мет. указ. к самост. раб . 2 семестр бакалавр


ДОНЕЦКИЙ НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ К САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ ЗАОЧНОГО ОТДЕЛЕНИЯ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ «АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК»
Направления подготовки: все специальности заочного отделения
Форма обучения: Заочная
Донецк, 2017 г.
Данные учебно-методические указания составлены для студентов заочного отделения всех специальностей. В данном пособии систематизирован и структурирован грамматический материал, необходимый для работы с научно-технической литературой, для составления резюме, аннотации. Подобраны соответствующие по уровню сложности стиля и лексики тексты как художественные, так и научно-технические.
Данные указания разработаны в соответствии с типовой рабочей программой обучения дисциплине «Английский язык», составлено с учетом требований государственного стандарта высшего профессионального образования.
Учебно-методические указания предусматривают развитие лингвистических компетенций при работе с профессионально-технической литературой.
Отбор материала для указаний произведен с учетом целей, задач обучения в техническом ВУЗе и интеграции знаний смежных предметных дисциплин, что способствует одновременному развитию профессиональных и коммуникативных умений студентов и мотивирует их к дальнейшему изучению английского языка.
Учебно-методические указания предназначены для студентов первого курса в форме контрольной работы № 2, которая выполняется студентами в течение второго семестра. Номер варианта контрольной работы должен в точности соответствовать последней цифре номера зачетной книжки. Если последняя цифра 0, то студент выбирает вариант 10. Контрольная работа выполняется студентами в тетради письменно от руки.
Защита контрольной работы №2 в виде устного опроса по материалам контрольной с целью подтверждения авторства обязательна.
Контрольная работа № 2 включает 14 упражнений. Первые 3 задания представляют собой работу с текстом с использованием словаря для перевода незнакомых слов. В первом упражнении следует прочесть и перевести в письменной форме текст. При работе студент пользуется словарем для перевода незнакомых слов. Во втором упражнении необходимо перевести выражения и устойчивые словосочетания из текста с русского языка на английский. В третьем упражнении следует перевести выражения и устойчивые словосочетания из текста с английского языка на русский.
В четвертом упражнении нужно поставить глагол в правильной форме с учетом особенностей конструкции условных предложений первого типа. В пятом упражнении необходимо составить сложные условные предложения второго типа из имеющихся простых предложений. В шестом упражнении следует перевести предложения, учитывая особенности конструкций условных предложений первого, второго и третьего типа. В седьмом упражнении необходимо перевести аналогичные предложения на английский язык. В восьмом упражнении нужно вставить в предложение модальные глаголы либо их эквиваленты. В девятом упражнении следует перевести предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. В десятом упражнении необходимо перевести аналогичные предложения на английский язык.
В одиннадцатом упражнении нужно поставить глагол в соответствующей форме с учетом правил согласования времен. В двенадцатом упражнении необходимо перестроить предложения с прямой речью в косвенную речь. В тринадцатом упражнении нужно перестроить предложения с косвенной речью в прямую речь. В четырнадцатом упражнении следует перевести на английский язык предложения, соблюдая правила согласования времен.
С целью выполнения данных упражнений рекомендуется использовать учебно-методические указания к практическим занятиям для студентов заочного отделения по дисциплине «английский язык» либо другую литературу по грамматике английского языка.
Студенты также работают над текстами и темами, и контроль осуществляется на консультациях. Студенты должны уметь свободно общаться на 3 темы: 1) Achievements in science; 2) My specialty; 3) Great Britain. Образцы тем имеются в Приложении 1.
Студенты также должны прочесть и перевести 3 текста, один из которых пересказывают на свое усмотрение. Тексты 1) Steve Jobbs; 2) Delete keys – clipboard technology; 3) General features of operating systems, предложены в Приложении 2.
Контрольная работа № 2
VARIANT 1Read and translate in written form the following text.Markets.
A market is commonly thought of as a place where commodities are bought and sold. There are markets for things other then commodities, in the usual sense. There are real estate markets, foreign exchange markets, labour markets and so on; there may be a market for anything, which has a price. And there may be no particular place to which dealings are confined. Buyers and sellers may deal with one another prices obtainable in one part of the market affect the prices paid in other parts.by telephone, telegram, cable or letter.
We must define a market as any area over which buyers and sellers are in such close touch with one another either directly or through dealers that the
Modern means of communication are so rapid that a buyer can discover what price a seller is asking, and can accept it if he wishes. Thus the market for anything is, potentially, the whole word. But in fact things have only a local or national market. This may be because nearly the whole demand is concentrated in one locality. The main reason why many things have not a word market is that they are costly or difficult to transport. For example coal is produced much more cheaply in the United States than in Europe but owing to the cost of transporting coal by rail, American coal seldom finds its way to Europe.
Give English equivalents of:покупать и продавать товар
обычный смысл слова
ограничивать сделки
средства связи
транспортировка угля по железной дороге
Give Russian equivalents of:foreign exchange marketsaffect the pricesproduce coalreal estate marketsdeal with anotherPut the verbs in brackets into correct tense:He'll be furious if he ever(find out) about this.
The animals at the zoo(die) unless they're fed.
If you drink all that juice, you(be) sick.
If he…………..(not drive) so fast, he will not have an accident.
She'll be on time for the meeting if she……..(leave) early.
Write Type 2 conditionals to match these situations:I don't have a spare ticket. I can't take you to the concert.
She drinks too much coffee. She doesn't feel calm.
He can't type. He isn't able to operate a computer.
They don't understand the problem. They won't find a solution.
You can't run fast. You won't be an Olympic champion.
Translate the given sentences. Mind the First, the Second and the Third Conditionals.
If the researcher uses this new approach, he will be able to avoid many errors.
He will help you by all means if he has some free time.
If I were you, I would receive the proposal.
He would translate the article if he had a dictionary.
If the students had worked hard during the term, they would have passed the exam.
Translate the given sentences into English.
Ты бы чувствовал себя лучше, если бы ложился спать раньше.
Он бы лучше знал английский язык, если бы летом прочитал английские книги.
Если он выучит немецкий язык, он поедет учиться в Германию.
Если бы вчера было не так холодно, мы бы поехали за город.
Если бы у меня было время, я бы смог рассказать тебе больше.
Translate modal verbs or their equivalents into English.He (сможет) to finish his work next week.
She (позволят) to visit him in two weeks.
You (должны) consult a doctor if you are ill.
We (не должны были) to discuss these questions with you.
I (нe мoгy) do anything for you.
Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the Modal Verbs.I don't need your book any longer.
We should meet our friends at the station.
He had to go there yesterday.
The students got up early, as the lecture was to begin at 9 o'clock.
We were obliged to stay at home yesterday, it was raining cats and dogs.
Translate the following sentences into English.
Возможно, они смогут заказать билеты для вас.
Они смогли посетить все музеи за один день.
Ты можешь вернуться домой не позже одиннадцати?
Почему ты вынужден выехать из страны?
Не может быть, чтобы он работал на этом заводе.
Choose the proper form. Rewrite the sentences and translate them.
Model: She said that they_________ in Oxford.
а) lived b) lives c) will live
She said that they lived in Oxford. Она сказала, что они живут в Лондоне.
The students said that they_______their exams. ( a) have passed; b) had passed; c)has passed)
The leader asked John_______him a new device. ( a) to show; b) show); c) to have shown.
They knew that a tariff_______a tax imposed on imported goods. ( a) was; b) is; c) were)
It was known they_______ oil. ( a) will imported; b) imports; c) would import)
They reported this country_______to restrict import. ( a) was going; b) is going; c)goes)
Turn from Direct speech into Reported speech.
"My son is a student", said Henry.
"She is working at the library", said her mother.
My friend said to me: "I have not seen you for ages!"."I'll solve the clues tomorrow", said Ann.
"Give me a cup of tee, please", said my brother to me.
Rewrite the following sentences in Direct speech.He said he had an accident.
Liz said she could borrow me the newspaper as she had finished with it.
The boy said he was afraid he had broken my vase.
He said that he studied English before he entered the institute.
She said that her parents lived in Kiev.
Translate the following sentences into English.Дежурный ученик сказал, что проветривает класс перед каждым уроком.
Мама сказала детям играть во дворе и не играть на улице.
Дети сказали, что они не играют на улице, а играют во дворе.
Джейн сказала, что ей приснился страшный сон.
Они спросили мальчика, на скольких иностранных языках он говорит.
VARIANT 2
Read and translate in written form the following text.Employment
People of working age can be divided into three groups: the employed, the self- employed, and the unemployed.
About two thirds of the work- force are employed in service industries; compared with one quarter in manufacturing industry. A number of government schemes, programmes were introduced to help unemployed people find work.
