Test 2 “Modal Verbs”
I. Study the rules.
General Characteristics of Modal Verbs
Modal meanings are concerned with the attitude of the speaker to the hearer or to what is being said. Modality can be expressed in two ways:
a) With mood forms (категорія способу) of the verb the speaker shows that the action is real, intended or imaginary.
b) With modal verbs the speaker shows that the action is obligatory, possible, probable, necessary, sensible, and so on.
The verbs can, could, may, might, must, will, would, shall, should and ought are modal verbs. The verbs need, dare and used to are semi-modal or marginal verbs, which means that they share only some of the grammatical characteristics of modals. The phrases to be able to, to be allowed to, to have to, to be to, to be supposed to are phrasal modals, which are equivalents of modal verbs.
1. Semantic functions of modals
Modals do not express any action or state. They only indicate that the action expressed by the infinitive which follows them is considered by the speaker to be possible, necessary, doubtful, desirable, etc.
2. Grammatical characteristics
Modal verbs are followed by a bare infinitive, except for “ought to”.
You may come tonight. You ought to get a job.
The negative and the interrogative are formed without the help of auxiliaries.
Can I say something? I couldn’t understand him.
Modal verbs do not take a suffix (-s, -ing or -ed).
He can stay here.
Modal verbs do not have analytical forms (built by means of auxiliary verbs). Instead, the equivalents of modal verbs are used.
I have never had to make coffee for my boss. (pr. perfect)
Modal verbs can’t be used as infinitives, gerunds or participles. Instead, the equivalents of modal verbs are used.
I hate having to get up so early every day. (gerund).
We don’t seem to be able to find the book you need. (infinitive) Not being able to go home by bus, I took a taxi. (participle I)
Modals usually refer to the present or the future. Could, might, would and should are past in form, but do not actually refer to the past in most of their meanings. Could you help me? (polite form) Could he be so silly? (doubt)
There are only a few cases when modals have past reference:
He could ski well when he was young. (ability in the past);
When we were young we would go out together. (past habit);
3. Syntactic functions of modals.
A modal verb in combination with the infinitive which follows it forms a compound modal predicate. (складений дієслівний присудок)
You should read books. (A compound modal predicate)
Forms of the Infinitive
The infinitive of transitive verbs has 4 active forms and 2 passive ones.
Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
Active to do to be doing to have done to have been doing
Passive to be done ________ to have been done ________
The infinitive of intransitive verbs has only active forms.
Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
Active to work to be working to have worked to have been working
Modals have primary and secondary functions. For example, the primary function of ‘must’ is to express obligation and the secondary – logical assumption.
We must be very careful. (Ми мусимо бути дуже обережними.)
Jane must be very careless. (Джейн, напевно, дуже неуважна.)In the primary function modals are usually followed by indefinite infinitives.
He can’t leave yet. (не може) The report must be finished by tomorrow. (має)
In the secondary function modals can be followed by all forms of the infinitive. Modals in such sentences refer to the present while the infinitive indicates the time reference of the action. So, depending on the context, “You might have been sleeping” can mean:
I suppose (now) you were sleeping (at a moment in the past).
I suppose (now) you have been sleeping (for a period of time before the moment in the present).
I suppose (now) that you had been sleeping (for a period of time before the moment in the past).
UNIT I: ‘WILL’, ‘WOULD’, ‘SHALL’, ‘SHOULD’, ‘OUGHT’WILL/WOULD
In most cases ‘Will’ and ‘Would’ are the forms of the same verb. The basic meaning is willingness. The form ‘would’ is used
a) to indicate the past reference:
He won’t talk to me. (present) He wouldn’t talk to me. (past)
b) as a more polite form:
Will you help me? (direct) Would you help me? (more polite)
c) to indicate unreality:
In your place I would give up smoking.
Using ‘Will’ and ‘Would’ we may refer not only to the future actions, but also to the present and past ones.
Referring to future actions we can express the following meanings:
pure future (in the situations which we cannot control): Jill will be two years old next month. She said Jill would be two next month.
prediction: I think he’ll win the game. He will probably come later.
promise and intention: I will help you. Dr Weir will see you now.
determination: I’m going to get out of this hole; I `will make money.
order: You will do exactly as I say. Stop shouting, will you?
request and refusal: Will/Would you help me?– No, I won’t.
Watch out! Use the present or future continuous forms to refer to arranged actions and to avoid expressing modal meanings. Compare:
a) I will leave tomorrow. (promise or on-the-spot decision)
I am/ I will be leaving tomorrow. (future arranged action)
b) Will you come tomorrow? (приходь) Are you coming tonight? (ти йдеш?)
c) I won’t come to your party. (не хочу) I’m afraid I can’t come. (не можу)
Referring to present or past actions we can express the following meanings:
persistence in not doing something on a particular occasion (only in the third person): The car won’t start (now). It wouldn’t start yesterday either. (Машина ніяк не хоче/ не хотіла заводитись).
habits/ characteristic behaviour:
I’ve told him a hundred times but he `will smoke in bed. (… він постійно палить в ліжку) Whenever I had to go to town, Ron would give me a lift. (... Рон зазвичай підвозив мене).
Watch out! ‘Would’ and ‘used to’ can be used for actions that happened in the past and don’t happen now. We would/ used to visit him every weekend. ‘Would’ is not used for past states that have changed: He used to be our neighbour. ( He would be our neighbour)
Ring his home number. He’ll be at home now. He’ll be expecting a call from you. He’ll have finished his report. (Подзвони йому додому. Він напевно буде вдома зараз. Він напевно очікує твого дзвінка. Він напевно вже закінчив доповідь.)
Watch out! We normally use ‘will’ for assumption, not ‘would’. ‘Would’ is sometimes used with the second person for politeness: Who are you talking about? - You wouldn’t know him. (Ви його, напевно, не знаєте.)
SHOULD/ OUGHT TO
There is no difference in meaning between ‘should’ and ‘ought to’, although ‘should’ is perhaps a little more common, and ‘ought to’ –a little more emphatic. They have the following meanings:
Escapable obligation, advice or criticism(= It’s reasonable)
You ought to be more careful. = Тобі слід бути обережнішою.
You shouldn’t have been so careless. =. Не слід було вести себе так необачно
Assumption The plane should/ ought to be landing now. = Напевно, літак вже йде на посадку. Everything should be OK. = Все має бути добре.
Watch out! ‘Should’ is not used for assumptions which displease the speaker: Let’s go shopping now. The shops should be fairly empty.
But: Let’s not go shopping now. The shops will be crowded.
