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подготовленности студентов количество часов на прохождение некоторых лексических и соответствующих грамматических тем может быть увеличено за счет выборочного использования разделов пособия. При этом принцип систематичности обучения обеспечивается повторяемостью языкового материала и методических приемов.
Расположение упражнений не подразумевает строгой последовательности их выполнения. Упражнения для закрепления грамматического материала рекомендуется выполнять в письменной форме.
При работе над грамматическими упражнениями рекомендуется использовать практическую грамматику английского языка Т. М. Новицкой и Н. Д. Кучина (М., «Высшая школа», 1979).
Часть лексических упражнений и упражнений на извлечение или изложение информации целесообразнее выполнять устно (например, выбор соответствующего слова, ответы на вопросы как к основному тексту, так и дополнительному, построение микроситуаций, составление предложений из данных слов и др.)-.
Для лучшего усвоения лексики необходимо вести словарь, в который выписываются все новые слова основного текста. При работе над специальной лексикой можно использовать словарь книги для чтения по английскому языку для фармацевтических институтов и факультетов «English in Pharmacy» (составители Т. Н. Ивина, Л. М. Галькевич, И, А. Зенькова. М., «Высшая школа», 1972), тексты которой послужили основой для настоящего издания.Авторы выражают глубокую признательность и благодарность рецензентам: старшим преподавателям кафедры иностранных языков Пятигорского фармацевтического института В. Р. Анисимовой, Л. А. Щербаковой, С. В. Максимовой, сотрудникам кафедры иностранных языков Иркутского медицинского института, а также заведующему кафедрой Каунасского медицинского института доценту В. Мягунасу и старшему преподавателю института Р. Баранаускайте-Мицкене.
АвторыINTRODUCTORY SECTIONTEXT A. PRACTICE OF PHARMACY
Pharmacy is the science which treats of medicinal substances.1 It speaks not only of medicines and the art of compounding and dispensing2 them, but of their combination, analysis and standardization.
The word "pharmacy" is also used to designate the place where medicines3 are compounded, dispensed and sold. The title "pharmacist" is conferred upon a person who demonstrates that he is scientifically and professionally capable of engaging in the practice of pharmacy.4
The compounding of medicines usually requires the scientific combination of two or more ingredients as prescribed by a physician, but dispensing may only require the transfer of manufactured products to a prescription container.5 Both services demand special knowledge, experience, and high professional standrads. To become a pharmacist one should achieve knowledge of different subjects, such as physics, chemistry, botany, etc.
Physics is that science which treats of the phenomena associated with matter in general, especially its relation to energy. It generally treats of the constitution and properties of matter, mechanics, sound and light, heat, optics, electricity and magnetism.
Chemistry is that science which explains the composition of matter and the transformations which it undergoes. It has many divisions such as General Chemistry, dealing with basic principles and inorganic substances, Organic Chemistry, or the chemistry of carbon compounds, Qualitative Analysis, Quantitative Analysis, Physical Chemistry, Biochemistry and many other fields.
Botany is the science that treats of plants with reference to their structure, functions and classification.
Pharmacognozy is the science which embraces the history, source, Cultivation, collection, preparation, distribution, identification, composition, purity and preservation of drugs of vegetable and animal origin.
Pharmacology is broadly defined as the science of drugs.
A Pharmacopoeia is a book containing a list of medicinal substances with description, tests and formulas for preparing the same. The pharmacopoeial names of chemical substances do not always represent their chemical composition.
The official description6 consists usually of physical characteristics, the structure of the drug when sectioned or powdered. The official description usually includes its physical properties such as colour, crystalline and other forms, odour, taste and the result of exposure to air. It is important for the pharmacist to know whether chemicals are stable or whether they lose to attract moisture.7 The reaction to litmus or other indicators is also indicated unless the reaction is an important test of identity or purity. The Pharmacopoeia describes also the proper method of packaging and storing the drug to prevent or retard deterioration.
