3rd Year, 6th Semester
Practical class № 3
Homonymy. Synonymy. Antonymy. Hyponymy.Problems for Discussion
Homonyms, their definition, kinds and use. Sources of appearance.
Difference between homonyms and polysemantic words.
Synonyms in the English vocabulary, their kinds and sources of appearance.
Antonyms, their definition, kinds of antonyms. The use of antonyms.
Hypero-hyponymic relations in the English vocabulary.
Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка / И.В. Арнольд; на англ. яз. – 3-е изд. – М.: Высш. шк., 1986. – C. 181–215.
Лексикология английского языка / Р.З. Гинзбург [и др.]; на англ. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. и доп. – М.: Высш. шк., 1979. – C. 39–46, 53–61.
Харитончик З.А. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. пособие. – Минск: Вышэйшая школа, 1992. – С. 64–78, 86–96.
Tasks and Topics for Discussion
1. Read the poem given below. Find the homonyms and say whether they are perfect or partial, lexical or lexico-grammatical.
The English language
Some words have different meanings,
and yet they're spelt the same.
A cricket is an insect,
to play it – it's a game.
On every hand, in every land,
it's thoroughly agreed,
the English language to explain
is very hard indeed.
Some people say that you're a dear,
yet dear is far from cheap.
A jumper is a thing you wear,
yet a jumper has to leap.
It's very clear, it's very queer,
and pray who is to blame
for different meanings to some words,
pronounced and spelt the same?
A little journey is a trip,
A trip is when you fall.
It doesn't mean you have to dance
whene'er you hold a ball.
Now here's a thing that puzzles me:
musicians of good taste
will very often form a band –
I've one around my waist!
You spin a top, go for a spin,
Or spin a yarn maybe –
yet every spin's a different spin,
as you can plainly see.
Now here's a most peculiar thing –
'twas told me as a joke-
a dumb man couldn't speak a word,
yet seized a wheel and spoke.
A door may often be ajar,
but give the door a slam,
and then your nerves receive a jar –
and then there's jars of jam.
You've heard, of course, of traffic jams,
and jams you give your thumbs.
And adders, too, one is a snake,
the other adds up sums. (...)
2. Compare the semantic relations between meanings of the following English forms and say whether they are meanings of polysemantic or homonymous words: blind, ear, heavy, mount, pen, point.
3. Using a dictionary state the main semantic differences between the members of the following synonymic groups. Find the dominant synonym and explain your choice.
1. to glare – to gaze – to peep – to stare – to look – to glance;
2. to glimmer – to glisten – to blaze – to shine – to flash – to gleam – to sparkle;
3. to astonish – to puzzle – to amaze – to surprise – to astound;
4. to saunter – to wander – to roam – to stroll – to walk;
5. strange – quaint – odd – queer;
6. scent – perfume – smell – odour – aroma;
7. to brood – to meditate – to think – to reflect – to speculate;
8. to produce – to make – to fabricate – to manufacture – to create;
9. to sob – to weep – to cry;
10. furious – angry – enraged.
4. Analyse the reasons for using the euphemisms given below and classify them according to the following groups:
a) superstitious taboos (devil – deuce, dickens);
b) social and moral taboos (spit – expectorate, pantaloons – nether garments);
c) the need to soften painful news (to die – to pass away, to be no more);
d) using a learned word which sounds less familiar, hence less offensive (overeating – indigestion).
To eat – to partake of food, to partake of refreshment, to refresh oneself.
To die – to breathe one's last, to depart this life, to pay one's debt to nature, to go to one's last home, to go the way of all flesh, to kick the bucket, to hop the twig, to join the majority.
Mad – deranged, insane.
Cemetery – memorial park, necropolis.
Sweat – perspiration.
Foolish – unwise.
God – Dear me! Oh, my! Good gracious! Golly! Gosh!
Trousers – inexpressibles, inexplicables, indescribables, unmentionables, unwhisperables, one's mustn't -mention -'ems, one's sit-upons, sine qua non, drawers, pants.
Pregnant – in the family way, in an interesting (delicate) condition.
Toilet – water-closet, retiring room, public comfort station, ladies and gents, loo.
5. In these "familiar quotations": 1) find the antonyms; 2) identify their types:
1.To find the fault is easy; to do better may be difficult (Plutarch).
2.Our greatest glory consists not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall (O. Goldsmith).
3. It takes less time to do thing right than it does to explain why you did it wrong (H.W. Longfellow).
4. No question is so difficult to answer as that to which the answer is obvious (G.B. Shaw).
5. To be seventy years young is sometimes far more cheerful and hopeful than to be forty years old (O.W. Holmes).
6. I divide all readers into two classes: those who read to remember and those who read to forget (E. Phelps).
7. If parents could only realize how they bore their children! (G.B. Shaw).
8. Be nice to people on your way up because you'll meet them on your way down (W. Mizner).
9. In all things it is better to hope than to despair (J.W. Goethe).
10. An angry man opens his mouth and shuts up his eyes (M.P. Cato).
11. Any subject can be made interesting, and therefore any subject can be made boring (H. Belloc).
12. Neither a borrower nor a lender be... (W. Shakespeare).
6. Classify the following words into logical groups on the principle of hyponymy.
animal, asparagus, beet, building, bull, bungalow, cabbage, carrot, cat, cottage, dog, fiction, football, horse, mansion, novel, onion, polo, short story, sport, poem, swimming, tennis, vegetable, villa.