This use is restricted to certain structures.
rhetorical questions beginning with ‘why: Why should he think that I did it.
dramatic expressions of surprise beginning with ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘who’: What should I find but an enormous spider!
subject and object clauses after expression of surprise, annoyance, pleasure and so on: It is strange that he should think so. It’s amazing that she should have said nothing about the murder.
W O U L D S H O U L D
As an auxiliary verb it’s used:
a) for future-in-the-past tenses:
He said he would be in town later.
b) for the conditional mood: If his car weren’t broken, he would give me a lift.
c) _________ a) for future-in-the-past tenses:
I said I should in town later.
b) for the conditional mood: If he gave me a lift, I should go to town.
c) for the suppositional mood: Не suggested that we should meet later.
As a modal verb it may be used in the following patterns:
a) In type 1&2 conditionals it’s used to express a request or willingness: If you would wait a bit, I would give you a lift.
b) In wish-sentences to express a wish for a future change unlikely to happen: I wish you wouldn’t smoke in the room.
c) In set-phrases “would like”, “would rather” to talk about wants and preferences: I would rather have a walk. I would like to have stayed there. a) In adv. cl. of condition, concession and purpose for a problematic condition: If Ann should come I’ll be surprised. Stay here in case Ann should come.
b) In subject/object sub. clauses and in special questions for emotional colouring: It is strange that he should think so. Why should he think so? Who should come in but his father!
As a modal verb it has the following meanings:
a) prediction, promise, intention, refusal in reported speech: He said he wouldn’t help me.
b) request: Would you help me?
c) persistence in the past: He wouldn’t give me a lift.(ніяк не хотів підвезти)
d) habits in the past: He would drive to town every Monday.(зазвичай їздив) a) escapable obligation: There should be a ‘No smoking’ sign here.(повинен бути)
b) advice and criticism: You shouldn’t have been so careless.
c) assumption: The petrol station should be somewhere near here. (напевно десь є)
Ex 1 State the meaning of ‘should’ and ‘would’ in the following sentences:
Would you mind opening the door?
We asked him again and again but he wouldn’t say a word.
The city streets should be cleaned more often.
They should have given you your money back.
We wanted him to lend us some money but he wouldn't give us any.
The old admiral would sit for hours watching the ships.
Would you be so good as to keep an eye on my house while I am away?
He insisted that the newspaper should print an apology
I should say nothing about it if I were you.
That dress doesn't suit you; you should buy another.
They went to the cinema at 2.30, so they should be back by 6.00.
I wish he would not play his radio so loudly.
I would rather stay in this evening, if that's all right with you.
It was decided that the matter should be referred to a special committee.
If the telephone should ring, please say that I’ll be back at six.
There are too many accidents. It’s amazing that people should be so careless.
Their method was always the same; they would wait till their victim had left the bank and then go up to him and ask for a light.
He didn't dare (to) sell the ring in case someone should ask where he got it.
I should stay in bedif I were you.
What should I do? Should I trust him?
Ex 2 Fill in ‘should’ and ‘would’ in the following sentences:
I've just received an anonymous threatening letter. What ………….. I do about it? – I ……………….... take it to the police if I were you.
I suggested that Tom ………….… walk on and try to get help while I stayed with the injured man but he …………….... not hear of this.
When he found out that the man had smallpox he urged that every effort …………………….. be made to contact his fellow passengers.
I am amazed that you ………………… even suggest offering bribes.
……….. you mind not smoking; this is the petrol store. - Then there …………… be a 'No Smoking' notice.
The bridge is wide enough. We ……………….……………. pass here easily.
The bridge was wide enough for our car but the policeman ……. not let us pass.
Old people ………………..… not queue like that to get the necessary papers.
In those times we ……………..... queue for hours to buy some bread or sugar.
If Pierre liked any dish he ……... send for chef and congratulate him, and if anything was wrong he ……….. send for the manager and complain. – An Englishman ………….. never dare to do that; he ……………... be too shy.
Formerly ‘will’ was kept for intention (I will wait for you = I intend to wait for you.) and ‘shall’ was used in the 1st person when there was no intention (I shall be 25 next week.) ‘Shall’ in the 1st person is still found in formal English, but is no longer common in conversation. Instead we normally use ‘will’: I will be 25 next week.
1) Pure future (1st person, formal):
We shall be away next week.
2) Promise (2nd & 3rd p.): He shall be sorry.
3) Determination: We shall overcome some day
4) Offers & suggestions (questions): Shall I help you? Shall we listen to music?
5) Asking for instructions:
Shall I read or translate?What shall I do with it?
6) Order, law in official documents:
All payments shall be made in cash.
1) Pure future (all persons): We will know the result next Friday.
2) Promise (1st p.): I will be there.
3) Determination: We will fight.
4) Requests and invitations (questions)
Will you help me?
5) Refusal (1st p.); persistence (3rd p):
I won’t accept your offer. She won’t even listen about it.
6) Order: Stop talking, will you?
7) Present habits: He `will smoke.
8) Prediction (future); assumption (about present or past actions)
He will probably come by train. This will be his train. (Це, напевно, його поїзд.)
UNIT II: MODAL VERBS OF NECESSITY
(‘Must’, ‘Have to’, ‘Be to’, Need’, ‘Should’/ ‘Ought to’)
The primary meaning is inescapable obligation. ‘Must’ is used for the present, near future and in the reported speech: You must finish it today. You must come tomorrow. He said you must come on time.
Obligation/ necessity/duty: I’ve got terrible toothache. I must see the dentist.
Prohibition: You mustn’t park here. (it’s against the law)
Strong advice: You must read his new book. It’s great.
Emphatic invitations: You must come round and see us some day.(повинен)
Logical assumption: They must be the boy’s grandparents. (Напевно)
A negative form is not used for this meaning. ‘Can’t’ or ‘couldn’t’ are used instead: They can’t be the boy’s parents.( Не може бути, щоб вони були…)
“MUST “is rarely used for future probable actions.
Present: He must be at home now.
Past: He must have been at home yesterday.
Future: He should be/is bound to be/will probably be at home tomorrow.
Using ‘have to’ suggests that someone else or some outside circumstances make something necessary. I have to see the head teacher. (… she has called me to her office.) The negative and interrogative are formed with the auxiliary verb ‘do/ did’. I don’t have to cook; my mother does it for me. (NOT I haven’t to cook)I had (didn’t have) to take an interview before I got the job.(past simple)
You will have to take an interview before you get the job.(future simple)
You would have to take an interview if you applied.(conditional mood)
I have never had to take an interview to get a job. (present perfect)
You seem to have to do all the typing at the office. (infinitive)
Ex 2 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of ‘have to’.
You ……...… (not) have a visa, if you are from the European Union.
He …………. take the dog out to do his business three times a day.