Notesmedicinal substances — лекарственные веществаdispensing — расфасовкаmedicine — syn. drug— (pi. medicines) —лекарствоpractice of pharmacy — фармацевтическая практика (дело)
prescription container — емкость, предусмотренная рецептомofficial description — фармакопейное (официнальное) описаниеthey lose to attract moisture — они теряют свойства, притягивая влагуExercisesПрочтите и переведите следующие слова, опираясь на знание латинского языка
pharmacy, medicine, drug, compound, dispense, analyse, pharmacist, medicinal, physician, prescribe, prescription, ingredient, manufacture, phenomenon, phenomena, matter, analysis
Найдите в тексте определения следующих терминов:
1. pharmacy; 2. pharmacist; 3. physics; 4. chemistry; 5. botany; 6. pharmacognozy; 7. pharmacology; 8. pharmacopoeiaНайдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов:
способ составления лекарственных веществ; способ расфасовки лекарственных веществ; заниматься фармацевтической практикой; готовые продукты (вещества); высокий профессиональный уровень; знание разных предметов; структура вещества; состав вещества; физические' характеристики; порошок; измельченный в порошокНайдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:
1. What is necessary to compoud medicines? 2. What is necessary to become a pharmacist? 3. What is necessary for the pharmacist to know? 4. What is necessary to prescribe drugs?
Вставьте вместо пропусков определения к существительным, подобрав их из текста А.
1. Both services demand ... knowledge andstandards.
2. General chemistry deals with ... principles and ... substances.
3. Pharmacognozy embraces the history and preservation of drugs of ... origin. 4. The ... names of chemical substances do not always represent their chemical composition. 5. The official description usually includes its ... properties. 6. The reaction to litmus is an ... test of identity or purity.
Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:
1. Medicines are compounded, dispensed and sold in pharmacies. 2. Dispensing may only require the transfer of manufactured products to a prescription container. 3. Chemistry has many divisions such as general chemistry, organic chemistry, the chemistry of carbon compounds, etc. 4. It is important for the pharmacist to know whether the chemicals are stable.
Закончите предложения, используя слова из текста А.
То become a pharmacist .. .->То become a pharmacist one should
achieve knowledge of different subjects.
1. To compound medicines .... 2. To speak of plants and their structure ... .3. To dispense medicines .... 4. To treat of the phenomena associated with matter in general .... 5. To explain the composition of matter and the transformations which it undergoes .... 6. To describe drugs ....Дайте краткие ответы на следующие вопросы:
1. Does pharmacy treat of medicinal substances? 2. Does the pharmacist compound and dispense medicines? 3. Does physics treat of the constitution and properties of matter? 4. Does pharmacopoeia contain a list of medicinal substances? 5. Does the official description include physical properties of the substances? 6. Do chemicals attract moisture?
Переведите предложения на английский язык:
1. Фармация — это наука, которая занимается изучением лекарственных веществ. 2. Аптека — это место, где смешиваются, расфасовываются и продаются лекарства. 3. Составление лекарств требует научного соединения нескольких компонентов. 4. Фармацевт должен иметь знания по различным дисциплинам. 5. Фармакология— это наука о лекарствах. 6. Фармакопейное описание состоит из физической характеристики и структуры лекарства.Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What does pharmacy treat of? 2. What does the word "pharmacy" also designate? 3. Why is it necessary for a pharmacist to achieve knowledge of different subjects? 4. What subjects should a pharmacist know? 5. In what fields of science are the physical properties, structure and distribution of drugs studied? 6. What does the official description consist of? 7. Are you a student of the pharmaceutical department? 8. When did you begin to study pharmacy?
XI. Прочтите текст. Найдите и переведите предложения, в ко¬торых содержатся сведения: а) о новых препаратах; б) о сотруд¬ничестве советских и зарубежных ученых; в) об организациях, за¬нятых разработкой и выпуском препаратов и медтоваров.
