production of DVDs than South Africa. And South Africa is much more efficient in the production of wheat than Japan. But both countries need both (9) ________. So it makes sense for South Africa to (10) _______ Japan with South African wheat in (11) ________ for DVDs made in Japan.
3. In small groups, speculate on the necessity of the Theory of Absolute Advantage. Nominate one student to report back to class with the summary of your group discussion.
FOCUS ON READING

Reading 1
1. K-W-L chart
Divide into three groups and before reading the text fill in the “K” column to share as a group what you KNOW about the subject/issue. After fill in the “W” column what you WANT TO KNOW about the given topic/issue. After having read the article fill in the “L” column to share what you LEARNED about the topic/issue.
KNOW WANT TO KNOW LEARNED
2. LEA (language experience approach) task
A. Work in pairs. Dictate the whole text or the parts of text to each other in your own words.
B. Your partner should write down what the first student has said and later read the text what you have written.
C. Your partner should ask questions about the text, the second student should answer them.
D. Partners will retell the text to each other in brief.
3. FIND A SENTENCE
Read the text and do the following tasks. Find from the text that you think ….
a beautiful sentence
a very interesting sentence
a surprising sentence
a sentence that contains the main idea
a sentence the student doesn’t understand
a sentence that reminds the student of something
a sentence that makes great sense to student
a sentence the student agrees or disagrees with a sentence that upsets the student
4. Team up with another student to answer the following questions. Use expressions of agreement and disagreement.
1. What is meant by global trade?2. What is free trade?3. Isn't free trade the way out of poverty?4. What is trade based on?
5. What is protectionism and what are the current arguments concerning protectionism and free trade?
6. What is the WTO and why is it important?5. Read the text and identify the main points.
TRADE OVERVIEW
Trade has been a major part of human history. The early days of simple barter between groups of people are long gone. Now trade is largely facilitated by electronic money, takes place between a wide range of businesses, consumers and governments and involves an immense variety of products ranging from a synthetic rubber shoe sole to a passenger jet. Products can be exported and imported from the same country before delivery to the marketplace. For example, logs are exported from the United States to countries such as Japan, Mexico and Germany to be processed and shipped back to the United States to be sold. Products as seemingly simple as shoes can be produced piece by piece in a variety of places and countries, assembled in another nation and shipped to yet another. Trade is no simple matter these days.
International trade has expanded rapidly since World War II, and even more so in the 1990s. In 1950, total merchandise exports in the world were $58 billion. In 1990 that figure was $3.5 trillion, and in 1997 it was $5.3 trillion. In 1997, world exports grew by over 9.5%, three times greater than world output growth of 3%. Over 3/4 of the world trade is in merchandise or goods primarily industrial equipment, consumer goods, oil and agricultural products. Almost 1/4 of world trade is in services, mostly in banking, insurance, transport, telecommunication, engineering and tourism. Since the 1950s, transportation costs, based on cheap oil, as well as communication costs, have steadily declined. This has helped fuel the explosion in global trade.
Trade is based on specialization. The logic is clear trade what you make the best and exchange it for what others make the best. Trade competition among countries is much more complicated. Much of it depends on the resources or factors of production available in a certain area or country. In general terms, countries or areas will have a resource focus to their economy and consequently to their exports. A country can be labor intensive, where its competitiveness is based on cheap and available labor. These countries are often poorer and have large populations. Or a country can be capital intensive where its competitiveness is based on the productivity and skill of its labor force with high levels of education and/or available technology and machinery. Or a country can be land intensive, where its competitiveness depends more on an abundance of valuable natural resources such as timber, minerals and farmland.
A central debate for many years has concerned the virtues of free trade versus protectionism. In simple terms, free trade means the absence of restriction on trade. Essentially, a government pursuing free trade removes barriers to imports and encourages exports. The following arguments for free trade are often made: 1) that more imports will lead to more choices for consumers; 2) that competition from imports makes domestic businesses more competitive which leads to lower prices and better quality for consumers; 3) that imports can provide valuable and/or cheaper inputs for businesses; 4) that welcoming imports can promote trade relations with other countries making it easier for the US to export; and 5) that increased exports will lead to more income and jobs in export industries.