From now onwards, you … see to the household chores, as I’ll be out working
Take your time. You ……………. (not) give us an answer right now.
I’m really nervous as I …………. never …….... take an exam before.
I wish I ……………… (not) to take a trolley-bus to get to university.
There were many mistakes so I ……… write the essay all over again.
If you quitted, they ……. employ another person in next to no time.
My father's a customs official so he always ………. wear a uniform at work, but my mother's a teacher so she ………………... wear one.
When I was a teenager, we …………….. be home by nine o'clock. But we ……………..… take as many exams as teenagers nowadays.
…… your grandmother ………leave school when she was fourteen?
I can’t see the small print very well. I think I …… wear glasses soon.
I wish I ………………………. (not) take so many exams.
If I had failed my exam, I …………….… take it again in two weeks.
MUST or HAVE TO
The speaker’s authority: You must come home at nine o’clock. = As I am your mother, I want you to come home at nine o’clock.
External authority: I have to wear a chef’s hat in the restaurant. = I do not want to wear a chef’s hat, but I always do, because it is obligatory in the restaurant I work for.
(speaker’s authority) HAVE (GOT) TO
The speaker orders: You must be in time The speaker obeys: I have to be in time.
The speaker imposes the obligation on himself: I must get a ‘five’ in my exam. Obligation is imposed by the circumstances:
I have to take one more exam.
An urgent action: I must see a doctor. Usual routine: I have to see him once a month
Written formal notices:
Staff must wear uniforms. You comment on someone’s obligation: They have to wear uniforms, don’t they?
Do you insist on it? = Must I do it? Is it necessary? = Do I have to do it?
Prohibition: You mustn’t do it. Absence of necessity: You don’t have to do it
Assumption (BrE): You must be joking. Assumption (AmE.): You’ve got to be kidding
3169920973455I … sit in this room for three hours!
00I … sit in this room for three hours!
Candidates … answer four questions. The exam lasts three hours.
Candidates … answer four questions. The exam lasts three hours.
12268201577975Bye! I … be home by 11.00
00Bye! I … be home by 11.00
1226820862330You … be home by 11.00
00You … be home by 11.00
Ex 3 Fill the spaces with ‘must’ or ‘have to’ and explain your choice.
Ex 3 Fill the spaces with ‘must’ or ‘have to’ and explain your choice.
Ex 4Rephrase the following sentences using ‘must’ or ‘have (got) to’:
I strongly advise you to speak to your parents about your decision.
It isn't necessary for Emma to attend tomorrow's staff meeting.
I’m obliged to wear a suit and a tie at work because the manager says so.
I'm sure Antonio is from Milan.
It's necessary for me to find a job soon.
It's forbidden to use mobile phones inside the hospital.
A boss to a secretary: You are obliged to work overtime today.
Susan is obliged to work overtime because her boss says so.
Susan has been obliged to work overtime every Friday this month.
Susan wishes she wasn’t obliged to work overtime.
NEED (A semi-modal verb)
Modal verb Ordinary/ regular verb
Takes a bare infinitive
You needn’t come tomorrow.
You needn’t have come yesterday. Takes a full infinitive, a gerund or a noun. I need to work. I need some money.
Auxiliary verbs are not used.
Need I come? You needn’t come. Auxiliaries are necessary. Do you need to come? I don’t need to come.
Only questions or negative sent-s. Need I come? You needn’t come. All types of sentences:
I need to leave now.
1. To give permission not to do smth we say:
You needn’t cut the grass. You don’t need to cut the grass.
2. To say that one action is not necessary for the speaker:
I needn’t type these letters today. I don’t need to type the letters today
3. To talk about general necessity we say:
––––––– You need to be over 18 to get married. You don’t need to be over 18 to get into a disco.
4. If the action was fulfilled but it wasn’t necessary we say:
You needn’t have come. = Даремно ти прийшов/ приходив. –––––––––
5. If the action wasn’t fulfilled because it wasn’t necessary we say:
––––––– I didn’t need/ have to come. = Мені не довелося приходити.
TO BE TO
Formal or official arrangements: The Prime Minister has announced that there is to be an election on May. I was on holiday in Greece when I heard there was to be an election back home.
Arranged actions that failed to happen. (To be to + perfect infinitive): I was to have helped with the performance, but I got flu the day before. (I didn’t do it.)
I needn’t have done it = I did it and then realized that it wasn’t necessary.
I was to have done it = I didn’t do it but it was necessary/ arranged.
Orders: You are to stay here until I return. All staff are to wear uniforms.
Asking about what someone should do: What am I to tell her?
Formal instructions: This medicine is to be taken after meals.
Talking about a time in the past to say what happened later (that was destined to happen and did actually happen = “Этому суждено было случиться”): She was to become his wife. = Їй судилося стати його дружиною.
Circumstantial ability (often with the passive form of the infinitive) = used to say that something can be seen, found, or heard somewhere: He was often to be seen in pubs. The ring was nowhere to be found (=could not be found).
In Type 2 conditionals to talk about an imagined situation: If I were to see her again I wouldn’t recognize her. (Якби мені довелося її побачити …)
In Type I conditionals to introduce an aim when you are saying what must be done in order to achieve it: If humans are to survive as a species, we must address environmental issues now. (Якщо людство розраховує вижити як вид, ми мусимо звернутись до проблем навколишнього середовища зараз.)
Ex 5 Choose the more appropriate alternative to complete the sentences.
The meeting was to have taken place in the hall,
a)but had to be cancelled. b) and was well attended.
She was to have appeared with Elvis Presley in his last film a)and was a tremendous success. b) but the part went to her sister.
Later, in Rome, I was to meet Professor Pearce.
a)but she left before I got there. b) and was very impressed by her ideas.
The twenty police officers who were to have gone off duty at 8 a)went to the Christmas party. b) had to remain in the police station.
After the war he was to teach at London University.a)but no money was available to employ him. b)for 10 years.
Ex 6 Say it in English using ‘should’, ‘need’ or ‘was’ + perfect infinitive.
Даремно ти прийшов так рано. Спортзал ще зачинено.
Не слід було дзвонити так рано. Вони зазвичай встають пізно.
Він мав прийти до спортзалу, але проспав.
Мені слід було йому подзвонити.
Мені дуже приємно, але нащо ж ви купили такі дорогі квіти.
Він мав купити квіти, але замість цього купив цукерки.
Не слід було купувати їй квіти. У неї на них алергія. (be allergic to)
Ex 7 Put an appropriate verb of obligation or willingness in its correct form into each gap. The verbs are ‘must’, ‘have to’, ‘need’, ‘be to’, ‘should’/ ‘ought to’, ‘would’, ‘shall’ and ‘will’. Identify their meanings.