TEXT В. SOVIET CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE
The scientific and technical revolution changes the technology, organisation and economy of the production. In many aspects Soviet science holds the leadership in the world. In the first place it refers to medical chemistry.
The achievements of Soviet chemistry have found wide application in medicine. Many interesting studies are made in chemistry on the synthesis of compounds of inorganic substances for medical purposes. Effective medicines, blood substitutes, artificial organs are devel¬oped in numerous laboratories and scientific research centres of our country.
Industrial production of a growth hormone for children who do not grow at the normal rate was started in the Soviet Union at the Kaunas factory of endocrine preparations. New drugs, effective in the treatment of nervous diseases, which have no analogues abroad, were developed at the USSR Research Institute of Medicinal herbs.
One of the latest achievements of Soviet medical chemistry is the preparation "Enkad" for the treatment of eye diseases. The new pre-paration is approved by the Pharmacological Committee of the USSR Ministry of Public Health.
Progress in medical chemistry drew interest from abroad and one of the results is an agreement between the Moscow Helmholtz Institute and French scientists for joint work on problems related to pigmented degeneration of the retina.
Semisynthetic and synthetic antibiotics, hormones and new groups of cardio-vascular drugs considerably reduced the number of dis¬eases.
Chemistry gives us not only new drugs but develops new and effective methods and instruments for diagnosing diseases and their treatment. Plastics, synthetic fibres and materials are introduced into medical practice. Plastics are especially widely used in surgery, den-tistry and other fields. The Semashko Chemical and Pharmaceutical Plant in Moscow manufactures polyethylene ampules, which do not break and are not effected by long storage.
Great success in the field of developing new drugs and medicinal substances became possible thanks to the achievements of Soviet science, increase in the number of scientific research institutions and pharmaceutical plants.
PART I. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
SECTION 1
Grammar: 1. Present Indefinite Active.
2.Present Continuous Active.
3.Придаточные определительные предложения.
TEXT A. WATER
About three quarters of the earth's surface is covered with liquid water. In vapour form, water is also an important constituent of the earth's atmosphere. In combined form, water also occurs abundantly in minerals such as in gypsum. In addition, water occurs in animals and vegetable tissues. It constitutes some 70 per cent of the human body and over 90 per cent of some vegetables.
Naturally occurring waters frequently contain dissolved mineral substances. Thus we have mineral waters in which the total mineral content is significantly above the average, alkaline waters which contain unusual quantities of sodium, calcium, or potassium bicarbon¬ate; carbonated waters which contain carbon dioxide dissolved under conditions of excessive pressure, either natural or artificial; sulfur waters containing large amounts of hydrogen sulfide readily detectable by odour; and siliceous waters containing unusual quan¬tities of silica in soluble form.
Potable water is water which is fit to drink. Since water dissolves a part of nearly everything with which it comes in contact, absolute¬ly pure water does not occur in nature.
The water for drinking and domestic purposes is generally sup¬plied by rivers, lakes, wells, and springs. Such waters commonly contain salts of calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, organic matters from falling leaves and twigs; and traces of carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, ammonia, and other gases from the atmos¬phere. There is also a variety of suspended matter in natural water such as fine particles of clay, sand, microscopic organisms including bacteria, and fragments of vegetation. Waters having appreciable amounts of dissolved salts are always more acceptable for drinking than those free from solids. But good drinking water must be free from toxic salts, disease producing organisms, and from harmful organic and sewage contamination.
Exercises
I. Образуйте от следующих слов производные с помощью изве¬стных вам отрицательных префиксов:
stable, constant, know, observed, desirable, bind, explained, hydrate, colourize, compose, brominate, chlorinate, acetylate, carbonize
PART I. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
SECTION 1
Grammar: 1. Present Indefinite Active.
2.Present Continuous Active.3.Придаточные определительные предложения.
TEXT A. WATER
About three quarters of the earth's surface is covered with liquid water. In vapour form, water is also an important constituent of the earth's atmosphere. In combined form, water also occurs abundantly in minerals such as in gypsum. In addition, water occurs in animals and vegetable tissues. It constitutes some 70 per cent of the human body and over 90 per cent of some vegetables.