Traditionally, protectionism has meant using barriers to imports that compete with domestic industries. Current arguments for protectionist measures in the US show this definition is expanding, as reasons to limit imports are not just confined to protecting domestic industry. Arguments for protectionism include: 1) protecting import-competing companies and their workers; 2) encouraging local production to substitute for certain imports and therefore keeping more money and jobs in local communities; 3) reducing direct environmental costs: the energy and packaging used to transport goods over long distances; and 4) disagreement with the country where certain imports come from because of its human rights record, labor practices, lax environmental protection, etc. Protectionist measures include tariffs (taxes on imports), quotas (monetary or quantity limits on imports) and non-tariff barriers (restrictions on imports such as standards enforced on imported goods, special tests or markings required on goods and time delays in clearing goods for importation).
Free trade agreements have aimed to reduce these barriers. Free trade is dominating trade policy in the 90s as more and more agreements are being negotiated or considered to increase trade among countries. The most well known and influential has been GATT, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, started in 1947. Through several rounds of talk since then, tariffs have been significantly reduced among the over 70 member nations that account for over 80% of world trade. NAFTA, started in 1993, has significantly reduced tariffs between the US, Canada and Mexico. In the 1990's, the European Union (EU) has removed almost all trade barriers among its member nations.
The World Trade Organization (WTO), established in 1995 to administer and enforce agreements made at the Uruguay Round of GATT, has taken free trade to a new level. Many recent rulings by the WTO have been aimed at removing non-tariff barriers, in particular health and environmental standards on imports, claiming that these represent unfair trade barriers. Many critics suggest that free trade under the WTO is challenging the sovereignty of nations affected by their rulings. [For updates and criticisms on WTO activity, visit the website of Public Citizen's Global Trade Watch at www.citizen.org.]
Who's in control of this increasingly complex world trade system and the trade organizations that govern it? Multinational corporations are becoming less loyal and responsible to any one nation and its laws. Various multinationals have moved operations to countries where production costs are lower or because of lax environmental and labor laws. Where laws are stronger, multinationals may make an effort to change or circumvent those laws. A recent ruling at the WTO serves to demonstrate this trend. In March 1997, the WTO ruled that the European Union must open its markets more to bananas from Latin American countries, mostly Chiquita bananas. The European Union has favored bananas from Caribbean nations mostly grown on small, family farms. Many Caribbean economies depend largely on these exports. The United States had brought this case to the WTO at the urging of Chiquita. Chiquita is based in Cincinnati, Ohio but most of its 45,000 workers are in Guatemala and Honduras where the bananas are harvested. Carl Lindner, the CEO of Chiquita, was a major donor to the Democratic Party. Multinational corporations, like Chiquita, were created by law in their nations of origin but as their global reach has extended, so too has their ability to influence international trade agreements and organizations like the WTO.
In addition to issues of national sovereignty, there is also concern over how certain imports are produced and the impact such production has across borders. Health, environmental and social standards in poorer countries that export to the US are often considerably below those of the US. Human rights violations in China and Nigeria, devastating pollution in Korea and China and extremely low wages in Indonesia are examples that reflect these different standards. By buying from these countries, some argue we are supporting their policies. In other cases, the actual production of goods exported to the US have had a direct effect on the health and environment in the US. During a visit to Tijuana in 1997, Carl Pope, Director of the Sierra Club, pointed out that pesticides banned in the US are made in California, used in Mexico and then shipped back to the US on fruits and vegetables. More recently on a visit to Tijuana Mexico, Pope learned about hazardous industrial wastes discharged into a local river from electronics factories that largely export to the US and Canada. Not only has this harmed the health of those who live in Tijuana (producing,for example, a high incidence of birth defects) but this river flows to Imperial Beach, California where many others surf and swim. Another report in Time magazine (May 1997) revealed high incidences of serious birth defects in Brownsville, Texas from 1988 to 1992. This was also a time when US companies like General Motors, Kemet Electronics and Trico, a windshield wiper manufacturer, set up factories across the Rio Grande in Matamoros, Mexico. It is widely believed that pollution from these factories led to this health crisis. Differences in environmental regulations between the US and Mexico have been a central concern of those opposed to NAFTA.