80772005715000I really think you ..................................................... get your hair cut.
What’s wrong with this stove? It ………………………… (not) light.
The performance was a success. I .…… (not/ worry).
I’m really tired. I wish I ………………..… (not) study on Saturdays.
My wife got ill in the middle of the night and I ……… call the doctor.
It's my mother's birthday next week. I ……… remember to buy her a present.
No one likes …………………….… work at week-ends.
We … have met near the theatre but when I came there was nobody there.
You … come with me if you don't want to. I don't mind going on my own
I have a really bad memory for phone numbers. I … look them up in the book.
The museum is free. You ……………………………… pay to get in.
Shall I make the final choice right now? – No, you …………………
The waiter had to change the plates several times, …………..… he?
We agreed that that the next discussion ……… be held in November.
Why ………………………………….… I feel guilty about it?
Her children used to ask her to tell them about Africa, but she … refuse to.
It’s the first time I’m taking an interview. I … (never/take) it before.
He … have notified the police of the burglary. (It was silly of him not to do it)
According to our Constitution, the government … take care of children.
Do exercise 12 on page 40. – ………… we do it orally or in writing?
You ……….… not have crossed the street when the red light was on.
Don’t worry. You really worked hard. You … pass your exam easily.
He was a smart boy. I ……….… (not) explain anything to him twice.
……………………………………… you mind not smoking in here?
Ex 8 Express the same idea using modal verbs of necessity and willingness.
It’s not obligatory for her to come if she doesn’t feel like that.
A written note: All competitors are obliged to arrive by 10:00 a.m.
I’m in a hurry. What if I ask you to give me a lift?
He dropped from university. That was a wrong decision.
It is forbidden to remove this book from the library.
It isn't necessary for students to pay for another try to pass their exams.
I strongly advise you to watch that film. It’s wonderful, take my word.
It wasn't necessary to make reservations at the restaurant, but they did.
My car was still being repaired and he refused to let me borrow his car.
I hate to make the trip this time of year, but it’s really important for me.
Mum, is it really necessary for me to go to school today? It’s so cold outside.
Is it necessary for us to stay for the whole show?
It’s awful that people throw litter on the beach. It looks and smells horrible.
I insist that you should stay in bed for a few days until you feel better.
We left too early. It wasn’t necessary for us to leave at 10 o'clock last night as the bus didn’t come until it was 12 o’clock anyway.
We've been staying in a hotel for the last two weeks so there has been no necessity to cook our own meals. (Pr. Perfect)
Fortunately, it wasn’t necessary for Tom to walk home from school on his own yesterday. Mrs. Brown gave him a lift.
I strongly advise you to go to that new French restaurant in town. It's the best restaurant I've ever been.
You were supposed to be working when I came into the room, not talking.
What do you want me to get for dinner?
Ex 9 Say it in English using modal verbs of necessity and willingness.
Ти можеш не турбуватись про мене. Я про все домовився. Жодних проблем не повинно з’явитись.
Даремно я намагалась йому все пояснити. Він ніколи мене не слухає.
Коли вони жили тут , вони часто сварились через гроші. (row about)
Ти не повинен здаватись. Спробуй ще раз.
Чи треба тобі повторювати весь експеримент з самого початку?
Тобі не треба було говорити з нею таким тоном, вона образилась.
Нам не довелося довго чекати, він з'явився хвилин через десять.
Ви обов'язково повинні зайти до нас на чашку чаю.
Поговори з нею з нею ще раз, будь ласка.
Я мушу взяти відпустку хоча б на тиждень. Я дуже стомився.
Ex 10 Translate the following quotations into Ukrainian. Note the use of modals.
1. I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work. (Th. A. Edison) 2. I always wanted to be somebody, but I should have been more specific. (J. Wagner) 3. Fashion is a form of ugliness so intolerable that we have to alter it every six months. (O. Wilde) 4. Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools, because they have to say something. (Plato) 5. To live a creative life, we must lose our fear of being wrong. (J. Pearce)
UNIT III: Modals Used for Speculations and Assumptions
prediction Logical assumption: Possibility(supposition):
modals will/ should must/ can’t may/ might/could
certainty 90 - 95 % 80 - 90% 40 - 60%
similar meaning I assume.
I’m quite sure I’m sure, probably maybe, perhaps,
It’s likely/ unlikely
Ukrainian Russian equivalents має, напевно, скорее всего
(все має бути гаразд) напевно,
не може бути, должно быть,
не может быть можливо, малоймовірно, возможно, вероятно
Future Everything will / should be OK. ‘must’ is rarely used He may/ might/ could come soon.
Present It’s 8. He will be at home now. He should be waiting for us. He must be sleeping because it’s dark in the room. He may/ might/ could be sleeping.
Past He will have paid by now. ‘Should’ is rarely used. His car is in the garage so he must have come home. He might have come home by now. I’m not sure
Negative You won’t know him. It shouldn’t be difficult. It’s late He can’t/ couldn’t be still in his office. He may/ might not have finished his report yet.
Questions Where will he be now? Do you think he should pass his exam? _____
Could he be so silly? Is he likely to come? ‘Might’ is rarely used. ‘May’ is not used.
Assumptions: will/ should/ must/ can’t/ couldn’t
Ex. 1 Fill in the gaps with ‘will’, ‘won't’, ‘must’, ‘can't’, or ‘should’, and an appropriate infinitive to express assumptions.
OK. Don't worry about the phone. I'll answer it. It............. (be) David ringing me about tonight's meeting. Hello. 37885.
Hello John. It's David. I tried ringing you earlier, but I got no reply. You .................... (be) out.
I haven't been out all morning. You …. (get) the right number. Never mind. What about the meeting? How many people can we expect?
There ……... (be) quite a few judging by the number of enquiries we've been having. One thing's worrying me. I haven't heard from the speaker, Joan Bakewell. I'm sure she ....................... (forget), but it isn't like her not to get in touch. Shall I give her a ring?
Not now, no. She …………. (teach). You'd better wait an hour or so.
I've bought twenty bottles of wine for the party afterwards. That........................ (be) enough, don't you think?
Yes, plenty. I'll see you later, then. Bye.
Ex. 2 Use ‘should’ to criticize and ‘must’ to make a logical assumption. E.g.: He shouldn’t have driven so fast. (не слід було) He must have been in a hurry.(напевно)
1. Harry arrived ten minutes late for his driving test.
2. He shook his fist at a traffic warden. 3. He drove through a red traffic light.
4. He asked silly questions. 5. He went the wrong way up a one-way street.
6. He parked on double yellow lines. 7. He tried to bribe the examiner.
Possibility: could, may, might
We can use ‘may’, ‘might’ or ‘could’ to say that something is possible now or later: Your bag may/ might/ could be in the car. (not It can be in the car.) We use ‘may’, ‘might’ or ‘could’ plus the perfect infinitive to say it is possible that something happened before now. I may/might/ could have lost my key.