Naturally occurring waters frequently contain dissolved mineral substances. Thus we have mineral waters in which the total mineral content is significantly above the average, alkaline waters which contain unusual quantities of sodium, calcium, or potassium bicarbon¬ate; carbonated waters which contain carbon dioxide dissolved under conditions of excessive pressure, either natural or artificial; sulfur waters containing large amounts of hydrogen sulfide readily detectable by odour; and siliceous waters containing unusual quan¬tities of silica in soluble form.
Potable water is water which is fit to drink. Since water dissolves a part of nearly everything with which it comes in contact, absolute¬ly pure water does not occur in nature.
The water for drinking and domestic purposes is generally sup¬plied by rivers, lakes, wells, and springs. Such waters commonly contain salts of calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, organic matters from falling leaves and twigs; and traces of carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, ammonia, and other gases from the atmosphere. There is also a variety of suspended matter in natural water such as fine particles of clay, sand, microscopic organisms including bacteria, and fragments of vegetation. Waters having appreciable amounts of dissolved salts are always more acceptable for drinking than those free from solids. But good drinking water must be free from toxic salts, disease producing organisms, and from harmful organic and sewage cofttamination.
Exercises
I. Образуйте от следующих слов производные с помощью изве¬стных вам отрицательных префиксов:
stable, constant, know, observed, desirable, bind, explained, hydrate, colourize, compose, brominate, chlorinate, acetylate, carbonize
П. Выделите словообразовательные элементы в следующих словах и переведите слова на русский язык:
abundant, commonly, natural, particular, fatty, frequently, watery, significant, silvery, lengthy
III.Поставьте предложения в вопросительную форму:
Water occurs in minerals—>~Does water occur in minerals?
1. We use water for drinking and domestic purposes. 2. Water contains dissolved mineral substances. 3. Water occurs in animal and vegetable tissues. 4. Water constitutes an important part of the earth's atmosphere. 5. Man uses water for countless purposes.
IV.Поставьте предложения в отрицательную форму:
The chemist is determining the constituents of water—>-
The, chemist isn't determining the constituents of water.
1. I am heating hydrogen in the tube. 2. They are studying chem¬istry now. 3. The analyst is still working in the laboratory. 4. They were making experiments from 5 to 8 o'clock in the lab yesterday.
5.They will be studying these elements all day long tomorrow.
6.When I entered the laboratory the students were finishing their work.
V.* Прочтите предложения; поставьте глагол, данный в скоб-ках, в Present Indefinite или в Present Continuous Active:
1. Water (to occur) abundantly in minerals. 2. He (to pour) water into a test-tube now. 3. The students (to take part) in the experiment at present. 4. Water (to be) an important constituent of the earth's atmosphere. 5. Water (to dissolve) a part of nearly every¬thing with which it (to come) into contact. 6. Most animals (to take in) large quantities of water with their food.
VI.Прочтите предложения. Укажите, в каких предложениях имеются глаголы в форме Present Indefinite и Present Continuous Active:
1. We observe how these salts are dissolving in water. 2. Water has appreciable amounts of dissolved salts. 3. He was making an experiment from 2 till 3. 4. We shall use all the constituents in our experiment. 5. He calculated the amounts of substances .contained in water. 6. We made many important observations last year. 7. The analyst is determining the properties of the ore now.
VII.Объедините следующие пары простых предложений в одно сложноподчиненное при помощи союзов that, which, who.
There are mineral waters Mineral waters have the total mineral content significantly greater than the average.—>-There are mineral waters which have the total mineral content significantly greater than the average.
1. Phosphate is an important major constituent of raw materials. The determination of phosphate is also of particular interest. 2. We watched the reaction. It was taking place in a test-tube. 3. D. I. Men- deleyev was a great scientist. He arranged elements according to a definite system. 4. Water for washing contains some substances. The substances react with soap.