A final concern about the expansion of the global economy is that many countries, especially the United States, are becoming more (and too) dependent on imports. This condition of interdependence, while predicated on countries specializing in what they produce most competitively, can leave trading partners vulnerable. In a world rife with civil wars in distant places, subject to sudden changes in their economies and shifts in government authority, anticipated exchanges may go awry. With these concerns among others, there is a growing school of thought suggesting we restrict what we import. This "protectionism" does not have to come about through government measures like higher tariffs or quotas. Rather, a coordinated effort to support, invest in and boost local production of essential products could lead to a gradual replacement of imports. With a focus on essentials like food, shelter and energy, this would leave communities less vulnerable to the risks involved in relying on products from hundreds and thousands of miles away. This is part of Michael Shuman's thesis in his 1998 book, Going Local. Shuman further argues that replacing imports with local products can improve the local economy by creating jobs and keeping income in the community. Limiting imports of essential goods to protect local communities from outside forces also reduces the environmental costs of transportation over great distances. While import replacement does not eliminate trade, it may help to constrain trade when it does not promote a better quality of life.
6. Discuss with your partner:
How have product life cycles been changed by globalization?
What are the trade-offs of free trade and globalization?
What can be done about globalization's negative impacts? Alternatives?
Reading 2
1. With your partner, discuss the following questions.
What is Free Trade?
What does Free Trade lead to?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Free Trade?
2. Read the text for getting the gist.
3. Unjumble the words in bald.
Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2
1. two trading osbcl7. presentlyorthwaround €455 billion
2. involve rounds of ttsoieinagon8. tssaeemtiare that…
3. greatersccsae9. heemenedltpov of global trade
4. key American usnideitsr10. equallytshtuicsenai
5. the USA will want more tioneemvlnv11. state of the Union rdsadse
6. European riuucaterlg12. americanxetpsro
EU and US free trade talks launched
The European Union and the USA will soon begin formal talks on a free trade agreement, paving the way for the biggest trade deal in history. The two trading blocs currently account for around half the world's economic output. European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso said discussions could start by the end of June. The talks will involve rounds of negotiations on the many sticking points between the two economic powerhouses. Europe is likely to want greater access to many key American industries such as telecommunications and transport. The USA forbids foreign ownership of these. The USA will want more involvement in European agriculture, which may not please EU farmers.
EU-US trade is presently worth around €455 billion / $613 billion a year. Estimates are that a trade deal could boost their annual GDP by 0.5%. MrBarroso said: "A future deal between the world's two most important economic powers will be a game-changer, giving a strong boost to our economies on both sides of the Atlantic." He added: "These negotiations will set a standard…for the development of global trade rules." US President Barack Obama was equally enthusiastic about a deal, which he spoke about in his State of the Union address to the US Congress on Tuesday. He said an agreement would, "boost American exports, support American jobs and level the playing field in the growing markets of Asia".
(fromhttp://www.BreakingNewsEnglish.com/1302/130215-free_trade.html)
4. Answer the following questions:
What is the pulse of Americans on free trade issues?
What’s the outlook for free trade over the next few years?
How would you rate the Kazakhstan’s government on trade issues?
FOCUS ON SPEAKING

ROLE PLAY
Role A – Barack Obama
You think a free trade agreement with the European Union will be a great help for the whole world. Tell the others three reasons why. You think it would be better for America than trade deals with China, Russia or India. You are sure the deal will bring many jobs to the USA.
Role B – Jose Manuel Barroso
You think a trade agreement will be good for the EU. Tell the others three reasons why. You don't think it will help the world. Tell the others three reasons why. You believe a deal with China would benefit the EU more than a deal with the USA. Tell Barack Obama this.
Role C – China trade minister
You think a trade deal between the USA and EU will be a disaster. Tell the others three reasons why. You think the EU should sign a deal with China instead. The EU and China would be the best trading blog in the world. You never want a deal with the USA. Tell Obama why.
Role D – EU/US worker
You think the trade talks are a total waste of time. Tell the others three reasons why. The talks will only guarantee the large salaries of a large number of negotiators and lawyers. A free trade deal will not make the lives of ordinary people better. Youwouldrathercreate a dealwithChina.
Prepare a roundtable discussion on the following topic:
“The World Trade Organization: Successes and Challenges: An Assessment”
Roundtable sessions are designed to allow extensive discussion and feedback forthe presenter in a more informal context than panel presentations. This format is especially suited to students who wish to discuss aspects of developing research projects, including their research questions, methodology, sampling, and initial protocols. Roundtables are generally moderated by group members and involve discussion among the presenters and participants around the topic of the roundtable. Authors are encouraged to bring handouts that highlight key points for discussion.