In the negative, we can say: It may not/ might not happen. (It couldn't happen) = Можливо цього не трапиться. ‘Couldn’t’ is used to express logical assumption. It couldn’t have happened. = Навряд чи, щоб це трапилось. The interrogative is normally expressed by ‘Could?’: Peter is late. Could he be stuck in traffic? (not Can/may he be stuck in traffic?)
The form of the infinitive depends on the time reference of the action which it expresses. Study the examples:
present infinitive Perhaps she is a nurse.
It's possible he’ll come soon She may be a nurse.He might come soon.
present continuous infinitive Perhaps they’re having a break.It's likely we will be moving house soon. They could be having a break. We may be moving house soon.
perfect infinitive It's possible he left later.Perhaps she has not locked the door.
It's likely he had gone out. He could have left later. She might not have locked the door. He may have gone out.
perfect continuous infinitive Maybe they were sleeping Perhaps it has been raining. They might have been sleeping. It could have been raining
Ex.3Complete the sentences using could/ may/ might:
E.g.: Maybe they are at work. – They may/might/could be at work.
Maybe they are not at work. – They may/might not be at work.
1. Maybe they're right. 2. Maybe it's just a big misunderstanding. 3. Perhaps he is waiting outside. 4. Perhaps he doesn’t know about the meeting. 5. Maybe she will work late tonight. 6. It's likely he was driving too fast. 7. It's possible they made a mistake. 8. Perhaps he hasn’t caught the bus. 9. It's possible she has been playing in the snow. 10. It's likely we will be leaving tomorrow. 11. Maybe he will stay there. 12. Perhaps she had been trying to call you. 13. It's likely they had seen the film already. 14. Maybe this wasn't such a good idea. 15. It's possible he is studying in the library.
Ex 4 Fill in the gaps with ‘may’, ‘might’ or ‘could’
I wonder why Alan didn't buy me anything for my birthday. I suppose he …………. (forget). Or he …………. (think) that now as I'm getting on, I don't like to be reminded of my advancing years. On the other hand, he ……….. (not forget)! He ……… (give) me a present this evening when I see him. Oh no! He ………….. (plan) a surprise party, as he did last year. What a disaster that was! I hope he isn't doing it again!
Ex 5 Use the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets with an appropriate modal verb: must, can’t, may, might, could, need, should, and was.
You …………… (warn) him that the ice was dangerous, (but you didn't)
You ………………….................… (not/ buy) bread. (It was not necessary).
To someone who wasn’t at the party: We had a wonderful time; you (be) there
(It is possible) Shakespeare …...... (write) it. – Shakespeare ......… (not/ write) it because events are mentioned that didn't occur till after Shakespeare's time.
I can't think why they didn't try to help him. – (It is possible) They …………. (not realize) that he was drowning.
I found this baby bird at the foot of a tree. It ………......… (fall) from a nest.
You …............ (leave) a note. (It was very inconsiderate of you not to do so.)
The lecturer was a tall thin man with white hair. — Then it ……. (not be) Dr Fell because he is short and fat. It ……........... (be) Dr Jones; I think he is thin.
You ...….. (not go) out yesterday without a coat. No wonder you caught cold.
You ….. (not/ send) a telegram. (It wasn’t necessary); a letter would’ve done.
They …………… (be) married next week but now they have quarreled and the wedding has been cancelled.
People were waiting but the bus didn't stop. ~ (It is possible) It ….... (be) full.
Look, there's a tree right across the road! - So there is. It ………. (be) blown down by the gale last night.
This building ……………… (be) finished by the end of last year (this was the plan), but there have been so many strikes that it isn't finished yet.
You ……………. (cross) the road by the subway. (But you didn't.)
I suppose it was Charles who left the kitchen in such a mess. ~ No, it …….. (not be) Charles. He never has a meal in. It …………….. (be) Bill.
I know she was in because I heard her radio, but she didn't open the door. ~ (Possibly) She ……………….. (not hear) the bell.
He……… (check) that his brakes were working properly. (but he didn't)
The primary meaning is ability. We use ‘can’ when we talk about general ability and ‘could’ for general ability in the past. Can you play chess? Their son could swim before he could walk. The equivalent – to be able to – is used for:
analytical forms:I haven’t been able to sleep lately. You’ll be able to relax.
non-finite [non`fainait] forms of the verb:
infinitive: He must be able to cook well.
gerund: Being able to drive is important for this job.
a specific achievement in the past (Someone managed to do smth): I’m proud I was able to enter the University.= Я змогла вступити...
For one successful action we use could
with the verbs of the senses: see, hear, feel, smell, taste: I could see the storm coming. = Я змогла побачити наближення шторму.
with the verbs of mental perception: understand, remember, guess: I could understand his words. = Я змогла зрозуміти його слова.
in negative sentences: We couldn't fix it. = Ми не змогли його полагодити.
in questions: Could you fix the computer yourself?
in sentences with limiting adverbs such as ‘only’ or ‘hardly’: She was so exhausted she could hardly speak.
Watch out! Don’t use ‘could’ to talk about one successful action.
A permanent situation: I only lived a mile from the office and could drive to work in half an hour. = Я міг доїхати/доїжджав до роботи за пів години.
One successful action: Despite the snowfalls, we were able to drive home in less than an hour yesterday. = Не зважаючи на снігопад ми змогли доїхати до роботи менше ніж за годину вчора.= managed to drive
(Only indefinite forms of the infinitive are used)
1. Physical & Mental Ability: He can walk. He could speak when he was two.
2. Opportunity: I’m a student and I can attend classes. I’m glad I could attend his lectures when I was a student.
3. Theoretical possibility. ‘Can’ is used for the present and ‘could’ for the past to say what sometimes happens or happened. Meeting new people can often be good fun. He could be very naughty when he was a child.
(Different forms of the infinitive can be used.)
1. Unreal Ability/ Opportunity & Reproach (the Conditional Mood):
You could have won (міг би) that competition if you had practiced more.
(could have won = you had the opportunity but didn’t use it)
You could have told me! = Ти міг би мені сказати! (reproach)
2. Possibility (only could in affirmative sentences and questions): Where could he be now? – He could be at the club or at the football match. I don’t think he could have stayed at home. = Де він може зараз бути? – Він може бути в клубі, або на футбольному матчі. Я не думаю, що він міг залишитись вдома.
Watch out! Don’t confuse two meanings of ‘could do/ have done’.