Many unemployed people look for work in advertisements, such as those in local newspapers. Other make their first search through the government Jobcentres, where local jobs are advertised and where individual advice is given. Training can also be obtained through the Open College, that provides courses by radio and television. Two further schemes are Business Growth Training which offers financial help to employers training their own employees and the Enterprise Allowance Scheme, which helps unemployed people start their own business.
If a parson is unemployed for six months or longer, he or she may attend an interview with a "Restart" counselor, who will suggest alternative way of finding work. Similar Schemes operate in the USA.
Give English equivalents to:по сравнению
ввести правительственные программы
подготовить своих собственных служащих
начинать собственный бизнес
правительственные центры занятости
Give Russian equivalents to:to divide into
two-thirds
to look for work in advertisement
such asa number ofPut the verbs in brackets into correct tense:If she …….(go) to Paris, she'll go up the Eiffel Tower.
If I…….(not hear) from you tomorrow, I'll expect a cal the next day.
Take another dose of painkillers if the pain……..(get) too bad.
I'll be late for school if the bus……...(not come) soon.
If her son…….(pass) his driving test, she will buy him a new car.
Write Type 2 conditionals to match these situations:I haven't got a car. I can't give you a lift.
We haven't got any money. We won't have a holiday.
I don't know the answer. I can't help you.
I won't make an omelette. I don't have any eggs.
She isn't in your position. She isn't able to advise you.
Translate the given sentences. Mind the First, the Second and the Third Conditionals.Let me know, in case he comes to our town one of these days.
If the news appears in the mass media, everybody will be shocked.
If he were here now, we would speak to him.
If the production had been flexible, the enterprise would have been quite profitable.
I would have been very glad if I had the opportunity to take part in the expedition.
Translate the given sentences into English.Я позвоню тебе, если у меня будет время.
Если оборудование в этом магазине будет стоить слишком дорого, мы купим его в другом магазине.
Если бы она знала иностранный язык, она смогла бы сменить работу.
Если бы он получил высшее образование, он бы сейчас не работал так тяжело.
Я бы подвез тебя, если бы моя машина вчера не сломалась.
Translate modal verbs or their equivalents into English.He (сможет) buy this book for you.
Everybody (должен) know his rights.
You (не надо было) to put so many questions.
It (может) rain today.
She (не смогла) do her work in time.
Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the Modal Verbs.We can't help doing all our best to pass our examinations.
You don't have to write this exercise.
His mother should call on him tomorrow.
When his father died, he was obliged to help his mother.
Does he need my help?
Translate the following sentences into English.
Она вообще не умеет плавать!
Когда он был моложе, он мог танцевать лучше, чем сейчас.
Вам нельзя курить в этой комнате.
Она была вынуждена оставить работу с тех пор, как родился ребенок.
Вам следует пригласить дизайнера для оформления Вашего дома.
Choose the proper form. Rewrite the sentences and translate them. Model: She said that they______ in Oxford.lived b) lives c) will live
She said that they lived in Oxford. Она сказала, что они живут в Лондоне.
Tom said that Jerry_____his friend since their early childhood. ( a) has been;
b) had been; c) is)
Dad asked him_____too far. ( a) do not swim; b) not to swim;
c) will not swim)
He promised he_____my TV set. ( a) would repair; b) will repair; c) repairs
The operator said that he______ a modern fax machine. ( a) is looking for;
b) are looking for; c) was looking for)
Jane remarked that Ann's sister______nothing. ( a) did; b) has done; c) does)
Turn from Direct speech into Reported speech."Don't forget to post this letter", she said to me.
My friend said to me: "We have been waiting for you for 20 minutes".
Jane said: "I am all right. Nothing worries me".
He asked me: "Can you give me your pen?"
She asked: "Has he already come home after lessons?"
Rewrite the following sentences in Direct speech.He told me that his son would arrive the next day.
David said he had broken his bicycle.
They told us they were busy: they were discussing a very important question.
Tom said he had been working at school for three years.
Susan asked Ann when she would give her new telephone number.
Translate the following sentences into English.Мама спросила сына, не знает ли он, куда она положила свои очки.
Сестра спросила меня, почему я не делаю уроки.
Мой брат сказал мне не пользоваться его компьютером.
Когда мой друг пришел ко мне, он спросил, почему меня не было в школе.
Она сказала, что живет в Киеве уже 20 лет.
VARIANT 3Read and translate in written form the following text.Oil has a unique status as an energy source. Other fossil fuels, such as coal and gas, are often less costly and compete effectively in certain sectors, such as electric power generation. However there are energy resources that are essentially inexhaustible, such as solar energy and other kinds or renewable energy. Flowing water is an important energy source. Hydroelectric power, produced by the force of running water is a renewable and relatively pollution free source of electrical energy.
As such energy sources as oil, and natural gas become depleted, it will prove advantageous to many countries currently dependent on those sources to develop and make available alternative energy technology. Many countries have favorable natural conditions for developing geothermal, wind, solar, and tidal energy sources. Geothermal energy makes use of underground heat, which escapes, to the surface through hot springs. Geothermal power is believed to be of great potential.
Solar energy involves capturing the sun's light energy and converting it into heat or electricity. Wind can also be harnessed to produce by the machines called aerogenerators.
In the oceans, air, land, underground the Earth has unlimited energy sources. We should seek and improve energy sources and use them more efficiently.
Give English equivalents of:ископаемые виды горючего
восстановленные источники энергии
источники электроэнергии
исчерпываться
использовать подземное тепло
Give Russian equivalents of:compete effectively
capture the sun's light energy
improve energy sources
dependent on those sources
available energy technology
Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense:If you read this paragraph, you…….(see) what I mean.
If he…….(drive) down this street, he will see the shop to his left.
They will understand the rule if they……..(listen) to him carefully.
If you follow the instructions, you………(make) it.
If she……..(give) me her pen, I'll write it down for her.
Write Type 2 conditionals to match these situations:His sister is so boring. She talks so much.
Jack travels so much. He is very popular.
It is so wet. It rains so much.
She is healthy. She will not catch a cold.
They are kind-hearted. They help people.
Translate the given sentences. Mind the First, the Second and the Third Conditionals.If you get interested in the details of the process, we'll discuss everything later on.
I'll speak to her, if she answers the phone.
If I had left home earlier, I would not have missed the train.
The students would make fewer mistakes if he were more attentive.
He will meet us if he has free time.
Translate the given sentences into English.Если будет слишком холодно для работы в саду, я буду читать книгу.
Если я куплю билеты в театр мы сможем провести вечер в городе.
Я бы починил утюг, если бы не шел сейчас на футбол.
Если бы у меня сейчас был нужный вид масла, я бы смазал твою швейную машинку.
Если бы Том вызвал мастера, он смог бы посмотреть вчера футбол.
Translate modal verbs or their equivalents into English.You (должны) struggle for your rights.
He (сможет) to use this phenomenon in his work.
She (может) be late: she has a lot of work.
We (должны были) to send for a doctor: she feels bad.
You (следует) pay attention to your translation.
Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the Modal Verbs.She will have to go there tomorrow.
They must be in the library now.
He was to be here at 9 o'clock, but he didn't come.
We were obliged to go there.
You needn't have done it.
Translate the following sentences into English.Полчаса я пытался открыть дверь, но не смог.
Оденься теплее. Ты можешь простудиться.
Когда я вышел на улицу, шел дождь и был вынужден вернуться за зонтом.
Тебе не надо готовить обед, мы сегодня будем ужинать в ресторане.
Кто должен убирать в твоей комнате?
Choose the proper form. Rewrite the sentences and translate them.Model: She said that they______in Oxford.а) lived b) lives c) will live
She said that they lived in Oxford. Она сказала, что они живут в Лондоне.
The police found out that Bob Slant______in London's suburbs all that time.
( a) lives; b) live; c) had been living)
The students couldn't do the translation because they______special terms.
(a) had not learnt; b) does not learn; c) do not learn)
Tom had not been informed that the lecture_______on Tuesday.
( a) does not take place; b) would not take place; c) won't take place)
He said he_______a job. ( a) had found; b) finds; c) has found)
They promised they_____their own employees.
( a) train; b) would train; c) will train)
Turn from Direct speech into Reported speech."Open your book at page ten", said our teacher to us.
"Don't make so much noise", said mother to her children.
"She isn't here. She has just left the office", the secretary said to us.
"I don't think I will have done this work by the evening", she said.
Jane asked: "Did you go to London last year?"
Rewrite the following sentences in Direct speech.Her father told her not to cross the street where she wanted to.
My husband said he was thinking about buying new car.
He told me that he never got letters: nobody wrote to him.
Alice said she was tired and she was going to lie down.
My friend asked me how long I had known Ann.