FOCUS ON WRITING

1. Writing task
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task
The diagram shows the balance of trade in Kazakhstan over the last year. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
Kazakhstan Balance of Trade 
Kazakhstan recorded a trade surplus of 2056.40 USD Million in November of 2014. Balance of Trade in Kazakhstan averaged 1480.53 USD Million from 1998 until 2014, reaching an all-time high of 6771.90 USD Million in June of 2011 and a record low of -22.10 USD Million in November of 1998.

During the writing you can use these highlighted words describing trends.
Sales of audio cassettes fell steadily.
iPod sales rose gradually.
Plasma TV sales fluctuated widely, but the trend was upward.
Sales of video cassettes fluctuated widely, and the trend was downward.
Total digital camera sales dropped slightly.
Sales of audio cassettes fell and then leveled off.
The sales of MP3 –players rose gradually and then climbed sharply.
Purchases of video cassette recorders declined dramatically.
Sales of games consoles decreased and then leveled off.
CD sales dropped suddenly.
2.Writing an essay
Key points:
When writing an essay, make sure you are using an appropriately formal register
Clearly separate paragraphs that helps with organization
Introduce topic and describe tendencies
Use appropriate phrases for a discursive-type essay (e.g.,It is probably true to say that…., It is also the case that…..)
Use formal linking devices (e.g., On the other hand…., In conclusion…..)
Use impersonal language in preference to first person pronouns
Task
You have recently had a class discussion on the role that money plays in people’s lives. Your teacher has asked you to write an essay, giving your opinion on the following statement:
Making money has become too important to many people in our modern society.
Write your essay in 250 words.
PROJECT MODELLING
Task: Develop a PPT slide show on the topics given below. Work in groups of two. Search for information using various sources and be able to present the written outputs, convincing the necessity of each paper and collected data. Specify the aim, objectives and topicality of your project. Support your presentations with diagrams, charts, tables with precise analysis of the data.
Branches, forms of enterprises and their effectiveness in Kazakhstan, Great Britain and the USA.
Securities market in the Republic of Kazakhstan. General characteristics.
The collapse of the stock market in 2008 as the beginning of the global economic crisis.
Types of trade in Kazakhstan and its regulation methods.
Objects and types of internal trade in the Republic of Kazakhstan
Foreign trade. Measures for the development of foreign trade activities in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Getting a loan can be a complex process in trying to figure out the terms of the agreement. Imagine that you need a loan to pay for a car or college tuition. Find a Web site that offers the type of loan you need, and analyze the information. Whatdoestheactualcostoftheloaninclude?

WORDLIST OF UNIT 2
FILE 1
political system executive authority
republic totalitarian regime
judicial branch ministers
political party parliament
democracy citizenship
socio-political movements convention
monarchy Billof Rights
legislative power declarationofrights
theocracy opposition
government electorate
subsidiarysystem impeachment
unitaryconstitution individualliberty
veto labourlegislation
worldcourt mandatorystate
alliance roundtableconference
maslikhat akimat
FILE 2
developing countries co-operate
less developed countries integrate
industrialized world multilateral/unilateral
richer nations communication
superpower protest
global village demonstrate
global trade critics of
international(co–operation) debate
the world standardization
local/national/domestic loss of identity
ubiquitous sweatshops/outsourcing
universal national sovereignty
FILE 3
city-state  modernization
industrialization balance of power 
middle class  colonization
agriculture  trade
genocide  corporation
civilization interdependence
barter European Community/European Union 
environment constitution 
golden age  civil disobedience 
desertification  developing nations 
centralized government  capitalism
human rights  invasion
cultural diffusion  League of Nations 
militarism nation-state 
WORDLIST OF UNIT 3
FILE 1
fossil fuel production
crude oil refining
porous rocks upstream
hydrocarbons downstream
non-renewable energy conventional oil reserves
low-calorie gas petroleum
exploration gas consumption
development merchandise
barrel rich gas
gas resources drilling
geologist underground formations
dry hole flat spot/bright spot
hydrocarbon saturation oil and gas reserves
rig gathering line
piping oil tank
capacity oil depot
underground storage railcar
refined products pump station
batch stable substance