1) unreal ability/ opportunity: You were driving too fast. You could have crashed the car. Fortunately, you didn’t. = Ти міг би розбитись. (I know the facts.)
2) possibility: Why do you think it all happened? –I don’t know. He could have been driving too fast. = Можливо він занадто швидко їхав. (I don’t know the facts.)
Compare: theoretical possibility in a general statement: Winds can be very strong in this area. = Вітри тут бувають дуже сильними. Possibility in a particular weather forecast for tomorrow: There could be a strong wind tomorrow. = Завтра може бути сильний вітер.
3. Doubt (‘Can’ in general questions) Can it be true? Can he be still working? Can he have forgotten about our date? (Невже?)4. Surprise or anger (‘Can’ in special questions): How can he be so stupid? How can he have squeezed between these bars? = І як він зміг пролізти через ці грати?
5. Logical assumption (can’t/ couldn’t): He can’t be at home. = Не може бути, щоб він був удома (He must be out. = Його напевно немає.) He can’t have stayed. = Не може бути, щоб він залишився. (He must have left. = Він напевно пішов.)
Asking for permission (‘can’ or ‘could’ for a polite form) – giving permission (can) – refusing permission (can’t): Could I use your umbrella? - Of course, you can. / No, I’m afraid you can’t. (Not: No, you couldn’t.)
Request: Can/ could you help me? – Sure.
Suggestions (can/ could in affirmative sentences): We could/can go to the cinema. = Shall we go to the cinema?
Offers: Can I help you? = Shall I help you? – Yes, please/ No, thanks.
Couldn’t be better/worse/ Couldn’t care less: How’s life? – Fine. It couldn’t be better. = Краще нікуди. I couldn’t care less what you think. = Мені байдуже, що ти думаєш.
Could well have done = цілком ймовірно: I could well have taken the job if it had been nearer home. = Я цілком ймовірно міг би отримати роботу, якби вона була ближче до дому.
Can’t possibly: I can’t possibly do what you ask. = Я просто не можу зробити те, що ви просите.
Can’t help: I can’t help admiring our town. = Не можу не захоплюватися вашим містом.
Can’t but: I can’t but agree. = Мені нічого не залишається, як погодитися.
Ex 1Underline the correct verb form in the sentences below:
You can't expect/ to expect the world to change overnight.
I knew I can’t/ couldn't afford the rent.
Eleanor couldn't come/ have come last night although he had promised to.
They could have completed/ were able to complete the work by last Monday.
Could you /Were you able to hear that all right? – Yes, quite distinctly
He could escape/ have escaped, but he chose to stand and fight.
In those days you could buy/ have bought a box of cigars for a dollar. (you = people in general)
She could get/ was able to get her watch repaired the same day.
Can/ Could you hear what I was saying?
I wanted to buy the tickets in advance, but I couldn't get/ have got them after
Everybody was helpful, or I couldn’t finish/ have finished it in time.
I could warn/ have warned you if I had known where you were.
At least three hostages (заручники) could/ managed to escape.
Ex 2 Complete the sentences with ‘can’, ‘could’ or ‘be able to’ in a proper form:
In the 16th century, fishermen ……… smuggle wine into the country without fear of being caught by the authorities.
Bennett ……… smuggle the knife on board the plane without being detected by the security system.
The builders said they might ……… start work today.
If you had told me that you were in London I ………. put you up.
Mr. Brown is 58. He ……… drive for forty years.
If I had learnt to drive, I …………..… got a job as a nanny.
I tried hard but I ………………….… (not) pass my driving test.
Fortunately, I …………………….… find another job
The doctor says I ……………………… to walk in two weeks' time.
Ex 3 Say it in English
1. В цій країні ти можеш одружитись в 16 років. 2. Говори голосніше. Я тебе не чую. 3. У сусідів булла сварка (a row) і я міг чути кожне їх слово. 4. Ти міг би відразу сказати, що тобі не цікаво, я б вимкнула телевізор. 5. Боб вміє водити машину вже 2 роки, але він ще не зміг купити машину. 6. Джон збирав гроші довгий час і ось минулого року він нарешті зміг купити будинок. 7. Не треба було вам починати цю розмову. Все могло б залишить, як раніше. 8. Минулої суботи я пробігла 5 кілометрів. Я не могла рухатись у неділю. 9. Жінки не могли голосувати в Англії до 1922. 10. Він міг би і не приходити, ми б змогли це зробити і без його допомоги.
Possibility and Logical assumption
Ex 4State the meaning of the modal verb ‘could’ in the following sentences:
We could have bought a bigger house, but we were not rich enough.
It’s a pity you didn’t come to the school reunion party. You could have seen everybody again.
Where’s my newspaper? – It could have fallen behind the sofa.
It could be weeks before we get a reply.
She’s so sleepy. She could have had a late night yesterday.
He could have entered the university but he decided to join the army.
Ex 5 Underline the correct verb form in the sentences below. Explain your choice:
Don’t panic. There can/ could be some other way out.
Traffic noise can/ could sometimes be a problem for those who live here.
According to the forecast, the weather can/ could be a bit warmer today.
Some dogs can/could be very dangerous.
Expert advice from a local gym or sports centre can/ could be very helpful.
Don't turn off the computer yet. Someone can/ could still be using it.
The line is engaged. Mary could talk/ be talking to one of her friends.
Ex 6 Say it in English:
1. Чому так тихо? Що роблять діти? – Можливо вони граються з іграшками або дивляться телевізор, але я краще піду перевірю. 2. Куди я могла покласти свої окуляри? Я не можу їх знайти. Невже я їх десь загубила? – Не хвилюйся. Діти могли їх взяти. 3. Діти бувають дуже неслухняними, але ж і ми в дитинстві бували такими ж неслухняними як і вони зараз. 4. Не може бути, щоб вона знехтувала твоїми порадами. 5. Чи можливо таке, що він не помітив, яка вона була засмучена?
Permission & Requests, Suggestions & Offers
Ex 7 What would you say in the situations below? Is it asking for permission, or making a request?
To a stranger, if you wanted to know the time.
To your brother, if you wanted him to turn his radio down.
To your teacher, if you wanted him/her to help you with a letter.
To a stranger, if you want to borrow his pen to fill in a form.
To the air stewardess, if you wanted some more coffee.
To a shop assistant, if you wanted to try on an article of clothing.
To a waiter, if you wanted the bill.
To the ticket seller, if you wanted to know the time of the next train.
To some people in a crowded restaurant, if you wanted to sit down on a free chair at their table.
Ex 8 Translate the sentences and state the meaning of ‘can’ and ‘could’.