Translate the following sentences into English.Когда я встретил Тома, я спросил, в больнице ли еще его отец.
Учитель спросил Анну, почему она не приготовила доклад.
Она сказала, что не будет кофе, что она выпьет чай.
Они сказали, что экономическая ситуация в нашей стране хуже, чем они думали.
Мой брат сказал, что он поступил в университет.
VARIANT 4
I. Read and translate written form the following text.
International Trade
International trade can be defined, as the exchange of goods and services between different countries Depending on what a country produced or needs, it can either export (send goods to another country) or import (bring in goods from another country).
Governments can control international trade in different ways. The most common measures taken are tariffs (or duties) and quotas. A tariffs a tax imposed goods. A quota is the maximum quantity of a product that may be admitted in a country during a certain period of time. These measures are said to be protectionist in that they raise the price of imported goods so that domestically produced goods will gain a price advantage,
The purpose of international organizations, such as GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) or EFTA (European Free Trade Association) is to regulate tariffs and to reduce trade restrictions between member countries.
The European Community (EC) was founded in 1957 in order to create a common market in which tariffs and quotas between member countries would progressively be eliminated. Since that date, many steps have been taken to create a single European market, free of all physical, technical and fiscal barriers. With over 300 million people, this single domestic market is the world's largest tradins block.
II.Give English equivalents to:
обмен товарами и услугами
общепринятые меры
получить ценовое преимущество
уменьшить ограничения торговли
финансовые барьеры
III.Give Russian equivalents to:
in order to
to depend on
to impose a tax
common market
to create a single market
IV.Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense.
If it ____(be) cold for gardening, I’ll write some letters.
The doctor____(help) them if they go to him.
If you take a taxi, we ____(not be) late
If she____(come) to our place on Sunday, we will show her our garden.
If you look at the time-table, you____(know) when the train arrives.
V.Write Type 2 conditionals to match these situations.
I don't travel around the world. I don't see many new places.
I don't see many new places. I don't meet different people.
I don't meet different people. I don't learn a lot.
I don't learn a lot, I don't become a wiser.
I don't become a wiser. I clon4 lead a better life.
VI.Translate the given sentences. Mind the First, the Second and the Third Conditionals.
The student won't pass his exams in lime unless he works hard
If will tell him about my problems if he appears here one of these days,
If Mr. Smith knew the address, he would write the answer at once,
He would not have failed the exam if he had worked hard.
If will give you my text-hook if you return it next week.
VII.Translate the given sentences into English.
Если бы ему сейчас не надо было идти к врачу, он бы отнес эту одежду в химчистку.
Если бы он вчера починил электрочайник, его жена сделала бы ему на завтрак чай.
Если бы он не был такой умный, он бы не написал свою первую программу в девять лет.
Что ты будешь делать, если ты проголодаешься?
Если позвонит Джейн. Попроси ее оставить для меня сообщение.
VIII. Translate modal verbs or their equivalents into English.
He is perfectly right: you (должны) accept his proposal.
They (смогут) apply this method in their experiments.
We have finished our work, (можно ли) we go to the cinema?
He (вынужден был) to pass this exam once more.
The lecture (должна) to begin at 9.
IX. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the Modal Verbs.
1 said that he couldn't have done it.
He may not know her address.
Do you have to pass all your examinations?
You needn't come »o early.
He ought to have sent the telegram last week.
X. Translate the following sentences into English.
Почему полиция не смогла найти грабителя?
Детям нельзя смотреть телевизор столько, сколько они хотят.
Маши друзья, возможно, вернутся к вечеру.
Мы должны поговорить об этом завтра.
Мне пришлось вернуть билеты в кассу.
XI. Choose the proper form. Rewrite the sentences and translate them.
Model: She said that they____in Oxford.
(a) lived b) lives c) will live
She said that they lived in Oxford. Она сказала, что они живут в Лондоне.
They warned the water______.
( a) can be polluted; b) could be polluted; c) can pollute)
They informed their efforts_____successful.
( a) were; b) are; c) has been)
People were afraid water______.
( a)wouldn't be cleaned; b) will not be cleaned; c) is not cleaned)
We didn't know the score but we were sure their team______.
( a) had lost; b) has lost; c) is lost)
He was told that his sister______to enter the college.
( a) was going; b) is going; c) goes)
XII. Turn from Direct speech into Reported speech.
"'Return, books in time", the librarian said to children.
"It will take me an hour to cook dinner", said Helen.
"Where were you last night?" asked Dan.
Ann said about Jack:" He never thinks about other people".
Bill asked: "Are you playing tennis this afternoon?"
XlII. Rewrite the following sentences in Direct speech.
She said she was busy as she was working on her report.
I asked my uncle when he would take me to the zoo.
Our teacher told us that we would write the test in a week.
I asked my friend what time he was going home.
They told me they had been waiting for me for 20 minutes.
XlV. Translate the following sentences into English.
Она спросила меня, много ли я путешествую.
Родители сказали ему не выходить из дома.
Он сказал, что занят, что он работает над докладом.
Он не сказал, что не любит ходить в театр.
Мой брат спросил, может ли он взять мою машину.
VARIANT 5
I. Read and translate in written form the following text.
Coal mining was once a powerful and proud industry in Great Britain. In 1955 there were 850 working coal mines in Britain. By the end of 1955, after privatization, only 32 deep mines were still in operation and three-quarters of their produce was for use in electricity generation. Coal is more polluting and less efficient than natural gas.
Oil and gas were discovered under the British sector of the North Sea at the end of the on 1985 Britain was the sixth largest producer of oil in the world but by 1995had fallen back to rank ninth. It is the largest gas producer,
Britain establishment the world's first large scale nuclear plant in 1956, It was assumed that nuclear energy would be a clean, safe solution of energy needs. The questing of nuclear energy become a serious problem, particular after disasters elsewhere. Unless a much safer and more efficient is designed, nuclear power has little nature.
In the early 1980s Britain started to lake renewable energy sources much more seriously than previously. It is estimated that wind energy sources could provide over 60 per cent of the national electricity. Britain now has one of the major wind generation facilities in Europe.
Renewable energy sources are planned to provide 3 per cent of the national requirement in the near future.
II. Give English equivalents of:
производитель газа
безопасное решение энергетических нужд
спроектировать безопасную систему
возобновляемые энергетические источники
энергетические потребности страны
III. Give Ukrainian (Russian) equivalents of:
be in operation
electricity generation
wind generation facilities
established large-scale nuclear plant
coal mining
IV.Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense.
If Jane____(phone) me, ask her to leave a message.
If you ____(not know) some words, look them up in the dictionary.
If he ___ (catch) a cold, let me know.
If you park your car in the wrong place, traffic police____(soon find) it and give you a ticket.
What you____(do) if it rains?
V. Write Type 2 conditionals to match these situations.
He is so healthy. He swims so much.
They are so strong. They play football so much.
John is honest. He doesn't tell us lies.
Mary is polite. She doesn't forget to say thank you.
I am hard-working. I pass the exams easily.
VI. Translate the given sentences. Mind the First, the Second and the Third Conditionals.
If I see him tomorrow, I'll tell him all abut it.
I won't go to the party unless I am invited.
The teacher would consult you if she had time now.
If I met him tomorrow, we would talk.
If I had had time yesterday, I would have done it.
VII.Translate the given sentences into English.
Он отремонтировал бы свою машину, если бы мог.
Что бы ты делал, если бы выиграл много денег?
Что ты будешь делать, если у тебя дома не будет этой книги?
Если магазин будет открыт, зайди и купи что-нибудь на ужин.
Если бы он вчера починил утюг, она бы погладила ему рубашку.
VIII.Translate modal verbs or their equivalents into English.
He (возможно) forget about it, he isn't very attentive.
(не смог бы) he lend me 20 dollars?
If I (не могу) have what I love, I (вынужден) love hat I have.
This question she (не должна была) to solve at once.
We (сможем) to publish this article next week.
IX Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the Modal Verbs.
He must have been very angry with you.
She can't help smiling.
They are to begin this work at once.
You shouldn't have gone there yesterday.
We might become good specialists in future.
X. Translate the following sentences into English.
Она, по-видимому, любит музыку.
Не может быть, чтобы он много путешествовал.
Неужели она забыла об этом?
Тебе не обязательно отвечать на все эти вопросы.
Сегодня очень жарко. Тебе не следует так долго находиться на улице.
XI. Choose the proper form. Rewrite the sentences and translate them.
Model: She said that they____in Oxford.
(a) lived b) lives c) will live
She said that they lived in Oxford. Она сказала, что они живут в Лондоне.
She asked him if he often _____the scientific centre.
( a) visited; b) visits; с) will visit)
Our friends asked us what we_____at the weekend.