sales point contract arrangements
benchmark crude blend
oil refinery gasoline
distilled fuel oil residual fuel
sour crude sweet crude
distillation reforming
cracking marketable commodities
subsoil use rights petroleum legislation
concession system/agreement profit taxes
mining rights oil spill
contamination oil residues
environmental impact study proven/probable reserves
expansion energy producer
availability of oil estimated reserves
liquid fuel well test
ferrous/non-ferrous metals mineral resources
mining zinc, ore, lead, copper, aluminum, titanium, magnesium, coal, electricity, heat, raw gold, silica brick
geologic exploration manganese and chromite industries
mineral commodities gross production of the mining and metallurgy
mining enterprises precious metals
raw stock final product
pure metal scattered metals
FILE 2
livestock human consumption
farming raw ingredients
producing food ready meals
feeding canned food
fiber frozen food
cultivation of products fresh ingredients
improving farming methods baked food
food processing bakery
suppliers manufacturers
warehouses retailers
consumers year-round supply
food service food industry technologies
agricultural machinery biotechnology
food chemistry chemical wastes
safety of automobile motor vehicles
product and operation, inspection test light trucks
gasoline gallon
diesel fuel mode of transportation
own a car light vehicle
passenger cars light commercial vehicles
heavy trucks buses and coaches
gas-electric hybrid vehicles fuel-efficient vehicles
pickup trucks small cars
buyer consumer
clothes industry shoes industry
furniture consumer electronics
home appliances set of restaurants
sandwich delicatessens pizzerias
sushi bars FILE 3
pesticide fiber
fertilizer cultivation of products
cultivation of the earth improving farming methods
farming/farmer GDP
rainfall/snowfall agriculturist
generosity of nature crop rotation
crops liming of fields
planter harvest
livestock haying
cattle-breeding threshing
feeding products mowing
planting consumer
plow up farmer cooperatives
safe food standards rural banks
to advance agricultural research farm products
farm bill farm equipment
cotton food-processing industries
wheat seasonal workers/migrant workers
agribusiness artificial fertilizer
cropland soil
to water plants no-till farming
toxic farm chemicals gene-splicing technology
biotechnology labour
FILE 4
start-ups business grants
small/medium business business plan
to run business partnership
barriers franchise
qualifications venture capital
entrepreneur/ship rival company
networking organizations failure
problems/risks mediocre team
leadership qualities business/work-related skills
behavioral skills innovative companies
mature market focus on customer needs
business idea personal qualities
prospective business loans
know-how long-term/short-term/medium-term
benefits solution
consumer needs deadline
account/invoice payment terms
salary and salary guide job title
employer/ee candidate profile
application contact details
set up business start up
time-management analytical thinking
workshop well-being
coach/trainer competition
family business business climate
enterprise favourable and attractive conditions
domestic/foreign business road map
flexibility competitive
output of goods tax climate
interest rate of business business environment
refusal vocational education
client focus decision making
effective communication intercultural competence
networking self-development
innovation results orientation
WORDLIST OF UNIT 4
accounts payable
accounts receivable
accrual accounting 
assets 
audit balloon payment 
bank reconciliation 
bankruptcy 
benchmark 
bill of sale 
bookkeeping 
bottom line 
budget capital
capital growth
cash accounting 
chart of accounts 
chattel Mortgage 
contingent liability 
credit limit 
current asset
current liability debit 
debt
default
depreciation
disbursements
discount 
drawings encumbered
equity 
excise dutyrefinance 
retention of title 
Return on investment (ROI) 
single-entry bookkeeping 
scam 
security 
superannuation tax invoice  finance 
financial statement 
fixed cost 
float 
fringe benefits 
fully drawn advance 
gross income 
gross profit 
guarantorhire-purchase 
initial public offering (IPO) 
insolvent 
intangible assets 
interest rate 
investment 
invoice 
liability 
line of credit 
loan 
loan to value ratio (LVR) 
margin 
margin call 
maturity date net assets overdrawn account 
owner's equity 
personal property 
Personal Property Security Register (PPSR) 
petty cash 
profit 
receipt 
turnovervariable interest rate 
Venture Capital 
Working capital 
STUDENT SELF-EVALUATION CHART
U
N
D
E
R
S
T
A
N
D
I
N
G Listening I can understand extended speech even when itis not clearly structured and when relationships are only implied and not signalled explicitly. I can understand television programmes and films without too much effort.