1. Can I have the bill, please? 2. Can we turn the air conditioner on? 3. Can you hear all right in the back row? 4. He can be such a jerk sometimes. 5. That can't be right. 6. The police still haven't found her but they're doing all they can. 7. Mistakes can occur even in the most carefully controlled situations. 8. They can't have arrived already, surely! 9. By the time she was eight, she could read Greek and Latin. 10. She could be at home now watching TV or something. 11. I was so angry I could have killed her. 12. The teacher said we could all go home. 18. Could you drop off the kids on your way to work? 19. We could use plastic cups, so we don't have to wash anything. 20. You could have told me you were going to be late. 21. It could be weeks before we get a reply.
Ex 9 Say it in English using ‘can’, ‘could’ or ‘be able to’.
1. Під час контрольної роботи не можна користуватись словниками. Тому я не змогла подивитись слово, яке не знала. 2. Невже сьогодні так холодно? – Увечері може стати ще холодніше. 3. Не міг він зробити таку безглузду помилку. Я впевнена, що зможу це довести. 4. Невже він вам цього не пояснив. Він ніколи не вмів пояснювати. Чому ти мене не запитав? Я б міг все пояснити. 5. Він зміг все пояснити. Я змогла все зрозуміти. 6. Чи не могли б ви мені пояснити це правило ще раз? – Звичайно, можу. 7. Я б хотіла, щоб вміла це робити так добре, як ви. 8. Можна мені ще раз спробувати? 9. Принесіть мені будь ласка, склянку води.
May/Might Can/ could
opportunity to do smth- real The problem may be solved in a number of different ways.(= can)
- unreal (‘might’): I might have been killed
You might be more helpful opportunity
- real : The child can go to school..
- unreal (CM): I left in time or I could have been arrested.
You could be more helpful.
possibility (may/might (not))
He may/might come tomorrow.
Is he likely to come?
He may not have counted it right. possibility ( only could)
He could come tomorrow.
Could he come tomorrow?
He could have miscounted it.
—— logical assumption
He can’t have counted it correctly.
theoretical (general) possibility
Exceeding the dose may cause drowsiness. theoretical (general) possibility
Some dogs can be very dangerous.
concession: It may be old, but it works. (може вона й стара, але працює.) ——
May/ Might I ask you another question? – Of course (you may). No, you may not.(=he said I couldn’t) Students may not wear outdoor shoes on the court.(a written notice) permission (could – polite)
Can/Could I ask you something? – Of course (you can). I am afraid, you can’t. We could always use his car. Once we were allowed to use his car
request (formal): May I have a pen and some paper, please? – Here you are. request (informal): Can/ Could you help me?
Suggestions: I thought we might go to the new Chinese restaurant on the High Street Suggestions: We could/can go to the cinema.
The primary meaning is asking for permission. The form ‘might’ is used:
a) to indicate the past reference: “May I come in?” – He asked if he might come in. Years ago children might be sent down mines at the age of six..b) as a more polite form: Might I ask you another question?
c) to indicate uncertainty: I might be a few minutes late.
d) for the conditional mood to indicate unreality: It was terrifying. We might have been killed.
Ex 10 Underline the correct word(s) used to express permission.
Could I sleep at my friend's house tonight? – Yes, of course you could / can.
I could / was allowed to go to the disco last night. – Was it good fun?
Can/Might I have a biscuit please, Mum? – Of course. Help yourself.
Excuse me, sir. May I/Am I allowed to leave the room? – Yes, but don't be too long.
Can/Might I borrow these files for a moment, sir? – Certainly.
Might I use your pen? – Of course you may/might.
May I/Am I allowed to park in the company car park? –: Of course you are!
Ex 11 Stephen is taking exams next term, and Mrs. Wilson are talking to his headmaster. Complete his comments with ‘should, ‘may (not)’ or ‘might (not)’
He's doing quite well in English, and he .... pass without any difficulty. He ... even pass with distinction if he tries hard. His Maths is not so good - he ….. even fail, though I don't think that's very likely. His Chemistry teacher isn't too happy with him, and says Stephen …... pass. He only got 42 out of 100 in a practice exam last week. You don't need to worry about Physics – he …….. pass easily. His French is getting better - he ..... get a distinction, but he ... at least pass.
Ex 12 Underline the word or word(s) that are possible in each sentence.
1. They can/might be away for the weekend but I'm not sure. 2. You may/might leave now if you wish. 3. Could/May you open the window a bit, please? 4. He can/could be French, judging by his accent. 5. May/Can you play the piano? 6. Listen, please. You may not/might not speak during this exam. 7. They can't/ may not still be out! 8. With luck, tomorrow can/could be a sunny day.
9. The butterfly can/ may be recognized by the orange streaks on its wings. 10. You can/might be right but I'm going back to check anyway. 11. 'She's probably on holiday.' 'Yes, you can/ could be right.' 12. Peter may/ can have a big screwdriver. I'll go and ask him. 13. Infections can/could sometimes be made worse by taking antibiotics. 14. That may not/ can’t be true! It's impossible. 15. Take a key. There may not/ can’t be anybody at home when you come back.
Test № 2 ‘Modal Verbs’
in Practical Grammar
Second Year Group ______
II. Do the tasks. (Don’t type the answers. Use a pen and write neatly, please. First practice doing the exercises in Natanson E.A. Practical English Grammar by Correspondence. - M., 1973. p202 - 253 and check yourself with the clues.)
Ex. 1 Complete the sentences to express the suggested idea.
You ……............... go to the cinema. giving permission
You ……................ have any sweets. refusing permission
…………...............we go for a walk? making a suggestion
She ……................ be older than me. expressing a negative logical assumption
You ..............… have worked harder. expressing criticism
You …….............. talk in the library. expressing prohibition
Sally ............…invite us to her party. expressing possibility
They ….. ……………...........be lost. expressing a positive logical assumption
….............. I paint the fence for you? making an offer
He .......... not talk until he was three. expressing ability
You .................... to be more careful. giving advice
You …..……............... obey the law. expressing obligation
Ex 2 Choose the correct answer.
……………….you help me with the shopping, please?
A MustB ShallC Will
You ………………… go to the post office. I'll go later.
A needn'tB mightC mustn’t
What time …………………… I pick you up from work?
A wouldB willC shall
‘Was your suitcase very heavy?’ ‘Yes, but I ……... carry it by myself.’
A was able to B couldC can
‘I ………………….. ride a bicycle until I was eight.’ ‘Neither could I’
A could B couldn’t C was able to
‘I saw Tina in town last night.’ ‘You … her. She's on holiday in Spain.’
A mustn’t have seen B can’t sawC can’t have seen
‘Where's Colin?’ ‘I'm not sure. He …………………… be in the study.’