( a) will do; b) would do; c) does)
They asked why other civilizations______.
( a) couldn't be found; b) can't be found; c) can be found)
We were told that Andrew_____to complete his thesis.
( a) is going; b) goes; c) was going)
Tom told his friend_____for a while.
( a) not to call him up; b) not call him up; c) doesn't call him up)
XII.Turn from Direct speech into Reported speech.
"We'll get to town in the evening", she said.
"I have lost my umbrella", my brother said.
"I went to the restaurant with Julia", he said.
"We go to the library every week", they said.
"I'm going to Paris with a colleague", he said.
XIII. Rewrite the following sentences in Direct speech.
He said that he would be ready in half an hour.
He said that they would have done their homework by 7 o'clock.
Mary said she wasn't reading.
Peter said that they had had some good news.
Mother asked Robert not to make so much noise.
XIV. Translate the following sentences into English.
Анна сказала, что она, возможно, опоздает на встречу.
Мама сказала Сэнди включить холодную воду.
Сара попросила Алекса не звонить ей до 8 часов.
Он опросил меня, приду ли я навестить их в воскресенье, но я сказала, что нет.
Она спросила меня, нравится ли мне эта книга.
VARIANT 6I. Read and translate in written form the following text.
The Orange Black Box
The famous box is familiar to most of us. It is legendary invincible. The “black” box is in fact painted fluorescent orange, it was originally called a black box in the days when anything to do with electronics was new and strange. They are painted orange nowadays to make them more easily visible in the event of a crash.
There are two kinds of black box: the flight data recorder (FDR) and the cockpit voice recorder (CVR).
Both are stores at the rear of an aircraft. There the fuselage meets the upper tail fin - the part of plans that has the best survival record. The same principle applies to human passengers - you’re safer at the back.
Despite their reputation, neither box is in fact indestructible. They can withstand a temperature of 1,100 С for 30 minutes and 250 С for 10 hours. They must also be able to survive and impact force of 3,500 times the force of gravity.
Flight recorders are encased in two thickness of platinum. Memory chips holds the flight data. While FDRs make an electronic record of the plane’s mechanical performance, CVRs record the communication between the crew. But they are still only recorded in 80 percent of accidents.
II.Give English equivalents to:
легендарная нерушимость
в случае катастрофы
запись данных полета
запись голосов в кабине
выдерживать температуру
III.Give Russian equivalents to:
familiar to us
to do with
to survive an impact force
the force if gravity
to be encased
IV.Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense.
If you ____(see) Tom today, ask him to call me tomorrow.
What _____(do) you, if you have a high temperature?
If my dog ______(be) ill, I’ll take it to a vet.
What will you do if she ______(not be) at home?
If I _______(be) hungry, I’ll find something in the fridge.
V. Write Type 2 conditionals to match these situations.
He is so tired. He works so much.
Mary is short-sighted. She reads so much.
I can’t give you a lift. I don’t have a car.
We won’t have a holiday. We haven’t got any money
I don’t know the answer. I can’t tell you.
VI.Translate the given sentences. Mind the First, the Second and the Third Conditionals.
It will be very hot in here if we close the window.
I will lend you the money on condition that you return it in a month.
He would not have been late then if he had not missed his train.
He won’t translate the article unless he uses a special dictionary.
If the manager were not busy at present, he would talk with you.
VII.Translate the given sentences into English.
Если бы вы знали лучше грамматику, вы бы не делали столько ошибок в ваших упражнениях.
Я подожду его, если его не будет дома, когда я приду.
Если бы я не был так занят вчера, я поехал бы на вокзал проводить его.
Я был бы Вам очень благодарен, если бы Вы смогли уделить мне несколько минут.
Мы приедем туда в 8 часов утра, если поезд не опоздает.
VIII. Translate modal verbs or their equivalents into English.
You (должны) go there at once in order not to be late.
His mood (может) change at any time.
He (смог) buy this book last month.
They (должны были) to pass three exams to enter the University.
She (сможет) to use these experiments in her work.
IX. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the Modal Verbs.
They must have been informed of it a few days ago.
It might not have happened if you had been careful.
He can’t have left without telling me about it.
She ought to have done it yesterday.
He should have helped them.
X. Translate the following sentences into English.
Может быть, он и вернулся в город, но я его еще не видел.
Он очень бледен. Он, вероятно, очень устал.
Эта книга, должно быть, написана в прошлом веке.
Он сказал мне, что я могу приходить сюда в любое время.
Если бы все меры были приняты, этого могло бы не произойти.
XI. Choose the proper form. Rewrite the sentences and translate them.
Model: She said that they____in Oxford.
lived b) lives c) will live
She said that they lived in Oxford. Она сказала, что они живут в Лондоне.
They boasted that they _____a new computer their office.
( a) will buy, b) had bought c) buys.
The policeman asked why he _____the car door.
( a) hadn’t locked; b)doesn’t lock; c) hasn’t locked)
Dad asked her _____their jewelry.
( a) don’t sell; b) wouldn’t sell; c) not to sell)
The reporter announced that advertising messages _____to large audiences by a lot of means.
( a) are carried; b) were carried; c) carrying)
They said that the advertising programmes _____in programmes for children.
( a) were not inserted; b) are not inserted; c) inserts)
XII. Turn from Direct speech into Reported speech.
They said to him:” What school do you go to?”
Liz asked; ’’Are you seeing the manager tomorrow? ”
“When I get money, I’ll buy a new car”, said my friend.
“Don’t speak in a loud voice, your brother is sleeping”, told mother to him.
“I can see you tomorrow”, she said.
XIII. Rewrite the following sentences in Direct speech.
She said her daughter would go on a trip the following month.
James said he liked to see adventure films.
My friend said she wanted to buy a dog for her children.
Jane told me she would return me my book the following week.
His mother told him not to go to school because he was ill.
XIV. Translate the following sentences into English.
Они сказали, что они ездили в Крым в прошлом году.
Он сказал, что он не помнит, что она ему вчера сказала.
Учитель сказал нам, что мы не сдадим экзамены, если не будем усердно работать.
Его старшая сестра сказала ему не играть с собакой, а идти делать уроки.
Джейн сказала, что, если они придут, она испечет им яблочный пирог.
VARIANT 7
I. Read and translate in written form the following text.
Translating Machines
Machines for translating texts from one language into another are known to have been built many times and by different inventors.
The possibility of translating the text is based on a well-known fact that a sentence in any language is constructed in words according to certain rules, which can by presented in the form of a computer programmе.
How does a computer translate a text? Let us suppose that we have an English text which is to be translated into Russian. First a programmer translates it into a special machine language, the language of numbers. Now the machine can convert the text into the language of electric impulses and thus to introduce the information into a computer memory in the form of electromagnetic signals.
A computer has its own dictionary stored in its magnetic memory. To find a word in this magnetic dictionary, the dictionary compares the code number of a given word of the text with those stored in its electromagnetic memory.
As we see, to find a word in its dictionary and to translate it is a very simple task for a computer. After this a special grammar analyzing programme comes into play. To make the analysis possible the programmers add to each code number of the word additional digits, which indicate the grammar function of the word in the sentence and the part of speech the word belongs to. Scientists, engineers and mathematicians are doing their best to make the machines and the programmes better.
II.Give English equivalents of:
хорошо известный факт
согласно определенным правилам
делать все возможное
ввести информацию в память компьютера
принадлежать к части речи
III. Give Russian equivalents to:
indicate the grammar function
present in the form of a computer programmecompare the code number
add additional digits
let us suppose
IV.Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense.
If she _____(find out) the truth, she will be very happy.
If he _____(come) tomorrow, he'll help you,
I can take you to the concert tomorrow if I _____ (have) a spare ticket.
We will give you a ring as soon as she _____(arrive).
I won't go out until the weather_____ (improve).
V. Write Type 2 conditionals to match these situations.
I haven't got the right qualifications. 1 can't apply for the job.
There isn't an early train. I won't be there on time.
My sister lives abroad. We don't see her more than once a week.
We can't take our car. There aren't any parking spaces.
They haven't got a lot of room. They can't have a dog.
VI. Translate the given sentences. Mind the First, the Second and the Third Conditionals.
The travelers will find the right way if they have a map.
Your father will allow you to take his car on condition you drive very carefully.
He would finish his work in time if you helped him.
Could he meet them tomorrow he would be very happy.
If the researcher had had more time, he would have completed the experiment in time.
VII.Translate the given sentences into English.
Если ты не будешь во время поливать растения, они погибнут.
Я куплю книгу, которая тебе нужна, если найду ее.
Если бы я знал ее адрес, я бы написал ей письмо.
Если бы он не провалил вчера последний экзамен, он бы поступил в университет.
Что ты будешь делать, если ты не устроишься на эту работу?