Reading I can understand long and complex factual and literary texts, appreciating distinctions of style. I can understand specialised articles and longer technical instructions, even when they do not relate to my field.
S
P
E
A
K
I
N
G Spoken Interaction I can express myself fluently and spontaneously without obvious searching for expressions. I can use language flexibly and effectively for social and professional purposes. I can formulate ideas and opinions with precision and relate mycontribution skilfully to those of other speakers.
Spoken Production I can present clear, detailed descriptions of complex subjects integrating subthemes.: developing particular points and rounding off with an appropriate conclusion.
W
R
I
T
I
N
G Writing I can express myself in clear, well-structured text, expressing points of view at some length. I can write about complex subjects in a letter, an essay or a report, underlining what I consider to be the salient issues. I can select a style appropriate to the reader in mind.
All copyright material used in this course book have been borrowed from the following sources:
1. Roy Norris with Amanda French. Ready for CAE. Coursebook. MacMillan Publishers, 2008.
2. Tricia Aspinall, Annette Capel. Advanced Masterclass. CAE. Student’s book. Oxford University Press, 2008.
3. Antonia Clare, JJ Wilson. Total English (Advanced). Student’s book. Pearson Longman, 2008.
4. Mark Skipper. Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary. Student’s book. Express Publishing. Electronic version.
5. Ruth Gairns, Stuart Redman. Oxford word skills. Advanced. Oxford University Press.
6. Michael McCarthy, Felicity O’Dell. English Vocabulary in Use. Advanced. Cambridge University Press.
7. Allan D. Grody and Peter J. Hughes. Modern Banking Is a Global Enterprise.
8. Frances Moore Lappe. Adapted from EcoMind: Changing the Way We Think, to Create the World We Want.
9. Martin Hewings. Advanced Grammar in Use. Cambridge University Press, 2002.27.
10. Ken Wilson, James Taylor, Deridre Howard-Williams. Prospects. Advanced. Student’s book. Macmillan, 2001.
11. Hugh Cory. Advanced writing with English in use CAE. Oxford University Press, 1997.
12. Iwonna Dubicka, Margaret O’Keeffe. Market Leader. Advanced Business English Course Book. Pearson Longman, 2006.
13. John Allison, Jeremy Townend, Paul Emmerson. The Business. B2, Upper-Intermediate. Macmillan Publication, 2013.
14. John Allison, Rachel Appleby, Edward de Chasel. The Business, B3. Advanced. Macmillan Publication, 2009.
15. Liz and John Soars. New Headway. Advanced Student’s Book. Oxford University Press, 2009.
16. Focus on Britain. Foreign & Commonwealth Office London. The White Dove Press, 1998.
17. Серикбай Индира. Английский в нефтегазовой промышленности. Пособие для самообразования. Алматы, 2005.
18. Серикбай Индира. Английский для нефтяников. Для работников нефтегазовой отрасли. Алматы, 2009.
Internet sources:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vvfzaq72wd0http://www.BreakingNewsEnglish.com/1302/130215-free_trade.htmlhttp://old.khabar.kz/upload/596_95aed97d03033ca25fb9cd2d8a156e4f.jpg http://static4.bigstockphoto.com/thumbs/3/6/7/small2/76392824.jpg
http://en.tengrinews.kz/userdata/news_en/2011/news_4419/photo_8747.jpg http://metafilosof.narod.ru/sokrat.jpghttp://www.embkazjp.org/President%20new%20photo.jpghttp://www.trkterra.ru/sites/default/files/field/image/new_world/azerbaydzhan-mozhet-dobyvat-neft-do-beskonechnosti-ekspert-neft1.jpeg http://www.almaty-info.net/upload/images/1342669300.jpeghttp://dknews.kz/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/7f10dddd4c22498aa5bb3b3e1b599b68.jpghttp://p3.img.cctvpic.com/photoworkspace/contentimg/2013/04/28/2013042814440342559.jpghttp://www.zhaskenes.kz/assets/upload/preview/50af1f0bc036539bc729a8d760858827.jpghttp://elordenmundial.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/astana-dawniej-byla-tu-almola-potem-celingorad-i-akmolinsk.jpg
Please let us know how you enjoyed
working with this course book
and good luck!

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