A canB couldC must
‘I feel very tired today.’ ‘You……..…have stayed up so late last night’
A shouldn'tB needn’tC mustn’t
‘Did you phone Alan yesterday?’ ‘No, I ….. He came round to see me
A didn't have to B needn'tC hadn’t
The first lecture was cancelled, so I ………… up so early as I did.
A needn’t have to getB hadn’t to C needn’t have got
I was going to visit you but I ……………………. because I was busy.
A couldn’t have come; B can’t have come; C couldn’t come.
Why are you late? – I couldn’t lock the door. The key … in the lock.
A wouldn’t have turned; B shouldn’t turn; C wouldn’t turn.
On summer evenings they ……………………..… out in the garden.
A would have been sitting; B would sit; C should sit.
It’s amazing that they ……….. have said nothing about the incident.
A shouldn’tB should C would
Ex 3 Use a suitable modal verb with a perfect infinitive. e.g.: I heard their phone ringing. ~ You couldn't have heard their phone ringing. They haven't got a phone.
You …………..............… not have fed the bears! (It was foolish of you to feed them.) Now they'll be angry if the next campers don't feed them too.
Nobody has been in this house for a month. ~ Nonsense! Here's last Monday's paper in the wastepaper bin; somebody ……..... have been here quite recently.
He set off alone a month ago and hasn't been heard of since. ~ He …........ have fallen into a river and ……...................... have been eaten by crocodiles.
We ………..........................….. have started yesterday (this was the plan); but the flight was cancelled because of the fog, so we're still here, as you see.
Mary to Ann, who has just toiled up six flights of stairs: You ….............… not have walked up! You ..................... have come up in the lift. It's working now.
He had two bottles of Coke and got frightfully drunk. ~ He ……................ not have got drunk on Coke. He ………………............… have drunk gin with it.
We've run out of petrol! - I'm not surprised. I noticed that the tank was nearly empty when we left home. ~ You ……...................… have told me! We ……........... have got petrol at the last village. Now we've got a 10-mile walk.
If the dog hadn't woken us we …………. (not notice) the fire for several hours (that was possible), and by that time it …......….. (spread) the house next door.
Ex4 Use the proper form of the infinitive:
I could …...................................... (skate) when I was young.
I could …...................................... (help) you if you had asked.
I failed my test as I couldn’t ….......................... (solve) half of the tasks.
Don’t call her now. It’s late. She must ................................ (sleep) now.
Your report must ......................................................... (finish) tomorrow.
If you want to pass your exams you must ............................ (work) hard.
If you wanted to pass your exams you should ..................... (work) hard.
You’re lucky to be alive. You could …................................. (fall) down.
I can’t …....................... (find) my glasses. Did you see them anywhere?
They can’t ................….................. (break) by the cat. It was out all day.
Ex. 5 Rephrase the following sentences using modal verbs.
Why don't we go for a picnic? ________________________________
It wasn’t necessary for John to go to work because it was Sunday. (He stayed at home.) ___________________________________________
John forgot that it was Sunday and went to work. (It was a waste of time.) ___________________________________________________
It was difficult but we managed to do it. _______________________
Unfortunately, we didn’t manage to do it. _______________________
You are forbidden to enter this area. ___________________________
Do you mind if I take this chair? ______________________________
It’s not necessary to feed the dog. _____________________________
You didn’t lock the door. It was wrong._________________________
I strongly advise you to take legal action. ________________________
Perhaps Tony has gone to work early.___________________________
I'm sure Martin heard me calling him. __________________________
I'm sure Paul isn't an engineer. ________________________________
You copied files without the manager's permission. It was wrong. _________________________________________________________
When they came to visit us they used to give us nice presents.______ ________________________________________________________
Ex 6 Replace the words in italics with appropriate modals:
'Wonderful, it's Sunday and (1) it’s not necessary for me to get up at 7 o'clock, I'll stay in bed a bit longer. Although (2) it’s possible the children have woken up by now and I'll have to get their breakfast soon. They (3) are not able to make it for themselves. However, it is still very early and they (4) are unlikely to be very hungry yet. (5) It’s a pity I didn’t put out the cornflakes and milk yesterday evening. (It was necessary but I didn’t do it.) But all this thinking and not acting is really silly! (6) It is really necessary for me to get up this minute! Now where are my bedroom slippers? - That damn dog (7) has probably hidden them again! (8) It’s just possible that Alan will not be back from his business trip till tomorrow. One adult isn't enough to look after four children, a puppy, and three goldfish! When we were newly married he (9) often took me with him but not any more. (10) We had an opportunity to get his mother to come and look after the children till he comes back but we missed it. Never again!'1. ______________________________ 6 _____________________________
2. ______________________________ 7 _____________________________
3. ______________________________ 8 _____________________________
4. ______________________________ 9 _____________________________
5. ______________________________ 10 ____________________________
Ex 7 Say it in English
1. Зачекай на мене, будь ласка._______________________________________
2. Мені почекати тебе? _____________________________________________
3. Тобі слід було почекати. __________________________________________
4. Міг би і почекати трохи. __________________________________________
5. Даремно ти чекав, я мушу залишитись. ______________________________
6. Напевно, ти давно вже чекаєш. _____________________________________
7. Не може бути, щоб він досі чекав на нас. ____________________________
8. Можливо він не чекає на нас. (Xоча це малоймовірно.) ________________
9. Тобі довго довелось чекати? _______________________________________
10. Я б змогла почекати довше, якби не почався дощ. ____________________
Ex 8 Write what to say in the following situations using modal verbs and phrases. e.g.: Offer to open the door for a stranger. - Shall I open the door for you?
Ask someone to answer the phone for you. __________________________________________________________
Offer to make someone a sandwich. __________________________________________________________
Give someone permission to use your phone. __________________________________________________________
Suggest going for a picnic this afternoon. __________________________________________________________
Ask someone to wait here for you. __________________________________________________________
Give your son permission to go out but tell him to be back before dark. __________________________________________________________
Some children are playing football in the flower beds. What do you say to them? ___________________________________________________
Your friend came late for your birthday party. You are angry at him. What do you say? __________________________________________________________
It’s snowing heavily. You expected Tom to be home two hours ago but he hasn’t come yet. What do you think? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
You are at an interview for a new job. Tell the interviewer about your abilities and the duties which you had/ didn’t have at your previous working place. Make use of the following phrases as well as your ideas:
work overtimetravel on business wear uniform
keep accountswork shifts/long hoursdeal with customers
answer phone callswork with a computermake coffee for the boss
Ex 9 Write a paragraph about an experience of yours when you made a wrong choice and missed an opportunity. Use appropriate modal verbs.