VIII.Translate modal verbs or their equivalents into English.
When he came to London, he (смог) carry on negotiaions without an interpreter.
The weather (может) change at any time.
It's getting dark: you (следует) be in a hurry.
(не надо было) to get up very early.
I (смогу) to come to see you in some days.
IX.Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the Modal Verbs.
You should have rung me up, if you were busy.
The steamer was to come in time, but owing to a storm it had come late.
He may have come back, but I've not seen him yet.
I couldn't stop laughing.
You ought to be more careful.
X.Translate the following sentences into English.
Вы должны быть пристегнуты ремнем безопасности, когда едите на машине в Британии.
На следующей неделе у моего отца день рождения. Я должен купить ему подарок.
Если ты хочешь купить новую машину, тебе следует найти дополнительную работу.
В музеях нельзя есть и пить.
Вы не можете выехать заграницу без паспорта.
XI. Choose the proper form. Rewrite the sentences and translate them.
Model: She said that they____in Oxford.
(a) lived b) lives c) will live
She said that they lived in Oxford. Она сказала, что они живут в Лондоне.
Scientists consider that next generation _____manufacturing technologies.
( a) would advance; b) will advance; c) advance)
Everybody understood that globalization _____a particular problem.
( a) presents; b) presented; ) present)
The employer ordered the workers _____their workstations.
( a) to have managed; b) manage; c) to manage)
The firm informed that the employers_____this problem.
( a) has solved; b) solve; c) had solved)
We found out that these firms_____data through an international communications system.
( a) were exchanging; b) is exchanging; c) are exchanging)
XII. Torn from Direct speech into Reported speech.
"What kind of holiday has John had?" f wanted to know.
"Did you study hard for exams?" She wondered.
He said: "Nick will have returned by Saturday."
"I like mangos better than oranges", she said.
"Put the book back into the bookcase" he told me.
XIII. Rewrite the following sentences in Direct speech.
She asked me what the weather was like.
She wondered why Mary was crying.
He asked me who I had been looking for.
She asked me if I had seen her sister recently.
They asked us if Alice would be at the party.
XIV. Translate the following sentences into English.
Она спросила, знаю ли я, где они живут.
Памела спросила, не звонил ли ей кто-нибудь.
Он сказал, что поставщики прислали образцы товара.
Он сказал, что погрузка закончилась в 6 часов.
Он велел сыну не ходить никуда вечером.
VARIANT 8
I. Read and translate in written form the following text.
Money
Money is what people use to buy things. People spend money on goods and services. People earn money by performing services. They also earn money from investments, including government bonds, and from saving accounts.
Money can be anything people agree to accept in exchange for the things they sell or the work they do.
Today, most nations use metal coins and paper bills. A person can changed his money of any country according to the exchange rate. Usually, such rates are set by the central banks of a country. The value of a country’s currency may change.
Banks
People save money in banks for future use. A man probably will not want to spend all his pay the day he receives it. So he may decide to put some of his money in a bank for safekeeping. The money he puts in the bank is called a deposit. This money is credited, or added, to his account.
When the depositor wants to withdraw, or take out, part of his deposit, the bank must be ready to pay him.
Banks use the money of depositors for loans to those who need funds. The bank that makes the loan is called a lender or creditor. The bank charges the debtor interest for the use of the loan.
Charging interest for the use of money is the chief source of bank income.
II. Give English equivalents to:
1) заработать деньги
2) устанавливать курс
3) копить деньги
4) быть готовым заплатить
5) доход банка
III. Give Russian equivalents to:
1) according to
2) saving accounts
3) in exchange for
4) to make the loan
5) to charge interest
IV. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense:
1) He will phone you if he (have) time.
2) If this dress (cost) too much, we’ll go to another shop.
3) What (do) if the taxi doesn’t come?
4) (Phone) me if you have any problems?
5) If the weather (be) fine, we’ll go for a walk.
V. Write Type 2 conditionals to match these situations:
1) James can’t afford a flat of his own. He lives with his parents.
2) There are not any beers left. I can’t offer you one.
3) He hasn’t got a fax machine. I can’t send this immediately.
4) We don’t have his address. We can’t write to him.
5) I wear glasses. I am not a pilot.
VI. Translate the given sentences. Mind the First, the Second and the Third Conditionals:
1) If the guide shows the right way, the travelers won’t get lost.
2) We’ll go together if you are here in time.
3) If I had seen him yesterday, he would have known the place of our meeting.
4) If she phoned me tomorrow, we would go to the library together.
5) He would have bought that car if he had had enough money.
VII. Translate the given sentences into English:
1) Мне потребовалось много времени, чтобы перевести эту статью. Если бы вы мне дали хороший словарь, я бы потратил меньше времени.
2) Я был бы очень рад, если бы вы зашли к нам завтра.
3) Если бы вы пришли сюда вчера между двумя и тремя часами. Вы бы застали его здесь.
4) Если мы не получим ваш отчет до 20 числа, мы передадим заказ другой фирме.
5) Если бы ваше предложение было получено на прошлой неделе, мы бы приняли его.
VIII. Translate modal verbs or their equivalents into English:
1) When he was young, he (мог) run a mile in less than five minutes.
2) She (может) come tonight, but I am not sure.
3) We (должны) walk fast to get to the station in time.
4) The children (позволят) to go to the garden.
5) You (следует) go there; you are waited for.
IX. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the Modal Verbs:
1) He can’t have forgotten it.
2) Did he have to do this work tonight?
3) You shouldn’t smoke so much if you feel badly.
4) My brother might become a good doctor, but he isn’t sure in his choice.
5) I was to send him a telegram, but I forgot.
X. Translate the following sentences into English:
1) Не может быть, чтобы он уехал из Москвы, не сказав мне об этом.
2) Я должен написать ему об этом немедленно.
3) Если бы все меры безопасности были приняты, этого могло бы не произойти.
4) Моя одежда на меня слишком мала, мне надо похудеть.
5) Тебе следует принять участие в этой олимпиаде.
XI. Choose the proper form. Rewrite the sentences and translate them.
Model: She said that they ______ in Oxford.
a) lived b) lives c) will live
She said that they lived in Oxford. Она сказала, что они живут в Лондоне.
1 They asked me ______ the relatives about the crash. ( a) informs; b) to inform; c) inform)
2 She said that she ______ many English people. ( a) hadn’t met; b) hasn’t met; c) haven’t met)
3 They asked us where we ______ the orange box. ( a) shall find; b) will find; c) should find)
4 The boss said that they ______ English at the conference. ( a) were speaking; b) are speaking; c) is speaking)
5 He announced that he ______ the plane crash in the sky. ( a) was observing; b) is watching; c) watches)

XII. Turn from Direct speech into Reported speech:
1) “Will you be able to play in the team?”, he asked.
2) “What do you think of new art gallery?”, she asked them.
3) “We must leave early tomorrow”, they told us.
4) “I’ve been traveling a lot for my work”, she said.
5) “I may look for a new flat in a couple of months”, he told me.
XIII. Rewrite the following sentences in direct speech:
1) He asked me if I would be working late that night.
2) Frank asked her here she had bought that book.
3) Mother told me she hoped I had already stopped smoking.
4) Dan asked if I felt so angry why I didn’t so anything about it.
5) They told me they didn’t live in London.
XIV. Translate the following sentences into English:
1) Он спросил меня, где работает мой брат.
2) Я спросил секретаря, в котором часу придет директор.
3) Он сказал ей, чтобы она напечатала этот контракт в трех экземплярах.
4) Я спросил ее, идет ли дождь.
5) Они сказали, что в настоящее время пароход готовят к новому рейсу.
VARIANT 9
I. Read and translate in written form the following text
An “Electronic Eye”
An electronic eye is a device that can do hundreds of different things. In electronic and engineering it is called a phototube or a photocell. Photocells are widely used at metallurgical plants, in machine plants, in chemical and food industry. In machine plants “electronic eye” can be used for inspecting machine parts. If the parts worked now well enough, they do not reflect enough light into the phototube and are sorted out by a device as bad ones.
An “electronic eye” does another important work at a metallurgical plant. In the making of steel it is necessary that the temperature of molten metal be exactly right. As the steel gets hotter and hotter its colour changes from red – hot to orange and at last white. By fixing the exact colour of the metal, a phototube, gives the most accurate measurements of its temperature. By passing the electric current of the definite strength to the controlling device, the phototube can bring the metal to the exact temperature wanted.
Photocells can be also used at canning factories where they can count the fimshed cans of food. A phototube is placed on one side of the belt and a lamp producing a light beam is put on the other. Every time a can comes between the light and the “eye” the current is stopped. Each time the electric impulse is started, it moves the country one digit. The process results in me accurate count of every can moving along the conveyor of finished productions.