VIII.Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык.' Укажите слова-заместители существительных.1. Waters having appreciable amounts of dissolved salts are always more acceptable for drinking than those free from solids. 2. This substance reacts 100 times as fast as the other one. 3. We found new ways of synthesis, the older ones being unsatisfactory. 4. The potentials of carbon and nitrogen increase over that of boron.
IX.Закончите предложения, используя следующие слова:
for drinking, free from toxic salts, acceptable, average, salts, cal¬cium, microscopic organisms, fine particles, natural waters, pure, magnesium, potassium, bicarbonate, clay, sand, sodium
1. have mineral waters in which the total mineral content is significantly above the .... 2. Alkaline waters contain unusual quan¬tities of... . 3. The water for drinking and domestic purposes com¬monly contains... .4. There is also a variety of suspended matter in .... 5. Waters having appreciable amounts of dissolved salts are more .... 6. Good drinking water must be ... .
X.Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
важная составная часть земной атмосферы; растворенные мине-ральные вещества; общее содержание минералов; необычные ко-личества натрия; при большом давлении; содержащие большое количество сероводорода; определяемые по запаху; питьевая вода; пригодная для питья; не имеющая болезнетворных организмов
XI.Переведите на русский язык:
a smiling student, a reading girl, making an experiment, sitting in the armchair, making a translation, while reading, the student going to the laboratory, the element occurring in nature
XII.Переведите предложения на английский язык:
1. Вода очень распространена в природе. 2. Вода встречается в природе в виде жидкой воды и пара. 3. Три четверти земной по-верхности покрыты жидкой водой. 4. Растения и животные содер¬жат большое количество воды. 5. Вода составляет около 70 % веса тела человека. 6. Вода содержит растворимые минеральные веще¬ства. 7. Воду для питья обычно используют из рек, озер, колодцев, родников.
И
XI. Прочтите текст. Найдите и переведите предложения, в ко¬торых содержатся сведения: а) о новых препаратах; б) о сотруд¬ничестве советских и зарубежных ученых; в) об организациях, за¬нятых разработкой и выпуском препаратов и медтоваров.
TEXT В. SOVIET CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE
The scientific and technical revolution changes the technology, organisation and economy of the production. In many aspects Soviet science holds the leadership in the world. In the first place it refers to medical chemistry.
The achievements of Soviet chemistry have found wide application in mcdicine. Many interesting studies are made in chemistry on the synthesis of compounds of inorganic substances for medical purposes. Effective medicines, blood substitutes, artificial organs are devel¬oped in numerous laboratories and scientific research centres of our country.
Industrial production of a growth hormone for children who do not grow at the normal rate was started in the Soviet Union at the Kaunas factory of endocrine preparations. New drugs, effective in the treatment of nervous diseases, which have no analogues abroad, were developed at the USSR Research Institute of Medicinal herbs.
One of the latest achievements of Soviet medical chemistry is the preparation "Enkad" for the treatment of eye diseases. The new pre-paration is approved by the Pharmacological Committee of the USSR Ministry of Public Health.
Progress in medical chemistry drew interest from abroad and one of the results is an agreement between the Moscow Helmholtz Institute and French scientists for joint work on problems related to pigmented degeneration of the retina.
Semisynthetic and synthetic antibiotics, hormones and new groups of cardio-vascular drugs considerably reduced the number of dis¬eases.
Chemistry gives us not only new drugs but develops new and effective methods and instruments for diagnosing diseases and their treatment. Plastics, synthetic fibres and materials are introduced into medical practice. Plastics are especially widely used in surgery, den¬tistry and other fields. The Semashko Chemical and Pharmaceutical Plant in Moscow manufactures polyethylene ampules, which do not break and are not effected by long storage.
Great success in the field of developing new drugs and medicinal substances became possible thanks to the achievements of Soviet science, increase in the number of scientific research institutions and 1 pharmaceutical plants.

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