II. Give English equivalents of:
Проверка деталей
Температура расплавленного металла
Точные измерения
Подсчет каждой консервной банки
Производство стали
III. Give Russian equivalents of:
Reflect light
Steel gets hotter
Pass the electric current
Move the counter one digit
A controlling device
IV. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense:
They (not go) tomorrow if it rains.
If she (stay) here a little longer, she will see him.
If you mix red and yellow, you (get) orange.
She (help) us if we ask her.
They will travel on the motorway if the traffic (not be) too bad.
V. Write Type 2 conditionals to match these situations:
I’m quite short. I don’t play in the basketball team.
They don’t have a very big staff. They are very productive.
We have three children. We won’t take a year off and travel the world.
I’m not very clever. I am not a doctor.
VI. Translate the given sentences. Mind the First, the Second and the Third Conditionals.
If he earns much money, he’ll be able to buy a modern car.
Your friend will help you by all means if he comes up in time.
If I were you, I wouldn’t go there at all.
If he were not busy tomorrow, he would take part in our party.
If they had had a flat of their own. They would have been very happe then.
VII. Translate the given sentences into English:
Что вы будете делать, если вам не понравится еда в ресторане?
Если ты завтра опоздаешь, мы не будем тебя ждать.
Мы бы пошли вчера на вечеринку, если бы нашли няню для нашего малыша.
Если бы она работала упорнее, она бы зарабатывала больше.
Он разозлится, если увидит вас здесь.
VIII. Translate modal verbs or their equivalents into English:
(Могу ли) I get to the rail way station by bus?
He (должен был) to get up early as he lived far from his office.
The London train (должен) to arrive at 10 o’clock.
They (не надо) do this work now.
We (не сможем) to help you, we are busy.
IX. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the Modal Verbs.
This work can’t be done in such a short time.
My girl friends might have lost my address.
The house must have built at the beginning of this century.
He should help them, they are very poor.
This work ought to be done at once.
X. Translate the following sentences into English:
Они будут вынуждены пригласить ее на собрание.
Он был вынужден вернуться из отпуска раньше.
Вы всегда можете пользоваться моим словарем.
Извините, но не может быть, чтобы она сказала неправду.
Возможно, их сын уже закончил университет.
XI. Chose the proper form. Rewrite the sentences and translate them.
Model: She said that they _____ in Oxford.
Livedb) lives c) will live
She said that they lived in Oxford. Она сказала, что они живут в Оксфорде.
She asked me where I ___ a job analysis.
Had made b) makes c) make
They said they ___ forward to the results of the experiment.
Are looking b) were looking c) is looking
He asked her how long she ___ for the company.
Has worked b) is worked c) had been worked
We told them ___ him on Friday.
To have met b) meets c) to meet
They promised that they ___ scientific management.
Will use b) would use c) use
XII. Turn from Direct speech into Reported speech:
“When father comes, I’ll show him my picture”, Beth said.
“Meg said: “I’ve made some discoveries for myself today”.
“It is a nice country. You can reach the sea from any place.”
“Don’t play with dog. Go and do your lessons “, his older sister told him/
“Are you busy now?” Nick asked his brother.
XIII. Rewrite the following sentences in Direct speech:
She said she had already found her book.
The pupil said he had not learnt the lesson.
My sister told me that if she got that book she would give it me to read.
Mother asked me to stay at home as the weather was bad.
The man said he had never been to Kiev.
XIV. Translate the following sentences into English:
Я спросила продавца, сколько стоят эти туфли.
Анна сказала нам, что завтра уезжает в Лондон.
Он сказал, что придет домой, как только закончит работу.
М-р Браун спросил, готов ли обед.
Учитель сказал нам приготовить на завтра доклады.
VARIANT 10
I. Read and translate in written form the following text
Manufacturing technology is the technology of process control. Machines, human labour, and the organization of work control a manufacturing process. The new technology dictates changed in the natural and organization of manufacturing and in the machines.
The English system of manufacturing in the 18th century when machine tools, such as lathes, were invented. Lathes could fabricate a variety of workpieces. The American system of manufacture emerged in the mid-1800s.
The era of scientific management began in the late 1800s with the works of F.W. Taylor. He was a U.S. mechanical engineer whose of manufacturing are known as Taylorism. He recognized that worker’s activities could be measured, analyzed, and controlled. Using a job analysis and time study, he determined a standard rate of output for each job. Next came the era of process improvement in the mid-20th century. It was based on statistical process control (SPC). This statistical process control directed management’s attention away from the worker toward machines. Scientific management is concerned with manufacturing problems. SPC is concerned with the dynamism of the process.
II. Give English equivalents to:
В середине 1800х годов
Производить разнообразные детали
Эра научного менеджмента
Направлять внимание
Эра усовершенствованного процесса
III. Give Russian equivalents to:
Human labour
Nature and organization of manufacturing
To emphasize precision and interchangeability of parts
The system originated in the late-1800s
To determine a standard rate
IV. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense:
I’ll tell you all our news when I (see) you.
If the bus (not come) soon, I’ll be late for school.
If there (be) a fire, it will be put out my robots.
We (go) skiing next winter if we have enough money.
He is coming to London tomorrow. He will phone you when he (arrive).
V. Write Type 2 conditionals to match these situations:
He spends all his money gambling. He isn’t a wealthy man.
I haven’t got any spare time. I won’t learn English.
Jim works very hard. He has no time to spend with his family.
I have got a headache. I can’t go swimming.
We haven’t got a big house. We can’t invite friends to stay.
VI. Translate the given sentences. Mind the First, the Second and the Third Conditionals:
If he speaks more, he will improve his pronunciation.
We’ll buy your equipment if you make a discount.
If the manager is out, let me know, please.
He would have known what to do if I had met him then.
If the student had worked hard, he would have passed the exam.
VII. Translate the given sentences into English:
Что бы они делали, если бы я вчера не одолжил им денег.
Она бы не отправила сына в школу, если бы знала, что он болен.
Если бы они пришли вчера на спектакль раньше, они бы могли занять лучшие места.
Если ты хорошо попросишь брата, он отремонтирует твой велосипед.
Если ты поедешь в Австралию, тебе необходимо иметь визу.
VIII. Translate modal verbs or their equivalents into English:
You (должны) take a tickеt when you get on a bus.
When we enter the University, we (сможем) to take books from its library
He (может) listen to the radio in the evening.
I (должен был) to work hard to acquire knowledge.
She says that she (сможет) to translate this text in two days.
IX. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the Modal Verbs.
You needn’t translate the text: it’s difficult.
I think my parents ought to help me.
Can he have refused to come?
Could you show me the way to the station?
He must be waiting for you now.
X. Translate the following sentences into English:
Неужели она сейчас работает?
Она сказала, что не смогла присоединиться к игре, потому что болела.
Она не может брать мои вещи без разрешения.
Вам нельзя курить в этой комнате.
Почему ты был вынужден рассказать им об этом?
XI. Chose the proper form. Rewrite the sentences and translate them.
Model: She said that they _____ in Oxford.
Livedb) lives c) will live
She said that they lived in Oxford. Она сказала, что они живут в Оксфорде.
We asked them if they ___ some money to buy a house.
Save b) saved c) has saved
The teacher told us ___ .Listen to the text b) will listen to the text c) to listen to the text
She said that she ___ her money for nothing.
Spends b) Had spend c) spend
He promised that he ___ you up.
Would ring b) rings c) will ring
She said they ___ since sic o’clock.
Have been waiting b) has been waiting c) had been waiting
XII. Turn from Direct speech into Reported speech:
Kate’s mother said: “What marks have you got at school?”
“Remember the warning! Don’t playing with the fire!” said the man.
She asked: “How long have you been translating the article?”
“Have you ever been to the USA?” they said to me.
“My friends doesn’t like this film”, he said.
XIII. Rewrite the following sentences in Direct speech:
My friend asked me if he could borrow my car.
Peter said he had learned the rule and he was doing the exercise.
She asked Tom where he had left his umbrella.
Michael said he had been to Rio twice.
His friends told him that he didn’t think he could help.
XIV. Translate the following sentences into English:
Я спросил, какой язык они изучают и разговаривают ли они на итальянском.
Мой брат попросил меня помыть его машину.
Они попросили ее не рассказывать правду об этом случае.
Он сказал, что хочет пить и попросил принести сок.
Я спросил его, давно ли он работает на этом заводе.
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1
ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE
(Do scientific developments create opportunities for satisfying needs and desires of the people and for making their life easier? What achievements of science do you use in your household?)
As the years go forward our life becomes faster, a lot of new things appear, our mind develops and it cannot stop. It’s like a strong river which never ends to run and it is rapidly spreading all over the earth. Many centuries ago people even couldn’t imagine that we will be able to exchange information using telephone, fax, Internet as long as they couldn’t think that there are a lot of planets besides our earth and that people can fly there.
If we think how everything had developed, how many new things had appeared and how had the minds of people become so wide we even won’t be able to understand it because nowadays we cannot imagine our life without such inventions like lamps, ovens, central heating and others. During the centuries people have been invented the things to make our life easier. A great invention such as transport plays one of the most important roles in our life. We live in flats, can appear in different point of earth within a day, can say hello to people who live in another point of the world. All those things are a product of technical progress and it doesn’t stop to grow and develop. Nowadays we live surrounded by machines and other inventions. And with new inventions we become happier because nearly everything is making by machine not by ourselves. And from day to day appear more and more new things. And we don’t think about how the first inventions were created. The only thing we know that we never will return to the life which people lived a lot of centuries ago because there is no way back. Everything is handy. We use at home vacuum cleaners to clean the flat, ovens to cook, lifts to walk down in our houses, lamps to make our flats light…. There are a lot of such things like this, and we even don’t think about when and where and who invented it. And it’s so simple to us. And it’s so dear to us that we cannot even live without it. Our century is a century of developing informational connection. Faxes, TV, Internet, and Telephone became the most popular way of getting and sending information. One of the greatest inventions of the century, in my opinion is computer. This is thegreatest breakin science.
When Charles Babbage (1792-1871), a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University invented the first calculating machine in 1812 he could hardly have imagined the situation we find ourselves today. Computer becomes like a brain of human but the only thing it cannot do is to feel. The other things are easy to it. As everything computers also develop. The possibilities of it are so wide. It can do more than 500000 sums in a fraction of a second. Programming became one of the most useful and popular profession. Nowadays computers can pay wages, reserve seats on planes, control sputniks, compose music. Also everybody knows the words Cd Rom, a means of storing information on a disk to be read by a computer, e-mail, which becomes one of the ways to exchange information, the Internet – a network that is a way to get information, to communicate with people, to find everything you need. More and more people become Internet users because we can do so many things their and also cannot say all of them. You can chat there, find job, pay bills, get music, buy something, find essays, and know the latest news exchange information with other people in each point of earth by e-mail and a lot of other functions. As for me it became a usual thing to be connected to Internet. It attracts me by a wide variety of different kinds of information which is necessary to people.
Of course, I use a lot of other things of technology at home.
And I think that the main point of such inventions as vacuum cleaners, which we use at home, radio, TV set, mixers, refrigerators, is to serve people. All of these things appeared only after the invention of electricity. So I find the question about technical progress very wide and it’s impossible to say about all inventions. And in conclusion I want to say that the technical progress won’t stop and the machines will substitute everything except one the human.
MY SPECIALITY
I am a first-year student of the Computing department of the Donetsk Technical University. After graduating from the university I’ll have to work with different kinds of computers.
Computers came into life quite recently but they are of great importance or the development of science and engineering. Computers play an essential part in automatic control system. The launching of interplanetary rockets, the operation of nuclear power stations and many other important processes couldn’t have been performed without computing machines.
My speciality is designing and experimental controlling the input systems. In my work I shall be busy with different aspects of switching theory and logical design, telecommunication theory, etc. In addition I know the computing processes of input, output devices, arithmetic unit, storage, etc. Moreover, I must be well informed about different electrical circuits of the logical elements. My work is very interesting and requires improving the knowledge every day.
GREAT BRITAIN
The United Kingdom is situated in the north-west coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the south and north-west and the North Sea in the east.
The U.K. includes Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Great Britain, the largest island of Europe comprises England, Scotland and Wales.
The United Kingdom has an area of 94.249 square miles. The capital of the country is London. English is the official language.
The population of the U.K. is nearly 60 million people. London’s population is over 8 million people. There are many people of all cultures and races in the United Kingdom.
The climate of Great Britain is mild. It is not too hot in summer or too cold in winter. It often rains in England. There are many rivers in Great Britain. The main river is the Thames. Many ships go up and down the river. The longest river is Severn. It is 350 kilometres long.
There are many universities, colleges, libraries, museums and theatres in the country. The most well-known universities are Cambridge University, Oxford University, Glasgow University.
The U.K. is a parliamentary monarchy. The British parliament consists of two Houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The Prime minister is the head of the Government. The U.K. has few mineral resources. Coal and oil are the most important of them. It is one of the west most industrialized countries. The main industrial centres are Sheffield, Birmingham and Manchester.
Agriculture takes an important sector in economy of the country. The British people grow wheat, vegetables, oats.
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 2
STEVE JOBBS
Steve Jobs was born in San Francisco, California, on February 24, 1955, to two University of Wisconsin graduate students who gave him up for adoption. Smart but directionless, Jobs experimented with different pursuits before starting Apple Computer with Steve Wozniak in 1976. Apple's revolutionary products, which include the iPod, iPhone and iPad, are now seen as dictating the evolution of modern technology, with Jobs having left the company in 1985 and returning more than a decade later. He died in 2011, following a long battle with pancreatic cancer.
Early Life
Steven Paul Jobs was born on February 24, 1955, in San Francisco, California, to Joanne Schieble (later Joanne Simpson) and Abdulfattah "John" Jandali, two University of Wisconsin graduate students who gave their unnamed son up for adoption. His father, Jandali, was a Syrian political science professor, and his mother, Schieble, worked as a speech therapist. Shortly after Steve was placed for adoption, his biological parents married and had another child, Mona Simpson. It was not until Jobs was 27 that he was able to uncover information on his biological parents.
The infant was adopted by Clara and Paul Jobs and named Steven Paul Jobs. Clara worked as an accountant and Paul was a Coast Guard veteran and machinist. The family lived in Mountain View, California, within the area that would later become known as Silicon Valley. As a boy, Jobs and his father worked on electronics in the family garage. Paul showed his son how to take apart and reconstruct electronics, a hobby that instilled confidence, tenacity and mechanical prowess in young Jobs.
While Jobs was always an intelligent and innovative thinker, his youth was riddled with frustrations over formal schooling. Jobs was a prankster in elementary school due to boredom, and his fourth-grade teacher needed to bribe him to study. Jobs tested so well, however, that administrators wanted to skip him ahead to high school—a proposal that his parents declined.
A few years later, while Jobs was enrolled at Homestead High School, he was introduced to his future partner Steve Wozniak, who was attending the University of California, Berkeley. In a 2007 interview with PC World, Wozniak spoke about why he and Jobs clicked so well: "We both loved electronics and the way we used to hook up digital chips," Wozniak said. "Very few people, especially back then, had any idea what chips were, how they worked and what they could do. I had designed many computers, so I was way ahead of him in electronics and computer design, but we still had common interests. We both had pretty much sort of an independent attitude about things in the world. ..."
Apple Computer
After high school, Jobs enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Lacking direction, he dropped out of college after six months and spent the next 18 months dropping in on creative classes at the school. Jobs later recounted how one course in calligraphy developed his love of typography.
In 1974, Jobs took a position as a video game designer with Atari. Several months later he left the company to find spiritual enlightenment in India, traveling further and experimenting with psychedelic drugs. In 1976, when Jobs was just 21, he and Wozniak started Apple Computer. The duo started in the Jobs family garage, funding their entrepreneurial venture by Jobs selling his Volkswagen bus and Wozniak selling his beloved scientific calculator.
Jobs and Wozniak are credited with revolutionizing the computer industry by democratizing the technology and making machines smaller, cheaper, intuitive and accessible to everyday consumers. Wozniak conceived of a series of user-friendly personal computers, and—with Jobs in charge of marketing—Apple initially marketed the computers for $666.66 each. The Apple I earned the corporation around $774,000. Three years after the release of Apple's second model, the Apple II, the company's sales increased by 700 percent to $139 million. In 1980, Apple Computer became a publicly traded company, with a market value of $1.2 billion by the end of its very first day of trading. Jobs looked to marketing expert John Sculley of Pepsi-Cola to take over the role of CEO for Apple.
Departure from Company
However, the next several products from Apple suffered significant design flaws, resulting in recalls and consumer disappointment. IBM suddenly surpassed Apple in sales, and Apple had to compete with an IBM/PC-dominated business world. In 1984, Apple released the Macintosh, marketing the computer as a piece of a counterculture lifestyle: romantic, youthful, creative. But despite positive sales and performance superior to IBM's PCs, the Macintosh was still not IBM-compatible. Sculley believed Jobs was hurting Apple, and the company's executives began to phase him out.
Not actually having had an official title with the company he co-founded, Jobs was pushed into a more marginalized position and thus left Apple in 1985 to begin a new hardware and software enterprise called NeXT, Inc. The following year Jobs purchased an animation company from George Lucas, which later became Pixar Animation Studios. Believing in Pixar's potential, Jobs initially invested $50 million of his own money in the company. The studio went on to produce wildly popular movies such as Toy Story, Finding Nemo and The Incredibles; Pixar's films have collectively netted $4 billion. The studio merged with Walt Disney in 2006, making Steve Jobs Disney's largest shareholder.
Reinventing Apple
Despite Pixar's success, NeXT, Inc. floundered in its attempts to sell its specialized operating system to mainstream America. Apple eventually bought the company in 1996 for $429 million. The following year, Jobs returned to his post as Apple's CEO.
Just as Steve Jobs instigated Apple's success in the 1970s, he is credited with revitalizing the company in the 1990s. With a new management team, altered stock options and a self-imposed annual salary of $1 a year, Jobs put Apple back on track. His ingenious products (like the iMac), effective branding campaigns and stylish designs caught the attention of consumers once again.
Pancreatic Cancer
In 2003, Jobs discovered that he had a neuroendocrine tumor, a rare but operable form of pancreatic cancer. Instead of immediately opting for surgery, Jobs chose to alter his pesco-vegetarian diet while weighing Eastern treatment options. For nine months, Jobs postponed surgery, making Apple's board of directors nervous. Executives feared that shareholders would pull their stock if word got out that their CEO was ill. But in the end, Jobs' confidentiality took precedence over shareholder disclosure. In 2004, he had a successful surgery to remove the pancreatic tumor. True to form, in subsequent years Jobs disclosed little about his health.
Later Innovations
Apple introduced such revolutionary products as the Macbook Air, iPod and iPhone, all of which have dictated the evolution of modern technology. Almost immediately after Apple releases a new product, competitors scramble to produce comparable technologies. Apple's quarterly reports improved significantly in 2007: Stocks were worth $199.99 a share—a record-breaking number at that time—and the company boasted a staggering $1.58 billion profit, an $18 billion surplus in the bank and zero debt.
In 2008, iTunes became the second-biggest music retailer in America—second only to Walmart, fueled by iTunes and iPod sales. Apple has also been ranked No. 1 on Fortune magazine's list of "America's Most Admired Companies," as well as No. 1 among Fortune 500 companies for returns to shareholders.
Personal Life
Early in 2009, reports circulated about Jobs' weight loss, some predicting his health issues had returned, which included a liver transplant. Jobs had responded to these concerns by stating he was dealing with a hormone imbalance. After nearly a year out of the spotlight, Steve Jobs delivered a keynote address at an invite-only Apple event September 9, 2009.
In respect to his personal life, Steve Jobs remained a private man who rarely disclosed information about his family. What is known is Jobs fathered a daughter with girlfriend Chrisann Brennan when he was 23. Jobs denied paternity of his daughter Lisa in court documents, claiming he was sterile. With Chrisann struggling financially for much of her life, Jobs did not initiate a relationship with his daughter until she was 7, but when she was a teenager she came to live with her father.
In the early 1990s, Jobs met Laurene Powell at Stanford business school, where Powell was an MBA student. They married on March 18, 1991, and lived together in Palo Alto, California, with their three children.
Death
On October 5, 2011, Apple Inc. announced that its co-founder had passed away. After battling pancreatic cancer for nearly a decade, Steve Jobs died in Palo Alto. He was 56 years old.
DELETE KEYS – CLIPBOARD TECHNOLOGY
For the last generation, Silicon Valley and Tokyo have been working to design computers that are ever easier to use. That is one thing, however, that has prevented the machines from becoming their user friendliest: you still have to input data with a keyboard, and that can require you to do a lot of typing and to memorize a lot of elaborate commands.
Enter the clipboard computer, a technology that has been in development for the last 20 years but took hold in mass market only nowadays. Clipboard PCs – which, as their name suggests, are not much bigger that an actual clipboard – replace the keyboard with a liquid crystal display (LCD) screen and electronic stylus. Users input data by printing individual letters directly on the screen. There are two technologies at work in a clipboard PC: one allows raw data to get into the computer to figure out what data means. The first technology relies principally on hardware and varies depending on the particular computer. In one system, marketed under the name GRIDPad, the computer’s LCD screen is covered with a transparent conductive coating. Voltage is sent across the glass in horizontal and vertical lines forming a fine grid, the voltage is slightly different. When the stylus – which is essentially a voltmeter – touches the screen, it informs the computer of the voltage at that point. The computer uses this information to determine where the stylus is and causes a liquid crystal pixel to appear at those coordinates. The position of the stylus is monitored several hundred times a second, so as the stylus moves across the glass, whole strings of pixels are activated.
“What we do is sort of connect the dots”, says Jeff Hawkins, the creator of GRIDPad. Users can then write whatever they want on the screen with a kind of electronic ink.
Making the writing comprehensible to the computer, however, requires the help of some powerful software. When the stylus is being used, the computer is programmed to look for moments when the tip doesn’t touch the screen for a third or second or more. Every time this happens – and it happens a lot when somebody is printing – the software assumes that one letter or number has been written. The pixel positions of this fresh character are then passed on to the computer’s pattern recognition software, which instantly identifies the letter or number written.
The software does this by first cleaning up the character – smoothing out crooked lines and removing errant dots. The remaining lines and curves are then compared with a series of templates in the computer’s memory that represent hundreds of thousands of different versions of very letter in the English alphabet and all ten numerals. When the computer finds the closest match, it encodes the character in memory and displays it on the screen as if it had been typed. The entire process takes just a fraction of a second. To delete a word, you simply draw a line through it. To move to the next page you flick the stylus at the bottom of the screen as if you are flicking the page of the book.
There are a handful of clipboard computers now on the market, including GRIDPad, which is sold in the US: Penvision, manufactured by NCR and sold around the world, and Sony’s Palmtop and Canon’s Al Note, both sold only in Japan. IBM and Apple are also pouring millions of dollars into the technology.
In addition to this hardware, a variety of software is also making its way to the market. Depending on the power of the computer and the sophistication of the software, clipboard systems can be programmed to understand the particular quirks of a particular user’s printing: this is an especially useful feature in Japan, where elaborate kanji characters make up most of the written language. Improvements in software may soon allow machines sold in the US to understand not only printing but continuous script as well.
Given such flexibility, the designers of clipboard computers are predicting big things – and a big market – for their products. “There’s no doubt about it”, says an optimistic Hawkins.” You’re going to own one of these things in the not-too-distant future.”
GENERAL FEATURES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS
An operating system is a master control program which controls the functions of the computer system as a whole and the running of application programs. All computers do not use the same operating systems. It is therefore important to assess the operating system used on a particular model before initial commitment because some software is only designed to run under the control of specific operating systems. Some operating systems are adopted as “industry standards” and these are the ones which should be evaluated because they normally have a good software base. The reason for this is that software houses are willing to expand resources on the development of application packages for the machines functioning under the control of an operating system which is widely used. The cost of software is likely to be lower in such circumstances as the development costs are spread over a greater number of users, both actual and potential.
Mainframe computers usually process several application programs concurrently, switching from one to the other, for the purpose of increasing processing productivity. This is known as multiprogramming (multi-tasking in the context of microcomputers), which requires a powerful operating system incorporating work scheduling facilities to control the switching between programs. This entails reading in data for one program while the processor is performing computations on another and printing out results on yet another.
In multi-user environments an operating system is required to control terminal operations on a shared access basis as only one user can access the system at any moment of time. The operating system allocates control to each terminal in turn. Such systems also require a system for record locking and unlocking to prevent one user attempting to read a record whilst another user is updating it, for instance. The first user is allocated control to write to a record (or file in some instances) and other users are denied access until the record is updated and unlocked.
Some environments operate in concurrent batch and real-time mode. This means that a “background” job deals with routine batch processing whilst the “foreground” job deals with real-time operations such as airline seat reservations, on-line booking of hotel accommodation, or control of warehouse stocks, etc. The real-time operation has priority, and the operating system interrupts batch processing operations to deal with real-time enquiries file updates. The stage of batch processing attained at the time of the interrupt is temporarily transferred to backing storage. After the real-time operation has been dealt with, the interrupted program is transferred back to internal memory from backing storage, and processing recommences from a “restart” point. The operating system also copies to disk backing storage the state of the real-time system every few minutes (periodic check points) to provide a means of “recovering” the system in the event of malfunction.
An operating system is stored on disk and has to be booted into the internal memory (RAM) where it must reside throughout processing so that commands are instantly available. The operating system commands may exceed the internal memory capacity of the computer in which case only that portion of the OS which is frequently used is retained internally, other modules being read in front disk as required. Many microcomputers function under the control of a disk operating system known as DOS.

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